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UNIVERSITY OF CAPE TOWN

PHY1004W Problem set 5

1.

Department of Physics

Complete by: 10h00, Friday, 10 April 2015

A fire fighting helicopter flies to the right (in the +x direction) at a

constant speed of 12 m s -1 , parallel to the surface of the ocean.

A 900 kg container (designed for water) is suspended below the

helicopter by a cable as shown in the figure: the container is also travelling to the right in a straight line, at a constant speed of 12 m s -1 . The pilot is concerned about whether or not the cable, whose breaking strength is listed at 9300 N, is strong enough to support this container under these circumstances.

 (a) Choose the container as the system. What is the rate of change of the momentum of the system? (b) List all the objects that are exerting forces on the container. (Note that “gravity” is not an object.) (c) Represent the container as a blob. Draw a careful force diagram (“free-body diagram”) showing all the forces acting on the container. You should have the same number of arrows as you had objects in your list in part (b), and the tail of each arrow should be on the container. Label each force with the name of the object exerting the force. (d) What is the magnitude of the tension in the cable supporting the container? Carefully show all steps in your work. (e) Write the force exerted on the container by the cable as a vector. (f) What is the magnitude of the force exerted by the air on the container? Carefully show all steps in your work. (g) Write the force on the container by the air as a vector. (h) Is the cable in danger of breaking?

2. You are driving a vehicle of mass 1350 kg and you need to make a turn on a flat road. The radius of curvature of the turn is 76 m. The coefficient of static friction and the coefficient of kinetic friction are both 0.25. What is the fastest speed you can drive and still make it round the curve?

3. You place a 50 cent coin (of mass 20 g) on a disc which is rotating at 33.3 rpm . At what distance from the centre can it lie without being thrown off if the coefficient of static friction between the coin and the disc is 0.1 ?

4. You are driving a vehicle of mass 1350 kg and you need to make a turn on a flat rod. The radius of curvature of the turn is 76 m. The coefficient of static friction and the coefficient of kinetic friction are both 0.25. What is the fastest speed you can drive and still make it round the curve?

5. An amusement park ride consists of a large vertical cylinder that spins about its axis fast enough that any person inside is held up against the wall when the floor drops away. If the radius of the cylinder is 4.0 m and the coefficient of static friction between the person and the wall is 0.40, what is the minimum frequency of revolution of the cylinder to keep the person “glued” to its walls?

6. After the NEAR spacecraft passed Mathilde, on several occasions rocket propellant was expelled to adjust the spacecraft's momentum in order to follow a path that would approach the asteroid Eros, the final destination for the mission. After getting close to Eros, further small adjustments made the momentum just right to give a circular orbit of radius 45 km around the asteroid. So much propellant had been used that the final mass of the spacecraft while in circular orbit around Eros was only 500 kg. The spacecraft took 1.04 days to make one complete circular orbit around Eros. Calculate what the mass of Eros must be.

7. When the USSR launched the first man-made earth satellite Sputnik on 4 October 1957, it caused consternation in America and led to a crash programme of improving science education in schools and universities. By measuring the orbital period, which was about 90 minutes, the scientists were able to calculate the height of the orbit above the earth. Repeat this calculation, assuming the orbit is circular. The President and the military really wanted to know the mass of the satellite, so that they could figure out the thrust of the Russian rocket launchers and decide if they were powerful enough to put a nuclear weapon into orbit. They were reportedly disgusted with a science advisor who said that he was unable to calculate the mass of the satellite from a knowledge of its orbit. Decide whether the mass of the Sputnik can be determined from the period and shape of its orbit.

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