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Draw the typical adsorption isotherms obtained in the case of unimolecular and
multimolecular adsorption. (Dibrugarh BSc, 2004)


28. What are the characteristics of adsorption? Derive expression for Langmuirs adsorption
isotherm. (Delhi BSc, 2004)

The characteristics of adsorption:

(i) Adsorption refers to the existence of a higher concentration of any particular component at the surface of a
liquid or a solid phase.

(ii) Adsorption is accompanied by decrease in the (free energy change) of the system when
, adsorption equilibrium is said to be established.

(iii) Adsorption is invariably accompanied by evolution of heat, i.e. it is an exothermic process. In other
words, DH of adsorption is always negative.

(iv) When a gas is adsorbed, the freedom of movement of its molecules becomes restricted. On account of it
decrease in the entropy of the gas after adsorption, i.e. DS is negative.

(v) For a process to be spontaneous, the thermodynamic requirement is that must be negative, i.e. there is
decrease in free energy. On the basis of Gibbs Helmholtz equation, , can be negative
if has sufficiently high negative value and has positive value.

Langmuir considered that the gas molecules strike a solid surface and are thus adsorbed. And his assumptions:
(1) The layer of the gas adsorbed on the solid adsorbent is one-molecule thick.
(2) The adsorbed layer is uniform all over the adsorbent.
(3) There is no interaction between the adjacent adsorbed molecules.