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91 visualizzazioni21 paginedocument explains two strut and tie models used for the analysis and design of prestressed deep beams.

May 23, 2017

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document explains two strut and tie models used for the analysis and design of prestressed deep beams.

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91 visualizzazioni

document explains two strut and tie models used for the analysis and design of prestressed deep beams.

© All Rights Reserved

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INTRODUCTION

Currently, there is no code provision for the design of prestressed deep beams. The Canadian

code [Canadian Standards Association (CSA) 1994] may be one of the few codes that

recommend using strut-and-tie models for deep beams. However, the code does not give clear

guidelines on how to apply the method to the design of prestressed deep beams. Several strut

and tie models are available for reinforced deep beams (Marti 1985; Rogowsky and

MacGregor 1986; Schlaich and Schafer 1991). Alshegeir and Ramirez established detailed

strut-and-tie models for three pretensioned deep beams and the analysis of internal forces in

struts and ties were carried out by a computer programme other than a visible formula, which

was apparently inconvenient for design. However, only very few models are applicable to

both pretensioned and posttensioned deep beams. Furthermore, the effect of web

reinforcement, which has moderate effect on the ultimate shear strength of deep beams, is

normally ignored.

Tan et al. developed a direct STM for simply supported prestressed concrete deep

beams and brought forward a relevant formula. Instead of defining the stress limits

empirically for the STM components, as was done by the Alshegeir and Ramirez, they

utilized a linear failure criterion modified from the MohrCoulomb theory to take into

account concrete softening effect directly, which seemed more convenient and theoretical.

However, the model predictions are to some extent conservative due to the actual convex

nature of concrete material in the biaxial tension-compression stress state being approximated

by such a simple linear relationship. Besides, in determination of the stress distribution factor,

k, only the force equilibrium was satisfied, while the moment equilibrium was neglected.

Guo-Lin Wang and Shao-Ping Meng proposed a modified strut and tie model (MSTM)

for simply supported prestressed concrete deep beams. The effects of prestressing are

represented by equivalent external loads which are built in the model explicitly. The stress

distribution factor, k is determined from the consideration of both force and moment

equilibrium. A formula for the shear strength prediction is also derived based on the

KupferGerstle biaxial tensioncompression criterion accounting for the concrete softening

effect.

1

This seminar discuss the direct strut and tie model analysis by Tan et al. and modified

strut and tie model (MSTM) by Guo-Lin Wang and Shao-Ping Meng. In both methods

formula for shear strength prediction is derived and compared. And also, the influence of

factor k on model prediction is quantitatively studied.

2

2. DIRECT STRUT AND TIE MODEL ANALYSIS

Tan et al. modelled the strut and tie model of simply supported partially prestressed deep

beam as shown in Fig.(1)

From the equilibrium of forces at the bottom nodal zone of the strut,

= sin (2.1)

= tan (2.2)

where, = compressive force in the diagonal strut; T = tensile force in the horizontal tie;

2 = (compressive) (2.3)

= ( + sin ) (2.4)

where, = depth of the bottom nodal zone; = width of the support bearing plates;

3

Fig. 2 Determination of tensile stress f1 at bottom nodal zone

1 = (Tensile) (2.5)

sin

where,

= average tensile stress across the diagonal strut due to the component of T

sin

in the principal tensile direction of the bottom nodal zone, (Fig. 2).

equating S to the force represented by the triangular stress block in Fig. 2. From previous

studies (Zeng and Tan 1999), it is found that a k-value of 2 yields the best agreement with

test results for non-prestressed deep beams.

For a prestressed deep beam, the principal tensile stress f1 will be reduced due to the

presence of prestressing force Fpe.

( + )

1 = - * (tensile if positive) (2.6)

sin sin

where,

4

dp = vertical distance from the beam top to the intersection of the curved prestressed

tendon with the diagonal strut (Fig. 1)

= angle between the prestressed tendon and the horizontal axis at the intersection

with the diagonal strut (Fig. 1)

Fpe = effective prestressing force after both immediate and long-term losses have

occurred

To take account of the position of the prestressed tendon, a reduction factor dp/d is

applied to the second term. Thus, the further away the prestressing tendon is from the beam

soffit, the less effective it is to reduce the tensile force at the bottom nodal zone.

Considering the softening effect of the tensile stress, Tan et al. proposed a new

failure criterion at the bottom nodal zone as a linear interaction relationship between f1

and f2 , modified from the Mohr-Coulomb theory (Cook and Young 1985)

1 2

+ =1 (2.7)

where,

f1 and f2 = respective principal tensile and compressive stresses at the nodal zone, and

they represent the actual stress state

capacity in the f2 direction

the maximum tensile capacity in the f1 direction

In Eq. (2.6), the magnitude of the second term may be greater than the first term, in

which case f1 becomes compressive. Consequently, Eq. (2.7) is not applicable as the bottom

nodal zone experiences a biaxial compression-compression stress state. Although there is

additional lateral confinement available at the bottom nodal zone, Tan et al. suggest that the

compressive stress f2 along the diagonal strut should not exceed . Thus

f2 (2.8)

5

2 2 ( + ) 2( )( + )

= + * + * + (2.9)

sin sin sin

reinforcement

fy and fyw = respective yield strengths of nonprestressed longitudinal and web reinforcement

Fpu and Fpe = respective ultimate strength of prestressing strand and effective prestressing

force

The first term in Eq. (2.9) represents the tensile capacity of nonprestressed

longitudinal steel reinforcement.

The second term in Eq. (2.9) represents the tensile capacity of inclined web

reinforcement at an angle to the horizontal axis in Fig. (1).

The third term represents the additional reserve capacity of the prestressed tendon.

The final term represents the tensile contribution from concrete.

Tan et al. suggested that the residual strength ( ) in the prestressed tendon

should not be relied on in the case of unbonded posttensioned deep beams, that is

2 2 ( + )

= + * + (2.10)

sin sin

From Eqs. (2.1) (2.3), (2.6), and (2.7), the following expression can be derived for the

nominal shear strength Vn

2( + )

1+

sin

V = sin 2 1 (2.11)

+

sin

If the bottom nodal zone is subjected to the biaxial compression-compression stress state, the

following equation can be derived from Eq. (2.8)

= sin s (2.12)

where,

2 2

tan = (2.13)

lc = depth of the top nodal zone and can be computed from, = (2.14)

tan

6

The steps for determining the shear strength Vn directly is summarized as follows:

Step 1. Determine from Eq. (2.13), assuming lc = la, where la = 2(h - d).

Step.2. Determine ft from Eq. (2.8) for pretensioned or bonded posttensioned deep

beams, or from Eq. (2.10) for unbonded posttensioned deep beams.

The shear strength of a girder is to be determined based on Eqs. (2.11) and (2.12). The

properties of the beam are,

Horizontal and vertical web reinforcement, Ahfh = 56.2 kN, Avfv = 56.2 kN

7

Average depth is used, i.e., dh = dv = 0.5d = 622 mm

Prestressing force: Straight prestressing tendons are provided at dp = d = 1245 mm Fig. (3),

Fpu = 3064 kN, Fpe = 1921 kN

la = 2(h - d) = 2(1425 - 1245) = 360 mm

tan = (1425 - 360)/1050 = 1.01

sin = 0.711, cos = 0.704, and sin 2 = 1.0

2 X 1644 X 0.711

First term = X 1000 = 4.04 N/mm2

411675 0.711

56.2 0.711

0.711

X 0.5 +

2 X 56.2 X 0.704

411675 0.711

X 0.5) X 1000 = 0.14N/mm2

Third term = X X 1000 = 2.81 N/mm2

411675 0.711 1245

Fourth

ct term = 0.540.65 = 3.19 N /mm2

ft = 10.81N/mm2

= x x 1000 = 0.464

ft Ac sin s d 10.18 X 411675 0.711 1245

1+0.464

Vn = 1 1 1000 = 1782 kN

+

10.18 X 411675 40.65 X 59346 X 0.711

2Vn = 3430 kN

8

3. MODIFIED STRUT AND TIE MODEL ANALYSIS

It is well known that a prestressed concrete member can be treated as a reinforced concrete

member by virtue of the equivalent loading concept, which enables a simpler and more

efficient design. For the member with parabola tendons as shown in (Fig. 4), the effects of

effective prestressing can be represented by equivalent external loads which consist of the

effective prestressing force, Fpe and the equivalent uniformly distributed load, qeq. Since the

equivalent external loads are self-equilibrating in the vertical direction, the sum of the vertical

component of Fpe at both beam ends, 2Fpe sin p, can be balanced by the sum of the equivalent

uniformly distributed load, qeq L, which means no influence of the both terms on the nominal

shear strength, Vn, where L is the beam length and p is the angle of the prestressing tendon

to the horizontal axis at the anchoring point (Fig. 4). Therefore, only the horizontal

component, Fpecosp, would affect the shear strength and thus need to be considered in the

model, while the tendons with a residual strength of (Fpu Fpe) are taken as passive

reinforcement, where Fpu is the ultimate strength of the tendons. Similarly, the same

conclusion can be drawn for beams with other tendon profiles.

9

3.2 Modeling Prestressed Concrete Deep Beams

According to the stress results of elastic finite element analysis and the minimum strain

energy principle, a MSTM for simply supported prestressed concrete deep beams under two

point symmetrical top loading is given in Fig. (5), which consists of the upper nodal zone A,

the bottom nodal zone B, the primary strut AB, the secondary struts AC and BC, the concrete

horizontal strut and the tension tie.

Apparently, the model cannot bear any additional loads once the primary strut AB

crushes regardless of whether or not the secondary strut AC and/or BC would be in effect.

Therefore, failure of the strut AB is identified as the ultimate limit state of the model, while

secondary struts are treated as force-transferring components. In order to obtain a higher

capacity, however, premature failure, such as the slippage of the tendons, should be

prevented to make sure the secondary struts work until the failure of the model.

= 1 + 2

2 = 1 (3.1)

Thus,

1 = ; 2 = (3.2)

sin(+ ) sin(+ )

10

0

where, = arctan and = arctan are the angles between the secondary struts and

+

the horizontal axis, respectively

1 and 2 are the forces in the secondary struts AC and BC, respectively

hp = vertical distance from the beam top to the anchoring point of prestressing tendon

a = shear span measured between the concentrated load and the support centre

The softening effect exists in concrete under a state of biaxial tensioncompression, that is,

the presence of the transverse tensile strain leads to a deterioration of the compressive

strength. Linear interactive failure criteria, such as modified MohrCoulomb theory

(1 + 2

= 1), are utilized to account for the softening effect directly. Kupfer and Gerstle

in better agreement with the experimental results than the modified MohrCoulomb theory

(Fig. 6). Thus, the BC segment of the relationship Eq. (3.3) is utilized in this research since

the tensile stress is great enough in the ultimate limit state.

1

+ 0.8 2 = 1 (3.3)

11

3.4 Derivation Of Shear Strength

From the equilibrium of forces at the nodal zone B and Eq. (3.2),

2

= = sin m (3.4)

sin

= 2 = tan (3.5)

sin(+ )

where, m = ,n=

sin(+) sin(+)

Fc and T are the forces in the primary strut and bottom tension tie respectively

From Eq. (3.4), the principal compressive stress, f2, in the direction of the primary strut at the

bottom nodal zone B (Fig. 4) can be computed by Eq. (2.3).

1 = = kp (3.6)

sin

where, p is the average equivalent tensile stress across the primary strut and k and are the

stress distribution factors at the respective bottom and top nodal zones.

Tsins to the force represented by the triangular stress block. It is noteworthy that the moment

equilibrium was neglected. In this study, however, both moment and force equilibrium are

12

satisfied, and the stress distribution is also assumed to be linear along the primary strut for

simplicity, since it is difficult to be determined mechanically. As shown in Fig. (7),

considering one reinforcing bar that inclines at an angle wi from horizontal and has a vertical

distance hwi from the beam top to the intersection of the bar with the primary strut, from both

force equilibrium in the f1 direction and moment equilibrium about the node A between the

tensile force Fwisin(wi + s ) of the steel bar and the assumed stress distribution, and k

can be obtained

= 4 - 6

0

=6 2 (3.7)

0

A similar method was utilized for non-prestressed concrete deep beams by Zhang and

Tan, which fit well with test results. Obviously, k = 4 for the case of bottom longitudinal

reinforcement. As for web reinforcement, which is commonly uniformly distributed, as

assumed in this research, it is noteworthy that the rectangular stress block will be induced

along the primary strut, that is, k = 1 can be obtained without any stress distribution

assumption. Thus, no further discussion is needed for web reinforcement. Consequently, in

the following derivation the notation k is only included in the terms about bottom

longitudinal reinforcement.

In a similar fashion as Eq. (3.6), the combined tensile capacity, ft , at the bottom nodal

zone B (Fig. 7) can be expressed as below:

( + ) ( )( +1 )

= + + + (3.8)

sin sin sin

where,

1

= 6 2 , factor accounting for the non-uniformity of stress distribution due to

0

1 = vertical distance from the beam top to the interaction of the curved prestressing

tendon with the primary strut (Fig.5)

1 = angle between the prestressing tendon and the horizontal axis at the interaction

with the primary strut (Fig.5)

13

= actual prestressing force in the tendon at ultimate

2/3 2/3

= 0.23 = 0.27 (3.9)

= 0.8

At the ultimate state, concrete within the primary strut may crack with different

degrees and thus it is difficult to determine the actual concrete contribution. Although many

equations for predicting the tensile strength of cracked reinforced concrete have been

proposed, they are still being disputed due to their empirically defined and thus may not be

suitable for some special conditions. For conservatism, the term fct can be made equal to

zero. But in this research, the full concrete tensile strength, as expressed by Eq. (3.9), is

utilized, since it is commonly given in codes and predictions obtained with it are in better

agreement with test results. Besides, it is noteworthy that the reduction of concrete tensile

strength has been taken into account to some extent by adopting KupferGerstle biaxial

tension-compression criterion.

For the common cases of vertical or horizontal web reinforcement, the second term in

2 2

Eq. (3.8) reduces to or , respectively , are respective total

2

areas of vertical and horizontal web reinforcement within the spear span. When Eq. (3.8) is

applied to the case of unbonded prestressed concrete deep beams, the authors suggest that the

residual strength (Fps Fpe) in the prestressing tendon should not be relied on due to the fact

that the increase in prestressing force is very small because the strain caused by additional

loading is distributed along the full length of the tendon.

From Eqs. (3.3) - (3.5), (3.6) and (3.8), the following equation can be derived for Vn:

( + ) 0.8

1+ +

sin

V = sin 2 0.8 (3.10)

+

2 sin

If Fpe is great enough that f1 becomes compressive, that is, the bottom nodal zone B

is subjected to a biaxial compressioncompression stress state, Eq. (3.10) is not applicable.

Although there is additional lateral confinement available at the nodal zone, the authors

suggest that the following expression should be fulfilled for the compressive stress f2 ,

14

f2

Thus,

= ( + ) sin s (3.11)

= 1 + (3.12)

Substituting for Fc1 and Fc from Eqs. (3.2) and (3.4) respectively, the depth of the nodal zone

A, lc , can be derived:

+

= (3.13)

tan

( )

where, q = and can be computed by

sin(+)

2 2

tan = (3.14)

From above all, the steps for determining the nominal shear strength, Vn , can be

summarized as follows:

Step 1. Determine s from Eq. (3.14), assuming lc = la, where la = 2(h h0).

Step 3. Calculate Vn from Eqs. (3.10) and (3.11), respectively, and take the smaller value.

To demonstrate how the stress distribution factor, k and the stress in the tendon at ultimate,

fps, influence the value of Vn quantitatively, parametric studies are carried out. Details of deep

beams used for the study is shown in the Table.1

15

Table.1 Properties of deep beams used for parametric study

Beam L h bw h0 a lb

(m) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm)

PB1 3 1105 320 943 1300 120

PB2 3 1035 300 941 1300 200

PB3 3 1035 300 940 1150 200

PB4 3 1035 300 940 1450 200

Beam Vexp

(MPa) (MPa) (kN) (kN) (kN) (kN) (kN) (kN)

PB2 32.8 3.1 157 163 216 1350 675 2500

PB3 26.2 2.7 157 163 216 1350 675 2175

PB4 26.2 2.7 157 163 158 1080 540 1575

The factor k was determined according to both force and moment equilibrium based on the

linear stress distribution assumption. However, the actual tensile distribution along the

primary strut is highly nonlinear. The influence of k on the model prediction of Vn can be

expressed by Vn /Vn,k=4, where Vn,k=4 represents the shear strength obtained using the MSTM

with k = 4. As shown in Fig. (8), the model predictions decrease with an increase in k, and

have a tendency towards convergence. For 2 k 4, the predictions are greater than Vn,k=4 . It

seems not to be safe if k = 2 is taken. While 4 < k 10, the predictions are smaller than

Vn,k=4, only about 15% less even when k is equal to 10 corresponding to the case of high

nonlinearity. Thus it can be concluded that the values of k derived from the linear stress

distribution assumption are sufficiently accurate for the model predictions.

16

Fig. 8 Effect of factor k on shear strength Vn

In the derivation of Vn, the ultimate stress, fps, in the prestressing tendon was assumed equal

to ultimate strength, fpu, and effective prestressing stress, fpe, for bonded and unbonded

tendons, respectively. However, on the occurrence of shear failure, fps is generally smaller

than fpu for bonded tendons and somewhat greater than fpe for unbonded tendons. Thus, it is

necessary to study the sensitivity of Vn to the value of fps. The curve of Vn /Vn,fpu versus fps is

plotted in Fig. (9), where Vn,fpu represents the beam shear strength when fps is equal to fpu . It

is shown that the Vn /Vn,fpu increases with increasing fps and has an approximately linear

relationship with a mean slope of about 0.016%. Therefore, the value of fps has an

insignificant effect upon Vn, and thus it is sufficiently accurate that fpu and fpe are

approximately utilized to predict the shear strength of bonded and unbonded prestressed

concrete deep beams, respectively. As for the case of the value of fpu unknown, the yield

strength, fpy, can be adopted instead since it is more commonly given in codes.

17

4. COMPARISON OF DIRECT AND MODIFIED STM ANALYSIS

Both models have underestimated the predicted shear strength Vn to a certain extent, which

can also be interpreted by the reasons below. The first one may be that both linear tension-

compression criterions adopted in the respective models came from the tests of plain concrete

other than those of reinforced concrete, which would probably lead to lower Vn values since

the beams are generally reinforced. The second possible one is that the formulae for

prediction were derived for the bottom nodal zone which suffers the most unfavorable stress

combination (that is, the greatest compressive and tensile stresses simultaneously). The

formulae might also provide conservative values, however, due to that the failure might not

be initiated at the nodal zone since additional lateral confinement is commonly available

there. The same explanation is suitable for the omittance of the component force of bottom

reinforcement, Tcoss, in the direction of the primary strut when computing f2, that is, the

third reason, which may also be responsible for the underestimation more or less. Besides,

for a deep beam with a very small a/h0 ratio, the component will be insignificant, as coss

approaches zero. On the other hand, if the a/h0 ratio is relatively high, the deep beam is likely

to fail due to excessive tensile stress in the f1 direction, in which case failure is governed by

the first term in Eq. (3.3) and thus the f0 term has little influence on Vn. Therefore, it is

justifiable to neglect the component. In sum, all the reasons above would probably result in

conservative predicted strengths; from the results obtained, however, they do not have a

significant influence on the model predictions.

The experimental results, Vexp, versus predicted shear strengths, Vpred, are plotted in

Fig.(10a), and (10b) for both models, where Vpred = 2Vn. The average and coefficient of

variation (C.O.V.) of the shear strength ratios, Vexp/Vpred, have also been reported. It is shown

that both the model predictions are accurate, consistent and conservative; however, the

MSTM yields somewhat better agreement with the test results than the Tan-STM in

terms of accuracy and consistency. It suggests that both the linear failure criterion and k

value adopted are reasonable. It can also be concluded that the MSTM has a wide application

in the shear strength prediction of prestressed concrete deep beams, since the beams used for

verification had a broad range of design parameters.

18

Fig. 10 Shear strength predictions by (a) MSTM; (b) Tan-STM

19

5. CONCLUSION

Both the models simultaneously account for two primary modes of failure, diagonal splitting

of struts and crushing of struts or nodal zones. These analysis methods where evaluated using

both pretensioned and post tensioned deep beams with different geometrical properties,

prestressing and web reinforcement configurations. The results showed that both model

predictions are accurate, consistent and conservative; however, the MSTM yields somewhat

better agreement with the test results than the Tan-STM in terms of accuracy and

consistency.

prestressing enables prestressed concrete members to be treated as nonprestressed concrete

members, which makes the proposed model consistent for both prestressed and

nonprestressed concrete deep beams. Both force and moment equilibriums are satisfied for

the stress distribution factor k in MSTM method. In the derivation of shear strength, several

assumptions or substitutions were adopted, that is, the linear stress distribution assumption

for the factor k, the utilization of full concrete tensile strength, the replacement of fps by fpu

and fpe, and the adoption of the web width when modelling I-beams. They indeed simplify the

model to some extent and do not lose significant accuracy, just as the results indicated.

However, to obtain more accurate results, further improvements may be made, such as the

determination of actual values of fps through experiment and the development of preferable

models, especially for I-beams.

20

6. REFERENCE

1) Tan K. H, Tong K and Tang C. Y, 2001, Direct strut-and-tie model for prestressed

deep beams, Journal of structural engineering, September, 1075-1084.

concrete deep beams, Engineering Structures 30, 3489-3496.

ACI Structural Journal Volume 89, Issue 3, May, 296-304.

4) Kupfer H, Gerstle KH, 1999, Behaviour of concrete under biaxial stress. Proc

ASCE J Eng Mech Div 1973, (EM4), 85366.

5) Zhang N, Tan K.H, 2007, Direct strut-and-tie model for single span and continuous

deep beams, Journal of structural engineering, 29(11), 29873001

Struct. J., 91-S55, 572578.

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