Sei sulla pagina 1di 322

Dictionary of Patanjal Yoga Sutra

In the following document dictionary meaning of all the Sanskrit words used in the
yoga sutras by Shri Patanjali from Sanskrit to English dictionary of Monier
Williams 1927 edition have been presented with the root verbs and their meanings.

I collected this for my personal use. Found that this opened up my vision of the
sutras. I therefore share it.

Shriram Lele
a - k a r a n a , a m , n. absence of action.

^ W $ t a - ' k a l p d m f ( i a ) n . not subject to rules,


uncontrolled; not admitting (any comparisonprati-

m a n a r t i ) , RV. i, 1.02, 6; unable to (loc or Inf.
or in corop.)
A*kalplta, mfn. not manufactured, not artificial,
not piefended % natural, genuine.

^r$*T a - k r a m a mfn* not happening suc-


cessively, happening at once, Yoga*.; (as), m. want

of order, confusion.
W f i 2. d h g a a m , n . ( y / a m Un.), limb of
t y

the body; a limb, member; the body; a subordinate

division or department, especially of a science, as the
six VcdJngas; hence the number six; N. of the chief
sacred texts of the Jatnas; a limb or subdivision of
Mantra or counsel (said to be five, viz. I. karma*
n & m arambhSpdyafa means of commencing opera*
tions; 2,purv$ha~dravya-sampad t providing men
and materials ; 3. deia-kdla-vibhdga, distribution
of place and time; 4, v i p a t t i - p r a i l k d r a , counter*
action of disaster; 5. kdrya*siddhi t successful ac*
complishment; whence mantra is said to be pafl~
cdhgd); any subdivision, a supplement; (in Gr.) the
base of a word, but in the strong cases only. Pan, 1,
4,13 seqq.; anything inferior or secondary, anything
immaterial or unessential, see angu-td; (in rhetoric)
an illustration ; (in the drama) the whole of the sub-
ordinate characters; an expedient; a mental organ,
the mind, L . ; (<w), m, sg. or ( d t ) m, p l N . of
f t

Bengal proper or its inhabitants; (sg.), N. of a king

of Artga; (mfn.), having members or divisions, L . ;

A-jrlKta,mm. unknown; unexpected; unaware;

(am), ind. without the knowledge of, MBh. kola-
aula., mfn, whose Lineage and character are unknown,
kta ( d j f l d t a - \ mm. having unknown or secret
designs, RV, v, 3, 11. - b h u k t a , mm, eaten un-
*awares, Mu. y&kbm4,m.ari unkribwn or hidden-
disease, RV. x 161. i % AV. v i s a , mfn, whose

dwelling is unknown. i i l A , mfn, whose character

is unknown.
A-jnA, am, n. non-cognizance; ignorance, (in
philosophy) spiritual ignorance (or a power which,
consisting of the three Gunas sattva, rajas and t

tamos, and preventing the soul from realizing its

identity with Brahma, causes self to appeal a distinct
personality, and matter to appear a reality); Pralqiti,
Maya, Illusion; (mfn,), ignorant, unwise; ( a t ) , ind,
unawares, ignorantly. kflta, mrn. done inadver-*
tently. - t a s , hid. unawares, inadvertently. t&,
f. or - t v , n, ignorance, banflharia, n. the bond
of ignorance,
A2jan.ft as, m, a kind of domestic lizard, L , ;
N. of a fabulous serpent; of a tree, Pancai.; of a
mountain; of a kiog of Mithili; of the elephant of
the west or south-west quarter; (<i), f., N. of Hanu-
mat's mother; of Pravarasena's mother; (am) n, act; f

ofapplytngan ointment or pigmen^embcllishingj&e.;:

black pigment or collyrinm applied to the eyelashes i
or the inner coat of the eyelids; a special kind of j
this pigment, as lamp-black, Antimony, extract of
Ammonium, XanthorrhJza, Set.; paint, especially as
a cosmetic; magic ointment; ink, L.; night, L . ; fire,
L, (In rhetoric) making clear the meaning of an
equivocal expression, double entendre or pun, Sec.

^rfrT d t i ind. [probably neut. of an obsolete


adj, a / i n , passing, going, beyond ; see */at, and cf.

Old Germ, a t t t i , u n t i , i n t i , u n d e i n d i , &c.; Eng.

; and; Germ, und; Gk. cT<,dT(; Lat. ante ; Litn.

i ant; Arm. t i ; Zend a i t t ) . Asa prefix to verbs and
their derivatives, expresses beyond, over, and, if not
standing by itself, leaves the accent on the verb or
its derivative; as, ati-kram (^kram) t to overstep,
Ved, Inf, atUkrdme, (fit) to be walked on, to be
passed, RV. i, 105,16; ati-krdmatia, n,, see s. v.
When prefixed to nouns, not derived from verbs,
it expresses beyond,surpassing; as, a t t ~ & a J a , past the
whip; ati-mdnusha, superhuman, &c.; see s,v.
Asa separable adverb or preposition (with acc.),
Ved. beyond J (with gen,) over, at the top of,RV.; AV.
A t l is often prefixed to nouns and adjectives, and
rarely to verbs, in the sense excessive, extraordinary,
intense excessively, too; exceedingly, very ; in such
Uon, Br ArUp, px&aakti, cr-prtwosffa, m. ex-
cessive attachment; unwarrantable stretch of a rule.
Alii, if, m. or apl, f. the point of a needle or of
a iharp slake, L , ; linch-pin, L . ; the pin or bolt at the
end of the pole of a carriage, L , ; the comer or part
ofa home, L . ; a boundary, L. Anl-mndairya,
m., N, of a Brahman ascetic (said to have been im-
paled on an a#i or point ofa stake), MBh_
AtiiinftB,g m, (fr, api/, q. v.), minuteness, fine-
ness, thinness, SBr.&c.; meagreneu; atomic nature;
the superhuman power of becoming a small at an
atom : (dmman\ n, the smallest particle, J>Bi.

Atlt&, mfn, gone by, past, passed away, dead;

one who has gone through or got over or beyond,
one who has passed by or neglected ; negligent;
passed, left behind; excessive; (as), m., N . of a
particular Saiva sect; (am), ru the past kitla,
ra. the pas! time or tense, n t m i a , miru passed
out of a ship, landed.

"*ifi*f\ aty-anta ,tii fn. beyond the proper end

or limit; excessive, very great, very strong; endless,
unbroken, perpetual; absolute, perfect; ( a t r t ) , ind.
excessively, exceedingly ; in perpetuity; absolutely,
completely; to the erid; (aya), dat. ind. forever,
perpetuaIly,Fat.; quite*Pal. kupana,mfn.very
passionate. gra, mfn. going very much or very fast,

^TCI dtha (or Ved, dtha) t ind. (probably fr.

pronom, base a ) , an auspicious and inceptive particle
(not easily expressed in English), now; then; more-
over ; rather; certainly; but; else; what? how
else? Sec, M m , ind. how else? what else? cer-
tainly, assuredly, sure enough. klmn, ind. how
much more; so much the more. ca, ind. moreover,
and likewise. tn, ind. "but, on the contrary, - v a ,
ind, or; (when repeated) either or; or rather; or
perhaps; what? i it not so? &c. vfipl, ind. or,
rather. Atfc&t&B, ind. now. AthAnantaTatu,
ind. now, Atlifipi, ind. so much the more; more-
over; therefore; thus.
A-dr/fthy* or [jBr.], mfn. unseen,
unforeseen; invisible; not experienced; unobserved,
unknown; unsanctioned; (or), m , N. of a par-
ticular venomous substance or ofa species of vermin,
AV.; (<?#*), n. unforeseen danger or calamity; that
which is beyond the reach of observation, or con-
sciousness (especially the merit or demerit attaching
to a man's conduct In one state of existence and the
corresponding reward or punishment with which he
is visited in mother); destiny, fate: luck, bad luck.

^rfan^adAt- Vgam to go up to, approach,


overtake; to approach for sexual intercourse; to fall

in with; to meet, find, discover, obtain ; to accom-
plish; tojtody, read: X)tte,V*adh~pgiamisJtati t

to seek ; A . adhujigdnsatc, to be desirous of study-

ing or reading

TOfViflTGT a d h i - m a t r a , mfn. above measure,

excessive; (<uw), ind. on the subject of prosody.

TrrVfT a d k i - s k t A a ( * / $ t h a ) to stand upon*


depend upon; to inhabit, abide ; to stand over; to

superintend, govern; to step over or across; to over-
come ; to ascend, mount; to attain, arrive at.
Adtt-tthtli&tTi, mfn. superintending, presiding,
governing, tutelary; (&), m. a ruler J the Supreme
Ruler (or Providence personified and identified with
one or other of the Hindu gods); a chief; a protector.

"Ht*i a d k y - a t m a > am, n . the Supreme

Spirit; (mfrt), own, belonging to self; (dm) ind. t

concerning self or Individual personality. e t a ,

m. one who meditates on the Supreme Spirit,
~jE&na, IL knowledge of the Supreme Spirit or
of dtman. -drift, mfn. knowing the Supreme
Spirit. rati, m. a man delighting in the contem-
plation of the Supreme Spirit ~x&m.;^na, ru a
fUmayana, in which Kama is identified with the
universal spirit (it forms part of trie Brahmsn^a-
Pur lna),vid, mfn. - d r i L - vidyS,f, -jftdna,
*&stT&, n., N , of a work. Adhyfitandtt&T&-
k&nda,, n, the last book of the Adhy atma-rimayaria,
Adhy-Stmlia or better KdhyStmifca, mf(f)n.
relating to t h e sou? f*r tTi# A n m w n * S n i r i t
^TUIT^ adhy-%/as, to sit down or 1 ie down
upon, to settle upon; to occupy as one's seat or
habitation ; to get into, enter upon; to be directed
to or upon ; to affect, concern ; to preside over, in-
fluence, rule; to cohabit with: Cans. P. adhy~&sa-
yaH % to cause to sit down, Bhafl.: Desid. (p. adky~
dsisishamdna) io be about to ri se up to (acc), Bhaft.
Adhy-Kaaaa, am, n, act of silting down upon,
L,; presiding over, L . ; a seat, settlement, BhP,
TO*^ d d h t a n , c, m. a road, way, orbit;
a journey, course; distance; time, Bnddh, & Jain,;
means, method, resource j the zodiac (?\ sky, air,
L,; a place ; a recension of the Vedas and the school
upholding it; assault (?); ifc, adkva as, %

^RnT a n - a n t d ^ t n f ( ) n . endless, bound

less* eternal, infinite; (as), m,, N . of Vishnu ; of
Scsha (the make-god); of Sesha's brother Vasuki j
of Krishna ; of his brother Baladeva; of Siva ; of
Rudra; of one of the VKva-devas; of the 14th
Arhat, & c ; the plant Sinduvara, Vitex Trifotia*;
Talc; the 23rd lunar asteiism, Sravana; a silken
cord (tied round the right arm at a particular festi-
val); the letter a; a periodic decimal fraction? ( a ) ,
f. the earth; the number one; N . of FSrvatf and
of various females, the plant Sariva; Periploca
Indica or Asclepias Pseudosarsa or Asthnutica (the
root of which supplies a valuable medicine) ; (am),
n, the sky, atmosphere; Talc, - k a r a , mfn. ren-
dering endless^ magnifying indefinitely, Pap. i i i , j ,

K<nqf$q a n - a v a c c h i n n a , mfn. not inter-

sected, uninterrupted } not marked off, unbounded,
immoderate; undiscriminated, l i 5 * a , m conti-
nuous or immoderate laughter.
An-avaathita, mfn. unsettled, unsteady, loose in
conduct, citta, mfn. unsteady-minded. cftt*-
tva, n. unsteadiness of mind, tv*, u. unsteadiness,
insfahilitv. ._
A-naah^,mfh,undestroyed, unimpaired, psvsm
(ditaskta-), mm, having one's cattle unimpaired,
RV. x/17, $. veda* ( d n a s h t a - ) , mfn. having
one's property unimpaired, RV. vi, 54,8*

I ^fflTTff d i t ' d g a t a , mfh, (v^am), not come,

not arrived ; future ; not attained, not learnt; un-
known ; (am), n, the future, *-Tat mfn. connected
*{\Wi^an~atman a, ra. not self, another;

acmetMng different from spirit or soul; (an~dtmdn) t

mfn. not spiritual, corporeal; destitute of spirit or

mind, SBr,
AxUstma (to com p. for an-dtman). * jna, mfn*
destitute of spiritual knowledge or true wisdom,
- pr&t7*vd*sh&f reflection that there is no
spirit or self, Buddh. vat, mm. not self-possessed;
( v a / ) ind unlike one's self.

^T5|rfT an-adi, mfn. having no beginning*

existing from eternity, tva, n, state of having no
beginning, - a i a h a a a , mfh. having neither begin-
ning nor end, eternal mat, mfh. having no be-
ginning. -madliy4ata mfn,havingno beginning,

middle or end. AaBdy-anaata, mfh. without be-

ginning and without end, Up. Aa-Sdyanta, mfh,
without beginninff and end ; (as), m,, N. of Siva,

r*ttq a-mtya, mfn. not everlasting, tran-

sient ; occasional, incidental; irregular, unusual;
unstable; uncertain; (am), ind. occasionally. kar-

iTT? s t y e , mfn,( feA), unwished,

undesirable, disadvantageous, unfavourable; bad,
wrong, evil, ominous; (a), f. the plant Sida Alba;
(at) n. evil, disadvantage. jrraha, m. an evil

^^yf v'Aft, to do afterwards, to follow

in doing; to imitate, copy; to equal; to requite ;
to adopt: Caus, ~kdrayati to cause to imitate,

Aaa-kara, mm. imitating, $Br,; (ds\ m. an

assistant, AV. xii, a, 3.
Aan-karana, am, n. the act of imitation or of
following an example; resemblance, similarity,
A n u - k a r t r l , mm. an imitator, imitating; ( t d ) ,
ox a mimic, actor, performer.
Aan-kanaan, n, a. imitation ; a subsequent rite
or ceremony; (d\ m,, N . of one of the Viivedevas,
Ana-kfira, as, m, imitation, resemblance,

^ f ^ V % a n u - \ / g o m c \ , l . P. - g a c c h a t i , - g a n ~

( u r n , to go after, follow, seek, approach, visit, ar-

rive ; to practise, observe, obey, imitate j to enter
into; to die out, be extinguished; Caus. -gamayati,
to imitate, cause to die out.
"J^jJH an-ittlama, mf (5) n, unsurpassed,
irxomparably the best or chief, excellent; excessive;
not the best; (in Gr.) not used in the utiama or
tint person. An-nttamjmbbag, n. (in Sankhya
phil.) indifference to and consequent abstinence from
sensual enjoyment (as fatiguing). An-uttamiiui-
hnaalka, n, indifference to and abstinence from
sensual enjoyment (as involving injury to external

^P|*T?I ontt-v^as, P , A . - p a & y a t i tt to

t s

look at, perceive, notice, discover. RV. & c ; to con-

sider, reflect upon (acc.^ MBh- eVc.; to look upon
11, take as, ib-; (perf. A - p. -faspat&nA) to show
(ante path), RV, 1,14,1; AV vi a8 3;(Nir.X.30.)
i l l

Ann-paiya, mfh- perceiving, teeing, Yojat.

^T^jtTTrT a n u - p 5 t a a t , re. falling subse-


quently upon, alighting or descending upon in suc-

cession ;following; going, proceeding in order, or
as a consequence; a degree of latitude opposite to
one pwn.theAntiedfrO; proportion (in arithm.);
arithmetical progression, rule of three.
Anu^patnkH., am, n. a crime similar to a maha-
f & t a k n , q.v, (falsehood, fraud, theft, adultery, &c.)
An-n-p&tam, Ind, in regular succession,
Anu-pEtin, mfn. following as a consequence or

Anu-bhTl, mfh. perceiving, understanding(ifc.)

Anu-bhEt*, mfru perceived, understood, appre-
hended ; resulted, followed ai a consequence; that
has experienced, tasted, tried or enjoyed.
Ami-bhuti, iV, f. perception ; knowledge from
any source but memory ; (in phil) knowledge gained
by means of the four Pramanas (perception by the
senses, inference, comparison, and verbal authority);
dignity, consequence. ^prakKsa, m. N.ofame- (

tncal paraphrase of ihc twelve principal Upanishada

by Vidyiraipya-muiil BVrup4cKry,m., N . of
the author of the grammar Santsvati-prakrija,
Anu-bhuy* ind. having experience!

Anu-bh'nytunAiifi, mfn. being under trial; being

experienced or enjoyed.
V H ^ I 2* ana-v^. ff to be behind i n

measure, to be unable to equal, R V , ; to infer, con-

clude, guess, conjecture; Pass. -mfyatt, to be in-
ferred or supposed.
3. A n n - m i , f. inference, a conclusion from given
1. Anu-m&jus, am, a. the act of inferring or
drawing a conclusion from given premises; inference,
consideration, reflection ; guess, conjecture ; one of
the means of obtaining true knowledge (see p r a -
mana>). Vhnndja., n. or -edntftms^ii., m. or -prsv-
X&sa, m. works on anumdna. mani-cUdhitl,
f. a similar work written by Raghunstha. A n u -
tuSuoXti. f. inferential argument, r*asoinir.

^HJiJ^ a n u - y / m u d , to join i n rejoicing,

RV. viii, 1, 14, & c ; to sympathize with, to Te-
joice ; to allow with pleasure, express approval, ap-
plaud, permit; Cans, -madayati, to express approval,
Ann-mod*, as, m. a subsequent pleasure, the
reeling of pleasurefromsympathy.
Ann-nod&k*, mf(tia)n, assenting, showing
sympathetic joy.
AruL-modAiiA, am, n. pleasing; caus) ng pleasure,
applauding; assent, acceptance; sympathetic joy.
Anu-modita, mfh. pleased, delighted, applauded;
agreeable, acceptable.
^Hj^ft & n u - V i . i h cl. 2. A . -We, to sleep
! with, lie atoug or close, adhere closely to.
Ann-saya, as, in, close connection as with a
! consequence, close attachment to any object; (to
1 phiL) the consequence or result of an act (which
clings to it and causes the soul after enjoying the
temporary freedom from transmigration toenterother
bodies); repentance, regret; hatred; ancient or in-
tense enmity; (r), f. a disease of the feet, a boil or
abscess on the upper part; a boil on the head,
vat, mfri. = t i n u - i a y i n .
Anu-say&na, mfn. repenting, regretriog; ( d ) ,
f. a heroine or female character who regrets the loss
of her lover (in dramas).
Anu-oftyltswya, mfn. to be regretted.
Ann-sayin, mfn. having the consequence of an
act, connected as with a consequence; devotedly
attached to, faithful; repentant, penitent, regretful,
sorry tor; hating deeply,
AnuniByiii, mfn. lying or extending along, N h \
Ann-sinnm, a m , n . instruction, direction, com-
mand, precept, RV, x, 3 a, 7, Gtc. p a n , mfn. obe-

anit-shiha('/$th<i)t to stand near or

by; to follow out; to carry out, attend to 4 to per-
form, do, practise; to govern, rale, superintend; to
appoint: Pass. shthtyaU, to be done; to be fol-
lowed out; Dead. -tUhehdsati, to be desirous of
doing, ficc.
Ann-tialLfxuunlna, mfn. following out, carry-
ing out, performing, attending to.
Aan-ahtha , mfn. standing after, i.e* In suc-

cession, RV. i, 54, 10.

Anu-sa^hJttavT, mfn. to be accomplished.
Atra-shfn&t?!, t a \ m, the undertaker of any
work, AV. &c.
Ann-a athaaa, ace, n, carrying out, undertak-
ing; doing, performance; religious practice; acting
in conformity to; (*), f. performance, action, Kaui.
krama, m. the order of performing religious
ceremonies sarira, n. (in Sankhya phil,) the
body which b intermediate between the l i h g a - or
sukshma- and the sthuta-dartra (generally called
the adhithtkana-iartra, q, v.) atuaxaka,
t s d { i k a ) t i . reminding of religious ceremonies.

T p N f Q i t - t k a , mfn. not one, many* much;

separated. k&ma (&neka-\ mm. having many

YPif dnta, as, m , end, limit, boundary,

term; end of a texture; end, conclusion; end of
life, death, destruction (in these latter senses some-
times ncut.); afinalsyllable, termination ; Last word
of a compound; pause, settlement, definite ascer-
tainment, certainty; whole amount; border, out-
skirt (t.fygrdm&nte, in the outskirts of the village);
nearness, proximity, presence; inner part, inside;
condition, nature; (e% lac. c. in the end, at last;
in the inside; (am), ind. as far as (ifc, e.g. uda-
h&ntam, as far as the water) J (mfn.), near, hand-
some, agreeable, L . [cf.Goth, andeis, Theme and/a;
Germ. Endt; Eng. end: with anta are also com-
pared the Gk. avra, ajnt% Lat. antt; the Goth.
anda in attda-vaurd. flee.: and the Germ. ent.
W*rR d n t a r a . mf(afa. being in the interior,
interior; near, proximate, related, intirrule; Tying
adjacent to; distant; different from; exterior; { a m \
n. the interior; a hole, opening; the Interior pari
of a thing the contents; tool, heart, supreme soul;
interval, mtermediate space or time; period; term;
opportunity, occasion; place; distance, absence;
difference, remainder; property, pcrolnmty; weak-
ness, weak side ; representation ; surety, guaranty ;
respect, regard; (ife.), different, other, another,
e. g. d e i & n t a r a m . another country; { a m ) , or -/Jj,
ind, in the interior, within [cf. Goth, anthar,
Theme anthara; Lith, anira-s, * the second;*

Antar is sometimes cxHTipotindei with a following

word like an adjective, meaning interior, internal,
intermediate. ftgal, m. the interior fire, digestive
force, Suir.; (mfh,), being in thefire,Kaus,ss&ga,
mm. interior, rxoximatc, related, being essential to,
or having reference to- the essential part of I h c a f i g a
or base of a word; ( a m ) , n. any interior part of
the body, VarBiS. Aga~tn n,the state oreon-p

^PiTft antar-^t. -ayati

t to come between,
Mricch.j (perf. -ayd^t eakdra) to conceal, cause to
disappear, Sis, ill, 34; - t t i tr> stand in any one's

way, separate; to exclude from (abl., rarely gen.)3

to pass over, omit; to disappear: Intcns, -ryate, to
walk to and fro between (as a mediator), RV.
1, Antax-aj*, as m. impedimecat, hindrance,

ApSr.; (cf, d n - a n l t t r a y a )

3. A n t u - * y t , Nom. P, -ayati see a n f a r - V i .


Anta,r-aynJi, am, n. going under,, disappearing,

Pan, viii, 4, B5.
Antar-nypmm as, m, N . of a country, Piij.
f t

riii, 4, *5-
Antar-Sr*, as m. intervention, obstacle.

a n t a r - o / d h a , A . -dhatte, to place
within, deposit; to receive within; to hide, conceal,
otiscurc; to hide one's self: Pass, - d h i y t t f c , to be
received within, to be absorbed; to be rendered in-
visible ; to disappear, vanish; to cease; Caus. -dha-
fayati, to render Invisible, to Cause to disappear.
2, Antar-dliri, f, concealment, covering. Pin.
Antar-flJiltiuL,TW,n. disappearance, invisibility;
antardhdnam V r o r '/gam, to disappear; [ a s \
m., N.of a son of Prithu. ^(ja>t*,mfn. disappeared.
f 2, anya*, as, 5, at, other, different; other
than, different from, opposed to (abl, or in comp,);
a&other; another person; one ofa number; any a
a i t y a or <Ma anya, lhe one, the other; anyac t a t

and another, beside*, moreover [cf, Zend anya;

Arroen. a i t ; Lat, alius; Goth, a l j i s , T h t x a t a l j a ; - tS, f* difference.
- r - *- i, * I
(mt?-<r^(7 <w m , ( i / i , see e i w - V f ) * ;
t t

following, succession; connection, association, being

linked to or concerned with; the natural order oi
connection of words in a sentence, syntax, constru-
ing ; logical connection of words; logical connection
of cause and effect, or proposition and conclusion j
drift, tenor, purport; descendants, race, lineage,
fatnilv. atlna. m a genealogist. vat. mfn. hi v.

SJTU,TJTJ1! a~parantfiskfat mfn. untouched.

^ n r f t r j ^ a - p a r i g r a i t a , OS, t n . n o t includ-
ing, Comm. on TPrit,; non-acceptance, renounc-
ing (of any possession besides the necessary mensiU
of ascetics), Jain.; deprivation, destitution, poverty;
(nun,), destitute of possession destitute of attend-
ants or of a wife, Kum, f, 154*

a - p a r i n a m a , as, m , ( y / n a m ) , u n -
changeabteness. darsVlii, mfh. not providing for
a change, improvident.
A-parlpSmfn, mm. unchanging.

^TVjST ap- y/?rv> A -Vfihktt t (I mper, 2. eg\

- v r i & k s h v a ; Subj, i . sg, - v r i n d j a i ; aor. P, j . sg.
dpSvrit) to torn off, dme off, A V , ; $Br.; to tear
oft; A V . ; (withdVjttwrtow)earpert riam[BR.], RV,
a, t f 7, 7, to leave off, determine, fulfil, $Br. dec,:
Caus, - m r j a y a t i , to Quit, get rid of; to sever, turn
off from; to transmit, bestow, grant, MBh. &e.
Apa-vaxe*, as, m. completion, end (e. g. pa%-
t&paftargOt coming to an end infivedays), Kliyfir,
&c.; the emancipation of the soulfrombodily ex-
istence, exemptionfromfurther transmigration; final
beatitude; BhP. ; gift, donation, Aivr,; re-
striction (of a tide), Suir.; Sulb. O A , m i { a ) a . con-
ferring final beatitude.
pi-dhd f pi-nah), expresses placing n ear or over, u nil-

Ztxidapij Germ and Eng. prefix &c] ; in later

Sanskrit its place seems frequently supplied bjabhi.
(As a separable adv.) and, also, moreover, besides,
assuredly, surely; apt apt or api-ca, as well as; na
vSpi or n a apjvd or t t a n a c d p i , neither, nor; t&pt,
(and at the begin niog of a sentence) api~ca moreover. t

Apt ts often nsed to express emphasis, in the sense

of even, also, very ; e.g. any ad apt, also another,
something more ; a d y & p i , this very day, even now;
tathSpt, even thus, notwithstanding; yady apt.
nevertheless; na kaaactd apt, never at any time:
sometimes in the sense of but, only, at least, e, g,
ttmhurtam api only a moment.

Api may be affixed to an interrogative to make it

indefinite, e.g. ko 'pi, any one; utrdpi anywhere. f

Apl imparts to numerals the notion of totality,

e.g. eaturn&m apivarndndm, of all the four castes,
Apl may be interrogative at the beginning of a
A p i may strengthen the original force of the Po*
tential, or may soften the Imperative, like the English
'be pleased tosometimes it is a mere expletive.
Apt i n , but, but yet.

^(JlfJJ g*ptimya, m f h . impure, w i c k e d

~ k r l t , mm. acting wickedly, wicked.
* n t ^ apfltsh (ViJtsft), to look away, to

with H a . not to like. Kathls*

to be looked for or expected; to be wished or re-

quired ; desirable.
AplksbS, f. looking round or about, considera-
tion of, reference, regard to (in comp,; rarely loc.);
dependence on, connection of cause with effect or of
individual with species; looking for, expectation,
hope, need, requirement; (aya), ind, with regard to
(in comp.) ouddM, f. (in Vaiseshika phil.) a
mental process, the faculty of arranging and methodiz-
ing, clearness of understanding.
Apthcahltav, mfh, considered; referred to; looked
for, expected; wished, required.
apS{Vt)t P.. A . apdtti, dpdyati (impf.
A . dptyata, RV. x, 73, 6) to go away, withdraw,
retire, rim away, escape; to vanish, disappear.
Ap&yn, aj, m. going away, departure ; destruc-
tion, death, annihilation j injury, loss; misfortune,
evil, calamity,
Ap&yin, mm. going away, departing, vanishing,
Apeta, rnfn. escaped, departed, gone; having re-
tired from,freefrom(aW. or in comp.) bhl, mfh.
one whose fear is gone, Mn, vii, 197. rixahaal,
f. the ntant Octmum Sanctum falso atr&a-r*).

VTnfritt * * i a-prati$amkramaf mfn. having

no intermixture.
mm *

TTIT<n a-prama, t a rule which is no

authority (see a-pramdna); incorrect knowledge.
A-pramfi&a, am, ru a rule which is no standard
of action, MBh.; ak, &c.; (in discussion) a statement
of no importance or authority. v i a , mfn. incapa-
ble of weighing evidence, BhP, - tmbba, ds m. pi. t

' of immeasurable virtue,' N. of a class of divinities,

Bnddh. ApramSpibha, at, m, pi. 'of unlimited
spkndour,' N . of a class of divinities, Buddh.

A-prayoJfcka, taSjka)t\, not causing or cfFecting;

A-bbsVva, as, m, non-existence, nullity, absence;
non-mtity, negation (the seventh category in Ka-
naqYt system); proof from non-existence (one of the
six praminas in Vcdaata phil. ['since there are no
mice, therefore there must be cats h e r e s e e pta-
ntdud)\ annihilation, death,
Abhi*j&ta mfn. born in consequence of; born,
produced; noble, well-bom; obtained by birth, in-
bred; fit, proper, L . ; wise, learned, L . ; handsome,R.;
Kum, i, 4 6 ; { a m ) , u. nativity, BhP.; high birth,
nobility, -ttt, f. hijjh birth, nobility.
T f f a l ^ f a ^ a b A ^ i t W r i j , -visatt, to enter
(with ace.), Pan. i, 4,47, Sch.; to disembogue (at a
river) into (axe), BhP.; to devote one's self entirely
to (ace.), Das,ct.: Caus, ^vtiayaH. to cause to enter,
lead into (acc.), BhP,; to cause to tit down upon
(loc.), Sii.; to cause any one to devote himself en-
tirely to, MBh. flee.; (with man** or Stmdnam) to
devote one ! attention to (loc.), BhP,
Abni-rttviafcta, mm. entered or plunged into;
intent on (loc. or in comp,); endowed with, Ragh.
ji,75;determined, persevering. t*, f.state ofbeing
persevering, Sah,
A b h i - a i v a i a , <tf m. application, totcntness,

study, affection, devotion (with loc, or lfc.)j deter-

mination (to effect a purpose or attain an object),
tenacity, adherence to (loc.), Kum. v, 7, ckc.
Abbl-nlvasHta,mfh.made to enter inio, plunged
Abhi~xdTairt, mfh. intent upon, devoted to,
Yajfl.iii, 1^4; determined.

i,abhi-*/bhu, to overcome, over-

power, predominate,conquer, surpass, overspread; to
attack, defeat, humiliate; to approach, come near to
(acc,), RV, iv, 31, 3 ; AV.; to be victorious or pros-
pering in (loc.), RV. v, 37, 5.
Abni-bhava, mfh,overpowering, powerfu!, AV.
i, 29, 4 ; (fff), ni. prevailing, overpowering, pre-
dominance, Bhag, & c ; defeat, subjugation under
(instr. or abl,, or in comp.); disregard, disrespect;
humiliation* mortification.

^ i f t W ^ abhi-4/man, ~manyatc (Subj, -man-

ydU, RV. x, j 7, 11) to think of, long for, desire,
RV, &c.; (aor. Subj. 2. sg. -utanstk& 3. sg. t

-mttnsta; Ved. Inf, abht-manto^ SBr.) to intend

to injure, be insidious, threaten, injure, VS.; AV. Sec.;
to kill, AitBr. (aor. -amattsfa); KatySr.; to allow,
agree, MBh. ii, 1374, &c. to think of self, be proud

of; to think, suppose, imagine, take for (acc.)

Abhi-mata, mfh. longed for, wished, desired;
loved,dear; allowed, ASvGr.; supposed, imagined;
(am\ a. desire, wish. iS, f. agreeableness, desir-
ableness ; desire, love.

f T r ^ abhi-vy--Jaff/\ Pass.-tyajyate. to
be manifested, become manifest.
Abhi-vyakta, mfn, manifest, evident, distinct,
Sale.; Ragh. & c j (am), ind. manifestly, Ysjft.; N.
Abhi-vjaJrti, is, f. manifestation, distinction,
Pan viiL t . I C : S3h. & t

^rfWa WW, ind. (a prefix to verb* and nouns,

expressing) to, towards, into, over, upon.
(As a prefix to verbs of motion) it expresses the
notion of moving or going towards, approaching, &c.
(As a prefix to nouns not derived from verbs) it ex-
presses superiority, intensity, &c.; e.g. abhi-tdmra t

a b h t - n a h a , q. v.
(As a separate adverb or preposition) h expresses
(with acc.) to, towards, in the direction of, against;
into, $Br. dt KitySr.; for, for the sake of; on account
t>f; on, upon, with regard to; by, before, in front
af; over. It may even express one after the other,
severally, Paij. i, 4, 91, e. g. vfikshain vriksham
"bhi, tree after tree fcf. Gk, dfitpi; Lat. ob; Zend
t i b i , aivtt; Goth. St; Old High Germ.^ij.

^TWTnT abhy-antaro, mf(5)n, interior,

being inside of, included in (Joe.; gen. or in comp.
[ & g a n d b k y a n t a r a ] \ MBh. ii, 3 1 8 2 , 8 t c . ; initiated
in, conversant with*(loc), R.; Megh.; next, nearly
related, intimate, Paitcat; (am\ n. inner part, in-
terior, inside, middle, Slk. & c . ; (generally loc.;
ifc) interval, space of time, Mrtcch.; Pa Beat, i Hit,;
(am\ ind. (ifc) into, Kathls. &c, x a l , Js, f,
pi. the secret arts or the arts of coquetry, Dai. tas,
ind. in the interior, inwards, Sulr. doaha-kxit,

sedition or mutiny, VarB[S.

m, curvature of the spine by spasm, emprosthonos,
Snir.; (cf, bahjrtya'ma.)
WWH^ 2. abhy--/2.03 {ind* p. -asya) to
throw towards or upon, SBr.; AitBr.; (p. gen. sg.
-asyatas)to throw (as arrows), MBh. 1,5479; to add,
Sulb.: P. (rarely A.) - a s y a t t (bnt also r*ot. t u r f ,
M . i . ; p. MBh. iii, 145c ; R,; Yljii. lit, 304:
A. -orofrj Ktn, iv, 149) to concentrate one's atten-
tion upon (accA practi st, exercise, study, M Bh. & c ;
to repeat, double ; to multiply, Euryas, &>;. : Caus. to
cause to practise or study, teach, Comm. on Sil ix, 79,
A n h j - a B a n a , am, m. practice, excrdsc, R. & c
A b h y - a s a n i y a , mfn. to be practised, Kathls.;
to be studied ; to be repeated j (in Gr.) t-o be rr<ln-
A b h y - a s i t a vy a., mfn. 10 be practised, Comm. on
Abhy-ftsta, mfh, accumulated by repeated prac-
tice (as food), SuSr.; pract ised, exercised, Mricch. & c ;
learnt by heart, repeated, studied, Ragh.i,8,&c; mul-
tiplied, Nir.; SO ry a*.; (in Gr,) reduplicated (as roots),
Nir.; a m , n. the reduplicated base of a root. Pan.
a. Abby-ftaa, a s , m. the act of adding anything,
Sulb,; (in Gr.)*what is prefixed/ the first syllable
of a reduplicated radical. Pan.; reduplication, Nir.;
repetition, Mn, xii, 74, etc. ^ (in poetry) repetition
of the last verse of a stanza [Nh.] or of the last word
of a chapter [Comm. on AitBr,]; (in arithm,) mul-
tiplication ; repeated or permanent exercise, disci*
pline, use, habit, custom j repeated reading, study;
military practice, L . ; (in laterVedanta phiL) inculca-
tion of a Truth conveyed in sacred writings by means
of repeating the same word or the same passage ; (in
Yoga phil.) the effort of the mind to remain in Its
unmodified condition of purity (sattva). l a , f. con-
A-rinhfa, mfiJJn. unhurt, R V . & . C , proof
against Injury or damage, RV,; secure, safe, KV.;
boding misfortune (as birds of ill-omen, &c.), Adbh-
BT.; Hariv,; fatal, disastrous (as a house), R-. ii, 4a,
22 ; .jf, m. a heron, L. ; a crow, L . ; the soap-
berry tree, Sipindus Delergem Roxb. (the fruits of
which arc used in washing, Yljfi. i, 186); cf. a r t -
shtaJtJ ; Azadirachta Indica, K. 11,94, 9; g*^ *
L . ; adistilled mixture, a kind of liqnor, Suir,; N.
of an Asura (with the shape of an ox, ion of Bati,
flavin by Kfishna orYisfcnA Hariv.; BhP,j ofa son
of Manu Va ivaivata, VP. (v. L for dishta); ill-tuck,
misfortune (see aruhta, T\,\ MBh. xii, 6573 ; (if),
t a bandage, Suir.f a medrcaf plant, L . ; N. of
Durga, SkandaP.; N . of a daughter of Daksha and
One of the wives of Kafiyapa, Hinv.; { a m ) , n, bad
or ill-luck, miifortune ; a natural phenomenon bod-
ing misfortune, VirBrS. 5 BhP. 8cc sign or symptom

of approaching death; good fortune, happiness, MBh.

iv, 3126; buttermilk, L . ; vinous spirit, L . ; a wo-
man's apartment, the Tying-in chamber (cf. arisfya-
p r i h a & -Javvd below\ L. - i a i m s i , rrv. N. of

Sf^T a r t h , cl. IO. A. a r t h a y a t e (2. du. a r -

Kthayethe, RV. x, 100,7; Subj. a.sg_*rr-
tkayast, RV. 1,82,1); rarely cl. 1, A . (i. phar/Ad- '
tnahc, MBh. lii, 8613) to strive to obtain, desire, '
wish, request, ask for (acc.; rarely Inf. [Bhatf,
ycddhu$/C\)\ to supplicate or entreat any one (acc,
rarely abC (KathJsj); to point out the sense of,
comment upon, Comm. on Mpoch.
r. I
^T^I d r t h a , as, ftnt m. n. [in R V . t-ix only .
n.; in RV, x six times n, and thrice m>; in later
Sanskrit only m.] aim, purpose (very often artkam,
arthena, arthaya, and or the ifc, or with gen. 'for
the sake of, on account of, in behalf of, for'); cause,
motive, reason, Mn. ii, 213, &c,; advantage, use,
utility (generally named with kama and ahartna,
see t r i - v a r g a ; used in wishing welt to another,
dat, or gen,, Pan. , 3, 73); thing, object (said of
the m cm brum virile, SBr. xiv); object of the semes,
VarBrS.; (hence) the number 'five,*Suryas.; sub-
stance, wealth, property, opulence, money ; (hence
in attron.) N . of the second mansion, the mansion
of wealth (cC dhatta), VarBrS.; personified as the
son of Dharma and Buddhi, BhP.; affair, concern
(Ved. often acc. drtham with V ' or gam, to go to
one's business, take up one s work, RV. Sec); (in
law) lawsuit, action; having to do with (instr.),
wanting, needing anything (instr.), Br. Sec.; sense,
meaning, notion (cf. arfha~fabdau and a r t hat s. v.
below and vedatattvdrtha-vid); manner, kind, L . ;
prohibition, prevention, L , ; price (for argha, q.v.),
L . ; (St), abt. ind., see s.v. below ; (e), loc, ind. with
&cV tattva, n. the real object or nature or cause
of anything (in comp.), Mn, xii, IOJ ; R. 1, 1, 16;
the trne state of a case, fact of the matter, taatra,
i. exacting accoiuingTb onc's'intefesf, lihK *taa,
ind. towards a particular object, SSnkhyak.; Mcar.;
r " r d ft* v * *

Mn. v, 134; YsjB. iii, 2, v a t - t , f. or-vat>tva,

11, significance, importance, varjfiya, as or ani,

tlcgaf a-labdha, mfn. unobtaincd. - n S -

tha, mfn. without a patron. nidra, mfn. not
obtaining sleep, unable to fall asleep, BhP, bhCU
mlka-tva, n. the state of not obtaining any degree
(bhfimt) of deep meditation, Yogas. AlabdaA-
baipsita, mfh, disappointed in one's desire.
A.-iabnania'aa, mfn. not gaining, Sec.
A-labnya, mfh. unobtainable, Kum. v, 43, Sec.
^ f r t S r a~Hhga am, n. absence of marks,

Comm. on Nyayad,; (mfn.) having no marks, Nir.;

MurjdUp, &c.; (in Gr.) having no gender,
^TeTI dlpa, rnf(5)n. (m. pi. e or as. Pan. t,
1, 33) small, minute, trifling, little, AV. &c.; (am),
ind. (opposed to baftu) little, Mn, ii, 149 8c x, 6 0 ;
W%Wlava-y/stha, P.-tishthati(\mpf. -att-
shihat; aor, Subj, - s t & d t j perf, A , 3. sg, -tasthc;
r e a c f t
perfv p. P. -tasthivds) to go down into ( a c c )
down to (acc), R V , ; $Br.; (aor. Subj, 3, pi. -sthd-
ta) to go away from (abl.), R V . , v 8 ; (aor.
Subj. 1, sg. -sihdtn) to be separatedfromor deprived
of (abl.), RV. ii, 37,17: A . (Pan. i, 3, %7; rarely
P., e.g. Bhag.xiv, 33; BhP. &e.) to take one's
stand, remain standing, AsvGr. & c ; to stay, abide,
stop at any place (be.), MBh. Sec, to abide in a
state or condition (instr.), MBh. J, 5080; BhP. & c ;
(with ind. p.) to remain or continue (doing any-
thing), MBh. i, 5770; iii, 187 (ed. Bomb.), Sec. i to
befoundsexist, be present, MBh,; Yajn. i, 37 a, &c,;
(perf. 1, sg. -tasthe) to fall to, fall into the possession
of (dat,), RV. x, 48,5; to enter, be absorbed in (loc.),

Mn. v, 8l; to penetrate (as sound or as fame), MBh.

xiii, 1845: Pass, -sthiyate, to be settled or filed or
chosen, Salt.; Cans, (generally ind, p. -stAdfya) to
cause to stand ox stop (as a carriage or an army dec.),
let behind, MBh, dec.; to place upon (loc), fix, set,
array, AirGr. & c ; to cause to enter or be absorbed
in (foe,), MBh. iii, 1350a ; to render solid or firm,
R* v, 35, 36; to establish (by argument*), Comm.
on Ny3yad.: Pass* Caus. ~sthdpyatt> to be kept firm
[*to be separated/ BR.], BhP.
Avii-Bithi, as, m, mem brum virile, AV. vii, 90,
3 (cL upd-stha) 1 ( a ) , L appearance (in a court of
justice), Mn, viii, 60; * stability, consistence/ ctan-
avastka; state, condition, situation (five are distin-
guished in dramas Sih.), circumstance of age [P3n.
v, 4,146; vi, 3, i i , & c ] or position, stage, degree;
(as), C pi. the female organs of generation, RV, v,
19, 1, ATavsrtlift-atasli.tavja n. the foar periods

or states of human life (viz. childhood, youth, man-

hood, and old age). ATMtW-trftjas n. the three
states (viz. waiting, dreaming, and sound steep),
RamatUp,; BhP, Av*,atbdvy*, n. the two
states of life (viz. happiness and misery). Arrtb
Tsui, mfh. possessed of stability, TS.
Av*v-itn4a*, am, a, standing, taiong up one *
place, R. v, 5,18;tuattoo, condition, PafSeat.; H i t ;
residing, abiding, dweffln&Vedlntas.; Sab,; stability,
Ttml^M. . f~e O\
mfifii a-vidya, mfn. unlearned, unwise,
Mn. iXf 305, & c ; (dvtdyd), f. ignorance, spiritual
ignorance, AV. xi, 8, 23 j VS. xl, 1 a-j 4; &Br. xiv;
(in Vcdanta phil.) illusion (personified as Msy J );
ignorance together with non -existence, Buddh. Avl*
dyS-maya, mfn. consisting of ignorance.
^cil*H.rT o-mrafa, mfn. not desisting from
aWA KathUp.; KatySt.; uninterrupted, Mcgh.;
a w^md.uninterruptedly,cont4nually,BhP,; Mjicch,
I &c
A - v i r a t W . C incontinence, intemperance, Yogas,
wfcrcfc a-visesha, as, m . non-distinction,
non-difference,uniformity, Kap.; (mfh.) without dif-
ference, uniform, BhP.; Kap, dec.; (&n), n, pi. (in
Sinkhya phil.) N. of the (five) elementary sub-
stances, (tttan-matray, (tf/)iind. or in eomp. <ipf-
av\seiha-irtitth t aviUshdpadeldt,
KatySt.J without a special distinction or difference,
KatySr.; Jaim.jGaut; Sulb,; not differently, equally,
Comm. on Nyayad.; { e n d ) , ind, without a special
distinction or difference, Ap.; Comm. on Yajfi, & c
VSl^MM a-tiskaya, as, m. anything out of
reach, anything impossible or improper, MBh. xiii,
3 307; Sak.; Kathls.; not a proper object for (gen,),
Mlbttai.; Venls.; (mfn.) not having an object,
Nrt&Up, manea, mfn, one whose mind is not
turned to the obj ects of sense, Mabv. A-vianayi-
karana, n. the not making anything (gen.) an
j object, Vcdintas.

a-vyapadesa, as, m. no designa-

tion or pointing to, Ap. rttpin, mfn, whose shape
admits of no name or appellation, BhP,
A-vyapade sVya, mfn, not tobe defined, M IndUp.;

^ 5 # d-sttkla, mf(5)n. not white, ^Br. vii.

vat ( d - S u M l a - ) , mfh. not containing the word
l u k l a , SBr, vi.
^ r w f a o-dnci, mfn. (Pan. v i , 2 161) im-

pure, joul, Ma,3cc - kara, mfii, making dirty, soil-

ing, Ap. tfi, f. or -tva, n, impurity, - b t i l v a ,
m. id., MBh. i* ?8a. - l i p t a , mfn. soiled. Ap.
^t d-suddha, mfn. impure> SBr.; M n . j
inaccurate, wrong (especially said of mistakes of
copyists and of errata in printing); unknown, un-
ascertained^, vSeeJea,in/ having impure abodes,'
a vagrant, suspicious character,
A-sroddai, fV, f. impurity. Yocras,
A t Irta or ashfft with thefinaleblended in comp,
Atfh^kanara, mf(i)n, containing eight syllables,
VS.; AitBr.; SBr.; ( a t ) , m., N , of an author. A l -
faaga, mf(<f)n. consisting of eight parts or members
(as medical science [MBh. ii, 334 & 44 3] or a king-
dom [MBh. xv, 177] &c.); (in comp,) the eight
parts (as of an army [MBh. ii, 197]; or of a court,
ii. the law, the judge, assessors, scribe, and astro-
loger, gold, fire, and water,L,); (ash0ngn)-naya or
pdta [see tdfh^dn^a-pdfam\ or ~prattdma,mt pros-
tration of the eight parts of the body (in performing
very profound obeisance; the eight parts are the
hands, breast, forehead, eyes, throat, and middle of
the back; or thefirstfour, with the knees and feet;
or these six, with the speech and mind), L . ; -hfi-
daya, n. N , of a medical work of Vigbhafa ; ash-

t&hgdrghya, n, an offering of eight articles (water,

milk, Kuia grass, curds, ghee, rice, barley, and mus-
tard ; or honey, red oleanderflowers,and sandal are
(nkctiht+jiul ft-.* 1 *1 ^ - *

^nrstojj a - s a m l c i n i a , mfn. unmixed; not

andean, Sufr.

A*saat>1chy7a mfii. innumerable, MBh,; BhP.


3oc; (as), m. a N . of Siva, L . ; (dm\ n. an innu-

merable multitude, AV.x, 8,34; an exceedingly large
number, Boddh.-trua*, mfh, innumerably rmilti-
plied, unnumbered. - t 8 f. Innumerableness, Suit.
^nrj? d - s a h g a or a-sangd, mfn. free from
ties, independent, SBr. xiv (BrArUp.); NrisUp.;
moving without obstacle (as a cart, a vessel, a flag,
&c), MBh. ii, 944; Hariv. &c.; having no attach-
ment or hxKnaUonforor interest in ; (see also a. v.
asatta); { a s ) , m. non-attachment, non-inclina-
tion, Ma, vi, 75; Bh.; N, of a son of Yuyudhana,
Hariv. 9,107; V P . ; a N . of Vasobandhu, Buddh.;
non-impediment,' generally (end), instr. ind. with-
out obstacle, Hariv. 10187; R.; (if), abl. ind. un-
obstructedly, at pleasure, Balar, carta, mfn. mov-
ing without obstacle, R. v, 4a, 4. vat, mfh. not f

attached to* (loc,). R*i"\ $7* H [according to NBD.

a mistake for sartgn-vat],

^ l * t a - s a m p r a m a s h a , as, m. 'the not

allowing to be carried off/ not letting drop (as from
memory), Yogas.

t r a r j p l . sam-pTa~\/yuj, P. A. -yundktU
-yuhUe, to yoke or join together, yoke, harness,
MBh.; R,; to employ, make use of, BhP.; to per-
form, execute (a song), L . ; to instigate, incite, in-
duce to (instr.), R.: Pass, yujyate, to be joined or
connected with (instr.), he added or attached,Nir.;
Hariv. &c,; to be united sexually, Rajat.; to be

8amprayoktavy a, mfh, to be used or em-

ployed, Situ pr*yo**>, m. (ifc f. <f) joining to-

gether, attaching, fastening, Mrfcch.; conjunction

anion, connection, contact with (instr, with and
without taAa t or comp,), A past,; MBh. &c. (cf,

*H**nrtfrl* samprayogCca, mfn. (fr, sam-

firayoza) relating to use 0 r application, Ca u Sam-
ijf[^$am-\/srij t P . A . - s r i j a t i , te (2. ag.
aor. - s r & A , AV.), to hit with (instr,)* R * h 33* ' 3i
to visit or afflict with (instr,), AV. xi, 2 2 6 ; to t

join or unite or mix or mingle or endow or present

with (instr,), R V . AV,; VS.; Br.; Ap.; MBh,;

(with yttdhafy) to engage in battle, A V. x, eo, 24;

to create, SvctUp.; Pur,; (A.) to share anything
with others, MaitrS.; ( A , or Pass.) to join one's self,
be joined or united or mingled or confused, come
into contact with, meet (as friends or foes, also
applied to sexual intercourse; with Instr, with or
without saha), RV. &c, & c : Caus, 'Sar/ayat to t

attract, win over, conciliate, Baudh,; Kam.; lo fur-

nish with (instr,), provide any one with anything,
Car,; Desid, ~sisriksh<iti to wish to create together

or to partake of creation, BhP.

Sam-sax ga^nfn .commingli ng combining(intr.), t

KatySx,; m. (ifc, f, d) mixture or union together,

commixture, blending, conjunction, connection, con-
tact, association, society, sexual union, intercourse
with (gen., instr, with and without SaAa, loc, or
SSxnsaTgika, mf(f)n, produced by or resulting
from contact (saittsarga) or intercourse, Ksm,; BhP.

wfttT 1. csti t tnd. (3* eg* pr. * / r . as; gana

( & d i and svar-ddi, q.v.) sometimes used as a mere '
panide at the beginning of fables, Pafica t,; Kat&ls.;
existent, present, L, fcSya, m. an ontotogical cate- \
gory (of which five are distinguished, vis. j p v & s t i -
%Sya, qfiv&si", d h a r m & s f , adharm&sf*, fudga*
Ids/*), Jain. kfttfrfi, f. having milk (as a cow),
Pa n, i i, a, 24,Comrn, ts> f. existence, reality,Comm.
on Bad.; Sarvad, lva> n. Id., ih. xtastl, ind,
partly true and partly not, doubtful, L . pravSda,
m,, N, of the fourth of thefourteenPurvas or older
writings of the Jalnas. mat, mfo. possessed of pro-
oertv. onulent. L

a ^ t ^ ^fft, n. not stealing, Mn.; YSjil, #c

A-aiQea, f. not injuring anything, harmlestnesf

(one of the cardinal virtues of most Hind a sects, but
particularly of the Buddhists and Jains; also personi-
fied as the wife of Dharraa, VamP.), ChUp,; Nir,;
Mn, & c ; security, safeness, SBr,; AitBr. nirata,
mfn, devoted to harmlessness or gentleness, MBh.
4. o, (aa a prefix to verbH, especially of
motion, and their dcrivadTtdi near, near to, towards
(tee & - * j " k r a m Sec, in the Veda, ofcocrse, the pre-
fix It separablefromthe verb ; in a few cases, RV.
i i ' \ 11 & v, 64, 5, a verb in the imperative is to

be supplied; with roots l i k e g a m . y d , and r, 'logo,'

and 1. (TjJ, 'to givt,' it rererses the action ; eg. d-
gatchati, 'he cornea d-daitt, 'he takes ).
(Ait prep, with a preceding acc*) near to, towards,
to, RV,; (with a preceding noun i l l the acc, as J6-
iham or vdram) for, R V , ; (with a fallowing acc,)
up to . exclusively, AitBr.; (with a preceding
abl.) from, RV.; AV. ; out of, from among (
h i i b h y a i , 'from among man**), RV,; towards (only
in asmdd&, 'toward* a t ) , RV.; (with a following
abl., cf. Pin. ii, J, 13 & & to) up to, to, as far aa,
RV.; AV. cVc,; trom,.RV. I, 30, at; (with a pre-
ceding loc.) in, at, on, R V , ; AV.
(As an adr. after words expressing a number or
degree) nj!ij,TtiUy, indeed (e, g. t r i r a m?pir,'quite
or fuJly three times a day;' mahimd vdm I n d r d *
is most praiseworthy indeed;' &e.), RV,; (after a
subst. or adj.) 'it, like,' (or it amply strengthens the
sense of'the preceding word), RV., (after a verb)RV,
j 7i 7 ft KemUp.; {as a conjunctive particle) more-
over, further, ind (it is placed either between the two
words connected [rarely after the second, RV, x, 16,
I s or after both,RV. a, 91, 8] or, if there arc more,

ifler the last [RV. iv, 57, 1 & x, 75, 5 ] ; see also
d i a l t a j.v.)
In classical Sanskrit it may denote the limit 'to,*
1 p
until, * as far as* 'from/ either not including the
object named or including jt {sometimes with acc.
or abl, or forming an adv.), e. g. S-marartam or
d-maraiipdt 'till death/ Paficat. (cf.
3 d-mamn&nta
& t ) ; d-^opdla dvijataya^, 'the twice-born includ-
ing the cowherds, MBh, ii, 53T ; d^samudram
d'5amudrdt t * as far a> the ocean' or 'from the
ocean* (but not including it) i d-kumSram, 'from
a child' or 'from childhood' or 'to 1 child' (cf,
Lat.d/wrtf), MBh. iiij 1403; d^kumdram yaiah
Pdtfintfyt * the fame of Panic I extends even to
eMdieo \ djd*tu-b5Jiu t mfn.'one whose arms teach
down to the knees/R.i, 1,13; (sec also d i a r n 1- ind
djanma-); (cf. d-yarasdm, d-vyusJtdm, dsap-
tame t Slsiirydm,)
Prefixed to adj. [rarely to subjt,; cf. d-kqpa] it
implies diminution, Pan. ii, a, 18, Comm. 'a little/
e.g. d-piiij&ray mfn. % little red, reddish, Ragh. xvi,
51; (KC also 5-pakva. Sskna, flee) Some com-
mentaries (e.g. Coram, on Ragh. iii, 8) occasionally
give toil in this application the meaningsamarttdt,
'all through, completely/ as 3 - n i I a , 'bloc all round.'
W% Jcri, - k j i n o t i (Impv. 2. P.
k r i d h i and A . - k f i n u s k v a } perf. A* -cakrc) to
bring near or towards, RV.: A . (Subj. i . p i -kar tf-
; impf. - a k r i n t d a ; perf. -cakre, p. - t a k r d n d )
to drive near or together (ai cows or cattle), RV, r :
P. (Impv. a. sg. -kfidhi; ind. p. -kfHyd) to drive
near, AY.; (perl I. pL -cakrima) to serve or pre-
pare a sacrifice to (dat.), R V . iv, 17, 18; (imp
dkaraf) to call near (a deity), MBh. v, 426; Caus.
-kdrayati, to call near, invite to a place, MBh. iii,
15546 scq.; Paacat.; D a i ; to ask any one (acc)
for anything (acc.), R. ii, 13, a: Dei. -ciklrshatt,
to intend to accomplish, Dai,; Intens. p. -tdrikrat,
attracting repeatedly towards one's self, A V. xi, 5,6.
1. A-WSxa,<u, m. (Ifc. f. a\ R. 1, aS, 24; Ragh.
xii, 41)form,figure,shape, stature, appearance, ex-
terna) gesture or aspect of the body, expression of
the face (as furnishing a clue to the disposition of
mind), Mn,; MBh. &c. guptl, f. or -ffthAiia
or -efop&n*, n. concealing or suppressing (any ex
pression of the face or any gesture that might show)
one's feelings, dissimulation, L. mat, mfh. with
*Jvah *to behave with a particular behaviour,* af-

fect a gesture or appearance, Raj at. vat, mfn.

having a shape, embodied, Kathas.; well-formed,
handsome, N. varnA-anil&ksrina, mfn. delicate
in jihape and colour.

WTO^ a-s/kah (ind. p. -kasya) to view,

recognize, SBr, vtt.
as, m, (Ved.) or (later) am, n. (ifc. I d )

a free or open space, vacuity, AitBr.; SBr,; MBh,

Sec.; the ether, sky or atmosphere, Nalgh.; Br.;
Ma. &c.; (am), n. (in philos.) the subtle and ethe-
real fluid (supposed to fill and pervade the universe
and to be the peculiar vehicle of life and of sound),
Vedantas. &c.; Brahma (as identical with ether),
h \~dJtSia-bhdshita
r below, Comm.on Sak.; (/),
loc ind, in the air (a stage direction implying some-
thing said by or to a person out of sight), Mricch,;
X. m mm. "~
mifvi^S-i/kshipt - k s k i p a t i (ind. p. -kshi~
pyd) to throw down upon (toe.) or towards (dat.),
MBh. 8K. ; to strike with a boh, R. vi, 78, 5 ; 10
convulse, cause to tremble, Suit.; to draw or take off
or away,withdraw from (abl,), MBh, & c ; to chase
or drive out of a place (abl,),disperse, MBh. iii, 539;
BhP.; to put into (loc,), Suit.; to point to, refer
to, hint, indicate, Pin. vi, 3, 34, Siddh.; SSh, &c.;
to refuse, object to (acc,), MBh. iii, 16117 I KSvyXd.
Set.; to insult, deride, Mn. iv, 141; MBh, Sec.; to
excel so as to put to shame; (perf -rikshepa) to
challenge, call to a dispute Sit, (dat,), Kathas.; Caus.
(perl 'kshepayam as a) to cause to throw down,
MBh. iii, t 7 3 3 .

A-kfthepLn, mfh. ifc. applying to, concerning,

! Yogas,; hinting at, S3h,

Atmaka, mf(iia)n, belonging to or forming the

nature of (gen*X MBh. xv, 936; having or con-
sisting of the nature or character of (in comp,),ChTJp,
cf. iatftkalpkUmaka\; consisting or composed of,
Mn,; MBh, & c ; {tf.panc&tmaha. Sec)

one king only, Vikr, Ekfitman, m. the one

spirit, MindUp,; (mfn.) depending solely on one's
seH being without any friend, only, alone, MBh.;
having the same nature, of one and the same nature,
BhP, j ma^d y f, the unity of spiritual essence, the
doctrine of one universal spirit. Ek&tmya, mfh.
W r W * ^ a t t n d n , a, m. (variously derived fr.
an, to breathe; at, to move; vd, to blow i cf, tmdn)
the biealh, RV.; the soul, principle of life and sensa-
tion, RV,; AV, &c.; the individual soul, self, abstract
Individual [e.g. dttndn (Ved. loc.) dhaite or k a r o t i ,
'he places in himself/ makes his own, TS, v; SBr.;
dtmand a&aret/hs did it himsetf/Kid.; dtmand vi-
t * to lose one's life/ Mn. vii, 46; dtman in
the eg. is used as reflexive pronoun for all three persons
and iD three genders, e. g. atmdnam sd kanti, * she
strikes h e r s e l f p u t r a m dtmanafy spfisktvd nipe~
tatu^Oxty two having touched their son fell down,*
R, ii, 64, 38; see also below s. v. dtmand]; essence,
nature, character, rwuliarity (often ifc., e, g. kar-
mdtman. SccJ), RV. x, 97, 11, &c.; the person or
whole body considered as one and opposed to the
separate members of the body, VS.; SBr.; the body,
Ragtt, i, 14; RjmatUp, ; (ifc.) 'the understanding,
intellect, mind/ see nashtjttman, mand39; the
highest personal principle of life, Brahma (cf p a r a -
matman), AV. x, 8, 44; VS. xxxii, 11; SBr. xiv,
&c,; effort, L . ; (**dhfit) firmness, L . ; the sun,
L . ; fire, L . ; a son, L . ; [Old Germ, dtutn; AngL
Sax <zdhm ; Mod, Germ. At htm, Qdtm ; Gk, ds>-
rfttfv, 4rft6s (?),} vat, mfn. animated, having a
soul, RV.; AV.; TS. - v i a , mfn. id., SBr. X, xiv.
Atma (in comp, iotdtmdn; also rarely ifc., e.g.
adhy-dtma, adky~dtmdm\ - k & r m a s . n. ones

Vilc|!J( 0-Vdjis, A . (3. eg* perf. Pass, -dd-

d f i i e , RV. x, i l l , 7) to appear, be seen: Cans.
- d a r i q y a t i , to show, exhibit.
A-dar0&, as, m. the act of perceiving by the
eyes; a looking-glass,mirror,SBr,*, BrArUp.; MBh.;
R. &c,; * ilhistiating,* a commentary (often dar~
pand)\ ideal perfection; acopy,Comm,onVarBr,;
N. of a son of the eleventh Manu, Hariv.; N.of a
country, Comm. on Pan,; of a species of Soma, L , ;

anantarya, am, n. (fr. an-antara.

Pan. v, 1, J34), irnmediate sequence or succession,
KstySr,; A p . ; Mn. &c.; proximity, absence of in-
terval, MBh, Sec. - t f i t i y B , f, the third day (ofa
religious rite), BhP.
*2*MiM ananiya, rafn.ffr. an-anta, Parj. v (

4,23), infinite, eternal, MBh. &c.; bestowing infi-

nite reward, ArshBr.; (am), n. infinity, eternity,
SBr.; M n . ; Yfljn.) M B h . & c ; immortality, future
' happiness, MBh. cVc

*WR*^ a-\/nand $ V. nandati, to rejoice,

be delighted, GTt,; Shaft.: Caus. P. mandayati, to
gladden; to bless, TUp.; Yajn. K^nanda-
yaU, to amuse one's self,
A-nan&a, as, m. happiness, joy, enjoyment,
sensual pleasure, R V . ; A V . ; VS.; R.; Ragh. &c.;

th ree attributes of Atroan or Brahman in the Vc-

dinta philosophy,Vedantas.&c; (as), m. (in dram.)
the thing wished for, the end of the drama [e.g.
the Vlth Act in the Veois.], Sah, 3 9 9 ; a kind of
flute ; the sixteenth MuhOrta; N . of Siva ; of a
Lokeivara (Boddh.); of a Bala (Jzia.), L . ; of
several men; of a country; m. and (am),.u.., N,
of the forty-eighth year of the cycle of Jupiter; (J
and *), f,, N . of two plants, L . ; ( d \ N. of
Gaurl, L , ; (am), n, a kind of house; (often at
the beginning and end of proper names.) kanda,
m. 'the root of joy,* N . of an author; of a

v t i f j ^ anusrava, mfn. according to hear-

ing, resting on tradition, derived from tie Veda or
tradition, BhP.
Aausxavika and SnusrSvila, mm, id.

A-patti, i>, f. happening, occurring; entering

into a state or condition, entering into relationship
with, changing into, KitySr.j APrlt. & c ; incurring,
mijfortune, calamity, Vajn.; fault, transgression, L,
d- V p n - P--p6wh*> - p r t y & h and -pr*-
rt^/i; to fill op, fulfil, fill, R V . ; AV.; VS.; to do
tiny oik's desire, satisfy any one * wish, RV.: A ,
-fritpuc, 1
to surfeit one * self, satiate or satisfy
onVi self, RV.: Paw, -fUTyatt, to be filial, be-
come full Increase J to be satiated, satiified, RV,;
SBr.; BhP.; MBh.; Kathas. &c.; Cans, -puraycti,
to fill up, fulfil, fill, SBr.; Hariv.; Rajat.&c,; to
fill with none, MBh.; ft.; to fill with air, to inflate,
R.; to cover; to load anything with, MBh.; R.;
rirui.; Kathas.
i-pGra,, as, m. flood,flooding^excessabundance,
Kithac; Sis. & c ;fillingirp, maldng full, L . ; fill-
ing a little, T .

^ T M i H a-*/bhast A . (pf. -bobhast) to ap-

pear, look like, MBh.; Ragh. vli, 40, &c.; Kum,;
Kathas.: Caui. P. -bh&sayati, to shine upon, illu-
minate, Nir.; MflrkP.; 10 throw light upon, exhibit
lhe_fabity nf anything. Comm. 00 Badar.
A-ohSsa, as, txi. splendour, light, K.; VedanUs.
105; colour, appearance, R.; Sufir.; Bhag.; sem-
blance, phantom; mere appearance,filllaciousap-
pearance, Vedantas.; SankhSr,; reflection; intention,
purpose; (in log.) fallacy, semblance of a reason,
sophism, an erroneous ihoogh plausible argument
(regarded by logicians as of various kind); ifc look-
ing like, baring the mere appearance of > thing,
Gaut.; Slh. fee. t l , f. or - t r s , n. the being a
mere appearance, Sah. &c.

Ayufl, n. life, vital power, vigour, health, dura-

tion of life, long life, RV.; A V . ; T S . ; SBr.; Mn.j
MBh.; Panat. & c ; active power, efficacy, R V . ;
VS.; the totality of living beings [food, Ssy.J, RV.
i> A 5 & vii, <f0,6; N . of a pirtfcular ceremony
( a~yulf-sh{oma, q.v.); N . of a Saman; of the
eightH Tunar mansion; food,L.; {tts\ m. the son
of Piiruravas and Urfati (cf. dyu), MBh.; Vikr.;
VP.; I ct Dor. ath ; perhaps also al&vj] tajas,
m., N. of a Buddha.
^ \ t G ^ a - * / t a m b A.-/<zm&flte,tohanfrom,

Vikr.; to by hold of,seize, cling to j to lest or I .in

upon, MBh,; R.; Kathas,; Parfcat.&c.; to support,
hold,R,; Ragb.&c; to take up ; to appropriate ;
to bring near; to get; to give one's self up to, MBh.;
R,; Paffcat.; B h P . & c ; to depend, Sah.
A-lsunba, mfn. banging down, R . ; (at), m, that
on which one rests or leans, support, prop; recep-
tacle ; asylum, MBh,; R, ; Kathas, &c.; depending
on or from; a perpendicular, L , ; N . of a Muni,
M Btu; {ct) f, a species of plant with poisonous leaves;

Su*r,; (am), rnd, holding, supporting, Ka[h.

- l a a n b a n a , am, d, depending oo or resting
upon; hanging from. Pap.; supporting, sustaining,
Megh,; foundation, base, Prab.; KafhUp.; reason,
cause ; (in rhetoric) the natural and necessary con-
nection of a sensation with the cause which excites it,
Slh,; the mental exercise practised by the Yogm
in endeavouring to realize the gross form of the
Eternal, VP,; silent repetition of a prayer [W\];
(with Buddhists) thefiveattributes of things (appre-
hended by or connected with the five senses, viz,
form, sound, smell, taste, and touch; also dharma
or Jaw belongingto manas). parllcstiS, mm., N .
ofa work. vat, mfn. devoted to the mental exer-
cise called Alambana, VP.
. _ wM fa 4. mmW T

^TF<M alasa, m f n , = a - l a $ a , idle, L . ; [or fr,

lata with 4. a in the sense of diminution, T.J a little
active; (fr. a - I a s a , gana vid(tdit Pay. iv, I, 104),
a descendant of A-fasa.
Alnsayrtna, <w, m._(gana harit&dt, Parj. iv, i ,
loo), a descendant of Alasa.
Alasya, am, n. idleness, sloth, want of energy,.
MBb_; M n , ; Y l j n . ; Susr. & c ; (mfh.) idle, sloth-
ful, L .
S3h.; Kathas.; tc r! scry, behold, Bhafl.; Caus. -h-
kqyoit, to see, look at or upon, MBh,; Hariv,; Ka-
this.; Ragh.; Sak. &c.; toconsider; to prove, R.;
M n . & c . ; to descry, behold, perceive; to know,
MBh.; R.; Hit.; Pancat. &c.
A-lok&, i f . , m. Looking, seeing, beholding; sight,
aspect,vision, Kathas.; Megh,; Mf icch.j Sak.; Ragh.
See.; light, lustre, splendour; glimmer, R,; MBh.;
flatter}',praise,complimentary language; panegyric,
Ragh.; section, chapter; N . of a work. knra,
mfh. spreading or causing light, VarDrS. **^ad&-
flJUajJ, N. of a commentary on the above work
called Aloka. patha.m. and-mfirffa, m. line of
sight, range of vision Ragh, vat, mm. having

MJT^ i . a ^ l . t T f i . P. -trs'flo/i, tt> cover,

hide, conceal; to surround, enclose, shut, compre-
hend, hem in ; to keep off, MBh.; R.; BhP.; Sak.;
Kathas. &c.i Caus. -vdrayaii, to cover, enclose;
to ward off, keep oft; MBh.; R.; BhP.; VarBrS.
A-varaka, mfn. covering, concealing, darkening,
Slh.; Sarvid-
A-varana, mfn. covering, hiding, concealing
Ragh.; (am), n. the act of covering) concealing,
hiding.Suir.; Kigb.; shutting, enclosing; an obstruc-
tion, interruption, Mn.; Susr.; Ragh.; a covering,
garment,cloth, MBh.; Kirat.; Sak.; Ragh.; any*
thing that protects, an onier bar or fence; a wall;
a shield; a bolt, lock, MBh.; R.; Ragh, & c ; (in
phil.) mental blindness, Jain. aofcti, f. the power
of illusion (that which veils the real nature ofthings),
RV, ii, ,4, 6) to go or drive in or towards; 10 ap-
proach, enter; to take possession of, RV.; AV. ;VS.;
SBr.; MBh.; BhP,; R.; Mn.&c; to sit down, settle,
M Bh.; to get or fall into; to reach, obtain ; 10 be-
come, RV. i MBh.; R . ; BhP. Sec.: Can*. -veiayat\\
to cause to enter or approach; tocause to reach or ob-
tain; to deliver, offer, present; to make known, RV.;
AV,; AitBr.; MBh.; BhP.; Ragh.; Bhag,&C.
A-vialita, mfh. entered, BhP.; Kathas. & c . ;
being on or in, BhP,; R.; intent on, L . ; possessed
(by a demon &c.); subject to, burdened with ; pos-
itiied, engrossed ; filled (by inv sentiment or feel-
ing), MBh.; AitBr. ; Hariv.; Kathas.; Pancat. etc.
-tTfti n. the state of being possessed or hardened,
Vim. liigft, mfn.'having a fixed gender,* (in
Gr.) a word which does not change its gender
A-vesst, m. joining one's self, KatySr.; enter-
ing, entrance, taking possession of, MBh.; Sak.;
Prab. &c.; absorption of the faculties in one wish or
idea, intentness, devotednest to an object, BhP.;
demoniacal frenzy, possession, anger, wrath, Balar.;
K i d . ; pride, arrogance, L . ; indistinctness of idea,
apoplectic or epileptic giddiness, L .
3, a-Vsr, A . (in*. -&<fye [ 3 . sg,],
RV.; A V . i Impv. 3, sg. d~taydtrtr AV. v, 25, 9 ;
5. pi, -te^ifV, Vikr.) to lie or rest on or round:
P. (impf. 3. pi. A i a y a r i ) to wish, BhP. ix, i , 37
[perhaps this form is rather a Nom. from 1. d i d ? ] :
Caus, (impf, Siliayaf) to lay or put upou, R.
A>s&ja, as, m, resting-place, bed ; seat, place ',
an asylum, abode or retreat, SBr.; MBh.; Pane at*;
Bhag. Sec,; a receptacle any recipient; any vessel
of the body (e.g. raktdiaya t 'the receptacle of
blood/ i. e. the heart; d m & i a y a , the stomach &c.)>
Sutr.; the stomach; the abdomen, Suir,; the scat
of feelings and thoughts, the mind, heart, soul, Yajfi.;
R.; Kathas.&c.; thought, meaning, intention, Prab.;
Kathas.; PaTicat.; disposition of mind, mode of think-
ing ; (in Yoga phil.) * stock * or *the balance of the
fruits of previous works, which lie stored up in the
mind in the form of mental deposits of merit or de-
merit, until they ripen in the individual sours own
experience into rank, years, and enjoyment * (Cow-ell's
translation of Sarvad. 168, 16"ft",);the will; pleasure;
virtue; vke; fate; fortune; property; a miser, nig-
gard, L.; N , of the plant Artocarpus Integrifblia, L.
A&ay&sjni, m.the fire of digestion, Dai, A&ay&sa,
m.Jtre, L . ; (v.l. for dirayfoa, q.v.)

A-i&s, f. (earlier form for I. did) wish, desire,

hope (praise [Say.]), RV, j AV, vii, 57, 1.
wfV r. a - V i r i , P . -srayati, to affix; to
apply anything AV, xi, ic^ 10: A . JrayaU, to
attach one** selfto; to join, MBh.; BhP.; Kathas,;
Pahcat, &c.; to adhere, rest on, Mn.; MBh,; to
betake one's self to, resort to; to depend on; to
choose, prefer; to be subject to, keep in mind; to
seek refuge in, enter, inhabit; to refer or appeal to,
MBh.; Kathas,; Sak.; Ragh.; Prab,; R. Sec,
A-mraja, as, m. that to which anything is an-
nexed or with which anything is closely connected
or on which anything depends or rests, F i g . ; R.;
Ra^h.; Suit.; a recipient, the person or thing in
which any quality or article is inherent or retained
or received; seat? resting-place, R.; Kathas.; Suir.
&c.; dwelling,asylum, place of rcftige, shelter, R.;
SiS. &c.; dependmg on, having recourse to ; help,
assistance, protection. Parkat,; Ragh. &c.; autho-
rity, sanction, warrant; a plea, excuse, L . ; the being
inclined or addicted to, following, practising; at*
tachingto, choosing, taking; joining, union, attach-
ment ; dependance, contiguity, vicinity, RPraX;
Yajn.; M n . S e e ; relation; connection; ar#ropriatc
act or one consistent with the character of the agent;
(En Gr.) the subject, that to which the predicate is
annexed ; (with Buddhists) the five organs of sense
with manas or mind (the six together being the
recipients of the d i r i f a or objects which enter them
by way of their dlambam or qualities); source,
origin; ifc, depending on, resting on, endowed
or furnished with (e.g. a^hta-gunaSraya, see un-
der us h t i i ) . t a r n , ind. in consequence of the proxi-
mity. tva, n. the state of d~ruya above, SuJr.;
Comm. on Nyiyam, bhnj, m. fire ; sec d i r a y d i a .
2, as, el. 2. A . aste (and
AV, xi, 8,32, &c.; Impv. a. sg. ds-sva,
dsva, and dsasva; 3. pi, ddhvam p. dsdnd, dsat
[R.], and dsina [sec below]; dsdtp-cakrt [FSn.
ii^ 1, 87]; dsishyate; dsishta; ostium) to sit,
sit down, rest, lie, R V . ; AV.;'$Br.; Mn.; MBh.;
ak. dec.; to be present; to exist; to inhabit,
dw1l b ; t3 make one's abode in, R V . ; A V . ;
VS.; MBh, &c,; to sit quietly, abide, remain,
continue, R V . ; A V . &c.; to cease, have an end,
Pancat; Dai.; Hit. & c ; to solemnize, celebrate;
to do anything without interruption; to continue
doing anything; to continue in any situation; to
last; (it is used in the sense of 'continuing,' with
a participle, adj., or subst,, e, g. ttat s&ma gayann
dsfe, 'he continues singing this verse;' with an in-
declinable participle in tvd, ya, or am, e, g. upa~
rudhya a r i m dttta,'ht should continue blockading
the foe ;* with an adverb, e.g. tushnXm aste, 'be
continues quiet;* sukham dsva, * continue welt;*
with an inst. case, e. g. sukheftSste, 'he continues
well;* with a dat, case, e. g. as/dm tusk\aye, 'may
it be to your satisfaction*): Caus. dsayati, to cause
any one to sit down, Comm. on P i n . : Dcsid. A .
dsisishate, ib.; [cf. Gk.i}(<r)-^o<, fyt-rai: Lat. dsa-

1. Asa., as, m. seat (in sv-dsa^tthA t q. v.), R V . ;

TS.; SBr. &c.: (he lower part of the body behind,
posteriors, ChTJp.
I. TLwKnsk (but as and, SBr.), am, it sitting, sitting
down, KatySr,; Mn.; sitting in peculiar posture
According to the custom of devotees, ((ire or, in
other places, even eighty-four postures are enu-
merated; see padmasana, bhadrBsana, va/rS-
sana, vtrdsatta, svastikdsana; the manner of
sitting forming part of the eightfold observances of
ascetic*); halting, stopping, encamping; abiding,
dwelling, AV. xx, 137, 8; Mn.; Yijfl.; Hit. & c ;
seat, place, stooly KatySr.; SBr. xiv; Kum.; Mn.
$ c ; the withers of an elephant, the part where
the driver tits, L , ; maintaining a post against an
enemy; ( d ) , f. stay, abiding, L . ; (i), f, stay, abid-
ing, sitting, L. j a shop, a stall, L . ; a small seat, a

A'~*anna, mfn, seated down, set down, A V . ;

SankhSr.; KatySr.; AitBr.; near, proximate, Mh,;
R.; Ragh.; Mcgh.; Kathas. & c ; reached, obtained,
occupied, BhP.; (am), n. nearness, vicinity, prox-
t l T O ^ f t - V W , (rarely P.) A . -sevati, -fr, to
frequent; to abide in, inhibit, dwell on, R.; BhP,$
Klvyld.; to attend to, serve; lo honour; to lake the
part of, side with, BbP.&c.; toenjoy (sexual inter-
course); to indulge in, like; to perform assiduously,
practise, MBh.; Suir,; Wcgh.; Kum, &e.
A-sevRua, am, n. abiding in, Rajat.; assiduous
practice or rxrformanee of anything, Pin,
A-sevfi, f. id., ib.
A - i e r i t a , mfn.frequented; practised assiduously.
A-nevin, mfn.frequenting.Inhabiting Kathas.;
aealcmily cultivating or fx rforming anything, Rajat.

^I^T* a - * / t v a d , P . s v a d a t i . to eat, con-

mmf, MBh,; Caus. -svadayati, to taste, enjoj,
eat with a relish, MBh.; R , ; BhP.; VarBf.; Suir.;
Pancat, Sec.
A - a v M a , aj m/eating with a relish, tasting,

enjoying (aliometaphorically), Mn.; Kathis.; Sah.;

Yajn.&c; flavour, taste, R.; Pancat.; Megh. Ac.
- v a t , m m . having agood taste, palatable; delicious
jJTTC t - ! a r a , mffr".-)n. (the neuter is a d in
classical Sanskrit, but am [ a d ^ B i , ] In Ved,, Plrj.vii,
'f.sfi; ccmpjrativc form of pronom. base 3.1/ cf,
Lat.iVrrwm; Hib. *7fr), the other (of two), another;
(ph) the rest; (with abl,) different from, RV ; A V , ; F

SBr.; MBh,; R.; Mn,; Ragh.; Hit. Sec; low, vile.

K i d . ; eapelled, rejected, L . ; ( a ) , f. said to be a N ,
of the motherof Aitareya; .W), ind. whereas, whilst,
Subh.; i t a r a , i t o r t t , the onethe other, thisthat.
( I t a r a connected antithcticaJly with a preceding
word often signifies the contrary idea, e.g. vijayaya
tiaraya vd [MBh.], to victory or defeat; w in
Dvandva compoonda, svkhitarcshu [SvetUp,], in
happiness and distress; it sometime^ however, forms
a Tat-purusha compound with another word to ex-
press the one idea implied in the contrary of that
word, e.g. d a k i h i x t f t a r a , the left hand.) -janfc,
m.inordinary man,Sarrtg.; (d^),m,pi/other men;'
a euphemistic name of certain beings who appear to
he considered as spirits of darkness (Kuvcra belongs
to them), AV,; VS.; T S . ; MaitrS.; GopBr. -Jft-
tiya, mfn, ordinary, common-place, - t a n , ind.
otherwise than, different from; from or to another
direction,KatySr.; SBr. 8a.; ( i i a h i i o r a t a U a . K . i h t t
and thither, R.) tra, ind. elsewhere, BhP.; on the
other hand, else* Yogas. th&, ind. in another

' . - -- 1_ . .L.
^ffT 2, U i , ind. (fr. pronominal base 3. 1),
in this manner, thus (in its original signification i t i
refers to something that has been said or thought, OT
lays stress on what precedes; in the Brahnunas it is
often equivalent to 'as yon know,'reminding the
hearer or reader of certain customs, conditions. Sec.
supposed to be known to him).
In quotations of every kind ifz means that the pre-
ceding words are the very words which some person
has or might have spoken, and placed thus at the end
of a speech it serves the purpose of inverted commas
{ i t y uktva, having so said; i t i k r i t v d , having so
considered, having so decided). It may often have
reference merely to what fs passing in the mind, e.g.
halo *pi xdvamantazyc* manushya iti bhitmipaft,
1 king, though a child, is not to be despised, saying
to one's self, 'he is a mortal, (Gr. 92S.) In dram, i t i

(a/AdAaroti means 'after these words he acts thus.
Sometimes i t i is oscd to include under one head
a number of separate objects aggregated together
(e,g, i j y & d k y a y a n a d d n d n i /apak sa/yam kshamd
damafc I alobha i t i mdrga 'yam, sacrificing, study-
ing, liberality, penance, truth, patience, self-restraint,
absence of desire,' this course of conduct, oVe.)
I t i is sometimes followed by cvam, 1V4, or a de-
monstrative pronoun plconastieatly (e.g. t a r n b r u -
yddbhavatttytvam, her he may call 'lady/thus).
I t i may form an adverbial compound with the
name of an author (e,g, i t i - p d r t i n i ^ thus according
to Pinini). It may also express the act of calling
attention (lo I behold 1) It may have some other
significations, e.g. something additional (as in ity-
3ai et cztcra), order, arrangement specific or dis-

tinctive, and identity. 11 is used by native commen-

tators after quoting a rule to express 'according to
such a rule* ( t . g . a t i t i d d t t a i i i t a ity dtmanepadam
bAavati, according to the rule of Payini i, 3, 12, the
Atmane-pada takes place). K i m i t i = kim where- t

fore, why? (In the Satapatha-brahmana t i occurs

for i f i ; ef. Prakrit t i and f/r'.)-ta1ia, mfn. un-
worthy of trust, not fit to be credited ; wicked, lost;
i.iddm; ay^m,iydm idam({ \Ji}*
r t

>v, 156; garja sarvSdi, Pin. i, 1,17; Vop.; a kind

ofncut, of the pronotn,basc 3.1 with am [cf, Lai, is,
ea id mA
t t idtrri]; the Tegular forms are partly derived
from the pronom,. base *f ; see Gr, 324 ; the Veda
exhibits various irregular formations, e.g. fr.pronom.
base a, an inst. ena aya
t [used in general adverbially],
and gen. loc. da.ayds, and perhaps akoavtfs, in RV.
vi,67, i i ; vij-,67,4; x, 133,5 [ B R D J ; fr. the base
%ma a gen, sing, imdsya,
t only RV,; the RV. has
in a few instances the irregular accentuation dsmai,
39, & &e.; dsya, iv, 15, 5, & c ; vi, *e,
a, & c : the forms derived fr, a are used enclitieally
if they take the place of the third personal pronoun,
do not stand at the beginning ofa verse or per iod, and
have no peculiar stress laid upon them), this, this here,
referring to^omethlng near the speaker; known, pre-
sent ; (opposed to adas, e.g. ayam tokafy or idam
visV&m 01 idatp sarvam t this earthly world, this
universe; ayam agnifc, this fire which burns on the
earth; but asavagnifa that fire in the sky, i.e. the
lightning: so also idam or iyam alone sometimes
signifies 'this earth ;* i r / u smafa here we are.)
idam often refers to something immediately fol-
lowing, whereas ttad points to what precedes (e.,
i r u t v d i t o d idam ikuh, having heard that they said
Endrlj&, mfn. lit For or belonging to or agree-*
able to Indra,RV\; A V , ; VS.; (as), m. a companion
of lndra(?), RV, i, 107, 1 j AV. xix, 27, 1; { a m ) ,
n, power, force, the quality which belongs especially
to the mignty Indra, RV.; A V . ; VS.; T S . ; AitBr.;
SBr.; exhibition of power, powerful act, RV,; V S . ;
bodily power, power of the sense 1; virile power,
A V . j VS.; SBr.; semen virile, VS.; KatySr.; MBb.
&Lcr faculty of sense, sense, organ of sense, A V . ;

Suir.; Mn.; Ragh.; Kir. &c.; the number Jive as

symbolical of the five scriaes. (In addition to the
live organs of perception, buddhtndriyani or j'ffd-
t i. e, eye, ear, nose, tongue, and skin,
the Hindus enumerate five organs of action, karmht-
d r i y a r t i ) L. e, larynx, ha 1 id, foot, anui, and parts of
generation; between these ten organs and the soul
or atman stands manas or mind, considered as an
eleventh organ ; in the Vedanta, manas, buddhi

ahamkSTa, and c i t t a form the four inner or internal

organs, a n t a r - i n d r i y d r j i , so that according to this
reckoning the organs are fourteen in number, each
being presided over by its own ruler or n i y a n i f i ;
thus, the eye by the Sun, the ear by the Quarters of
the world, the nose by the two Airing, the tongue
byPracetas,theskin by the Wind, the voice by Fire,
the hand by lndra, the foot by Vishnu, the anus by
Mitra, the parts of generation by Prajlpati, manas
by the Moon, buddJu by Brahman, ahamkata by
Siva, citta by Vishnu as Acyuta ; in the NySya phi-
losophy each organ is connected with its own peculiar
element, the nose with the Earth, the tongue with
Water, the eye with Light or Fire, the skin with Air,
the ear with Ether; the Jainas divide the whole
creation into five sections, according to the number
of organs attributed to each being.) kftroa { i n -
d r t y i F ) , mfh. desiring or endeavouring to obtain
power, KatySr.; TS.; Ap. k7;ltr*, mfn. performed
or done with the organs of sense. ffooarn, mfn.
being within the range of the senses, perceptible,
capable of being ascertained by the senses, ;xa>
ma, m. the assemblage of the organs the senses
or orfransof sense collectively, Ved Sntas. 33a ; Mn.; |
ipa, ind. (fr. pronominal base 3. i%
like, in the *ame manner a* (in this sense ~y*tha,
and used conreiativeiy io /fl/Atf); as- it were, it if (e. g.
pathtvttt as if on a path); in a certain manner, in
wme measure, a little, pertiapi (in qualification or
mitigation of lUrongasseriion); nearly, almo*l,ibont
(e. g. muhurtam iva, almost an hour); so, just so,
just, exactly, indeed, very (especially after word*
which involve some restriction, e. g. Ishad tva, just
a tittle; kimcidiva, just a little bit: and after a nega-
tion, e. g. na t i r d d iva, very soon). Iva is connected
vaguely, and somewhat pleonastically, with an inter-
rogative pronoun of adverb (e.g. k i r n iva what? t

katham iva, how could ihat possibly be ? kvhia,

where, 1 should like to know?). In the Pada texts
of the ?ig, Yajur, and Atharva-veda, and by native
grammarians, tva la considered to be enclitic, and
therefore compounded with the word after which it
stands, RV.; AV. Set, Sec, I v o j r u n t , t a kind of
I simile (In which iva is employed), Bhatl. 30.

1. I s n t d , mfh. (for a. see s. v.), sought, Sflr.;

wi&ed, desired; liked, beloved; agreeable; cherished,
RV.; SBr.; KatySr; Mn.; Pahcai.; Sak. Sec.; rever-
enced, respected; regarded as good, approved, Mn.;
Samkhyak.; valid ; (aj), m_ alover, a husband, Sak.
83c; me plant Ricinus Communis, L . ; (J), f, N.
of a plant, L . ; (am), . wish, desire, RV.; A V
n # ;

AitBr.; Mo,; R , (am), ind. voluntarily.


m a n , n. (in arithm.) rule of supposition, operation

with an assumed number. k l m a - d n l i , dhuk t

'granting desiteV N . of the cow of plenty, Ehlg.

- f f a n d l i a , mm. having frigrant odour, Snsr.;
{ a t } , m, anyfragrantsubstance; (am), n. sand, L .
- J a n e . , m. a beloved person, man or woman; a
loved one. Sale taniA mfh. most desired, best, be-

loved, beloved, dearest. - t a r a , mfh. more desired,

more dear, dearer,TABU ind.
$ m i i U, c\. 2 , X . sh(e or V e d .
r (j, sjr;.
N & w A f i n d j ^ i ^ R V . i T , ao, S; vi,ia,lo;
Pol. I i *g. s/fva, 1
3* P - ilishyati i h t u m )

to own, possess. RV.; MBh.; Bhajt.; to belong to,

RV.; to dispose of, be valid or powerful; to be
mister of (with gen,, or Ved. with gen. of an inf.,
or with a common inf., or the loc. of an abstract
noun), RV. - A V . ; TS.; SBr,; MBh.; Ragh. flee;
to command ; to role, reign, RV.; A V . ; Sir. flee.;
to behave like a master, allow, KaJhUp.; [ef. Goth.
a i g a n , ' t o have;* Old G e r m . e i g a n , own ;* Mod.

Germ, t i g t n ^
a. lij^m.riiaiteTilord^tjwm^
N . : .v Isidfcv aya., m,, N. ofthelsi-npanishad.
f ja-vlayr* or ls&vSsya, n. 'to be clothed or per-
vaded by the Stqvcnte/N.ofthe liopani*hid(q.v,)
which commences with that expression., f a&paul-
fl. t, N . of an Upanishad (so called from its
beginning l i d [VS. xl, l] ; the only instance of an
Upanisbid included in a Samhita).
1st, mfn. owning, possessing, sharing; one who
is completely master of anything; capable of (with
pen.); poweriid, supreme; a ruler, master, lord,
Mo.; SBT.; MBh.; Kum. & c ; (as), m. a husband,
L,; a Rudra; the number'eleven* (at there ate
eleven Rodras); N . of Siva as regent of the north-
east quarter, MBh,; Hariv,; R,; S a k . & c ; N.of
Siva ; of Korera ; (a , f. faculty, power, dominion,
AV.; VS.; fiBr. - g i t * , f . pi., N.of a section of the
Kflrmj-purlna. tva, n. supremacy, superiority.
aaniBtria., mfh. appearing as lord, Svi -1
fchi, m. Siva * friend, N. of Kovera. aaran, n.,
N. ofa lake.
laana, a m , n. commanding, reigning, SvetUp.
fsfina (flc IBKHA), mfn. owning, possessing,
wealthy; reigning, RV.; AV.; VS.; SBr. flee.; (or),
m. a ruler, master, one of the older names of Siva-
Rudra, A V . ; VS.; SBr.; MBh.; Kum, flee.; one of
the Rodras; the son as a form of Siva ; a Sidhya ;
N, of Vistula; N.of a man; (<i, N . of Durga;
(f), f. the silk-cotton tree, Bombax H eptaphyllum,
L . ; (aw), a, Kght, splendour, L.knlp*, m., N,
ofa Kalpa, *-krlt, mfh. acting like a competent
person, making nse of one's possessions or faculties;
rendering one a master or able [Sly.], RV. - o a n -
dra, m., N . of a physician, Rajat. Ja, as, m. pi.
a class of deities forming a section of the Kalpa-
bhavaa, L. nevi, f, N.ofawoman.Rajat. ball,
m 3^artieo]arsaeririee,VS. lsSn4cUilpa,
whose lord is Siva; f. (scil. did) the north-east.
Xavax&, mfh. able to do, capable of (with gen. of
Vedic inf., or with common io.fl), liable, exposed to,
AV.; TS.; SBr.; AitBr.; Kum.; Hit. &e.; (as, fj>
m. master, lord, prince, king, mistress, queen, A V.;
SBr.; Ragh.; Mn,&c,; (as), m, a husband, MBh.;
God; the Supreme Being, Mn,; Susr,; Yaja. & c ;
the supreme soul (atman); Siva; one of the Rudras;
the god of Jove; N. of a prince; the number 'eleven ;*
(a or i), L , N, of Durga; of Lakshmi; of any other
of the Salens or female energies, of the deities; N. of

TSiukta, mfo. (p.p* of V r - a c q . v.) uttered,

t t

said, spoken; (as), N. of a divine being (v. 1.

for uktha, q.v,), Hariv.; (am), n. word, sentence,
Sis\ &c,; (am, 4), n. a stanza of four lines (with
one syllabic instant or one long or two short syllables
In each); [cf. J5endM/*/J tvaiuthe being spoken
or uttered, SSh, nlrv&ha, m. maintaining an as-
* m m v i j

~3tW\ut-kTam ( u d - < / k r a m ) P. (and rarely


A.) -kramati, -kramati (Ved, impf. 3. pL -akra-

m a n , AV, iv, 3, l ) - t i (pf. 3. pi. - c a k r a m u s , SBr.)

to step op, go up, ascend, AV,; VS.; TS.; SBr.;

KatySr.; R.; KathSs, Scc\ to step out, go out or
away; to pass away, die, SBr.; Mn.; Nir. ; KJd.
&c ; to go over, pass over, omit; not to notice;

to neglect, transgress, MBh.; K. & c : Caus, P,

kramayati and -kramaydli, lo cause to go up
or ascend, TS.; Br.; Kaui, & c : Desid. - c i k r a -
mishati or -cikramishyati, to wish to go up or
out, SBr.; ChUp.
TJt-krama, as, m. going up or out, VS.; SBr.
& c ; inverted order, Suryas.; progressive increase;
, going astray, acting improperly, deviation, tran*-

Ut-krSntl, is, t stepping up to,VS.; SBr.; going

out; passing away, dying, Kathas.
1. Tj'ttB.rii, mfh. (compar. fr. I. ud; opposed to
adhara; declined Gram. 338. a\ upper, higher,
superior (e. g, uttare danias, ihe upper leethJi^-^-r
AV.; T S . ; ChUp.; Ragh. Sec ; northern (because
the northern part of India is high), AV,; M n . ;
Suir.; FaBcat* Sec,; left (opposed to dakshitta or
right, because in praying the face being turned to
the east the north would be on the left hand), AV.;
KatySr.; MBh. Sec; later, foUowing, subsequent,
tatter, concluding, posterior, future, R V . ; AV.;
KatySr.; MBh.; Ragh.; Hit Sec (opposed topStr-
vu, Sic, e.g. uftarah kalah, future time; u l t a r a m
vakyam, a following speech, answer, reply; phalam
u l t a r a m , subsequent result, future consequence;
varsAdttartshu, in future fears); followed by (e.g.
j m $ U o r a mfh, followed by ' s m a , ' Pin, iii, 3,176);

superior, chief, excellent, dominant, predonainant,

more powerful, RV.; AV.; gaining a cause (ira law);
better, more excellent, RV.; (or), m., N, of a son
of Vtrsta, MBh.; of a king of the Nagas, L . ; N .
of a rnountain, Kathas; of several men; (r), m.
pL, N , ofa school; (<i), f. (scit d i t ) the northern
quarter, the north, Kathas. Sec; N. of each of the
Naksbatro that contain the word ' u l t a r a ' (cf. u l -
tara-phalgmtt, Sec); N . of a daughter of Virlfa
and daughter-in-law of Arjuna, MBh.; of a female
servant, Latit.; ( e ) , f. do. the second and third verse
of a Tfica (or a stanza consisting of three verses);
(as), f. pi. the second part of the Saroa-samhiti; ( a m ) ,
a. upper surface ,or cover, MBh,; Ragh.; Daft, &c.;
the north, R.; Dhfirtas.; the following member, the
last part ofa compound; answer, reply, Ragh.; R.;
Prab .&c; (in law) a defence, rejoinder, a defensive

measure; contradiction. Car.; (Inthe Mimarjsa phi-

losophy) the answer (the fourth member of an adhi-
karana or case); superiority, excellence, competency,
R.; Paficat.; Kathas. tec; result, the chief w pre-
valcntresult or characteristic, what remains or is left,
conclusion, remainder, excess, over and above, (often
Ire,, e, g, b h a y & t a r a , attended with danger, having
danger as the result; dharmdttara, chiefly charac-
terized by virtue; sJiashty-utiaram sahasram, one
thousand with an excess of sixty, i.e. 1060; j ap-
t b i t a r a m tatam, 107); remainder, difference (in
arithmetic); N. of a song, YajiL; N. of each of the
Nakshatra* that contain the word * u t t a r a ; ' a par-
ticular figure in rhetoric; N. of the last book of the
RamSyana; ( a m ) , ind. at the conclusion, at the end,
eg. ihovad-uWiram, having the word 'bkavat*
at the end; asrSUaramlksAitd, looked at with tears
at the close, i.e. with a glance ending in tears;
U t - p u m a , mfh, risen, gone up; arisen, born,
produced, R.; Mn.; Kathas. Sec.; come forth, ap-
peared; ready, Ysjfi.; mention**!, quoted (esp. fr.
the Veda), Jaim. tAbtu, mfn. having a line of
descendants. tva, n, origin, production, bate,

T R a ^ t d - p a t ( t i d - ^ p a t ) , P. ~ p a t a t i (p. -pd-
taJ, RV. ii, 43,3; AV, xix, 65, I ; aor. -apaptaf,
RV. t, I Q I , Q ; p. tut, 'Pattshydt, AV. iviii, 4,14)
to fly or jump up,flyupwards; to ascend,rise,RV.;
AV.; AhBr.;TBr.; Hariv.; Megk; Ragh.; Katbis,
Set.; to rise (from one's bed), MBh.; to shoot up,
ChUp.; to start from, leave, run away, AitBr.;
MBh.; to jump out, hasten out, come out, Hariv.;
R.; Hit Set,; torise,be produced, originate, MBh.;
BhP,: Caus, P, -pdtayaft, to cause to fly up or to
rise, RV.; AV.: Dcsid. (impf. -apipathhai, SBr,
X a. I. If to wish or intend to fly up.

u d - * / i , P . -4iit - e t i m (and i t d - e t o s t

Maitr, i> 6, 10) to go up to> proceed or move up,

proceed, RV,; AV.; VS.; to rise (as the sun or a
star & c ) , RV.; VS.; SBr.; ChUp,; VarBrS. &e,;
to come up (as a cloud), Mricch.; R.; to sun up,
rise up against, march oft AV, iii, 4, 1; MBh.;
Kum.; to rise> raise one's self; to increase, be en-
hanced; to be conceited or proud, R . ; Ragh*r Sis,
ii* 33 J*,i to go out of; to come out or
arise from, RV,; AV.i SBr,; Ragh. Sec; to escape,
ChUp.; Sak, &c.; Pass, (impers, -tyatt) to be risen,
TJ6-&y&, dj, m. going up, rising; swelling up, R.;
rising,rise(of the sun Sec), coming up (of a cloud),
SBr.; KSiySr.; Mn.; Sak. &c.; the eastern moun-
tain (behind which the sun is supposed to rise),
MBh.; Hariv.; Kathls,dec; going out, R,; com-
ing forth, becoming visible, appearance, develop-
ment; production, creation, RV, viii, 41, 1f R . ;
Ragh.; Yijfi.; Sak.; Kum, Scc ; conclusion, result,

consequence, MBh.; Ragh.; Mn.; that which fol-

lows ; a following word, subsequent sound, Pin, viii,
4,67; RPrst.; A Prat. & c ; rising reaching one's
aim, elevation; success, prosperity, good fortune,
KathSi,; Ragh, dec,; profit] advantage, income;
revenue, interest, R.j Yajft,; Mn, Sec,; the first
lunar mansion; the orient sine (i, e, the sine of the
point of the ecliptic on the eastern horizon), SQryas.;
N. of seven I men. k a r a . m.. N . of an author.
TcT^a. nd-'/an (for i . see p. 183, col, 3),
P. - a n t t i (8c a n i t i , BfArUp, iii, 4,1; cf. vy-*J*n;
p. - a n d t , SBr.; aor. 3. pi -Sniskm, AV. iii, 13,4)
to breathe upwards, emit the breath in an upward
direction; to breathe out, breathe, AV.; SBr.; Bj-
TJd-Saa, as, m. breathing upward*; one of tn*
five vital airs of the human body (that which is In
the throat and rises upwards), Vedantas, 97; A V, xi,
8, 4 ; VS.; ChUp,; SBr.; MBh.; Soil. & c ; the
navel, L . ; an eyelash, L . ; a kind of snake, L . ; joy,
heart's joy (Buddh.)

3^TT ud-ard, mf(5 and [gaga bakv-ddi,, i . 4{])n.(V>t)> high, lofty,exalted; great,
best; noble, illustrious, generous; upright, honest,
MBh.; Sak.; Sii. Sec.; liberal, gentle, munificent;
sincere, proper, right; eloquent; unperptexed, L . ;
exciting, effecting, RV. x, 45, 5 ; active, energetic,
Sarvad.; (as), m.risingfog or vapour (in some cases
personified as spirits or deities), A V . ; AitBr.; a sort
of grain with long stalks, L . ; afigurein rhetoric (at-
tributing nobleness to an Inanimate object). U r t l ,
mm Kttrhlv m i A u n n t i t l r K t r l s m t ^ t w r i + u m f n * * f

1. T/d-ita(for a. see s. v.), mfh. risen, ascended;

being above, high, tall, lofty, RV.; ChUp.; Mn.
Bcc.j conceited, proud, boasting; MBh.; elevated,
risen; increased, grown, augmented, R.; Kir. &c.;
bom, produced, Bhartr,; apparent, visible, RV. viu,
103, 11 ; incurred, experienced. boiniii, mfn.
sacrificing after sunrise, AhBr.; SBr. VOit&Uiaa*,
n. kindlingfireafter sunrise, Comm. on ApSr. v, 13,
a. Udltaandita, mfn. 'risen and not risen/ not
unite risen. AoSr. xv. 18. l a .

3 < l l * { H ^ { u p c ^ n i - < / m a * t r P . to invite; to


offer, MBh.; R . ; to consecrate, inaugurate, L.

' Upa-nlmaatra^a, am, a, invitation, Venii.";
inauguration, L ,
T I T ^ upa-i/raRj, Caua. P . - r a t i j a y a t i ,
to Influence, affect, Sarvad.
TJpa-roktA, mfh. dyed, coloured, coloured red ;
heated, inflamed, SBr.; Sah.; afflicted, distressed
(esp. by Rahu ; said of sun and moon), echpsed, R,J
VarBrS.&c.; influenced or affected by,BhP.; Sarvad.
Upn.-rajyfc, ind. p. having dyed or coloured;
darkening, obscuring, BhP. iv, 39, 69.
Upo-ranJaAfc, mfn. dyeihg; affecting, influenc-
ing, Sarvad.; Kap.; Sah.
TJjuwaAjra, mfn. to be dyed; to he affected or
influenced, Kap.
Upn-rlffa-, as, m. the act of dyeing or Colouring,
eolpur, Ragh.; Kathla, Sec.; darkening, edipse (of
ran and moon, caused by Rahu), fiat 186b; MBh.;
VarBrS.; influence, affecting, Sarvad,; Kap,; Prab-
&c,; misbehaviour, ill-conduct, L . ; reproach, abuse,
L.; Rahu, L .

^fHefl*^ upaWUihh, A . -labhaie, to seize

get possession of, acquire, receive, obtain, find
MBh.; R.; Mn.; Mficch. Sec; ( w i t h g a r b h a m ) v
conceive, become pregnant, R. j to perceive, behold
hear [cf. Gk_ yHO.Aa^f?<W]; to understand, learn
know, ascertain, MBh.; BhP.; Paficit.; VarBrS
Sec: Cans. P. -lambhaya(r\ to cause to obtain 01
take possession, BhP. viii, f j , 3 6 ; to cause to heai
or learn or know, Pat. on Vim. 3 on Pan. i, 4, 5a
to cause to be known or distinguished, BhP, iv, I,
35 : Dead, (p, -Uptamdna, AV. vi, lig, 11) tc
wish to catch or grasp.
Upav-labcUL*, mfa, obtained, received; con-
ceived; perceived, heard., understood, learnt, known,
guessed, anatha, mfh. one who h u experienced
pleasure, ITpaaabaiiaWUift, mfl;i)n, (aiutemcnt,
tale &c.) (he meaning or plot of which is known ;
(rue, probable, L .
TJpa-lto4hT7, mfn. to be perceived, KajhUp.
Upa-lahcUii, tj, f. obiainmeni, acquisition, gain,
MBh,; Viler.; Ragh.; (witherbka&ya}conception,
R ; observation, perceiving, perception, becoming

1wire, undentanding, rnlnd, knowledge, MBh. ;

>utr.; Tarkaa.; Saivad. Jcc.; perceptibility, appear-
(aor. A . I. sg. -srikshi
r RV. ii, 35,1: Pass. 3. sg.
-saryi,WJ. 11,69, 1) to let loose oponorioward*; 10
let stream upon, pour on, ahed forth, RV. vi, 36, 4;
*, 98, i a ; VS. 11, 38; T S . T ; TBr. j ; 5flr. iii; to
emit towards, cause to go near, bring or lead near,
RV. j BhP.; to acUnit (a calf to its mother), RV.
v,ii, 73, 7 ; 6 9 , 1 i VS.; SBr.; SinkhSr.&c;to
add, subjoin, increase, AitBr.; Ai>r,; APrat. &<.;
to viait, afflict, plague, trouble, SBr. xiv; to come
together or into contact with. Car.; to cause, effect,
BhP. iv, 19, 19: Cans., see vpa-sar/ta r

TTpa-Barga, as, m. (gana nytjhl-v-mH, Pin. vij,

3, 53) addition, AitBr. iv, 4, 1 ; a; RPrlt.; mis-
fortune, trouble, a naturaJ phenomenon (considered
as boding evil), R.; Prab.; Ratal?.; Dal & c ; an
eclipse(ofa star). Comm. on, 105 ; (in med.)
a fit. paroxysm (supposed to be possession by an
evil spirit), Susr.; disease .superinduced on another,
Suir. ii, 429, 13 ; change occasioned by any disease,
L . ; indication or symptom of death, L ; a Niplia
of particle joined to a verb or noun denoting action,
a prcpositioD (see also gati and karma-pravaca-
niya; they are enumerated Pin. i, 4, 58; in the
Veda they are separable from the verb), Ptu. I, 4,
S9; vi, 3, 9 7 ; H J j Katy,; Pat.; RPttL; APrat,
&e. *W*>, m., -hSJsvrrtotrn., n., N . of several
^ P W T upa-*/ttthh% P . X.. -tishfJiCiti, -te
(irr. aor. Pot, 3, pL sthtshus, AV. xvi, ^, 7) to
Hand or place one's self near, be present ( A . if no
object follows Parj. i, 3, a6); to stand by the ride
of, place one's self near, expose one's self to (with
loc or acc), RV.; AV.; KatySr,; Gobh.; MBb.j
Mn. Sec.; to place one's self before (in order to ask),
approach, apply to, RV.; AV,; SBr.; AsvGr.; Rigfu
&e.; to come together or meet with, become friendly
with, conciliate fonly A.,Vartt. on Pan. i, 3, 25);
to lead towards (as a way, only A . ; ib,); to go 01
betake one's self to, Paficat.; R . ; to stand near in
order to serve, attend, serve, MBh.; Kathas. Sec,;
to attend on, worship (only A., Katy, on PiQ. i, 3,
35, t-e+ar/tam upatisftfAate, h^ worships the sun;
but arkam upattthfhaii t he exposes himself to the
sun, Pat.), MBh.; BhP.; Ragh. Sec.; to serve with,
be of service or serviceable by, attend on with prayers
(e.g. a t f t d r y S g a r h a p a t y a m u p a t i s h t h a t e , he at-
tends on the Garhapatya with a Ric addressed to
Indra; but b f a s r t & r a m HpaUsktkaH yavvatum,
(she) attends on her husband withyouthfulneas, Kss.),
MBh.; Ragh.; DaJ,&c; to stand under (in order to
support), approach for assistance, be near at band or
at the disposal of, R V.; AV,; TS.; MBh.; Sak.&c.;
to fall to one's share, cometothepossession c*t MBh,;
R. Sec.; to rise against, RV.vii, 83; to start, set out,
Hariv. j Dai,: Caus. sthdpayati, to cause to stand
by the side of, place before, cause to lie down by
the side of (e, g, a woman), AitBr; AfivSr.; KatySr.
&c.; to cause to come near, bring near, procure,
fetch, MBh. ;R.;&ak.&c.;(in Gr.) to add i t i after
a word (In the Pada-palha), RPrat 84a (cf, upa-
TJp*-Btbiaa, am, n, the act of placing OTrM self
near to, going near, aprach aess(v/(i-JiA^^^

V'ifiV to give access or scope for, SBr, i); coming

into the presence oi going near to (in order to wor-

ship), worshipping, waiting on, attendance, SBr.;

KatySr.; AlvSr.; MBh.&c; sttnding near, presence,
proximity, nearness, Yajri,; Heat.; staying npon or
at.ibid^aplaceofabidiii&ar^odejNir.; assembly,
MBh.; R.; BhP.; any object approached with re-
spect, a sanctuary, abode (of a god), ParGf.; a parti-
eular part of the Sarndhya, M W . - g r i ^ a , n. an
assembly-room, MBh. i, 5003. *flU,f. the assem-
biy*room (of s monastery), Buddh, tShasrS, f.,
N. of r work.
"VX i.ffrJe*(ttpn-v'0,P- -eti, to go orcome
Of step near, approach, betake one's self to, arrive at,
meet with, turn towards, R V . ; A V , ; T S . ; SBr.;
M Bh.; Sak. Sec,; to approach (any work), undergo,
set about, undertake, perform (a sacrifice), devote
one's self to, RV. ii, a, 11; A V . i x , 6 , 4 ; VS.;
AitBr.; SBr.; to come near to, teach, obtain, enter
into any state, fall into; undergo, suffer, RV. iv,
33,a; SBr.; AitBr,; Ragh.; Pancat. Ate; to ap-
proach sexually, TS. ii, v; Mn, ia, 4; xi, 17 ;
MBh.;; Kathas.; to approacb a teacher, be-
come a pupil, SBr, x, 11; BrArUp.;ChUp.; to occur,
be present, make one's appearance, RFrat.; R.; to
happen, tall to one's share, befall. Incur, RV. i, 167,
I; TiL 84, 3 j H i t ; Bhaig. &c.; to join (in sing-
ing), SafikhSr.j to regard as, admit, acknowledge,
Sah-; Comm. on Nyayam.; to comprehend, under-
stand, Sarrad.: Totens. A . (r. p i -imahe) to im
plore (a god), RV. jT, a ,4

a. Upa-ymt (ibr 1. see s. v.), mfh. going near,

approaching etc.;flowinginto, attached, Kir, vi, 16
(said of rivers and female friends); entering any state,
serving for, Kir. vi, 16,
Upaya, as, m. coming near, approach, arrival,
Bhartr.; that by which one reaches one's aim, a
means or expedient (of any kind), way, stratagem,
craft, artifice, MBh.; M n , ; Yajli.t Patient, etc.;
(esp.) a means of success against an enemy (four are
usually enumerated, sowing dissension, negotiation,
bribery, and open assault); joining in or accompany-
i _ ft * Aa a
vp&sh (upa~Vihh), A. -tkshate
(rarely P.) to took at or on, SBr,; MBh.; to per-
ceive, notice, R . ; to wait on patiently, expect,
Suir.; to overlook, disregard, neglect, abandon,
MBh.; R . ; Sak.; PaFicat.&c.; to connive at, grant
a respite to, allow, MBh. v; to regard, Paftcat.
U p k * h * , as, N . of a son of Sva-phalka,
HanV.; ( d ) , f. overlooking, disregard, negligence,
indifference, contempt, abandonment, MBh.; Ragh.;
Hit. &c,; endurance, patience; dissent; trick,de-
ceit (as one of the minor expedients in war), L . ;
regard, L .

UDh&7&, mf(f)n. (only sg. and pi.; according to

Hara-datta also du., see Stddh. vol. i, p. 98) both,
of both kinds, in both ways, in both manners, RV.;
AV.; TS.; $Bf.; AitAr.; Mn. & c ; (t), f. a kind
of bricks, Sulbas. - * S m a , mfn. wishing both, SBr,
ix, ffuv*. mfn. possessed of both qualities. m -

R l t a , mf(<5)n. met with, afflicted by (with instr.),

T S . r; proper, right,fit^apt, suitable, able, brave,
honest, RV.; VS. xvii, 8a; tree, MBh. j BhP.; Mn.
viii, 8a; 87; Bhag. &c.; worshipped, respected, L . ;
enlightened, luminous, L . ; (as), m., N. of a Rudra,

ousness or pious works, MaitrUp. ip-t>lia>ra,

mfit bearing the truth in one's self; (as\ ttu, N. of
Vishnu, BhP, vi, 13,17; (i), f. (with and without
p r a j H d ) intellect or knowledge which contains the
truth in itself, Prab.; Sarvad. & c ; N . of a river,
BhP,; -prajAa, mm. possessing the above know-
ledge f said of a dass of Yoeins). Sarvad. TtLkrtl.
m t f t s , mfti. U p . i i i , 43, probably fr.
i base c; cf. Z & . a t ' V a ; Gk. oj-p-c'r, ofcr; Goth.
also Lat. atquu-s,- gana s a r v i d i , Pag. i, I,
27; iecGr. aoo), one 'ft or ekai-tana, with r;.2
preceding or following, no one, nobody ; the words
&is nd vat/tan na are used before decade numerals
to lessen them by one, e.g. eidft t i a t f i g i a t , twenty-
nine), RV. etc; (with and without eva) alone,
solitary, single, happening only once, that one only
(frequently ifc; cf. dharmt&ka-raksha, etc.), RV.
&c,; the same, one and the same, identical, SBr. v ;
KatySr.; Mn.c!cc.;oneoftwoormany(f(fjtka,tka
dvittya,the onethe other; some,eke
^ ^ r ^ w m e ^ t h e n , & c . ) S B r . ; KatySr.; MBh.;

Hit. Sec.; (e&a repeated twice, either as a compound

[cf.ekdikajor uncompou nded, may ha ve the se use 'one
and one,' 'oneby one/RV. i ao> ; ; la&S; v, 5a,

17; R.; BhP.&c.); single of itskind, unique, singular,

chief,pre-eminent,excellent,Ragh.; Kathas.; Kum.
Sec. ; sincere,truthful, MW.; little,smalt, L.; (some-
times nsed as an indefinite articla), a, an,R.; 5ak.;Vet.
Stc.(the fem. of &r before a Taddhita suffix and as
first member of a compound i&e&a not ekd, Pan. vi,
J, tja); (as), m., N, of a teacher, Ap,; of a son of
Hay*, BhP.; f., N.of Durga; ( a m ) , n. unity,
3. tan, d 8, P . K. a<Sti, nutf (3.
pi. nvdU [ / - & vUanvatf, RV.], AV.
xil, 1,13; Impv, w [*rwa- & vl-tanuhi, RV,; c
Pap. vi, ^ 106, Viitt, 1, Pat.], RV. i, 130, Ji ;

^nushva, RV.; Subj. a. sg. "nuthds, v, 79, 9 | 1.

oV nav&vahai t i, 170, 4; impf. 3^ pi. dtanvata,
x, 90, 6; AV, vii, 5, 4; pf, P. tatana, once / J / ,
RV. i, 105, ia ; a. sg. tatdntha [RV.], class, te-
nitha (Pan, rii, 3, 64, K*J.]; A . 1. 3.3.*g. [d-]
foVajje, \abhi-\tatniske 9 [ v i l l a i n s , KV.; 3. sg.
In. tate, \, 83, 5 ; 3. pi. t a t n i r i [164, 5 vi-; AV.
S i 45] or tor [iv, 14, 4 (w-> & c ; cf. Pari,

vi, 4, 99]; aor. P. A m , R V * i , 61,9; [a-]oft*X k

67, 6: AV. ix, 4, 1; [ p a r i - , vW\atanat, RV.;

[anv-d\atdrtsU t VS. xv, 53 ; atdntt, MaitrS.; t a -
tdnat, [abhi-Ytdndma, tdnan, RV. ; 2. pi. ota-
nishta. Pit}, ii, 4, 79, K : i , ; 3. du. atdnisAtdm,
Bhalj. xv, gl ; A . atato or atatiishta, aiaihds or
atanishthds. Par?, ii, 4, 70 3. pi. dtnata, RV.;
tatdnatito, 1, 5a, 11; I. sg. aiasi, pi. atansmahi,
Br.; fat. and lansydte, SBr,; tut. m [vi-]Aiy*Vcf,
BhP. viii, 13, 36; p. pr. tanvdt, vdnd ; pf. t a -
tanvdr ; ind. p, toted, tvdya t-tdtya Br.; [vi-]

tdya, BhP. vii, lo, 2; inf. tantum, Br. ; Pass, tf-

jwff, RV, i n o , 1 & fj>. ydmdrra]
f x, 17,7; AV.
See. tanyatc, Pan. vi, 4, 44 ; aor. u/dyf, Br.) to
extend, spread, be diffused (as lighr) over, shine, ex-
tend towards, reach to, RV, flee; (0 be protracted,
continue, endure, RV. to stretch (a cord), extend
or bend (a bow), spread, spin out, weave, RV. flfc, ;
to emboss, SBr. xiv, 7, a, 5; to prepare (a war for),
RV. i, S3, 5 ; to direct (one's way, gatim) towards,
Nalod, j, 20; to propagate (one s self or one's family,
tonus t tantum), Hariv, 3386 ; BhP. ii, 3, 8; to
(spread, 1. e. to) speak (words), Dal. i, 87 : to pro-
tract, RV. v, 79, cj; Kathas. U, 336; to pot forth,
ihow, manilbst, display, augment, FUgh. iii, 25;
Sale; Bhartf. dec (Pass, to be put forth or extended,
increase, Bhaft,.); to accomplish, perform (a cere-
mony ) , R V . : VS. U, 13; AVJv, 15, 16; SBr. &c,;
lo sacrifice, xiii, 2, 5, 3 ; Kaui. 127 ; tocompose (a
literary work), Hemac,; Caurap., Sch.: to render
(any one thirsty, double acc.\ KuvaL 455: Deaid.
titanishati, "tansati, ^tdn/ , Pap. vi, 4, 17 \ vii,
3, 49, Kai. r Intens. tantanyate, tantanfti, vi, 4,
44&viij4, Si.Kai.jfef-Tdfo^ai.Ti/Fw&c.] ftdi,
ruin, beginning with *ftan (the Sth cl. of roots\.
rTR t a n a , m, ( v ^ . t a n ) a fibre, Susr. t,
* $ ; i tone, MBh. Ii, 133& 391 ; xiii, 3S88 ; Kum.
i, 8; a monotonous tone (in recking, eka-irutt),
KatjSi. U 8,18; V t , ; Bhashik.; Nylyaro.; VPr
Sch.j an object 0 fsense (or tdiparya\ L , (cf, t & e - ) ;
[TfSs'Of,] terman, n. tuning the voice previous-
ly to singing, W. ; running over the notes to catch
the key, W,- b**ftA, m, N . of a man, Uturai.,
Sch. a vara, mfh. ottered monotonously, PratijfiSs.

+fyaJ\o become one with [instr.],VP0 - t i n f t , '

mfn. directed to one object only, having the mind
fixed on one object only, closely attentive, Kathls.;
Dai.; of the same or equal extent, L , ; ( a t ) , m.
attentionfixedon one object only, BhP,; harmonious
tone or son* (cf. tana\ L . t l a m, harmony,

Ekatra, ind. in one, in one and the same, MBh,;

Kathas.; FaScat. &c.; in one place, in the same
place, in a single spot (with the force of the loca-
tive), MBh.; Taj ft.; Mricch. &<:.; on the one side;
(the correlative is aparatra or sometimes anyasmin,
on the one sideon the other side, herethere); in
one and the sameplace,aH together, Kathas.; Susr.&c.

col. 3. tft f. oneness, unity, union, comeiaence, 1


identity. SBr.: ChUp.; MBh, & c ; (ekatam api- \

ice. tro, n, oneness, unity, union, coincidence,

identity, KStySr.; MBh.; Suir. & c ; (in Gr.) the
singular number, Kl4.; singleness, soleness, HYog.
Ileal. Ittriigra^mfrtone-poimed,h^
fixingone's attention upon one point or object,cIoseIy
attentive, in tent, absorbed in, MBh,; Mn. i, J; BhP.;
Bhag. & c . ; undisturbed, unperplexed; known,
celebrated, L . ; {<tm) n. (in maih.) the whole of

the long side of afigurewhich is subdivided ; (am),

ind. with undivided attention, MBh,; - c i t t a , mfn,
having the mind intent on one object; - / U J , ind.
with undivided attention. Vet.; -t&, f, -tva, n. in-
lentness in the pursuit of one object, close and
undisturbed attention; - d r i s h { i mfn. fixing one's

eyes on one spot, Snir.; -dht, mfn. fixing one's

mind on one object, closely attentive, BhP.; -mail,
mfn, id.; { i s ) , m,, N. of a man, Lalit,; -manas,
mfn- fixing ones mind on one object, closely attentive,
MBh.; Paftcat. Ek&ffi7& mm, closely attentive,
^tT^ etdd, mfn. (Gr, 223; ffarra sartSdi,
Pam i, 1, 37) this, *his hew, here (especially as
pointing to what is nearest to the speaker, e. g. esha
bdnak, this arrow here in my hand; esha ydti
panthdji, here passes the way; esha kdtah, here,
i.e. now, is the time; etad, this here, i.e. this world
here below); sometimes used to give emphasis to the
personal pronouns (e. g. esha'ham, I, this very per-
son here) or with omission of those pronouns (e, g.
esha tvdm svargajn naydmi, T standing here will
convey thee to heaven ; etau pravishtau svafy, we
two here have entered); as the subject of a sentence
it agrees in gender and number with the predicate
without reference to the noun to be supplied (e. g.
etadeva hi me dhanam, for this [soil, cow] is my
only wealth, MBh.); but sometimes the neuter sing,
remains (e. g. etadgtiruthu v r t i t U i , this is the cus-
tom among Gurus, Mn. i i , 3o6); /tadgenerally re-
fers to what precedes, esp. when connected with
idam, the tatter then referring to whit follows (e. g.
esha vai prathatnafc kalpafc I anukalpas tv ayam
j r r e y a $ this before-mentioned is the principal rule,

but this following may be considered a secondary

rule, Mn. iii, 147); it refers also to that which fol-
lows, esp. when connected with a relative clause
(e.g. esha catvagtentrdharmo yam pravakshyd-
my ahatp tava, this is the important law, which I
will proclaim to you, MBh.), RV, Sec. Sec; ( d d ) ,
ind. in this manner, thus, so, here, at this time, now
(e, g. nd va i t etdn mriyase, thou dost not die in
this manner or by that, RV, j, 162, 31), AV.; VS.
& c ; [cf, Zd. a i t a ; Old Pers, a i t a ; Armen. aid;
VT? i - evd (in the Samhiti also >rti), ind.
(*/i, Un. i, 15*; fr. pronom. base t BRD., pro-%

bably connected with i. eva), so, just so, exactly so

(in the sense of the laterevam), RV;; A V . ; indeed,
truly, really (often at the beginning of a verse in
conjunction with other particles, as i a , A i ) RV.; (in

its most frequent use of strengthening the idea ex-

pressed by any word, eva must be variously rendered
by inch adverbs as) just, exactly, very, same, only,
even, alone, merely, immediately on, still, already,
&c. (e,g.ftwOTevayantd ndnyo''stiprithivydnt,
thou alone art a charioteer, no other is on earth,
i. e. thon art ihe best charioteer, MBh. iii, 1835 ;
tdvattm c i ' a rfl^riw, just so long as a night; cvatn
eva or t a l h , f i v a , exactly so. En this manner only;
in the same manner as above ; t e n & V a niantrena,
with the same Mantra as above; apahsprishtvdiva,
by merely touching water; tan eva, these very
persons; n a cirddeva,\n wolo^g time at ? X l \ j a p y i -
ndtvat by sole repetition ; adAuitvdtva, even with-
out having eaten; i t i vadann eva, at the very
moment of saying so; sajivann eva, he while still
living, cJcc), RV. Sec,; MBh. &c_; (sometimes, esp.
in connection with other adverbs, eva is attiereex-
pletive without any exact meaning and not translat-
able, e, g. to eva, edtva, eva ea, Sec.; according to
native authorities eva implies emphasis, affirmation,
detraction, diminotion, command, restrainment) ; [cf.
Zd. aeva; Goth, aiv; Old Qerm. ea, i a ; Mod.
^TPT vsha, as, m. (v^usft), burning, com-
bastion, SuSr.; (asAd) mfh. burning, shining, RV.
x, 119,10; [ d m ) , ind. with ardour or vehemence,
eagerly, quickly, AV,
Ouhfc^ft, &r, m. pungent taste, sharp flavour,
pungency, L . ; (1), f. a kind of vegeiable, L .
Ob nam, ind, p. while burning, SBr, ii, 3, 4, 5,
OnlilnhTha, mfh, (superL of oshd above).
TSUL, mfn. giving eagerly or immediately, TS- i, 6,
i>, 3. basil, mfn. killiag vehemently or suddenly.
b-bly fr.esAa <
ibove, li^it-eootaining,*seeSBr. ii,7,
4, 5 ; Nir. ix, 37) a herb, plant, simple, esp. any
plant or herb (which dies after becomingripe).Mo. i,
46, Sec; SuSr. 1,4,16; 18 ; Yajn.&c.; a remedy in
general, Susr. i, 4, 15. tfarbria, m. 'producer of
herbs,' the moon, L . ; the sun, T , (with reference to
RV. 1,164, 53).J4, mfn, born or living amongst
herbs (as snakes), AV, x, 4, 3 3 ; producedfromplants
(as fire), Kir. v, 14, psvti, m. 'lord of herbs/ the
moon, Sit.; Kid. SEC ; the Soma plant; camphor,
T . ; 'master of plants, a pfavsiciarx prastbsh,

n,, N . of the city of Himalaya, Rum. lok&, m.

ihe world o f plants, SBr. xiii. T u m v p a t f , n,
herbs and trees, &Br. v i ; (ayas), m, pi. id., AitUp,
OgTiFKlhiaa., m, 'lord of herbs,' the moon, U
tahUt7-&m*v&lE, m. a particular Anuvaka.
O'ahacUiI, f. (only Ved. and not in nom.c.,Pan.
vi, 3 , 1 3 3 ; but occasional exceptions are found)
SsAa-dhi above. patl, m. 'lord of herbs,* the
moon, MBh.; the Soma plant, Susr, mat, mfn.
provided with herbs, AV. xix, 1 7 , 6 ; 1 8 , 6 . *up>
Bit*, mfh. sharpened by herbs (usedfina fbrmola),
AV, x, 5 , 3 3 . sjBktft, 0., N, of a hymn.
Kn-ntukn, as, m, {am, n L.) a thorn, SBr, v;

MBh.; Y'in. &c; anything pointed, the point of a

pin OT needle, a prickle, sling, R.; afish-bone,R,
iii, 76, 10; Mn, 1 iii, 95 : a finger-nail (cf. kara-
io), Naiih. i, 94; (he erection of the hair of the
body in thrilling emotions . f. kantakitd); uneven-
ness or roughness: (as on the surface of the tongue).
Car.; any troublesome seditious person (who is, as
it were, a thorn to the state and an enemy of order
and good government), a paltry foe, enemy in gene-
ral (cf. k s h u d r a - t e t r u ) , Mn. be, 353, & c ; BhP.;
R.fltc; a sharp stinging pain, symptom of disease,
Suir.; a vexing or injurious speech, MBh. i, 3559;
any annoyance or source of vexation, obstacle, im-
pediment, R,; Hit.; the first, fourth, seventh, and
tenth lunar mansions, VarBrS. & VarBr.; a term b
the Nyaya philosophy implying refutation of argu-
ment, detection of error &e., L , ; a bamboo, L . ;
workshop, manufactory, L.; boundary of a village,
L.; fault, defect, L.; N, of Malta ra (or the marine
monster, the symbol of Kama-dera), L.; of the horse
of Sa kya-muni, Lalit.(wrong reading for kanthaka,
BRD.); ofanAgrahlra,Rijat.; of a barberVHariv.
(v. 1. kana'u&a); (1), f. a species of Sotanum, Susr.

kantAtf, as, m , [ v h n , U n - \, 105), the

throat, the neck (cf. a-han^ha-tfipta; hanthe
V g r a h , to embrace, Ksthfls.); the voice (cf, saitrta-
k a n t h a \ MBh,; BhP.,&c; sound, especially gut-
tural sound, W.; the neck (of a pitcher or jar), the
narrowest part (e. g. of the womb ; of a hole in
which sacrificial fire is deposited; of a stslk Sec),
Suir.; Heat; Kathas. &c.; immediate proximity,
Pancat.; Vanguiera Spinosa, L.; N . ofa Maharshi,
R,; (0* f. neck, throat, L,; a rope or leather round
the neck of a horse, L.; a necklace, collar, orna-
ment for the neck, L. kuhja, m. a kind of fever
(cf. adhara>kantha, 1. u t - k a n t h a , &r.); - p r a t l -
h a m m. the Cure of the preceding disease, fcn-

n l k l , f. the Vina or Indian lute, L . kttpa, m.

-aviry .( rh - throat, tfn,mfla)n. reaching or ex-
tending to the throat, Mn.ii, 6a. _g>t&, mfn. being
at or in the throat, reaching the throat, R.; Paficat:
l , KtithX (for 3. see col. 3), f. conversation,
speech, talking together, AivGr.; MBh.; M a . Sec.;
talk, mention; { t t k hatha [with gen, or more com-
monly with loc. and sometimes with pratt\, what
should one say of? how should one speak of? e, g.
eko*pi kricehrad v a r t t i a bkuyasdm tu hatAdtva
k & even, one person would live with difficulty, what

should one say of many? i.e. how much more

many? Kathis, iv, 113*, ha hatha bana-samdhani,
what mention offittingthe arrow ? i, e, what neces-
sity for fitting the arrow? Sak. 5,3a); story, tale,
fable, MBh.; R.; Hit.&c.; a feigned story, tale (as
one of the specie's of poetical composition). Sat.
567"; KsvySd.; Story (personified), KathSs.J (in
log.) discussion, disputation, Sarvad. koia., m., N
ofa work. k a u t n k a , m, N.of a work, k r a m a ,
m. uninterrupted progress ofconvcrsation, continuous
conversation, Kathas. cAiaA, mfn. famous by re-
port, far renowned, Sarvad. 99, 6. eb&la, n. or
*cehata 9 the device or artifice or goise of fables, Hit,
- J a v a , m., N . of a pupil of Bsshkatt, VP. - e U Q

{ h a t h f i d i ) , m., N. of a garja, Pap. iv, 4, I O J .

"ntixEgti (kathanu ), m. taking pleasure in a
story, attention to a discourse. n t ( k a t h & n t a ) ,

ggejj kath, cl. 10. P . (ep. also A.) Jcatha-

^ \ j r a t i (-&), aor. acahathat (Pin, vii, 4,
j>3, KSS.) and atihafhat (Vop.), to -converse with
anyone (instr,, sometimeswithiijfid), MBh.; to tell,
relate, narrate, ceport, inform, speak aboul, declare,
explain, describe (with acc of the thing or person
spoken aboat), MBh.; R.; Sak. &c.; to announce,
show, exhibit, bespeak, betoken, Mn. xi, 1I4; &ak.
391, 4 ; Susr. &c.j to order, command, Pa&cat 57,
33; to suppose, state, MBh. iii, 10668; Mn. vii,
157: Pz&.iathyatf \OQc
t called, be regarded or con-
sidered as, pass for. Pari cat.; Hit. &c.; [fr. katham,
to tell the howj'cf. Goth. ^ M a r t ; Old High Germ,
quethan and quedan; Eng. garth and quote,]
X&vaxift (once karandy RV.i, 119, 7), m^r) -
doing, mating, effecting, causing (esp. ifc,; t i . a n t a -
k a r a i t a , ushnam-k , &c.), R. Sec.; clever, skilful,
RV, i, 119, 7; (a^),m, a helper, companion, AV,
vi, 46, a ; iv, 5, i~6; nbc, 57, 3 ; a stun ofa mixed
class (the son of an outcast Kshatriya, Mn. x, l a ;
or the son of a Sfidra woman by a Vaiiya, Yajft, i,
g* ; or the son of a VaUya woman by a Kshatriya,
MBh. i, 3446; 45a 1 ; the occupation of this class
is writing,accounts &c); a writer, scribe, W.; (in
Gr.) a sound or word as an independent part of
speech (or as separated from the context; in this
sense usually a,), Kas. on Pin. iii, 1, 41; Pat,;
Comm. on RPrat.; (in mus.) a kind of time, Kum.
vi, 40 ; (f), f- a woman of the above mixed tribe,
Yajh, i, 95 ; (with suta) an adopted daughter, R .
(ed, Gorr.) i, 19, 9 ; (in arithm.) a surd or irrational
number, surd root; the side of a square, $ulbas.;
Comm.00 VS.; a particular measure.Comm. on Katy-
r,j aparticular positionofthefingers;(tffli),n.the act
of making, doing, producing, effecting, $Br.; MBh,
Jfcc. (very often ifc, e.g. musfyi-d^virupa-Jt );
an act, deed, RV.; an action (esp. a religious one),
YajE.i, ago; R.; the special badness of any tribe
or caste, L.; a calculation (esp. an astronomical one),
VarBrS.; an astrological division ofthe day (these
Karanas are eleven, viz. vava, valava, &aufava t

taitila, gara, vattija vish$ iakuni

t t t eatushpada,
t and ndga, two being equal to a lunar
day; the first seven are called a-dhr*uvdni or
movable, and (ill, eight limes repeated, the space
from the second half of the first day in the moon*
increase to the first half of the fourteenth day in its
wane; thefourothers are dhrttvdqi orfixed,and
occupy the four half-days from the second half of the
fou rteenth day in the wane of the moon to the first
half ofthefirstday in its increase), VarBrS,; Suir.
&c,; pronunciation, articulation, AFrSt; (in Gr.)
a sound or word as an independent part of speech,
separated from its context. Pin.; Kli. & c { k a r a n &

maybe used in this way like&rra, e.%.iti-kara$a,

Safikhir.); the posture of an ascetic; a posture in
sexual intercourse; Instrument meansof action, &vet-
Up.; Yajfi,; Megh.; an organ of sense or of speech,
VPrit,; PlrGj.; (in law) ao instrument, document,
bond, Mn. viii, 51; 53; 154 ; (InGr,) the means or

Instrument by which an action it effected, the idea ex-

pressed by the mstntJTWDtaJcase,instriMientalityPJn. (

i, 4,43; ii,3, 18; iii, a, 45; cause Parana);

a spell, charm, Kathas, (c karatta -prayogd);
rhythm, time, Kum.; body, Megh.; Kum.; Kid.;
N. of a treatise of Variha-mifiira on the motion of
the planets; ofa work belongingto the Siva-darsana;
6eld,L.; the mind, heart, W. (cf. antah-karana'W
WfpSkaruna, mt(n)nt ( V i . A r * , U O . iii, 53;
but in some of its meaningsfir.J / I . k r i ) mournful,

miserable, lamenting, MBh.; Dai Sec.; compas-

sionate, BhP.j {am), ind. mournfully, wofully^ piti-
fully, in distress^ MBh.; Paiicat.; Vet &c.; (as\
m.' causing pity or compassion/ one of the Rasas 01
sentiments of a poem, the pathetic sentiment, Sah,
&C; Citrus Decumana, L . ; a Buddha, L . ; H. of an
Asura, Hariv.; (J), f. pity, compassion, BhP.;
Ragh.; Paftcat.&>; one of the four Brahma-viham
(Buddh.); the sentiment of compassion (cf, above),
L , ; a particular tone (in mus.) j (t), f, a particular
plant, L . ; (am) a,
T an action, holy work, RV. i, 100,
7; AV, xii, 3, 47; TS. i d h v a n l , m. a cry oi
distress, Vikr. p K u d a r f t a , n., N of a Buddhist
work, xnftUl, f. Jraninum Sambac vdltv,
n. compassion, sympathy, Mn. vii, 211; R. v -
d i u , mm. compassionate, sympathising, Car.; R,
Kartm&Mcara, m,, N, of a Brahman. K & * u n g ~
kfclpa-lt&, , N . of a work, K&runfttnum,
mfh. miserable, mournful, Balar, Karu^&iuuiaa-
i&vya, n., N . of a poem. V&?tin&*pa>&, mfn.
compassionate, tender, L . K A r n u S - m h y a , mm.
^?iSr^ kdrman, a, n. (a, ni. f L.), { - / i p ,
Un.iv, 144), act, action, performance, businessjRV.j
AV.; SBr.; MBh. &c.; office, special duty, oc-
cupation, obligal ion ^frequently ifc, the first member
of the compound being either the person who per-
forms the action [eg. v a n t k - i f ] or the penon or
thing for or towards whom the action is performed
f_e.g, r d f a - A , faht-k*^ or a specification of the
action (e. g. Saurya-F, prit-A]) SBr.; Mn.;

Bhartr. dec.; any religions act or rite (as sacrifice,

oblation & c , esp. as originating in the hope of
future recompense and as opposed lo speculative
religion or knowledge of spirit), RV_; AV.; VS.;
Ragh. &<. ; work, labour, activity (as opposed to
rest, p r a i d n t i ) . Hit.; RPiSt. &c.; physicking,
medical attendance. Car.; action consisting in mo-
tion (as the third among the seven categories of the
Nylya philosophy; of ihese motions there are five,
viz. ut-hhepana,ava-'kshipana d'kuficana pra'
r t

sdrana, iwdgamana, qq. vv.), Bhlshlp.; Tarkas.;

calculation, Sflryas,; product, result, effect, Mn. Jtii,
g8 ; Suir.; organ of sense, SBr. xiv (or of action, see
karmhtdriya)-, (in Gr.) the object (it stands either
in the acc. [in active construction], or in the nom.
in passive construction], or in the gen. [in con- .
nection with a noun of action] ; opposed to k a r t r i
the subject), Pip. i, 4, 49 fT. (It is of four kinds,
viz. a. n i r u a r t j / a , when anything new is pro- 1

duced, e.g. katam Aarvfi, 'he makes a mat;'

putram prasfiU, 'she bears a son:* b. vikdrya,
when change is implied either of the subsuncc and
form, e. g. tashtham bhasma A a r o ( i he reduces
fuel to ashes; or of the form only, e.g. suvar-
ttant kun4<tlam karoti, 'he fashions gold into an
earning;' c. frdpya, when any desired object is
attained, e, g. grdrttam gatthati, he goes to the
village;' eandratn paiya/i, 'he sees the moon:'
A, anTpiita, when an undesired object is abandoned,
z.g.pdpam t y & j a i i , * h e leaves the wicked*); former
ad as leading to inevitable results, fate (ai the certain
consequence of acts in a previous life), Paflcat.;
Hit.; Buddh., [ct harma-pdha and *vipakd)\ the
tenth lunar mansion, VarBfS. & c
^T^l i , kdtpa, mf(a)n. (^tt^p), practicable,
feasible, possible, SBr. ii, 4, 3, 3 J proper, fit, able,
competent, equal to (with gen., loc., inf., or ifc.;
e.g. dharmasya kalpah
t competent for duty; sva-
karmani na kaipa$, not competent for his own
work ; yadS na S&situm kalpa^ if he is not able
to rule), BhP,; (as), m. a sacred ptecept, law, rule,
ordinance ( vidkt, njfaya) mznntiofacting,pro-

ceeding, practice (esp. that prescribed by the Vedas),

RV.ix,Q,7; AV.Tiii,9,io; XK,tiS -u; t MBh.;
{ j t r a t h a m a f c & a / p a $ a rule to be observed before

any other rule,first duty, Mn.itf, 147; MBh. occ.;

ttcna kalptna
% in this way; cf. patu-F, ike.);
the most complete of the six Vedingas (that which
prescribes the ritual and gives rules for ceremonial
or sacrificial acts), MunclUp.; Pin, & c ; one of two
cases, one side of an argument, an alternative ( = p a -
ksha; cf. vikalpa),Sarvad.; investigation, research,
(in medic.) treatment of the sick, manner of curing,
Snir. i i ; the art of preparing medicine, pharmacy.
Car.; the doctrine of poisons and antidotes, Suir. i ;
(ifc.) having the manner or form of anything, similar
to, resembling, like but with a degree of inferiority,
almost (e.g. abh^dya-kalpa, almost impenetrable ;
ci.pmbhdta-Ft mfita-Xr, Acc.; according to native
grammarians, kalpa so used is an accentless affix
[Pan. v, 3, 67I, before which a final J is left un-
changed, andfinalf and shortened, Pari.; Vop.;
hatpatn, ind., may be also connected with a verb.

Efclplta, mfn. made,, fabricated, artificial; com-

posed, invented j performed,prepared - assumed, sup-
posed ; inferred; regulated, well arranged, Yajn.;
having a particular rank or order, MBh.; Mn, Ix,
166; caparisoned (as an elephant), L . ; (as), m. an
elephant armed or caparisoned for war, W.; (), f.
a kind of allegory, Vflm. iv, a. tva, n. the
existing merely as an assumption or in the imagina-
tion. Comm. on Vam- iv. a. 1 .
oFTO 2 . kaya, as, ra, ( \ A ? i \ P a i i . i i i , 3 , 4 1 ) ,
the body, KatySr.; Mn. & c ; the trunk of a tree,
R.; the body of 1 lute (the whole except the wires),
L . ; assemblage, collection, multitude, SaddhV.; prin-
cipal, capital, Nlr.; Brihasp,; a house, habitation,
L , ; a butt, mark, L . ; any object lobe attained, L . ;
natural temperament, L k.ftranis-k&rt(i-tva, n.
activity in performing bodily acts. ^-klena,m.bodily
sutrering, toil, Mn,; MBh. iii, 147*: - o l W t a i , f.
* body -cure, treatment of bodily diseases, Suir, daoi-
da, m. complete command over one's bodv Mn. (

A.i, 10. - b u n d n i n a , ii.'body-faslfciiing,' a girdle,

1, Kiir&na,am, u.cause, reason,thecauw: of ?tiy- '0.

thing (gen., also often loc.), KatySr.; MBh,; Mn.
&c.; instrument, means;motive ; origin, principle;
a cause (in phil., i. e. that which is invariably ante- '
cedent to some product, cf, samavdyi-k'asama-
^j'l'-^niffriV/fl-jt^ianelerncnt^lemeutary matter, *
Yajfl, iii, 14S; Bhag.xviii, 1 3 ; the origin or plot t T a t

of a play or poem, S Hi.; that on which an opinion 1

or judgment Is founded (a sign, mark ; a proof; a JOy
legal instrument document), Mrt; MBh. &c_; an mo
organ of sense, Ragh. xvi, n Act; anaciioo, MBh, s^j
aii, u o p i agency, instrumentality,condition, Ka- Sal
thas. exJi, 178; 'the cause of being,' a father, W.; of
'cause of creation,* a deity, W.; the body, I*.; a cot
kind of musical instrument, U ; a sort of song, L , ; a 1
number of scribes or Kiyasthas,W,; (d\ f. pain, agony, ,
Das,; an astronomical period,W, \kdrandt, from
some cause or reason, RPrit, iii, 13 ; Mn. viii, 355; "P
kasmdt kdrandt from what cause? ma ma kdrmtdi,

for my sake, R. dec,; a-kdranina, without a rea- *

son, Yljfi, ii, 234 ; yena kdrant?ta, because ; yas- '
min idrant, from which motive, wherefore.]kfi* S
rana, n. a primary cause, elementary cause, atom, ^

Kttrlta, mfh. ifc. caused to be made or done,

brought about, effected, Mn.; MBh. &e,; ( d ) , f,
(nil. vriJJM-- forced to be paid, interest exceeding
the legal rate of interest, Gaut_; Comm. on Mn. viii,
1531 { a m
\ - the Caus. form of a verb, Nir,i, 13,

vat, mfn. one who hascausedto be made or done.

Xftrit&nt*i mfn. ending with a Caus. affix, APrat.
1, X g r i n , mfn. (Pin. v, a, 72) doing, making,
effecting, producing, acting, an actor, Ysjfi^ MBh,
See, (mostly ifc , SBr,; Mn, &c.) j (i), m. a mechanic,

tradesman* L.

4t|e^ 2 . h a l d , as, m. ( V j . JtflJ/ to calculate

OT enumerate'), [ifc f. & RPritV], afixedor right

point of time, a ipsee of lime, time (in general); A V,

' t 53 & f 4 ; SBr. flic,; the proper time or season

for (gen,, dat.* loc., in comp., inf., or Pot. with^sW,

c. g. Ad/tf prastkdnasya ta^ndya o r * , tlnic for
departure; k r i y d * k d t a time for action. Suit,;

, * V ? J AdA vi i a m b i t u r n , this is not the time to delay*

Nal.; halo yad bhuHJtta frAavfin, it is time for
you 1<l eat* PSo\ iii, 3, 16JJ, Kii,% $Br.; MBh, &c.;
occasion, circumstance, MBh, xii, >95o; Mrkch.;
season, R, fcc.J meal-time (twice a day* hence
ffMtf/^jWtfw^in the morning and in the evening,'
MBh. i* 4 6 3 3 ; shashthe k&U,* in the evening of
the third day, MBh,; thasJithdttna-kdla, 'one who
eats only at the sixth meal-time, i.e. who passes
five meal* without eating and has no meat till the ,
evening of the third day,' Mn. xi* 300* or with-
cm anna, e, ^ . c a t u r t h a - k d l a m , * at the fourth meal-
time, i.e. at the evening of the second day,'Mn. xi,
109}; hour (hence shashtht kalfknah,*%\. the sixth
hour of the day, 1, e. at noon,' Viler.) f a period of
time, tunc ofthe world ( y u g a \ Rsjat.; measure
of time, prosody, PriL; Piu, a section, part, VPrSt,;
the end, ChUp.; death by age, Sujr.; time (as lead*
ing to events, the causes of which are imperceptible
to the mind of man), destiny* fate, MBh.; R, $ 0 , ;
time (as destroying all things), death, time of death
(often personified and represented with the attributes
of Varna, regent of the dead, or even identified with
him : hence kSlam * / i or k & l a m ' S k f i , *to die,
MBh. & c ; ktifa in this sense ii frequently con-
nected with antaka, tnptyu^ e, g, abhy-adhavata
p r a j f t h JtH/a ivni<rka$, *he attacked the people
like Time the destroyer, R. iii, 7, 9 ; cf,
taka; k d l t t personified is also a Dcrarshi in lndra's
court, and a son of Dhmva, MBh. 1 , 1 5 8 5 ; Hariv.;
VP,)j (am\ acc. ind. for a certain time (e. g. ma- [
h i n t , ind. (fr. i .ftt* originally norm

and, n.of a. kd q. v.), what? how? whence?


wherefore? why?

S i m is much used as a particle of Interrogation

like the Lat, n u m , art, sometimes translatable by
* whether ?' but oftener serving only like a note of
interrogation to mark a question (e. g. k i m vyddhd
vane 'stnin samcaranti, *do hunters roam about
in this wood? In an interrogation the verb, if tm-
enmpounded with a preposition, generally retains its
accent after k i m , Pan. viii, 1, 44). To this sense
may be referred the k i m expressing Inferinrity, de-
ficiency, the beginning of compounds (e. g.
k i m - r d j a n , what sort of king? i.e. a bad king, Pfln.
ii, i, 64; v, 4, 70); also the k i m prefixed to verbs
with a similar meaning (e, g, kim-adhtte, he reads
badly, P*II. viii, 1, 44, Kai.) A ' t m u t p . or k i m
uta-vd or k i m a t h a v d u t a , whetheroror,
R . ; Sak.; Bhartr.&c.j (cf,/7f.)

^ t r k i p a , as, m. (fr, t. hi and dp ?; cf.

anupd, dvfpd) x x hole, hollow,cave, RV. i, 105,17;
AV, j SBr.&c; a pit,well,&nkhGf.i Mn.; Mjicch.
&c.; a post to which a boat or ship is moored, L . ;
a mast, L , ; a tree or rock in the midst of a river, L, j
a leather oil vessel, Y..\-miitt-mSna, L ; (0*
smalt well, W.; the navel, W,; aflask,bottle, W.;
[cf. Gk, ttvmj.Jkacch*pa m, 'a tortoise in a
well/ a man without experience (who has seen no-
thing ofthe world), g a n a s p a t t t s a m i t & d i x n & y u k '
t & r o h y - d d u ksradara, nx, N , of a man, GanP.
- k a r a * , m., N . of a man, BhP. x, 63, 8 8c 16.
U r a , m. a well-digger, R, ii, So, 3. W n n a ,
m. = -kacchapa.k h , m, Ved.a well-digger, Rat,
on Pan. Ui, 3, 67 8c vi, 4, 4r,tbftmtk*, m. id.,
Kathas. Ix*, 134.-c4.kra, A , a wheel for raising
water from a well, Up. J, m,'produced from pores,
kurmd, as, m. a tortoise, turtle, V S . ;
TS. &*. (ifc. Ld\ MBh. jv, aoi6)s the earth con-
sidered as a tortoise swimming on the water* (see
-itifrMfiga); (hence) N . of the fourteenth Adhylya
of VarBrS., VarYogay. ii:, 4 ; a particularfigureor
intertwining of thefingers( m t t d r a ) , Tanttas,; one
of the outer winds of the body (causing the closing
of the eyes), Vedfcntas.; N . of a deity. Rank.; of
a serpent or Kadraveya king, MBh. i, *549 of
a Rishi (son of Gjitsa-mada, author of R V , it,
3^-39), RAnulcr.; Vishnu's second Incarnation (de-
scent in the form of a tortoise to support the moun-
tain Mandara at the churning of the ocean), NarasP,
Sec; (f), f.a female tortoise; [cf,*\ifipvs xJAw,

X ^ i ^ . ] kalp*- m.> N . of a particular Kalpa

or period of time, Heat. c a k , n., N . ofa mys-
tical diagram.-4v5d*ail, f. the twelfth day in the
light (or dark?) half of the month Pausha, VirP,
-nEtluk, rn.jN.of an author of Mantras. pati,
to, the tang of turtlei (who upholds the earth), Subh,

I . KritA, mfn. done, made, accomplished, per-

formed, RV.; A V . dee.; prepared, made ready, ib.;
obtained, gained, acquired, placed at hand, AV. iii,
24, 5 ; well done, proper^ good, SBr. iv; cultivated,
M r u i , 114; appco'nted (as a duty), Yajri.ii, iSS;
[dating or referring to, Y i j a . i i alo; {as), m., N.

of one of the VUve Devls, MBh. xlii, 4356; of a

son of Vasu-deva, BhP. \x, 34, 45; of a ion of
Sarpnati and pupil of Hiranya^nabha, liari*. 10&0;
BhP. xii, 6, So; ofa son of Kfita-iatna and father
of Vibudha, VP.; of a son of Jaya and father of
Hatyavaua, EliF. ix, 17, 17; ofa son of Cyavana
and father of Upari*cara, ViyuP,; { a m ) , n. (with
tafia at with instr.) 'done with,* away with, enough
of, no need of,&c. (e. g. k f i t a m samdehtna, away
with doubt, Sak. j k parihastna, enough of jok-
ing, ib.); the past tense, AitBr. v, 1; ( d m ) , n.deed,
work, action, RV.t AV.; SvetUp.; Mn. & c ; ser-
vice done, kind action, benefit (cf. k r i S a - j n a Sc
-ghntt), MBh. T, 169a; Paticat.; magic, sorcery,
^ft=n?I kaivattfa, am, n. (ft. kfoata), isola-
tion, Vam.; absolute unity, Vedintas.; BhP,; per-
fect isolation, abstraction, detachment from all other
connections, detachment of the soul from matter or
funher transmigrations, beatitude, M B D . ; KapS.;
Slrnkhyak. & c ; for vaihatya, Rajat. vii, 1149;
(mf(fF)n.) leading to eternal happiness or emancipr-
tion MBh, xiii, 1 1 0 1 . -fcalpfUuVrnma,m,,rJ.of

a Comm. tamtra, n , , N . of a Tantra. OlpliB,

f., N. ofa Comm. by Il_m"dri. K&ivttfy 11an d*,
m., N . ofateacher, Kalv*dy&r<tma, m _ N . of a
pupil of Govinda (author of a Comm. on Anand.)
Ealvly6nd?& m.,N. ofthe instructor of Riya-
nendra, H&ivalyop&nl*h*4^ i , N . of an Up.

' ^ r 3 h & m l a , m(Dom. pi. e, R Y . s , 5 1 , 9 )

f(f, RV. x, 7 3 , 6 ; A V , ; SBr.;J, Mn.&c, see Pan H

fr* 1, 3o)n. (in comp.. Pan. ii, 1, 4 9 ) exclusively

one's own (not common to others), RV,; A V.; alone,
only, mere, sole, one, excluding others, RV.; AV.;
TS. 5cc.; not connected with anything else, isolated.

abstract, absolute; simple, pure, uncompounded, nn-

mingled, SBr.dtc; entire, whole, all, Mn.; MBh.
&c, j selfish, envious, L . ; { a m ) , ind. only, merely,
solely (flit kevalam4jj>j" notonlybut also, Ragh.;

VP.; Rajat.; ktvalamnatti, onlybut not, Srin~

glr.),Mn.; MBh. Sec,; entirely, wholly,absolutely,
R. 11,87, 23; but, Kad.; Hear.; ( = nirnitam)cer-
tainly, decidedly, L . ; (AT), m. ( - h l a k a ) a dancer,
tumbler, Gal.; N. of a prince, BhP. ix, ?, 3 0 ; (J),
r,, N. of a locality, MBh. iii, 354, lo (r.l.'/i) ; (S),
f. ' (he whole of a philosophical system/ see p a i a -
ka-k; N. of a locality (r. I. for Vd, q. v.); ( a m \
tt. the doctrine of the absolute unity nf spirit; the
highest possible knowledge ( kevala-JiUzrtJ , j am.
N. of a country (v.l. k e r a k t ) Mtth. vi, 9, 34.

k&tmin, mm. performin*T mere works (without

"jfijT kram, cl. i . P . A . kramati ( P i n . vii,
\ 3 , 7 6 ; ep. alio kramati), kramatc (Pan,
*i 3r 43i cp< also kramate; according to Pli.u iii, I,
70 alsocl. 4, P . krdmyati [kramyati,Vop.] ; aor.
akramit, RV. &c.. A. krdmishta, kransati [RV.
i, r a t , \ \ 3, pi. cdkramanta [RV. ii, 19, a]; pert
itrird/TTij oicoMramej p. fa/-tfdHif,RV.a:, 113,
3 ; fur kramijhy,iti or kraysyaft, ind. p. ir-Jnivd,
krantvd, or kramitvd, Pin, vi, 4,18 & vii, a, 36),
to Step, walk, go, go towards, approach (with *ttvAfl,
acc. or loc.), R V , ; A V.; TS.&c.; to approach
in order to ask for assistance (with loc.), AV. iv, 11,
1 1 Bt zix, 17, i ; to go across, go over, MBh.; R.
Sec.; Ved. to climb (ai on a tree's branch), Pari,
vii, 1, 40, Ksi.; to cover (in copulation), AV. iv,
4, 7 ; to stretch over, project over, tower above,
(ind. p. krdntvd) Ragh. i, 14; to take potwiiiono^
Pancat.; A. to undertake, strive after, make effort
for (dat,), Pan. i, 3. 5 * i * I. H . Kai.; (loc.)
Bhatt. xv, 3 0 ; A . (Pip. L 3, l & ) to proceed well,
advance, nuke progress, gain a footing, succeed, have
t D
effect, MBh.; R. ; Bhatt-i be appliable or prac-
ticable, Sarvad.; P. to be liable to the peculiar ar-
rangement of a Vedie text called Krama (i.e. to be
doubled, at a letter or word), RPrat. vi, 4 ; A . to
read according to the Krama arrangement of a Vedic
text, RPrat.; Ll|y. (a-krantd); Caui. P. kram&yati,
to cause to step, &Br, v; x i ; kramayati or krdm ^
to make liable to the peculiar arrangement called
Krama (i. e, to double a letter or word), RPrat.&c.:
Intens. cahkramyate (Pin. iii, I, 13, Kai.; p. t :h-
kramydmdrta [TS. vii, 1, 29, 3 ; MBh.] or &ra-
mam , MBh. i, 7919 & BhP. r, 6, 71 or cah-
kramiti (MBh. aiv, 137 6c I 4 1 ; impt a. pi. cah'
kramata, RV. viii, 55, 4 ; rut. p. cahkramis/tydt,
TS. vii, I, 19, 3 ; ind. p. mitvd Vop. v, 3 ; cf,
mitd), to tfep to and fro, walk or wander about.
H r i m A , at, m , a step, AV. x , 5, 25 ft; TS. iii;
M B h , & c ; going, proceeding, course { c L & d l a - k ) ,
Mricch.; Paftcat. j M Slatim.; H rL; the way, R, ii (

a^ 2; a position taken (by an animal Sec) before


making a spring or attacking,Paocat.; Bh-11. i\, 9;

the foot, MBh. iii, 14316; uninterrupted or regular
progress, order, series, regular arra ngemcnt, succession
(e.g. v a r n a - k r a m c n a , 'in the order ofthe caste*,'
Mn. riii, 34 & ix, 85), AV, tfii, 9,10 J RPrSt. xr p

5 ; KltySr.; R. 6cc; hereditary descent, Yajn. ii,

119; method, manner (e.g. yens k r a m c n a , in
which manner,, 36, ao; tad a n u s a r a n a - k r a -
me>ja,so as to go on following him. Hit.); diet^Car.
V J , 13; custom, rule sanctioned by tradition, Mirk!\
utiii. n a ; ( k r a m a m *f\. k f i , Mo follow that
rule'), Nvlyam.; occasion, cause (with gen, or ifc,),
Kathas. xviii, 380; Hit.; * progressing step by step,
a peculiar manner or method of reading and writing
Vedic texts (ao called because the reading proceeds
from the 1st member, either word or letter, to the
and, then (he and is repeated and connected with
the 3rd, the 3rd repeated and connected with the
4 h, and so on ; this manner of reading in relation
10 words U calledpads- [TPrlt. ii, ia], in relation
to conjunct consonants v a r n a - [lb.]), Prat.; the
words or letters themselves when combined or ar-
ranged in the uid manner, ib,; (in dram.) attain-
ment of the object desired (or accord, to others
'notkiugofanyonr'iaffeclion ),Dasar.j,3f3f.; Sah.;
Prat! par.; (in rhet.) a kind of sirafle (in which the
comparisons exhibited correspond to each other in
regular succession), Vim. IT, 3,17; power, strength,
L,; (pita, a t ) , instr. abl. ind- in regular course,
gradually, by degrees, R.; PiftcaL; Ragh. Scc.\ ac-
cording to order or rank or series, Mn.; Ragh. &c.
X r i T * * f- (PSp. iii, 3 , IQO), doing, performing,
performance, occupation with (in comp.), business,
act, action, undertaking, activity, work, labour,
KatySr.; Mn.; Yajfi. &c.; bcdily action, eaercise
of the hmbs, L . ; :n Gr.) action (at the general
idea expressed by any verb), Verb, Kit. on Pin. i,
3, l flte. (according 10 bier grammarians a verb is
of two kinds, sakarmet-kriyd, 'active,' and akar-
ma-k ,* intransitive'); a noun of action, W.; a lite-
rary work, Vikr,; medical treatment or practice,
applying a remedy, cure (see s&ma-kriya-tva and
vishama-tf*), Sur.; a religious rite or ceremony,
sacrificial act, sacrifice, M n , ; Vsjn.; MBh. Arc;
with taramd, 'the last ceremony, rites performed
immediately after death, obsequies, purificatory rites
(as ablution &c), MBh, iv, 8 3 4 ; R. TJ, 90, 1 0 ;
religious action, worship, BhP. vii, I a, 3 9 ; Ramat-
Up.; Religious Action (personified as a daughter of
Daksha and wife of Dharma, MBh. i, 7578; Hariv.
1 2 4 5 1 ; BhP.; or as a daughter of Kardama and
wife of Kratu, BhP,); judicial investigation (by hu-
man meant, as by witnesses, documents, & c , or by
superhuman means, as by various ordeals}. Comm. on
Yajfi_; atonement, L . ; disquisition, L.J study, L . ;
means, expedient, L . k&r&, m. one who performs
s | M I* frruri*, el. 4. P . k r i t d h y a t i (ep.
T ? ^ . rarely A . rV, MBh, \, fo, 31: (sec also
krvdhyamdna) v t r L c u i r o d A a , ^ . ; MRh.&c;
hi. and krotsyoti. Pin. viii, 3, 37, Kit.; fut. 1st
kroddhd. Pin. VLI, a, to, Siddh.; aor. Subj. 3. sg.
krudhas, AV.; MBh.; inf. kroddhum, NaL), to
become angry, be wrathful or angry with (dat. [Pin.
^ 4 i 37] o r
E 0i c n o n
account of (loc.): Ciua-in*-
dhdyatt (aor, dcukrttdhat, RV.v, 3 4 , 7 ; Subj. 1.
sg. ukr%idham, I, pi. dhdma), to make aogry,
provoke,irritalc, RV.; AV.; R. ( w t J t r t f d / i a y i t i / m ) ;
[cf.Lith. rus-tus, 'angry;* rus-tybl, 'anger ;* Gk.
K O T O S ; GeTm.gra/I; Hib. t a r r u i d h t , 'anger, wrath,
1 4
motion; eorrutgh, fury, resentment.']
Kruddha, mfh. irritated, provoked, angry with
(dai., gen., loc,, or u f a r i o r p r a t t ) on account of
(acc. with atzu, RhatO, R V . ; AV.; T S . ; SBr.;
M B h . & c ; fierce, cruel,W.; { a r r t \ n. anger,W.
3. lTrndh, /, f. anger, wrath, Kathfls. \xxv\, 18
(instr. V i a , in a passion'); (dkas) f. pi. anger,

Rljat. iii, 514 (516 ed. Calc.)

XrndhS, f g i L . , Sch,
a n
c r

Xrtahani, mfn. irritable, RV. vii, 5 6 , 8 ,

Krnclhyat, mfn. being angry, feeling provoked,
Mn. vi, 4 8 ; MBh.
Erudhyamlno., mfn. id., BhP. vi, 4 , 5 .
X r o d h * . as, m. anger, wrath, passion, VS. xxx,
14; A V.; S Br. Sec.; (ifc X d) Ama r,; Anger (person ified
as a child of Lob ha and Nikriti; or of Death ; or of
Brahml), VP.; N . of a Dlnava, MBh. i, 3 5 4 3 ;
Hariv.; ofthe mystic syllable h t t m o i h r t i m , Rimat-
Up.[ fa), f.,N. of one ofthe thirteen daughters of
Dakiha and wife of Kasyapa, MBh.i, 3520; Hariv.;
(0> f- (in music) N. of a Sruti; { a m ) , n. N, of r

the fifty-ninth year of the sixty yean Brihaspatj
- . .
f%fl[ kits, el, 9. P, K U M U (perf- ciktesa;
ind. p. k l i i i t v d or klishtvd, Pan. i, a, 7 ; vii, a,
50), to torment, trouble, molest, cause pain, afflict,
MBh.; R. fltc.j to Buffer, feel pain, Bhatt.: d 4,
I\ kliiyatt, to torment, cause pain (with acc.),
MBh, xii, 6*631; Ragh. xiii, 7 3 ; A . k l j i y a t t
(rarely P. rV, Mn. viii, 169; MBh. iii, 10241 ;
p. k l i i y a m d n a ) , to be tormented or molested, be
afflicted, feci pain, MBh.; R. etc.; (P.) lobe sinful,
Divyav. xx : Caus. P. k l e i a y a t i (rarely A., Su*r.;
aor. Subj. a. sg, c i k l i & a s , Bhift.), to torment, molest,
R. v, 27, 33; Susr.; Bhatt. vi, 17,
Y %

atllsttft, mfn. molested. Pan, vii, a, 50, vat,

mfn, suffering pain of distress, W.
KllajamJLna, mfn. being distressed, MD!i. ; K.
Xliabta, mfh, (Pin. vii, a, $6) molested, tor-
mented, afflicted, distressed, K.; M.:lav.; Sale Sec.;
weiried, hurt, injured, being in bad condition, worn,
R , ; flak,; Mcgh,; Susr ; connected wjfh pain or

suffering, KapS. ii, 33 ; Yogas.; Pancat.; (in rhet.)

forced, obscure, not easily intelligible (ef. * / k U i ) ,
Sah.; Pralipar.; Vam, ii, 1, J 1 ff.; (jw),md. in dis-
tress, BhP. i, 9, 13, tva, n. obscurity (ofa pas-
sage), Sah.vaxtman, n. a disease ofthe eyelids
(cf. k l i n t i a - i f ) , Snir. vi 3,16. vflttt,mfb. lead-

ing a wretched life, Kathas. iii, T4.

E l i s u t i , tJ f. affliction, distress, L , ; service, L.

Klesa, <u m. pain, affliction, distress, pain from


disease, anguish, SvctL'p. ; Mn.; Yaju.-, M B b . & c ;

(in Yoga phil, Ave Klclas are named, viz, a-:, idy d,
'ignorance,* asmi-td, 'egotism,* rdga, desire/
dvesha, 'aversion/ and abhinivda, 'tenacity of
mundane existence,* Yogas,; Prab.; Sarvad.; the
Buddhists reckon ten, viz. three of the body [mur-
der, theft, adultery], four of speech [lying, slander,
abuse, unprofitable conversation], three ofthe mind
[covet outness, malice, scepticism], Buddh.; Sarvad,);
wrath, anger, L . ; worldly occupation, care, trouble
{-vyaVQJdyd), L. M r i n , mfn. causing pain,
T3pJT I- k s h a n a , es m. any instantaneous

point of time, instant, twinkling of an eye, moment,

Nil.; Sale; Ragh.&c; a moment regarded as a measure
of time (equal to thirty Kails or four minutes, L . ;
or (in astron.) to 48 minutes, VarBrS. &c.; or to j
or I* second*, BhP. iii, u , 7 & 8); a leisure mo-
ment, vacant time, leisure (e.g. k s k a n & m * / A r i t

to have leisure for wait patiently tor, MBh.; cf,


k r i t a - k s h a n a ^ ' , a fit or suitable moment, opportunity

( k s h a t j a m i / k f i , to give an opportunity, MBh.iv,
666; ct d a t t a - f o h a f i a & labdha-ksh); a festival,
Megh.jDai.; BhP. iii, 3, at J a certain day of the
fortnight(as the full moon,change ofthe moon,&c,\
Sarvad; dependence, L.; the centre, middle, L . ;
( a m ) n. an instant, moment, Sharif. (-*Subh.);

(flwi)s acc.ind. for an instant, R~ vi, 92, 35; Brah-

maP,; Vet. Sec.; in a moment,! Ragh. xil, 3 6 ;

Slmis.; (cf, i a t - k s h a t t a m ) ; ( e n d ) , instr. ind. in a
moment, NaL; R. dec.; ( d t ) abL ind, after an in-

stant, immediately, at once, Mn.; R.; Sak. &e.;

tatafi k s h a t t & t tat*kshandit q v,), immediately

upon that, Kathls,; kshayatksharjdt, in thismo-

mentin that moment, Rljat. viii, S08; (es/iu),
loc. ind. immediately, at on. ,, 55, lo; kshaqt
jfrAffx*, every instant, every moment, Rajat. v, 165
4* kshi cl. r. P . kshayati
t (only once,
R. iv 6 i4) d.5.P.ifAr'rtJ/i"(fiBr ; M o , ;
l i 1 h

M B h . & c ; i . tfrhhi*Umi VS. for" V of AV.),


d. p> P. k s h i i u i H ( 3 . pUfoAitfdnti; perf. 3. du.

tikshiyafur, K i i . on Pan. rl, 4, 77 & *il, 4 , 1 0 ) ,
to destroy, corrupt, ruin, make an cod cf face.),
kill, fojiir^RV,; A V . & c . ; r ^ ^ i > m 7 (AV* i i i ,
5 ) 4 5 i 3- P - hshtyante tVf,
tij6a, l a ; aor,Subj.
kshcshta [AV. iv, $4,8] ot kshdyi,TTlt. 1; Cond.
aksheshyaia, SBr. viii), to be diminished, decrease,
wane (as the moon), waste away, perish, RV.; A V . ;
SBr. etc.; to pss (said of the night), Kathas.;
Cans. P. kshapayaH (tut. yiskyati), rarely A.. ie
(MBh. i, 1S38; Dai,), very rarely kshayayati
(MBh. v, 2134, ed. Calc.)i to destroy, ruin, make
an end of (acc), finish,MBh.; R. etc.; to weaken,
Mn. r, 157; MBh \, 1658; Kum. v, 99; to pass
(as the night or time, hshufdm, ds, kd?am\ Paft-
cat.; K i d . ; SarfigP.; [cf. <p$Lw $l-oi~t eke.] t t

3. Kahaya, as, m, ;Pan. vi, I, 3 0 1 ) loss, waste,

wa nc, d iminutton.desimction, decay, wast i n g or wear-
ing away (often ifc), Mn-; MBh. dec; fall (atofprices,
opposed to vriddki t,fy kshayeityiddkit taflan-
ydndm, the fall and rise in the price of com modi-
l i e s V a j f i , ii, 258 ; removal, W.; end, termination
(e.g. nidrd-ksh , the end of sleep, R. vi, 1 0 5 , 1 4 ;
dina-kshayt, at the end of day, MBh. i, 6 9 9 ; R.
iv, 3, 1 0 ; jivita-kshaye, ai ihe end of life, D a i ;
dyusfiah ksh", id,, Ragh.; kshayam -/gam, Vyd t

* / i or ufai/i,
t to become less, be diminished, go
(0 destruction, come to an end, perish, Nil.; R.;
SU N ; VarBrS.; Dai.; Amar.; Hit.; kshayam*/nl,
to destroy, R. v, 36, 5 1 ) ; consumption, phthisii
pulmonalis, Suir.j Heat.; sickness in general, L . ;
the destruction of the universe, Parkat.; (in alg.) a
negative quamity,minns,Aryabh.; ^-mdra, Jyot.;
- kshay&ha, Ganit,; N, ofa prince, VP.; { d ) , ,
N. ofa YoginT, Heat.; (am) n. N . ofthe last year
r r

Ihla>4,mih.dirninished wasted, expended, lost, (

destroyed, worn away, waning (as (he moon), SBr.;

MuijCjUp. i SveiUp.; Mn. & c ; weakened, injured,
broken, torn, emaciated, feeble, Mn. vii, 166 , Suir.;
Kal. on Pin. vi, 4, Gi & rill, a, 46 & c ; delicate,
slender. Sale; GlL iv, 11; Niish, vii, 8 1 ; poor,
miserable, Faficit, iv, 16 & 3 3 ; { a m } , n^ N.of a dis*
eaie of the pudenda mnliebria, G a L ' k u m u , m.
t T * j r. Iskudk, cl. 4 . P . h s h M h y a t i (p.
O ^feht'fdhyat; impf. dkshttdhyat; aor.
Subj, kshudhat; kshoddka. Pan, vii, 3, 10,
Siddh.; ind, p. kshndhitvd, Pan. vii, 2, 5 3 ; Bhatt
* 39)*
t o
ho'^ /! be hungry, RV. i, 104, 7;

AV, ii, 2 9 , 4 ;TS. 5, 10, 6 i vii, 4, 3, l ; Bhatt.

3. Kshttt (in comp. for 3. Jkshiidfc). kfih&ma.,

a. atshttdb, /, f. hunger, RV.; AV, &c,

a A A 1. f * Jl > i J U . --

1. kthi, cl. I. P . hshdyati(2. du. faA(f-

yathas or kskaf*, 2. pi. kshdyatkd; Subj.
1. ksk&yat or kshayat, RV. vi, 23, 10 & vii, ao,
6; x, 106, 7; pr. p. ksAdyaf), to posses, have
power over,role,govern, be master of (gen.), R V . ;
[cf. Gk. rrdo/uu.J
I. Xahaya, at, m.'dominion/ Siy. (on RV. vii,
46, a).
K s h a y W - v i r a , mfn, ruling or governing men
(Indra, Rodra, and Pushan), R V . ; ['possessed of
abiding or of going heroes such as sons dec,* Say.]
1. X s n i t , mm. ifc 'ruling,' see adhi-kshit,
kshiti', prithivi-, bku-, ntahl-.
1. Z a b i t l , i>, f. dominion (Comm.), MBh. iiii,
2 . fail, cl. 3 . 6. P . hshiti, Ttshiydti
(3, do. tehitds, 3. pJ. kshiyanti; Subj. 3.
kskayai, 3 . sg. kskdyas, 3. du. kshayaias, 1. pi.
kshdydma; pr. p. kskiydt j aor. Sub), kihtskai;
fin. p . & s A & A y d / ) , to abide, stay, dwell, reside (used
especially of an undisturbed or secret residence),
RV.; 10 remain, be cjuiet, AV.; &8r.; to inhabit,
TBr. iii; to go, move ( j t s k i y a t i ) , Naigh. n, 1 4 ;
Dhatup.: Caus. (Impr. a. *g. kshaydyd; Subj.
kshtpayat) to make a person live <ju!etJj R V . iii, J

46. a & T , o, 7 *, fcf. Gk. m r t M

JcsMtra, am, n. ( V a . ksht) landed pro-
petty, land, soil (JkshJtrasya f & t i , 'lord of the soil,*
N . of a kind of tutelary deity, RV.; AV. u, 8, 5 ;
also kshitrasya pdtnt, 'mistress of the soil/ &
ksiUtrandm pdit, / the lord of the soil,* N. of
tutelary deities, AV. ii, 12, l ; VS. xvi, 1 8 ) ; 'soil
of merit/ a Buddha or any holy person, Divyar.;
a field (e. g, tram * J k r i , *to cultivate afield,*M n . ;
Yajft. ii, 1 5 8 ; cf. sasya-ksk*), RV. & c ; place,
region, country, RV.; AV. iii, 2 8 , 3 ; TS. vii; Suir.;
Megh. j Vet: a house, L , ; a town, L , ; depart-
ment, sphere of action, MBh. xiv, 1 2 $ ; R. Sec.;
place of origin, place where anything is found, Yo-
gas, it, 4 ; Suit; BhP. viii, 12, 3 3 ; a sacred spot
or district, place of pilgrimage (as Benares Sec.:
often ifc), BrahmaP,; an enclosed plot of ground,
portion of space, superficies (e.g. sv-alpa-ksn of a t

small circuit, Yajit ii, 1 5 6 ) ; (in geom.) a plane

figure (as a triangle, circle, Sec.) enclosed by lines,
anyfigureconsidered as having geometrical dimen-
rions, Gol.; a diagram,W.; a planetary orbit, Ganit;
a zodiacal sign, Surya*,; an astrological mansion,
VarBfS,; VarBf. i , xi; (in chiromancy) certain por-
tionsmirkedontontl^palm,VarBrS.liviu, t ;* fertile
soil/ the fertile womb, wife, M n . ; Yajft. ii, J 2 7 ;
MBh.; R.; ak.; BhP,; the body (considered as
the field of the indwelling soul), Yajri, iii, 178 j
Bhag, xiii, 1 & 2 ; Kum. vi,77; (in Sirnkhyaphil)
~a-vyakta (q.v.), Tattvas.; (1), f. only dat. /n*-
yai for triyit (AV. ii, 10, \ \ TBr. ii, 5, 6, f;
[cf. d~k$h , anya~ St kvru-hshdrd^ karma~ksh,
0 0 0 0
deva-ktk , dharma-ksh , ratui'ksh ,siddha-ksh t

su-ksff, sureJvan-Ajh; cf. also Goth. haithi,

Them, kuithjo; Germ. I J t i d e . ] k a r a , mfn. cul-
tivating a field, Pan. iii, 2, 2 1 ; (as), m. a husband-

Xshetrlka, mfh, relating to a field, having a

field, agrarian,W.; (as), m. the owner ofa field,

Gaut.; Mn. viii, 241 ff,; ix, 5 3 f.; a farmer, cul-

tivator, W , ; a husband, Nar,; Mn. ix, 1 4 5 .
Eflbatrin mfn. owning afield,cultivating land,

agricultural, W . ; (f), rm the owner of afield,Mn.

ix, 51 f.; Yajli. ii, 1 6 1 ; (cf. z\v>a~ksk); an agri-
culturist, husbandman, L . ; a husband, Mn. ix, 32 j
Sale r; the soul, Bhag. xiii, 33 ; {t#S), f. Rubla
Munjista, L ,
? m khyd,ci.2.T. khydti (in thenon-con-
jugational lenses also A . , perf. t a k A y a u , caAAye,
Vop,; impf.akhyat, a k h y a t a . Fin. iii, I, 5a),DhZ-
tup, xxiv, 52 ; the simple verb occurs only in Pass,
and Caus.: Pan. khydyatc, to be named, be known,
MBh. iii; (aor. iikkydyi' to be named or announced
to (gen.), Bhaif. xv, 8 6 : Cans, khydpayatt, to
make known, promulgate, proclaim, Mn.; Yajn.;
MBh. & c : 10 relate, tell, say, declare, betray, de-
nounce, Mn.vjii, 171; MBh. iii; Paftcat.; Kathas.;
10 make well known, praise/ see khydpiia ; [cf.
Lat, i n - q u a m , ftc]
Xhjnt*,mrh. named, called, denominated, MBh.
dec.; known, well known, celebrated, notorious, ib.;
told, W. tj&rnttna, mtb. having a bad name or
evil report, notoriously viTc, L. tjarhlta, mm, id.,
L. ylmddbav-t&t for kkydti-if*\ qv.
EhjltftVTft, mfn, to be styled or called, W,; to
be told, W.; to be celebrated, W.
XhyStl, r". d -hration/opinion, vieWjidea, ss> r-
tion, BhP. xl, 16, 34 ; Sarvad, xv, aol ; perception,
knowledge, Yogas.; Tattvas.( = 0Jflr*Mi); Sarvad.;
renown, fame, celebrity, Mn. iii, 36; MBh. iii,
R373 ; R . & c ; a name, denomination, title, MBh. i;
xiv; R . iii, 4,11 \ Celebrity (personified ai daugh-
ter o f D a k s h a , V P . 3 3 ; 8,14f.; 9f.; orofKar-
dama, BhP. iii, 14,13), Hariv. 7740 ; N . of a river
in Krauiica-dvipa, VP. ii, 4, 5,5; m_j N . of a son of
Uru byAgneyi (v.l. jvdt) Hariv, 73; VP, i; of a son

ofthe 4th Maun, BhP.viii, 1,37. k*ret,mfn. causing

renown, gl on ens, VV, Juu^m, mfn. id.,W. ghna,
mfn. destroying reputation, disgraceful,W. * bodli.
m. sense of honour, W. mat, mfn. renowned, Ka-
t h l k - T i r u d d b a - t l , f. (v. 1. hhydta-v) the state
of being contradictory to general opinion (a defect
of expression in rhet), Elh. vii, lo Be 2 7 ,

Xhyana, n perception, knowledge, KapP, v,fta.

O a t i is, f. going, moving, gait, deportment, mo-

tion in general, RV- v, 6 4 , 3 ; VS.; T S . & c ; man-

net or power of going ; going away; Ysjn. iii, 1 7 0 ;
procession, march ,pa ssa ee, procedure ,progre ss, move-
ment (e. g. astra-tf , the going orflyingof missile
weapons, R.. v ; param gatim i/gam, to go the
last way/Iodic; datva-^, the course of fate, R. vi;
Megh.93; kavyasyatf^ the progress or course of a
poem, R. i, 3, 3 ) ; arriving at, obtaining (with gen.,
Joe., or ifc.), $Br, Ix; MBh. tee.; acting accord-
ingly, obeisance towards (loc.), A p . i, 13 ; path,
way, course (e. g.anyatardm galtm '/gam, 'to go
either way,* to recover or die, As*5r.),R.; Bhag. &c.;
a certain division of Ihc moon s path and Ihe post*
tion of the planet in it (ihc diurnal motion of a
planet In Its orbit?), VarBfS.j issue, Bhag. iv, 2 9 ;
running wound or sore, Susr.; place of issue, origin,
reason, ChUp* i, 8,4 f.; Mn. 1,110; R.; Mudr.; possi-
bility, expedient, means, Yajfi, i, 345 ; R, i ; Ma-
lav. & c ; a means of success,'way or artmcthod of
acting, stratagem, RJiijvi; refuge, resource, Mn.viii,
84 j R.; Kathas,Vet, i v , 3 0 ; c f , R T L , p . a6o; the
position (of a child at birth). Suit.; state, condition,
situation, proportion, mode of existence, Ka|hUp.
jii, 11 \ Bhag.; Paneat. & c \ a happy issue ; happi-
ness, MBh, iii, 17398; the course ofthe soul through
numerous forms of life, metempsychosis, condi-
tion of a person undergoing this migration, Mn.;
Yajft.;MBh.&c; manner, XsvGr. i,Sch.; the being
understood oc meant, Pat,; (in gram.) a term for
prepositions and some other adverbial prefixes (such
as a/am Sec.) when immediately connected with the
tenses of a verb or with verbal derivatives ( c i . k a r m a -
pravacattiya),?!^, i,4,60 AT. ^1,3,49 fl".&i3G; viii,
1, 70 f.; a kind of rhetorical Figure, Saras v. i 7 ; a
particular high number, Buddh.; 'Motion*(personi-
fied as a daughter of Kardama and wife of Pulaha),

BhP. i v . 1 r m._ N . nfa w i n f Anala. Hariv. t. I . 1 1 .

Oamana, am, n. going, moving, manner of go-

ing, Rxgh>; Megh. Sec. (ifc, a ) ; going to or ap-
proachiug (with acc or gen. [R. i, 3, 3a} or p r a i i
or a local adverb or ifc), KatySr.; MBh. Sec; go-
ing away, departure, decampment, selling out (for
war or for an attack) ; ifc, sexual intercourse (with
a womaa), PirGr. i i ; R.j Susr.; (with a man)
Gaut.; tic. undergoing, attaining, iv, 33; Mo. I,
. T> .D.f__._ 1 /in C o
JJlff ffu$d, m , ( - J g r a k , Ui>.) a single tbreai
or strand of a cord or twine (e. g. tri-jf*, q. v.'
string or thread, rope, TS. vii; Mficeh.; Karri.
Ragh.; a garland, W . ; a bow-string, R. "',33, I'
{cdpa-)' t Ragh. ix, 54; Rttu*,; Hit.; (in geom.
a anew ; the string of a musical instrument, chord
&s. IT, 57: ifc. (f. d) with numerals *fold,times
{stcdfur~,/rt\ daia-, dvl- parba-; l rarely the nu
meral stands by itself along with g u n d [ e . g . v i
liikfa d a i a b k i r g i t n a i & , of ten times highervalue,

M n . i ! S 5 ] A V . x , 8 43 ; MBh. iii, 15649; Hariv

T 1 1

509; \ j r t n a - b h d g d \ fan. v, a, 47, Kas ); a mnl

tiplicr, co-efficient (in alg.); subdivision, species,
kind (e.g. gandhasya g u n d h , the different kind:
of smell, MBh. xii, 6S47); the 6 subdivisions 0
action for a king in foreign politics (VIE. peace, war,
march, halt, stratagem, and recourse to the protec-
tion of a mightier king), Mn. vii, 160; Yljn. i,
346; MBh. i i j i e s i updya { q . v . , denoting the
4 ways of conquering an enemy), R . v, 8t, 41;
' requisite, see ndpta ; a secondary element, sub-

ordinate or unessential prt of any action (e, g. s a r -

va*g% mfn. 'reaching to all subordinate parts, hence
valid throughout,'KatySr0,SankhSr ; AivSr.; Katy-
Sr.; R* v, J, 71; an auxiliary act, SSnkhBr. xxvi, 4;
a secondary dish (opposed to a n n a , i.e. rice or the
chief dish), side-dish, Mn, iii, n if.; ( - -k-.irnnzri,
in Gr.) the secondary or less immediate object of an
action, Pin. i, 4, ft] Sch.; a quality, peculiarity!
attribute or property, Lajy.; SartkhGr.; Mm iii, ix,
3d ; an attribute of the 5 elements (each of which
has its own peculiar quality or qualities ai well as
organ of sense; thus 1. ether has iabda or sound for
its Guna and the ear for its organ ; 2, the ail has
tangibility and sound for its Gunas and the skin for
its organ ; 3. fire or light has shape or colour, tan-
gibility, and sound for its Gnnai,and the eye for its
organs; 4. water has flavour, shape, tangibility, and
sound for Its Gunas, and the tongue for its organ;
5, earth has the preceding Gunis, with the addition
of its own peculiar Guna of smell, and the nnse for
its organ), Mn, i 30 & 76-7S; MBh. xii, 6846m;

Sak, 1, t; BhP. iii, 5,35,; (in Sarpkhya phiL) an in-

gredient or constituent of Prakriti, chief quality of
all existing beings (vii, s a t t v a , r a j a s , 8c t a m o s , i.e.
goodness, passion, and darkness, or virtue, foulness,
and Ignorance ; cf. R T L , p p . 3 i ; 36; 163), M n . i ;
iii, 40; xii, 14 ff.; Slrpkhyak.; Bhag. xh'i t ; (hence)
the number ' three,' VarBfS. iic, I; a property or
characteristic of all created things (in NyAya phil,
twenty-tour Gurjas are enumerated, viz. 1. rupa,
shape, colour; 2. rasa, savour ; 3. gandha, odour;
4. sparia, tangibility; 5. samkhyd, number; 6.
rimdna, dimension; 7 , p r i t h a k t v a , severalty;
rarnyoga, conjunction; 9. vibhdga,disjunction;
lQ,paratva m remoteness; 11,ap-ura/va, proximity;
12. g u r u t v a , weight; 13. d r a v a t v a , fluidity; 14.
rw^tr, viscidity ; 15. sabda, sound ; 16, buddhi or
jtldna, understanding or knowledge; 17. s u k h a ,
pleasure; 18. d u h k h a , pain; 19. iccAd, desire; 20.
d v e s h a , aversion ; j u p r q y a t r r a , effort; 2 2 . dhar*
put, merit or virtue ; 3 3, adharma, demerit; 24.
jtr^JiiiirtJilhe self-repreductivequality); an epithet,
KatySr.; good quality, virtue, merit, excellence,
Mn.; MRh.&c.; the merit of composition (consis-
tency, elegance of expression, Sec), Kavyid, 1,411.;
Kpr, viii; Sah. viii; the peculiar properties of the
letters (11 in number, vii. the 8 bdhya-prayatnds
[q.v,] and the 3 accents),KlE. on Pan. i, I, 96* 50 ;
i c t - m d t r a ) ; tiefirstgradation of a vowel, the vowels
a (with a r a i , P i n . 1, I, 51), t , o Nir. x, 17 ;
t t

RPrlt. xi, 6; Pan.; an organ of sense, L . ; a cook

(cf. - k d r a ) , L . ; BhTma-sena (cf. - h a r d ) , L.; { a ) ,
f. Sanseviera Roxburgh! ana, L . ; the plant tnansa~
r&htni, L . ; N, of a princess, Rajat iv, 695; (cf,
Wi>-, W-j sa~; gaurta.) kax-andA-vyHliB, m..
TJ^prtr (cf. */i*grt)> cl. G.gvrate, to raise,
lift up (or Mo make effort'), DhMup. xxviii, 103;
(cf. att-, a $ a - , ahhi-, ova-, d-, */-, fra~) : gur or
gvr cl. ^.gfkryate,
t 10 hurt, xxvi, 45; to go, ib,:
Caus. gorayate or grimy", to raise, lift up (or 'to
mike effort *), xxxiii, a J; to eat, ib.; (cf. V g v r . )
OntrsiiB, n.^ttdyama, L.
Gurta., mfn. (Pan, viii, 1, 61) approved, wel-
come, agreeable, ( = Lat.)^*"tf/7/J, RV. i, 167,1; iv,
19,3; ( c f . M f - , radho-, viivd-, svd~; a r i - S t p u r x i -
gurtdo manaa (/*f-), mfn. with grateful mind
{* with prepared mind/ Say.), vi, 63, 4, - vacrua
(/i-), mfh. speaking agreeably, x, 6i 1 f. ^sra- r

vas i ? t d - ) , mfn. one whose praise one likes to hear

(Tndra), i , 6 1 , 5& 132, to. 0ftrta>va,3a,
whose treasures are welcome, ix, 132,1.
GTIrti, f. approval, praise, i, 56, a; viii ff.
TJeT g u r 4 , m f { D i ) T i . ( c f . g i r { ; comp.gdniias t

once'j'tfj - t a r a , gti m - t a r a , super 1, garisktjut, gurrt-

t a m a , sec ss. vv.) heavy, weighty (opposed 10 l a -
g/id), RV. i, 39, 3 & iv, 5, 6 ; AV. &c. (g. taw?-
q'a'di, Ganar. ioi); heavy In the stomach (food),
difficult to digest, MBh. 1,3334; SoSr.; great, large I|

extended, long,Yajn. (see - A r a t u ) ; Bhartj.&c.; (in

prosody) long by nature or position (a vowel}, Prat,
(a vowel long both by nature and by position is called
garjyas, RFrat. xviii, 3o); Pan. i, 4, 11 & 12;
high in degree, vehement, violent, excessive, diffi-
cult, hard, RV.; MBh. &c.; grievous, Mcgh. 80 ;
important, serious, momentous, MBh.&c.; valuable,
highly prized, Yajft ii, 30 { g u r u =gartyas) Sec.;
haughty, proud (speech), Pahcat,; venerable, respect-
able ; m. any venerable or respectable person (father,
mother, or any relative older than one s self), Gobh.;
SankhGr.; Mn, &c.; a spiritual parent or preceptor
(from whom a youth receives the initiatory Mantra
or prayer, who instructs him in theSSstras and con-
ducts the necessary ceremonies np to that of investi-
ture which is performed by the Acarya, Yajn. i, 34),
RPrit.; AsvGr.; PirGr.; Mn. &c; the chief of
(gen. or in comp.), Can.; Ragh. ji, 68- (with
S^ktis) author ofa Mantra ; * preceptor of the gods,
Bri haspati, Mn. Xi; (henee) the planet Jupiter, Jyot;
VarBrS.; Bhartr&c; Panau-teacher/ Drona, L.;
Prabha-kara (celebrated teacher of the Mlmarjsi,
usually mentioned with Kumarila), SSarnkar. vi T

50 ; xv, 157; { a d h a r m a } * venerable/ the 9thas-

trological mansion, VarBrS. t, 16; Mucuna pruri-
tus, U ; N. of a son of Sarnlqiti, BhP. ix, 21, % \
m. du. parents, MBh.; ra, pi. parents and other
venerable persons, Mn, iv; Vlkr, v, 10; Kathas.;
a honorific appellation of a preceptor (whose N. b
also put in the pi.), Jaim; Hit.; (vi), f, 'vener-
able woman/ a mother, Ap. i, 31,9; 'great (with
child)/ pregnant, a pregnant woman, L.; the wife
of a teacher, W.; [cf. fiapfa* Lat.gravis; Goth.

. . r __C# -1 . . . . . . ,
g r a h [ R V . in a few passages only;
AV. &e.] or g r a b h [RV,; rarely AV.], cl.
9. V . g r i b h n a t i , g r i h t t a t i (also h . g r i h n t t e , irreg.
g r i h n i U e MundUp.l 3. pl.,>-#Arttjre,RV.; Impv.

^ sg,^t^^[M SMphto (

Gran!] x, 103, 12; AV. x l , i i o ; S B r . & c , \ g f i b h -

n d t t d &gfihn (Ved.); g r i h n a , Heal.; Paricad. i,
7 1 ; - g f i h n d h t , - g r i b k m h i , see p r a t i - * J g r a b h ;
A . g r i b h n t s h v a [VS. i," 18] or efihtf*; 3 , sg. P.
g f i h n U a t ; V ^ A m o v . g f i & h a y d etc., see s.v.^t'fl,
f.griAaya;z*Tffogrda,KV. x, 1 6 1 , 1 ; AV.grc.;
1. %g,grdbhd, RV.; gribhmd RV.; k * g r i h e t t

x, 13, s&c.; 3 . p X S g r i b h r d t o ^ g r i b h r i r t , R V . ;
P. Pot. *gribkydt t a, 31, a; p. "grOktxht iv, 33,
4 ; fot, ind grakishyati, MBh. etc. [cf. Pin.
vii, 2, 37] ; somet imei wrongly spelt gT'&i MBh. iv,
1650 ; aii, 731J ; grakishp*, R . vi, 82, 74; Cond.
agrahaishyat, AitUp. Iii, 3 ff.; for. m grahttd

Pan. vii, a, 3 7 ; aor. agrabham, RV. i, 191, 13 ;

AV.; *Ai/,RV. 1,145, 2 ; A V . & c ; Ai7 (Pan.vii,
ifl)> A V . & c ; -djagrnbhtt cVc.,see sam-4/grah ;
Sub}, a, pi. grabhisJita, RV, ii, 29, 5 J A . a g r a ~
hish{at BhP. iv, 3 0 , i i - aghrihhata, Pan. vii, 3,
73, Sen. (not in Kal.); Ved. 3. pi. agribhran^[RV.
v, a, 4] & agribhlshataj ind. p. g r i b h t t v a , AV.
*ii 3- zo \ g r i h i t v a , xix, 58, 3 i t ; ^ r d i i r a , Ha-
riv.; Divyav.; mtgrahtium [MBh. &c.; cf. Pin.
vii, j , 3 7 ; wrongly spelt grih R . v, 3, 35; Hit.] ;

P a n . / ^ f [ f u t . l a g r a h t t d or grdhitd, fut. 3nd

grahishydit or grdhishy**, aor. agrdhi, 3. dn.
grahtshdtdm or agrdhisiC,, 4, 6a fit vii, a,
37] ; Ved. Subj. 3. pi. grihydntai, Kai. on iii, 4,
8 & 9 6 ; Ved. Pass. 3 . si. g r i h a t t [RV.V, 3 3 , 1 2 ]
t x g r i A * [MahrS. i, 9, Qmgfihaye (Kith, ix, 1 3 ;
d.gfihayd] ; Subj.^rfAmwoi*, RV. viii, a,
16; Pot. g y i h i l a , MailrS. ii, 5 , a) to seize, take
(by ihe hand, pdnau or karc, exceptionally pdnim
(double acc.), R V . i, [35, 1, Say,; cf. Vop. v,'6),
grasp, iayholdof(c.g./(TjCj^3^r,tOlakea side, adopt
a party, Prab.; pdnim, 'to lake by the hind in the
marriage ceremony/many, AV. xiv, f, 48 f; Gobh,
ii, 1 , 1 1 ; MBh.dec), RV* dec; to arrest, stop, RV.
ix, 78, 1; K*thls. iv, 3 1 ; to catch, take captive,
take prisoner, capture, imprison, RV. 6tc,; to tike
possession of,gain over, captivate, MBh. xm, " 3 9 ;
R.ii, 12, 35 ; Ragh.; Can.; to seize, overpower (esp,
said of diseases and demons and the punishments of
Varuna), RV.; A V . ; MaitrS, Set,; to eclipse, Var-
BrS. v; to abstract, take away (by robbery), R . iv,
53i *5 ; 3ak. iii, 3J ; Bhatt.; to lay the hand on,
claim, Mn.; Yajii.; Ragh. i, 1 8 ; Pahcat; to gain,
win, obtain, receive, accept (from, abl., rarely gen.),
keep, RV,fire,(with double acc, Vop. v, 6 ) ; to
acquire by purchase (with instr, of the price), Mn.

viii, 301; Yajn. ii, 169; R . dec.; to choose, MBh.

xlM; R . i, 39, 13 E; Kathas. Liii; to choose any one
(ace.) as a wife ; to take up (a fluid with any small
vend), draw water, R V . viii, 69, to ; VS. x, 1; TS.
vi fife,; i a pluck,pick, gather, Hariv. f. 33S ; Sak. iv,
vi; to collect a store of anything, VaiBrS. xlii, lof.;
touse,put on (clothes),, 64; MBh. iii, 16708;
Bhag.; Ratn&v. 1 &c.; toassume(a shape),BhP. i f.;
G r i h a n ^ mm, ifc, seizing, hoMing, Hariv. 3734;
resounding in (?)> Salt, ii, j , 6 ; n. the hand, L . ;
an organ of sense, Yogas. 1. 4 1 ; a prisoner, MBh.
xiii, 3051; a word mentioned or employed (e.g.
vacatta- 'the
t word vatana^ Pat. ftKit.; seizing,
holding,taking,SBr.xiv; Mnui, & J 7 ; MBh.czc.;
talcing by the hand, marrying, i, 1 0 4 4 ; catching,
seizure, taking captive; Mn. v, 1 3 0 ; MBh. & c ;
seizure (as by a demon causing diseases), demonia-
cal possession, Heat.; seizure ofthe sun or moon,
eclipse, A p. i, 1 T; Y jn.i 3 1 8 ; VarBrS.dtc.; gaining,

obtaining, receiving, acceptance, R . i , 3 , 1 8 ; Pali-

cat, : Kathas. xci, 3 7 ; choosing, Simkhyak.; Piab,;; purchasing, Paikat.; taking or drawing
up (any fluid), SBr. iv; KatySr.; the taking up of
sound, echo, W . f attraction, Megh.; Ragh, vii, 3 4 ;
Paficat,v,i3, J ; putting on (clothes), MBh, ii, 8 4 0 ;
Ragh, xvii 3 T ; assuming (a shape), Yajfi. iii, 6 9 3

MBh. xiv; Devim.; undertaking, devoting one's

G r a h y a , mfu. to be seized or taken or held, RV.

*J ' 0 9 i 3 ; Mn-i Yajh.; MBh, A c ; tobeclasped
or spanned, Kathas. lxxiv, 3 1 7 ; 10 be captured OT
imprisoned, Yajft, ii, 367 Sc 2 8 3 ; MBh. &c.; to
be overpowered, Prab. ii, f ; (a-, neg,) R. (B)
"ii 33* 1 6 ; to be picked or gathered, R. iv, 43,
1 9 ; to be received or accepicd or gained, Mn.;
VljB.; MBh. & c ; to be taken in marriage, xiii,
5 0 9 1 ; to be received in a friendly or hospitable
manner,xii,6283 ; to be insisted upon, Kathas, xvii,
S3 ; to be chosen or taken account of, Rajat. iv,
6 1 2 ; to be perceived or recognised or understood,
Mn. i, 7; MBh. cc; (cf. cl-) ; (in astron.) to be
observed,VarBfS.; lobe considered, R. v, vii j Var-
BrS. Ui, 1 9 ; 10 be understood in a particular sense,
meant, Vop. vi, 15 j PSn., Sch.; To be accepted as a
rule or law, to be acknowledged or assented to, to
be attended to or obeyed, lobe admitted in evident,
Mn, viii, 78 ; Yajn,; MBh. & c ; to be undertaken
orfollowed(1 vow), Kathas. veil, 38 ; to be put (as
confidence) in(loc.),fviii,3<); m. an eclipsed globe
[sun or tnoon),SOryas.; n.poison(NBD.; 'a present,
Bft,),L.; the objects of sensual perception,Yogas, i,
4 J ; (J), f.archery exercise, Gal.; (cf. dur^sithha-,
mjiaw-.) fflr, mfh. one whose words are to be
accepted orfollowed.Hear, v, 4 8 5 . t v a , n, per-
ccpriblcncs5 Sarvad.iii x xii,xiv. -rQpa,mfh.tobe
l ( J

laken to heart, MBh. i, 3 30, 23. - v a t , mfn, 1- -gir,

TandraBr. xiii, 11, 1%.vac. mfn. id..W.
G-ranlt^l, mfru one who takes ot sciw, SvetUp,
iii, 19; 00c who receives, Mn. viii, 166; a pur-
chaser, Pafkat,; one who perceives or observes* Mn*
i, 15; Yogas, i, 4 1 ; one who notices or hears, BS-
lar. n\#*: fcf, Awft*0

^ 2. ca, i n d . a n d , b o t h , also, moreover,

is wdl as ( - TC, Lit, que, placed like these particles
as an end hie after the word which It connects with
what precedes; when used with a personal pronoun
this most appear in its roller accented form {t.gjdva
ca mdiTta ca [not ft ca aw c a ] , * both of thee and
me'), when used after verbs the first of* them ts ac-
cented, Pin, viii, l 58 f, J it connects whole sen-
tences a* well as partsof sentences; in RV. the double
ca occurs more frequently than the single (e, g. a h A m
( a todm c a , * L and thou,' viii, 6a, 11); the doable
ca may also be used somewhat redundantly in class.
Sanskrit (e.g. k v a h a r i n a k a n d m j i v i t a m c d t i h l a m
k v a ca v a j r a * t 3 r $ M Sards it, * where h the frail
existence of fawns and where are thy adamantine
arrows?' k, I, to); in later literature, however, the
first ca is more usually omitted ( t > $ . a A a m tvatn c a ) ,
and when more than two things are enumerated only
one ca is often found (e.g. tejasa yaiasd laksh-
m y & s t h i t y & c a p a r g y S , * in gtory, tn fame, in beauty,

more than two things are enumerated, ca ts placed

after some and omitted after others (e, g. yina-ddtd
ca vaia*ya4 ca i r v f r i y e ttadf, * the payer o a debt
audi physician [and] a Brahman [and] ariver/Hit.
i, 4 , 5 5 ) ; in Ved. add even in class. Sanskrit [Mn.
iii, ao; ix, I 7 i \ Hit.], when the double ca would
generally be used, the second may occasionally be

sattufhtyah, * both difficult to be divided [and]

quickly united,' Hitt); with lexicographers ca may
imply a reference to certain other words which are
not expressed (e. g. iamttta'alau ca kanaka^, *the
word karaka has the meaning "pitcher" and other
meanings'); sometimes ca is **cva, even, indeed,
certainly, just (e. g. su-cintitant c & a h a d h a j p . tut
nama~m&trcnakarQty a r & g l t m , f v r * t o a wellnie-
vised remedy docs not cure a disease by its mere
name/ Hit.; yavartfa eva U t & v & $ f c a sah, *as great
at they [were] justio great was he/Ragh, xii, 4 5 ) ;
occasionally ca Is disjunctive, * but,* 'on the con-
eakrd, n , (Ved. rarely m . ; g . ardhar-

wheel (ofa carriage, of the Sun's chariot [RV.J,ol

Time [i, 164, 3-48] ; krdm *Jtar+ to drive in 1
carriage, SBr. vi), RV. Sec j a potter's wheel, SBr.
xi; YajQ, iii, 146; (cf. -bhrama Sec); a discus 01
sharp circular missile weapon (esp. that of Vishnu),
MBh.; R*-, Susr.; Pahcat.; BhP,; an oil-mill, Mn.
iv.65; MBh. xii, 6481 & 7697; a circle, R.; BhP.
&c, {kalSpa-, * the circle of a peacock's tail,' Ritus.
ii, 14); an astronomical circle (e.g. r d H - the zo- %

diac), VarBrS. ; Surras.; a mystical circle or diagram,

Tantr.; -bandAa, q. v., Slh. x, 13 ft; a cycle,
cycle of years or of seasons, Hariv. 653 ; * a formed
military array (in a circle),* see -vyuAa ; drculat
flight (of a bird), Pahcat. ii, 57; a particular con-
stellation in the form of a hexagon, VarBrS. xx ;
VarBj.; Laghuj.; aeircleordepresaonofthebody
(for mystical or chiromantiepnrpofes; 6 in number,
one above the other, viz. 1. mula'dhdra, the parts
about the pubis; 2. svddhishthdna, the umbilical
region ; 3. matp-pura, the pit of the stomach 01
epigastrium j 4. andkota, the root of the nose;
5. v H u d d h a , the hollow between the frontal sinuses;
6- djUSkhya, thefontenelleor anion nf the coronal
and sagittal sutures; various faculties and divinities
are supposed to be present in these hollows); N. ol
a metre ( -patd\\ a circle or a simitar instrument
(nsed in astron.), Laghuj.; Sflryas. xiii, ao; Ool. xi,
JOkT.; (also m., L . ) a troop, multitude, MBh. v, ix
(^krdvaltjqy*); Hariv.; R.&c.j the whole number,
of (in comp.), Sarvad. xi, 137; a troop of soldiers,
army, host, MBh. (ifc. f. d iii,040); BhP. t, ix;

Cap.; a number of villages, province, district, L,j

(fig-)raQgc, department,, 33; thewheel
of a monarch's chariotrollingover his dominions,
sovereignty, realm,YAjrVi, 365; MBIi.i, xLii; BhP,
ix, ao, 33 ; VP,* (pi.) the winding ofariver,L . ;
a whirlpool, L . ; a crooked or fraudulent device (cf,
c a k r i k d ) , L . ; the convolutions or spiral marks of
the Sila-grlma or ammonite, W\; N. ofa medicinal
plant or drug, Susr. vf.; ofa Tfrtha, BhP. x 76, ic,; r

m. the ruddy goose or Brahmany dock (Anas Casar-

ca, called after its cries; cf. -vdkd) t M Bh. ix, 443 ;
Batar.viil,5g;Kathas.txxii 4o; SlrngP.;(pl.)

a_people,,35a; (g.jr^rV)N.ofaman, Br-

ArUp. iii, 4, i,Sch.; of another man, Kathls. M ,
144; ofaNaga, MBh. 1,3147; of one of Skanda's
attendants, MBh, ix, 1539 & 1542; of a mountain,
BhP. v, 90, 15; Kathas. Uv. J6; (J), f. a kind ol
Cyperus or another plant, L,; (1), f. a wheel (instr,
tg.krfyd; gen.du.^O'Mj RV.; (du,Ariyav)
Kljb. xxix, 7; cf. a - asAta*, uccd- ,'ka-, k 3 l a -
t t i

da^fa-t dik-t dkarma-, ma Ad-, matrix, rd-

dha' vtsAna-,
t so-. saptd- A t r a r t y a - ; I r i - Sc su-

t a & r d ; cf. also <fy*Aot, Lat. circus; Angl. Sax.

^ E T cakah ( a reduplicated f o r m o f vOfcJS
"Aid; in the non<conjagationat tenses t / k h y a i s
substituted, Pin. ii, 4, 54?,; some pf. forms, how-
ever, are found),el. a. A . <r<frf/* (a. <Ju. cakshdthe,
RV,; pf. p. f<fifA*i/r, RV.;*BhP. i, 18, 35
neg,]; rarely P impf. a. sg. acakshas, MBit, viii,
3384, 1. pi. acakshma, Naigh. iii, n ; Ved. inf.

cdkshmt, RV.; AV, vi, 68, 3), to appear, become

visible, RV, viii, 19,16; x 74, 2 & 91, 6 ; to see,

look at, observe, notice, RV.; BhP.; to tell, inform,

MBh. rtii, 3384; to lake any one (acc.) foi (acc.),
BhP. x, 73, 11.

C i k a l M i , m. the eye, RV. x, 90,13; (ifc, AV.

iv, ao, 5 ) ; K, of a prince, BhP.; (for vakshui) the
Oxui river, VP. ii, 3, 3a & 351 8, 114; Gol. iii,
38, airodha, m . A p . ii, 37, if.
pld*n&, mfn. causing pain to the eye, SvetUp.

Caturthi, mf^n. (g. y a j a k l f d i , Ganar. loo)

the 4th, AV. \ VS.; TS. & c ; m. the 4th letter in
thefirst5 classes of consonants { g K j A t H h , d h , b h \
RPrat.; VPrlt.; KaS.; '4th caste,' a Sudra, L . ; n.
'constituting the 4th part,' a quarter, Gaut, x, 38 ;
(for ^tethtaya; ifc.) a collection of 4, Divyav,
xxxiii; (j), f. fscil. r d / r i ) the 4th day in a lunar
fortnight, KatySr.; (metrically *Mi) VarYogay. v,
8; ' the 4th day of a marriage,' see riAt-karrnan ;
(sell, i n b h a k t t ) the tcimiitatton of the 4th case,
dative ease, Pan,; ^twbhdgiyd, Sulbas. tii, a6;
{ a m \ ind. the 4th time, JUvGr.; SirikhGr. [cf.
WT<WTOS: Lat. a u a r t u s : Lith. ketwirtas; Slav.

c<W(fr. $cand t q. v.),cl, i.dati(Ntr.

xi, 5),to shine, be bright., Dhltop. iii,31; to gladden,
ib.; [cf. Lat t a n d w , c a n d d a . ]
C A b d r i , mf(i)n. (fr. itandrd, q.v,)" glittering,
shining (ai gold), having the brilliancy or hue of
light <said of gods, of water [RV. x, i a i , 9 ; TS.
vQ & of Soma), R V . ; VS. ; TS. vi; Tflr. i ; m. the
moon (also personified as a deity, Mn. Sec,), V S . ;
SBr. &c. (ifc. f. d MBh. ix; R. &c.); ifc. *the

moon of/ i, e, the most excellent among (e. g.par-

a most excellent king *); the number

' one,* SOryas.; a lovely or agreeable phenomenon
of any kind, L . ; a spot similar to the moon, BhP.
iv, 15^ I J-; the eye in a peacock's tail, L . ; the mark
of the Visarga, Tantr.; a kind of reddish pearl, L . ;
camphor, AgP. xxx.v, 151 water, L . ; the Karnpilla
riant. L. 1 a metre of i x 10 svllaW-.s: N . ofa Daitva
f j j 4 , cit, cl. r. ctiati (impf. avetat,
^ " v RV. vii, 95, 2 ; p . titat RV.% cl. 3, t

[A. Pass. 3 . sg. ciU x, J 43, 4 ; p. f. instr.

r cifdnfyd,
t, 1 2 9 , 7 ; A^citdna, ix, I O I , 1 1 ; VS. x, J ) , el. 3.
irreg.f/j*/(i/i(RV,; Subj.t/^/^RV^lmpr.
ciJtia'dAi.RV,-, p,tWdnd KV,; r ptd.cikita RV, t

fitc-i ciVrf0,Yop. viii, 3 7 ; 3. diutftofor*, AV.iii,

aa, a; A . & Pass. RV.dce.; 3,pl,to?, RV.;
for p. ctkitvds, see s.v,; A . Pass._Vtfr, Shaft, ii,
19 ; aor. aettit, Vop. viii, 35 ; A . Pass. ifftrV 8c
rfft R V . ; for acati see V a . *; fat. 1st cJiia, 1,

ai, 5) to perceive, fix the mind upon, attend to,

be attentive, observe, take notice of (acc. or gen.),
RV.; SV.; AV.; Shaft.; to aim at, intend, design
(with dat.), K V . i , 1 3 1 , 6 ; x, 3 8 , 3 ; to be anxious
about, care for (acc. or gen.), I, ix f.; to resolve, iii,
5 3 , 3 4 ; x, 5 5 , 0 ; to understand, comprehend, know
(pert often in the sense of pf,), RV.; AV, vii, 2,1
& 5 5 ; !* A . to become perceptible, appear, be

regarded as, be known, R V , ; VS. x, xv; Caus.

tttdyati U t (a. pi. cttdya4hvam. Subj.
r c<tayot y

Impv. 3. dm cetayethdm, impf- dcttayaf, RV.; 3.

pi, dtdyanU, R V . ; p.tifdyai, RV.(eleventimes>]
cttdyot, x, n o , S, dfcc,; A . cctaydna see s, v.) to
cause to attend, make attentive, remind of, i, 131,
2 8c iv, 51, 3 ; to cause to comprehend> instruct,
leach, RV.; to observe, perceive, be intent upon,
RV.; MBh. xii, 9890 ; Kathas. xiii, 10; A . (once
P., MBh. xviit, 74) to form ao idea in the mind, be
conscious o( understand, comprehend, think, reflect
opon; SBr.; ChUp. vii, 5 , 1 ; MBh.; BhP.

viii, 1 , 9 ; Prab.; P. to have arightnotion ot know,

MBh. iii, 14877 ; P. 'to recover consciousness, 1

awake, Bhajj. viii, 123 ; A . to remember, have con-

sciousness of (ace.), Pa^. iii, a, 11 a, Kis.; Badar,

ii, 3, iSjSch.j to appear, be conspicuous, shine, RV.;

TS. i i i : DesieL d&tsati (fr. +/kit Pap. in, I , 5 j

Dhatup, xxiii, 34 ; exceptionally A , , MBh. xii,

12544 ; Impv. *tsatu, Sat}. tsdt aor, 2 , sg. dci-

kitsts AV ;
r ?23t,v.{ikit$yatndna
r t SuSr,; Paficat.)
to have in view, aim at, be desirous, AV. T , I 1,13
be, 2, 3 ; to care For, be anxious about, vi, x; (P*n.
iii, 1, 5, Siddh.) to treat medically, cure, KflivSr.
xxv ; MBh. i, xii; Susr.; Pafttat.; Bhartj.; tu wish
to appear, RV. i, 123, JI Caus. of Desid. (fiit,
dkitsayiihyati) to cure, Malav. iv, 6 f.: Intens.
tekitt(fr, Va.'? orf0T //f RV, i , 5 3 , 9 , A ;

ii, 3 4 , 1 0 ; p.iktiat ix, 1 1 1 , 3 ; A & h / d r t a RV,

r t

eight times) to appear, be conspicuous, shine, RV,

5. Cit, mfh, ifc.Mhinkmg/seea-, duf-, m a n a i - ,
vipai-t & h u r a $ - t t t ; cf-also a p a - H t ; f. Thought,
intellect, spirit, son], VS. iv, 19; KapS.; *Bhartr,;
BhP,;; pure Thought (Brahma, cf.
RTL. p. 34), Vedlnlis.; Prab.-pa.ti [VS. iv, 4 ]
or - p a t i LMitrS. i, a, 1 ; iii, 6, 3 ; Pan, vi, a, 19,
Kit-], rn. the lord of thought. para, n. ibe Su-
preme Spirit, LingaP. 1,70, 26 (v. 1.) pntftft, t
N, of a work, p r a v i i t t l f. thinking, reflection,

L. s*bh6Eananda-tixtlift, m. N. of an author.
snlcbft, m. N . of a scholiast on BhP, (pupil of
Samkaricarya, St^kar. iii) ^
Comm. on BhP. sv&Etipa, n. pore thought, W,

CiH&, mfh. 'noticed/ see a-dtta; 'aimed at,*

longed for, ChUp, vii, 5 , 3 ; ' appeared, visible, RV. 1

ix,05, 12; D. attending^ observing {pirdi- cittatii


'so as to remain unnoticed*), vii, 59, 8 j thinking,

reflecting, imagining, thought, RV.; VS.; SBr. Sec.;
intention, aim, wish, R V . ; VS.; AV.; TBr. Sec,;
(Naigh. iii, 9) the, heart, mind, TS. i ; SretUp. vi,
5 ; MBh.&e. (ife.f.i,Pafteat,); memory, W.' in-
telligence, reason, KapS. 3,59 ; Yogas, i, 37; ii, 54;
Vedlntas.; (in astro!,) the yth mansion, VarYogay.
iv.i:ef, ijfti-. c a l a - / f > u r v a - p r a y a S - J a r h u - , $ u -
t t
C H x i , raf^ifjn, conspicuous, excellent, dis-
tinguished, R V . ; bright, clear, bright-coloured,
RV.? clear (a sound), R V , ; variegated, spotted,
speckled (with, instr. or in comp,), NaL iv, 3 ; R.J
Mfiecftu; VarBrS.; agitated (as the sea, opposed to
sama\ R. iii, 39* l a ; virions, different, manifold,
Mn.ix, 3 4 8 ; Yajft, t, 2 8 7 ; MBh. &c,; (execution)
having different varieties(oftortures\ Mn.ix, 2 4 8 ;
Dai, vii, aSi; itraoge, wonderful, Rljat, vi, 3 3 7 ;
cOTtairting the word ci'W, SBr. vii, 4, i , 4 * K l l
Sr. xvii; (dm\ tnd. ao as to be bright, RV, i, 71,
l i r i ^ j ; ioditTereotwaTS, R. i, 9, 14; (toexe-
cute) with different tortures, Dai. vii, 3 8 0 ; (df) m. T

variety of colour, L , , Sch.; Plumbago leylanica, L,;

Ricioai communis, L . ; Jonesia Asoka, L . ; a. form
of Yam*, Tithyid.^ N . of a king, RV. viii, at I, tS
{ t i t r a ) t of a Jabala-grihapau" (with the patr. Gau-
Irlya^i), KaushBr. xxiii, 5 ; of a king (with the
patr. GAAgyiyani), KausbUp. i t of a son of Dhrjta-
rlshtra, MBh. i, vii; of a Draviga king, PadrriaP.v,
30,1 { v \ t r & k s h a ) \ of z Gandharva, GaL; (cf), f.

Spicavirgin!^the rath (iolater reckoning tht 14th]

lunar mansion, AV, xix, 7, 3 ; TS. it, iv, vii; TBr,
i ; SBr. u\ tic.; a kind of snake, L-; N . ofa plant

Cot, Norn, {ft.c/tas) "tati (Vop. xxi,"8 ; a"cm 3 .

pi. atttish u r ) to recovereonsdousness, BhafJ.x v, 109,
C e t a , ineomp, pitt, f. grief, L.
Ct*fca>, mm. closing to think; W*; senttent,W.;
(/), f ^ t a m ' M j L r , Jasnuimm grandiflorum, L .
C6tthnfr, mt(i)n. visible, conspicuous, distin-
guished, excellent, RV.; AV. or, 4, a i ; percipient,
conscious, sentient, intelligent,KathUp. 7 , 1 3 ; Svct-
Up, vi, 1 3 ; Hariv. 3 5 8 7 ; KapS.; Tattvas. dec.; m<
an intelligent being,man,Sarvad.ii, aai; soul,mind,
L.pi.conspicuousness, RV. i, 13,11 & 1 7 0 , 4 ; iii,
3 , 8 ; iv, 7, a; soul, 55,i7&ao;(dXf'

consciousness, understanding, sense, intelligence,

Yajft. iii, 175; MBh. Set, (often ifc. [f. a% Mn. ix,
07; M Bh. &c.) ; (cf, a-, i7-, purH-cJt vt\ sa-,
a. Chid, mfh, ifc. (Pan, iii, 3, 61) cutting, cut-
ting off, totting through, splitting, piercing, MBh.
vii, 4 656 i (cf. ukAd-ccAid, ktSa-fpaksha-, marma-,
v a r t a - , A r i d a y a - j * destroying! annihilating, re-
moving, MBh, v, 1S09; rlariv, 4774; Bhartr.i BhP.;
(cf. darpd-t dufykhO"!paft&a-, b h a v a - ) ; m.thc di-
visor, denominator; f. the cutting off(with gen.), Hi-
lar-viii. 7* : 'annihilation off in comn.Vsee bhava-*

C n i d r i , mf(fi)n. lom asunder, RV. i, 162, ao;

containing holes, pierced, KatySr. xvft; R- i, 7 3 ,
ao: Suir.v, 1,43; leaky, MBh. v, 1307; 1047 c
xii, 8 7 S 2 ) ; n. a hole, slit,ctcft, opening,VS.; TS.i\
vi; KatySr.; La|y.; Kaui.; Mn.&c. { d a i v a - k r i t a ,
* opening or hole made by nature, the cartilage of
the eat, pupil of the eye, Suir.; dram * J d a * to t

yield an opening or free access,' BhP. v, 6, 4 ) ; de-

feet, fault, blemish, imperfection, infirmity, weak
point, foible, MBh. Sec. * (in astrol.) the 8tli lunar
mansion, VarBr.; Laghuj. i, 1 7 ; the number'nine'
(there being o openings in the body), Silryas, ii, 18;
the lower tegioos. Gal.; (cf. d- k t t r n a - k r i t a -
t f t

g r t h a - , n i l - , mah&~), - k a r r i * , mfn. having the

ears bored, Fin. vi, j , 115. tfc, f. 'perforated-

*T 2. j a mf(fl)n. ( " / j a n ) ifc. born or de-


scended from, produced or caused by, bora or pro-

duced In or at or upon, growing in, living at, Mn,;
MBh. &c.; (after an adv. or adverbial word) born
or produced (e.g. a g r a * , a v a r a - ; t k a - dvi-t ni-
t %

p u m a - , p r a i A a m a - , saha- St s $ k a m - j & ) , Mn. x ,

25; prepared from, made of or with, v, 35; Suir.;
Heat.; * belonging to, connected with, peculiar to,*
lee a n u p a - , a n n a - , i a A r a - , sSrtAa-; m. a son of
tin comp.), Mn. Sec,; a father, L . ; bifth, L . ; (*),
f, a race, tribe, AV. v, I I , 1 0 ; ifc, a daughter,
MBh.&c.; cf jd.
jan c\. r i . [ R V . ; A V J & 10, jdnati,
U{Sah}*jartaf r RV.; ndi, A V . v i , 8 l ,
3 ; K. nat<t
t R V . x , 1 3 3 , 7 ; impf. ^ i r j s a r . R V . ; P-
jdimtyjjandyatiftt (in later language only P., Pan.
h 3 8 f i ; Subj. ndyai; imof. djaimyat; aor. <f/7-
janct; ^jandyat; inf. jdmyitavai, SBr. xiv),
twice c l . 3 (Subj.yiayifwar, MaitrS. i , 3, 30 & 9 , 1
[ K i t h , ix, S ] ; c f . P a n . T i , ! , 193 & vii,4, 78, K i t . ;
pr. j a j a u t i , Dhatup. x i v , 3 4 ; a o r , X . / d f t M { a ;
A . djant, R V , i i , 3 4 , 3 ; ^ . J a j a n a ; 3. p l . / f l -
_>>fr/r, R V , & c ; once j a j a n t i r viii, 9 7 , 10 i p,

ynivas; Ved. inf.yimVtw, iv, 6, 7 ; AitBr.; SBr.

i i i ; [Pa?, i ' i , 4, 1 6 ] ; Ved, ind, p. R V , x,
6 5 , 7 ) to generate, beget, produce, create, cause, R V .
A V . die.; to produce (a to Tig of praise, & e , ) , R V . ;
(cl. ioorCans.)tocause to be bom, A V , Tii, 1 9 , 1 ;
xiii, I , 1 9 ; VarBf. xiv, I ; x ! x , j a ; to assign, pro-
cure, R V . ; VS. xix, 9 4 : cl. 4. jayate (ep. also /f;
tmpf.d/ayafa; pr. p.jayamdrta; taX.jarnshya/e;
*<x*djaniskia; i,[RV^viii,6,10J& $ s%*&jani;r

3 . m^Jdni, l' 1 4 1 , 1 ; j a n i viii, 7, 3 6 ; p e r f . > y / ,

t t

a. sg, ^"IwA/, 3 . p i . j H M p. 7 ^ ^ and [KV.]


cl. 3. (?) A . (3. %$jamshc 3, p i . mdhvc Impr,

t t

^ii/jdztf [vi, 15, i S j ^ r t i V - h w / a , cf. Pan. rii, 3 , 7S;

rninT 4 n / r t t f / t t s T faitr.. P i n i i . J . firtl. A i t R r >

Jeatmaji, n. birth, production { k y i t a ~ rafn, t

'planted/Knm. v, 6 o \ origin (ifc. 'born from/

i7ara-,q.v,) KV,
f iii,36, 7 ; vii, 3 3 , 1 0 ; A V . ; V S .
& t ; existence, life, M n . ; Bhag. i v , 5 ; Yogas, i i , 12
{drishtddrish(a'f r present and future l i f e S e c .
{ j a r i m a , acc. ind. through the whole life, HParis. iv,
7 ) ; nativity, VarBrS. i , I O ; re-birth, Sarvad. x i ;
birthplace, home, R V . i i , p , 3 ; viii, 6 9 , 3 ; x, 5, 7 ;
A V , ; V S , ; a progenitor, father, Safc, vii, 1 8 ; natal
star, VarBrS. iv, 2 8 ; (in astroL) N . o f the Jst lunar
mansion, c i v ; a creature, being, R V . ; T B r . i i ;
AitBr, iv, JO; p e o p I e , R V . i t , 2 6 , 3 ; i i i J 5 , 3 ; the

people of a household, kind, race, R V . {ubhdya J t

sg.,du.3tpi., 'both races,' i,e, gods and men o r [ x ,

3 7 , 1 1 ] men and animals) : nature, quality, i , 7 0 , 3 ;
custom, m i oner { J > r a t t i h t a jdnmand 'according to

andentcnstom*),i 87,5;ix, 3 , 9 ; S V . ( v . l . w . i w ,

R V . ) ; Hariv. 15718 {duta-janm&na, ' l i k e a mes-

senger'); water,Naigh.i,i3, J a n m l n , m, a crea-
ture, man, Paiicat, i , 1, 93 ; i i , a, 10.
W^jap* d . i , j d p a t i { r m l y & . , SankhSr,
! iii, 6 , 4 ; MBh.fii,iiii; pf jojdpa; ^.du,j/pa/ur,
R . i ; M - j a f i t u m , MBh,xii,7336; ind. p. ^tod,
Mn. xi; R. i ; ^ i / w Mn- xi; Vet.) to utter in a

low voice, whisper, mutter (esp. prayers nr incan-

tations), AitBr. ii, 38; SBr.; Laty.; KliySr.- Kins.;
Mn. & t ; to pray to any one (ice.) in i low voice,
MBh, Aiii, 7 5 0 ; to invoke or call upon in a low

* - - - w - v '
*mjayd, mfn. (v^t) ifc, conquering, win-
ning, see f i t a tn Jbrtfanr, dhanam -jaj/d t fursm-,
tatrttm-; m. (Pan. iii, 3, 56^ K l i ) conquest, vic-
tory, triumph, winning, being victorious (in battle or
in playing with diet or In 1 lawsuit), AV.vii, 50, 8 ;
SBr, vi; Mn. vii {indriydndm f , victory over or
restraint of the senses) dc x; MBh.&e.; ttdtma-,
J > r 6 i v i ' j rug-; m. pi. (parox.) N. of particular verses
causing victory (personified as deities, V JyuP. ti, 6,
4 t l ) MaitrS. i, 4, 14; TS. iii; ParG^. 1, 5 ; Nya-

yam. iii, 4, 3 4 ; rn, fg. Pnmiia spinosa or longifolia,

L . ; a ydlow varietyofFhaseolusMungo,L.j N.of
the 3rd year of the 6th lustrum ofthe Brihaspati
cycle, VarBrS. viii, 38; 4 kind of flute; (in music) a
tied of measure ; the sun, MBh. iii, 154 ; Arjuna
(son of Paeju), a66, j A iv, 5, 3 5 ; Indra, L.; N .
of 1 Rishi ^author of RV. x, 1S0 ; son of Angiras
fRAnukr.1 or of Indri: 11 vine under thr lothM*nu.

*Tr7 ! jo Id, mftr,e=/a^a(cf.v'ja/) stupid f

(ef. * U d k i f a * t a i a } a ) l u b % V . x x \ i y X ) i m. (g.
t t

jvalSdi)* stupid nun, iii. v, 37; N. ofa nun (with

thepatr. Jamkarnya), Sankh&. xri, 3 9 , 6 ; n. (also
pi.) water,anyfluid,Naigh.i,ia; Yajft.i, 17; MBh,
&.. (ifc. f. d) ; a kind of Andropogon, Bhpr, vii,
10, 53 & 78; a 8 , 1 8 ; the 4th mansion (in astroL),
VarYogay. iv, 3 6 ; a cow's embryo {go-kaiaka or
* l a n & \ L . ; ( ^ j a ^ a ) frigidity (moral or mental or
physical),W.i { d ) f. N . ofa river, MBh. iii, 1055(1,

jtraf, mfn. (vfr* w j i ) swift, A V . x U ,

7, I i m. (parox.. Pan. iii, 3 , 56, Vartt. 4 & 57)
speed, velocity, swiftness, RV. 1,113, 31; x, 111,
9 ; VS.; AV.; &&r.5cc.; pi, impulse (ofthe mind),
RV. x, 71, 8 ; {dt) ibU ind. speedily, at once, Ka-
Javita, D, running, Lalit. xii, 379.
J f t v f n , mfh. qnick, fleet, RV. ii 15, 6 ; YajlL ii,

100,: Kathas, xxv, Ixvii; m. * horse, L . ; * camel, I*

- - 1 - y 0 . ~-
J&tlr birth, production, AitBr. ii, 3 9 ; M n /
MBh. (also V , xiiif.) & c ; Te-binh, W. i , 6 2 , 1 7
Karan^ xxiii, 193 ; the form of existence (as man,
animal, &c.) fixed by birth, Mn.iv, 148f.; Yogas
>ii 3 (if*.) kathas. xvlii, 9 8 ; position assigned bj

birth, rank, caste, family,race, lineage, KatySr. xv:

Mn,; Yajft. &c, ("/f, M Bh. xiv, 2 5 4 9 ) ; kind, genus
(opposed to spedes), species (opposed to individual),
class, Laty.: Katyk: Pin. fccfonce % ifc, MBh,
vi, 4 5 6 ) ; the generic properties (opposed to the
sped tic ones), SaVrad.; natural disposition to. Car,
ii, i ; the character of a spedes, genuine or true
state of anything, Yajft. ii, 3 4 6 ; MBh. xii, 5334;
reduction of fractions to a common denominator; a
self-confuting reply (founded merely on similarity or
dissimilarity),NySyad. v, iff.; Sarvad.xi, 1 0 & 3 4 ;
Prab., Sctu; (in rbet.) a particularfigureof speech,
Sarasv. ii, 1; a class of metres, R. i, 4, 6 j Klvyid.
i, 11; a nianoer of singing, Hariv.; a fire-place, L . ;
(**/T) mace, nutmeg. Suit.; Jasminum grandi-
Aorom, L . ; ^tuphald^ L . ; * * k a m p U i a , L . j cf.
a n t r a * , eJba-,rfvi-;4c(. \.ix.gtm; LittL pri-gmtitA
Jttsjnps&, f. dislike, abhorrence, disgust, MBh,;
Pin. i, A, a^Vlrtt i ; Mricch, i, 1 4 ; Yogas, &c.
2* g u p (for pr. *fc, see g o p a y a & p5ya t

from which the root Is derived [cf. Pin. iii, 1,18 Be

3 1 ] ; p e r f \ j u g o p a, MBh. &c,; 3, $ \ , j u g u p u r RV.

vii, 103, 9 ; AV. & c ; nit, ind gvftsyaii, A V , ; SBr,

vi &c,; fut, 1st or g o p i t a , Pin. vii, a, 44 ;
aor. a g a u p s l t or a g e p i t , Pin, iii, 1, 50, KlS.) to
guard, defend, protect, preserve (from, abl.), RV. vii,
toj, 9 ; AV, & c ; to hide, conceal, t i i . xvi, 30 (inf,
g o p i t u t n ) x Caus g o p a y a t i & c , sec ss. vv, gapaya
& p d y a : Dcsid. A . j u g i t p $ a U (Pin. iii, 1,5; cp.

also P. /i) to seek to defend one's self from (abl.>,
be on one's guard (cf. i, 4, 34, Vartt. J), SlnkliGr,
iv, 13 f Gobi..; ChUp. v, 10, 8; to beware of. shun,
avoid, detest, spurn, despise (with acc), Mn.; Yajft.;
MBh. & c ; to feel offended or hurt, MBh. i, 6 3 7 5 ;
iii, 1934: Dcsid, of De&d, j n g u p s i s h a t * , Ply. iii, i ,
7, Vlrtt. 15, Pat.; vi, t 9, Kas.t

3. Gup,mfn. ifc.'defending,protecting,'see^Air-
ma~j being on one*s guard or preserving one's self
from, Naish, vi, 66,

^ I T r.i*f5t cl. 9 . P . X . j a n 8 t i n t t f (cf. Pao.


^ i* 3. 7*! Subj. nat; Impv. *Ef<fr, 2.

n FA/, once irr./Ar, B hP. x, 8 9 , 4 6 ; [fr. cl. ^ f i j d A i t

MBh.xiti,4493; 3. pU in.***!/**, ii, 3 3 9 7 ; 3, ig, A .

in^ttase, Divy&v, xviii; p.^ndtfndnJ, irr. rtamd-
fw[MBh.]; p j a j M a u , jtU [Pass., Rajat. v, 481],
3. pi. * j M r RV. vii, 79, 4 ; SBr, xi; p. jrt&n4
t f

RV. x, 14, 3 ; t\A.jfi&sy&ti> aor, a j k & s i t , sta t

Fas*. d/Hdyt, vi, 65, 1 &c.? Fot./3d># or/fey , 8

Pa>vi, *,G8; a , & g . J 3 * y a s * ' y v i t f t } s
r RV. ii, ro, 6;
inC j H & t u m ) to know, have knowledge, become
icquaioted with (acc; rarely g t n , MBh. iii, n S 4 !

Hariv, 7095), perceive, apprehend, understand (alio

within[Pan.iii,4,65], MBh.u,v;Da.), experience,
recognise, ascertain, investigate, RV. &cc. % to know
as, know or perceive that, regard or consider ai (with
double acc., eg. tatya m 4 m t a n a y & m j & n T t a , ' know
metobehisdaughter/MBh.iii, 3476; witji mfishd,
to consider as untrue/Ratniv. ii, 18), Mn.&c.; to
acknowledge, approve, allow, VS. xviii, 59 f.; AV H

ix, 5,19; SBr, i, xi,xiv; to recognise as one's own,

take possession of, SaddhP.; to visit at a friend, AV,
x, i , J 5 ; to remember (with gen-X MBh. xii, 5169 j
Ju to engage in (gen., e,g. s a r p i s h & j to make an
oblation with clarified battel'), Pin, j, 3,45; u 3, t

Si: C % m > p t a j > a y a t i \ o teach any one (acc), Sinkh-


Sr,xv; y/fc^ (Pass. jftdpyaU) to make known, an-

nonnce,teach anything, MBh. U,xii; Katy.& Pat,;
to inform any one (gen,) that (double acc.), MBh.i,
5864; JL to request, ask, ChUp. 11,13,1
MBh. 111,8763 ( j f l & f ) : Desid,/yaj>aft Pai .i, t >
C l u i 0 1 0 W 1 n
3J 571 P- w * * know or become ac-
quainted with or learn, investigate, examine, Mn, ii,
13; MBh,3ccj to wish for bformation about (accOi
KathJs, xxii, 84; to conjecture, AV, xiv, i 56: t

Caus. Desid. n j f a p a y t s k a i i (also ^jftJ^Siddh.) &

j f U p t a t i (cf. /^W7id>ftj), to wish to make known
oriufi>rm,Pan,vii, 3,494:4,55; [cf.^vS-flr & c ]
i. jUt, mf(a)n. (iti, I, 135) knowing, familiar
with (chiefly in comp.; rarely gen. or loc., M Bh. xii,
13038; R, vii, 9 1 , 35), SBr. xiv, 7, 3, 3 ; Mn.&c.;
Intelligent, having a soul, wise, (m,) a wise and
learned man, SvetUp,; PrainUp.; Bldar.; VarBr,;
BhP. vii; haviog J U as deity, Plru xi 4,163, Pat^

m. the thinking fool {purush&X Sxipkhyik.;

Ny lyad, ii I, a, 30, Sen,; the planet M exctiry, VarBrS,;
VarBj.; Laghuj.; Suryas.; the planet Mars, L , ;
Brahma, L , ; (a\ f. N . of a woman, Fin. V1V4,163,
Pat.; [cf. Lat wr/r- & b & i i - g n u - s ] t i , f. in
' telligence, Yajft, Hi, 143 j Nyiyad^ Sen.; ifc, know-
ledge of,NaLxix, 34. trsa, n. intelligence, N y i -
yad. Sch. m-maJiyss mfn. thinking one's self

wise, Rajat, iii, 4 9 1 . i a k t t , f. the intellectual

fscultv. Bldar. ii. 3,
JnJltri, mfh, one who knows or understands, a
knower.ChUp. viii, 5, r, KalhUp.&e.; an acquaint-
ance, (hence) a surety (cf. f v a i o r i j p ) , AV, vi, 33,3;
viii, 8, a i ; a witness, Mn. viii, 57 (v,l, sAMshin\
tr*, n. knowledge, Sarvad. ix, 4 9 ; xv, 137.

J2Kn* a, knowing, becoming acquainted with,

knowledge, (esp.) the higher knowledge (derived
from meditation on the one Universal Spirit), Slflkh-
Sr. xiii; Gobh.; M D ,&c.; "* knowledge about anything,
cognizance/ see -Aw & a- { J M n a d a - j B & n d d vd,
knowingly or ignorantly, xi, 333); conscience, M Bh.;
*n$niiriya t KafhUp. vi, i o ; engaging in (gen,,
e.g. sarpishas, * in sacrifice with clarified butter *\
Pan. ii, a, 10, Vsrtt, Pat,; N. of a Sakti, Rasik, xiv,
3 6 ; RimatUp. i, 9 0 , Sch.; (J), f. id., Paficar, iii,

J n y , mfh, to be known (c.%.jJlfyo maharna*

v$ * t r a it should be known that there if here a great

sea, VarBrS. xiv, j9; kaiham najtkyam mm&bhir

ntvartitum, how should we not know how to leave
off, Bhag, i , 39), Mn.; Yajft.; R. &c.; to be leanit
or understood or ascertained or investigated or per-

**P{j!f*t (fr. dy*t) Q\,

t i.K.jydtate (Naigh,
i, 16; also P., Dhltup. iii, 4, v.t) to shine, MaitrS,
ii, is, 4 , 4 ; MBh, (v.I,) s Caus, jyotdyaii 10shine%

upon, illuminate, AV.(iv, 3 7 , 1 0 & ) vii, 16,1; MBh.

Jeprived ot light, blind, MBh. i, 178, 37. - m a t
[fydf*\ mfn, luminous, brilliant, shining, belonging

to the world of light, celestial, RV,; AV. &c. (r7

trith{ubk, 'the heavenly Trishfobh ' of 3 x 13 &
1 x Ssyllables, RPtit.); spiritual,pure,Yoga*. 1,36;
m. the sun, Dai. viii, 1 1 4 ; ^ski-mat, q.v,; the

JyOtls, n. light (of the sun, dawn,fire,lightning,

{kc,j also pi.), brightness (of the sky), RV. Sec, ( t r t -
ni j y & t i f i s h i ) light appearing in the 3 worlds, via,
on earth, in the intermediate region, and in the sky
or heaven [the last being called uitamd VS.xt.; t AV.
iviii; or t l t t a r a , i, 9, 1; or t f i t i y a , RV, x, 5 6 , 1 ] ,
VS.viii, 3 6 ; AV, ix, 5 , 8 ; MBh. iii; also personified
as 'fire* on earth, 'ether or air* in the intermediate
region, and* sun'in the sky, SBr, xi,5,8, 3 ; JsSnkh-
Sr. xvi, 31, 3, &e.; fire,sun and moon,' Bhag, xv

13); fire, flash of lightning, Megh,; Sak.; moon-

light, RV. iii, 34, 4 ; AV. iv, 18, 1 ; (pi ) SBr. x Be
R. *, UT I<>; *y-'>fM R - v
7 i * 7 ; the y,
M Bh. i , 6 8 5 3 ; Ragh.; BhP, ix; du. sua and moon,
Gobh. iii, 3, t 8 ; Satr. i, a 8 ; pi. the heavenly bodies,
planets and stars, Mn,; Bhag. & c (iisA4m ayana,
n. course or movements of the heavenly bodies,
science of those movement* [ / M a ] Latj. iv, 8 ,

I; Slksh.; sg. the light of heaven, celestial world,

RV,; VS.; A V , ; SBr. xiv, 7, 2 ; light as the divine
principle of life or source of intelligence, intelligence,
RV. vi, 9, 6 ; VS. xxiv,3; AV.xvI; Bhag.; (patt-
4 9
rushaj% human intelligence*) Sarvad,; { p a r a j ,
'highest light or truth *) RlmatUp. &t Sarvad.; light
jvat, c L C. P . j e d t a t i ( e p < also A . ;
p. /tf/; z Q T , a / v d I i t Pin.vii, 7, 3 ; 3 ,

pL & j B c l i s h u r Bluff, xv, to6) to bam. brightly,


blaze, glow, shin*, TS, I; SBr.; Gobru; MBh.&c.;

lo bum (as a wound), Suir,; Co*, j v a l a y a t i or
jvaP* 10 set on lire, Light, kindle, make radiant, il
luminitc, GopBr, ii, 5 , 5 (A.) ; MBh. tfcc: Intern.
Jd/tfaJaii(MBh )otfyat4
t (Pan. iii, l , a 2 , K l i . ; p .
Vjramdna) to flame violently, thine strongly, be
brilliant, MBh.; R . ; VP. iii, 3 , 1 0 ; Rljat. i, 154-
Jvalft,m.(Pan. iii, 1,140) flame,W.-muihl,
f. 'flame-faeed,*N, of a tutelary deity in LconasVa
family { r f . j v d l d m \ BnhmaP. ii, I \ a8. J v * H
s j t u , mfn.flame-faced,MBh. i, 5933 (v. I.)
Jv&Uk&, f. a large flame (v. Ljfcrftr&l), L .
Jvnlttt, mfn, pr. p. * / j v a l q. v. j. m. blazing fire,

flame, K i m . ; {antt) f. black mustard, Npr. trm,


n. radianee, NfiaUp. ii. - prablja, f. m * f a t t t i Npr. t

J r a l * n , i n comp. for AiY. a u n i , mfn. blazing
with jewels, W.; m. a brilliant gem, W,
JraJ&|iJk>, mfin, ((Mn. iii, a, 150) inflammable,
combuitible, flaming, SBr, xh'i, 4. 4. 7 i MBh. iii,
1 2 3 3 9 ; shining, 7 6 9 ; m.iire, MaitrS-ii, q, l{jvdl*
o r [ P a d a p . ] / i i a > : M n . x , l 0 3 i Yajn.; MBh.ckc.:
(he number 3 , Snryas, ii, 20 f_; corrosive alkali,
Suir.; Plumbago icylaniea(or It* root, Npr.), I" ; a .
blaring, VarBfS.; (d), f. N . of a daughter of Ta-
ksliaka (wife of Riceyu or Riksha). n u h , (/Vdi&\
MBh. i, 3778).-"aniua, m. 1 spark of fire, Mudr.
i, a. btin, m. tre-bora/ Karttikcya, SSamka;. i,

98 ; Komirila (incarnation of Klrtlikeya) ib. Jva- (

laoiamAD, m. the san-stone, L .

JVjnanljft, mfn. Jit to be burnt, combustible,W.
JvaJMrtft-stkhmrl, f. ' flame-tufted/ N . of a
Tita-s, ind. (fif-far, correlative o f y d - t o r ) used
for the abl (sg., du. & pL) of t d d (q. v Pig. v 3 , t

7 f.; vi, 3, 35)* RV.; AV,; tiUp.; Mn,&c.; from

that place, thence, RV.; AV. &c,; in that place,
there, MBh. &c.; thither, Mn, vii, 1 8 8 ; R. i, 44,
3 4 ; Hathai,; thereupon, then, after that, after-
wards (sometime* corresponding to preceding par-
ticles ^tdgrt^taSipurtiam^frathcmam^rdk,
SBr. xiv ; Mn. ii, 6 0 ; Salt.; Paficat, flee ; cone-
spond in g t o p r a t h c m A RV.l, 8 3 , 5 ; also correlative

of y U [x, 8 $ , s & 1 at, 7 ; AV. xii, 4 , 7 K.] ydfra


[^Wa[NaUx; R,l,>^*[ChUp.iNal.&c. j
c&I [TUp. ii, 6; Sak, v, Jf, v.L] ; often super flnou
after an ind. p. or after tadd or atha, Mn. &C.)
from thai, in consequence of that, for that reason
consequent!v, AV.: MBh. xii, 13636 ; R. vi; Hit.

third of that, VarBrS. Wm.-tva, n. tree or real

state, truth, reality. SvetUp.; Mn,; Bhag. & c ; (in
phil,) a true principle (in Simkhya phi). 25 in
number, viz, a-vyakta, buddhi, & h a f n - k a r a the 5

Tan-mitras, the 5 Maha-bhulas, the U organ* in-

cluding manas, and, lastly, furushn, q q. v v,), MBh.
Mil, 11840 ; alv, 9 S 4 ; R. ii, 53, 4a ; Tattvas,; 34
to number, MBh. xii, 1134a ; Hariv. 14840 (m,);
a3 in number, BhP, iii, 6 , 1 E ; for other number*
cf. xi, 33,1 IT,; RamatUp.; with Mahdvarai and
LokJyatikas only 5 [viz, the 5 elements] are ad-
mitted, Prab. ti, i with Bcddh. 4 , with Jainas 3
01 5 or 7 or 9 , Sarvad. ii f. f in VedSnta phil. tat-
tva is regarded as made up of tadSctvartt/thit [art)
thou,* and called i/tand-vaiya, the great word by
which the identity of the whole world with the one
eternal Brahma [ t a d \ is expressed) ; the number ag,
Sflryas, ii; the nrnntwr 34, DevibhP.; SBr. vii, 3 , 1 ,
4 3 , Say,; an element or elementary property, W. i

r^miTdjn, following that or thereupon, Mejjh.:

levoted. or addicted to, attending closely to, eager (V

wan. * . ; m, ^ of an eye's twinkle, W.; (ft f

jt of a second of a circfc, X ryabh. iii, 3, Sch.; ?/<L

ddtcbon to (Joe.), H i t ; - / m , n, Id,, W.; aimW at.

T 4 t r * \tto>'tra RV.) ind. f&JrW, correlative
t f

of y & t r a ; g. C&di, not in Kai.) used for the loc H

(sg., do. & pi.) of tdd (q, Ti; Pa> T , 3,10; Ti, 3,
35), R V . ; AV.; Mn. tfcc ; In that place, there (in
comp., Pin, ii, l , 40"), RV. dec. ; thither, to thai
place, ib,; in that, therein, in that case, on that
occasion, under those circumstances, then, therefore,
(also correlative ydd [TI, 57, 4 ; AV. xii, 1, 34;
Nal. Scc.^yaaa [Paficat. i, 19, %] yadt t [Mn, viii
f.; C 3 i j . ; Hit.], or ttd [Mn. viii, 395 ; la, 305];
i n t r a mdsa, 'that month,* i.e. the month that
has been spoken of, Kathls, XTiii, ao8) ; t m t -
trs>, used for double loc. of tdd, Nal, v, 8 ; in that
and that place, here and there, everywhere, Mn.
vii, 87; MBh. j BhP.; to every place, MBh.; yaw
tra t&ti-ft, nsed for the Inc. yastnins tastnin, in
whatever, Mn.iti, 50; TI, 6 6 ; x i t , 103; In whatever
place,anywhere MBh. xiii, 3686; to any pbeewhat-

ever, v, 5997, at any rate, indiscriminately, xiii,

114 ; y a i r a tatrdpi, 10 whatever place, v, 1084;
c-.i.-- - . r - - -

Tatna, ind- (^^Ma^orrelativeof^-^^Pir

r, 3, a6; g. &rY. Kai. &Ga.nir.) in that manne
so, thus (the correlative standing in the preceding c
in the subsequent clause, e. yathd priyam fa
thdstu, as is agreeing so let it be*; tathd praya
t n a n * dtishfhtd yathatmdnarp n a pLjaytt, 'r.
should so rnake effort as that he may not injure him
self^ Mn. vii, 68 ; tathd i i i k d - -yatkd, so muc]
that, VP. iv ; also correlative of i v a , Mn. iii, 181
R. 1, 4, la ; tdyena, Kathas, Iii, 18 ; oiyddriia
Mn. t, 43 j used in forms of adjuration, e. g. ya
t h & h a t n a r i y a m n a cintaye tathSyam patatdn
kshudrafy parajx ' t is surely as I do not think or
any other man, so surely let this wretch fall dead,
Nal. xi, 36), RV. Sec ; yes, so be it, so it shall b(
(particle of mem, agreement, or promise ; genera.ll)
followed by i t i ) , AV. iii, 4, 5 ; SBr.; AitBr. Set.
{taihtty u k t v d ^ h x r l ' a g said so be it' or ' yes/Nal
Sec.) ; so also, in like manner (e. g. sukham icvta
dufykham tathd, ' let him make use of prosperity
and alto adversity'), Mn.; MBh. Sec.; ^ tathd h i ,
Nal. xix, 35 ; th-i oa, and likewise, accordingly

(introducing quoutions) Mn.U, 19 & 45 Dhurtas.;

T&d, (nom, Sc ace. sg. n. of and base in comp.
for 2. td from which latter all the cases of this pron*
are formed except nom, sg, m. sds or sd Sc f. sa ;
iostr. pi. tats, AV. &c.; Ved. fVMtV,RV.; AV. S i t . )
m. he, f. she, n. it, that, this (often correlative of
yd generally standing in the preceding clause, e- g.
yasya buddkih sa balavdn, of whom there is in-
tellect he is strong ; sometimes, for the sake of em-
phasis, connected with the 1st and and personal
pronouns, with other demonstratives and with rela-
tives, e.g. so ' h a m , * I that very person, I myself
\tasya^ m a m a Nal. xv, joj ; tdv i m a u , * those

very two'; tad etad dkhydttam, 'that very tale/

AitBr. vii, 1 8 ; yat tat h d r a n a m * that very reason
1 1
which, Mn. i, \ \ \ yd sd i r t , that very fortune
which, MBh. vii, 437), RV. & C ; { t a d ) , n, this

world cf, t d a m ) , R* vi, loa, J5 ; Brahma, see

tat-tva; ( t d d ) , md. there, in that place, thither, to
that spot (correlative of ydtra or ydias), AV.;
AitBr. U, II j SBr. t, x xiv; ChUp.; then, at that

time, in that case (correlative oiyada,yad t AV.;

otydtra, SBr, xiv; cdyadi, HaL; Bhag, & c ; of
tid Sak. Sec.), RV. iv, 28, 1 ; AV. &e.; thns, in

this manner, with regard to that, ix, xiii; SBr.;

AitBt.; {tadetau slakau bhavatoJi,' with refer-
ence to that there are these two verse*') FrainUp.;
on that account, for that season, therefore, conse-
quently (sometimes correlative of yata$ yadjrena
r t

'because,'Dai.; Pafkat,; Kathas. &c), Mn. 11,41;

MBh. Sec. 1 now (clause-connecting particle), AV.
xv; SBr.; AitBr.; so also, equally, and AV, xi,x*i
tod tact, this and that, various, different [eg. t a r n
t a r n dedarp jagdma, 'he went to this and that
place * 1 tasu tdsuyonxshu, 1
In different ot various
birth-places,'Mn. xii, 7 4 ) ; respective, BjNarP. xiii,
8 8 ; ttnaiva tertaioapathd, on quite the same path,
R. iii, 50, i S ; yavel tad, whosoever, whichsoever,
amy, tvtry (also with n l , Mn. xii, 68 [ y a d v & t a d
vd,' this or that, any"] ; Hariv. 5 9 4 0 ; DhOrtas.;
Sak., Sch.; often both pronouns repeated or the
interrogative pron. with***' added after the relative,
e. g, yad-yat p a r a - v a i a ^ i k a r m a tat-tad varja-
yet, "whatever action depends on another, that be
should avoid,* Mn. iv, 1 5 9 ; yat kitp-eidtad,
whateverthat,' Mn.); tan M , t * t t , r M d ; tad
( i n d . ) api, * even then, nevertheless, notwithstand-
ing, Sak, (v.J.j; Bhartr.; Prah.; Siabits^ tad (ind.)
Tads, ind. (Pin. v, 3, 15 & 19.ft",)at that time,
then, in that case (often used redundantly, esp. after
tat as or/#ri ot before a/^a> MBh. &c,; correlative
oiydd [AV. xi, 4, fayatra [ChUp,vi,8, \\yada
[Mn.; MBh. kc&yadi [Git,; Vet; Hit.], fw-*i
[BhP. i, 18,61 yaias, < since* [MBh. xiii, 3331],
f/<r" [Sak. v(v,I,); Kathas. xi; firutjj; dft-tadX,
then and then. Say. on RV. i, 35, S; da-pr&-
bhflU,from that time forward(correlative ofyaJa-
/r% R. iii, 17, ai ; ofjmAf, ak. vi, R , Ragh.;

ii, 38; Kathas. ii,6a ; t a r h i t&4&, (correlative of

yadi) then, Vet ,iv, f | ; y a o X t * ^ (both repeated
or the verb being repeated), at any time when
then, Hit.; ya^UVtacUt, at my time whatsoever,
always, MBh. i, 6373; Naish. viii, 39. tva, n.
(opposed to d'ysfi) 'state of then/ the preseut
time, Mn.vii; MBluiif, v vii; R.v, 76, rtf&uo,!.

Tavnu, m^w, SAT, vfm. thin, slender, attenuated,

emaciated, small, little, minute, delicate, fine (tex-
ture, Ritui. 1, 7), SBr. iii, 5, 4, 31; KatySr. viii, y,
M Bh. Sec, (in comp., g, Jtaddrddi; also -dagdha,
Sarvad. xv, 1S9) ; (said of a speech o r hymn) ac-
complished (io metre), RV. viii, 1, 18 & (acc. f.
ftvdm) 76,1 a; rn. (g. 3. lohitddi, not in Kai.) N .
of a Rishi with a very emaciated body, MBh. xii,
4665 ; (aw), f. (once m., Bhara. it, 79) *w(see
s, v. ),the body, person, self (cf. dusk-tattu ,priyd-) t

AitBr. viii, 34,4 (ifc.); Mn. (svaMf t * one's own

person, iv, 184); MBh.; Han v. (acc. pi. in ttavas
t t

3813) See ( i y a m t a n u r m a m a , * this my self, i.e.

1 myself here,' RatnaV. iv, 4; " n u r t t V t y a J or h a ,
* to give up one's life,' Mn, vi, 3a ; BhP. iii; Ka-
thas.) * form or manifestation, Sale, i, I j the skin,

L , ; ** ' g r i h a , VarBj.} Laghuj. j ( y t ) , f. a slender

or delicate woman, Sale ; Mllav. v; Bhartf. &c.;
Desmodtum gangeticura, L . ; Balanites Roxbwghii
(rr.ll. tannf, "ttnt, * Hemionitis cordifohV; t a / ' v t ) ,
L . ; a metre of 4+ 34 syllables; N . of a wife of
Krishna (?Y Hariv. 6705 : fcf. T O W - : Lat. tenuis

l . T u r n , Jn comp. for ntf, - xarana, 0. making

thin, attenuation, Yogas, ii, 3 ; paring, Pap. iii, t,
76. kart?l, m. making thin or emaciated, a de*
Tintta, (Pin. vii, 3, 9, K i i . ) 1 born, r, a,
7 0 ; the warp, R.V. a:, 71, 9 ; AV. 7, 4 1 ; TBr.
ii ; Tin.IyaBr. 3t, 5 ; SBr.iiv; KaoL; MBh, i,flo6
& 8 0 9 ; the leading or principal 01 essential part,
main point, characteristic feature, model, type, system,
framework,SBr.iii; T*ndyaB: aii[ 19,1; Llf.v.;
r lf

Katyfif. & c (e.g. kulasya t, 'the principal action

in keepingupa family, i.e. propagation,' MBh. xiii,
4 8 , 6 ; ifc depending on/ cf. dtma-,tva- para- t t

&c.); doctrine,role,theory, scientific work, chapter

of such a work (esp. the 1st section of a treatise on
aitron., VarBrS. i, 9 ; Pariiira's work on astron,,ii,
$; Tit, 8), MBh. &c. (ef. shath(i- 6cc.) ; a clan of
works leaching magical and mystical formicaries
(mostly la the form of dialogues between Siva and
DurgH and said to treat of 5 subjects, I. the creation,
a. the destruction ofthe world, 3. the worship of the
gods, 4. the attainment of all objects, esp. of 6 super
human faculties, . the 4 model of union with the

supreme spirit by meditation ; cf. R T L . pp. 63, 85,

184,189. a5ff.), VarBrS- ivi, 19; Pineal.; Dai.;
Kathas. n i i i , 6 3 ; Sarvad,; a spell, HYbg, i, 5 ;
Vcar.-j oalh or ordeal,L,; N . ofa Slman (also called
that of VirfJpa '), ArshBr.; an army 'cf* "inn \
BhP. 1, 54, 15; ifc. a row, number, series, troop,
Balar. n'f.,Ti ; rdjya-t , governrn.. nt, Dai.Sfiif; 11.
ii, 8 8 ; (iMna /, 'the highest authority") Subh.; a
means which Leads to two or more results, coo-
irivince, Hariv. ii, i , 31; a drug (esp. one of specific
faculties), chief remedy, cVtrivdpa; ^parittha-
da L . ;
t a n J a , L . ; wealth, L . ; a house, L . ; happi-
oess,W.; B*J), imtt. as to be typical or hold
good, Kltyfir. avi, xs ; (J), {. for drd, SUIT.; (is,
cf. Pan. v , 4 , 1 5 9 , Ka*.; s, L.) f . * / / , a o b h . iii,
6, 7 & BhP. iii, 15, S(v Lfof ( see aliow/i*-
( a n i r x ; ihc wire or string of a lute,iarikh5r. ivii;
U|y.iv, i,aiiKani.c^.( Vrs,R Ti,i8,6)it%)

the strings of the heart, Hariv. 3210 (v.!.); any

tubular vessel of the body, sinew, vein. Pin. r, 4,
159; the plant irikd, L . ; a girl with peculiar quali-
^ T T T a. tap, cl. 1. tdpati (rarely K.; Subj.
A *fdti, RV*. v, 79, 9 ; p. iVfMifj RV. ficc,
c l 4. p. /,3.*;-n', VS, x u u , f); pf. i . tg, tatdpa.
RV. vii, 104, 1 5 ; 3. sg. "AT/*, x, 3 4 , 1 1 ; AV. vii ;

1%, i & c ; p. tepdnd, RV.; Wx.tapsydti, Br. 3tc_

fV & iaphhpati, MBh.) to give out beat, be hot,
shine (is the sun), R V . & c ; 10 make hot or warm
heal, shine upon, ib.; to consume or destroy by "heat,
ib.; to suffer pain, MBh. viii, 1794; Oil. vii, 31
(with paicd?) to repent of, MBh. viii, 39, 1 5 ; tc
torment one** self, undergo self-mortification, prac-
tise austerity ( i a p a t ) , TUp. ii, 6 ; Mn. i f.; MBh.
Sec.; to cause pain to, injure, damage, spoil, RV.-;
AitBr. vii, 1 7 ; Stir, xiv &c.: Pass, or cl. 4, A . ta-
Pydte{xivi at t d p y " , T & T . ii; p. fydmdnat A V,;
/i/y*, Kit, 56, 5 ; cf.if*; aor. atapt, RV.vii, 70, a;

ipta, Pip. Hi, i , 65, K l L ; pCtept, MBh. dec.;

p . / i n i , Bi.; also P. tapyati *pytt at*pyat,
t t Sec.,
MBh.; R.; Kathas. 1,4) to be healed or burnt, be
come not, RV. & c ; to be purified by austerities (ai
the soul), Sarvad,; to mtTer orfeel pain, RV.x, 34,
1 0 & 9 5 , 1 7 ; AV.xia, 5 6 , 5 ; Br.aiv; MBh.&c.;

to lufFeT pain voluntarily, undergo austerity (tapas),

A V . ; SBr, ; TBr,; Sha^vBr.; SankhSr. & c : Cans.
tdpayati, U (p, AV.; Pass. ^flftf, MBh,
A c ; *or.atttape Sc [Subj.] tntdpate, RV.) to mate
warm or hot, K ) , 6 ; viii, 71,4; KauL; MBh. etc.;
to consume by heat, R.cfcc.; to eaute pain, trouble,
distress, AV.xi*, aB, a; MBh.&c.; to torment one*<
self, undergo penance, iii, 8199: Intern, (p. tdftt-
Pyamdna) to feel violent psin, be in great aniiety,
R. i, 11. B;, 7 , 2 4 ; [cf. L*t, upeo fee.]
3. T * p , mfn. 'wanning one's sett? See aptx-(dp.
Tap*, mfn. ifc. ' consuming by heat/ see late-
(a$t-; 'eauring pain or trouble, distressing/ see j a -
narp- Se paraqt-; loimeuted by, Hariv. 1,45, 37^
m. heat, warmlh (cf. a - ) , Paneat. ii, 3, ft; the hot
season, Sifi. I, 6 6 ; the sun, W."; ^pOT, religion!
auiterity. Car.; Can.: (cf. mahd- & J*J ); a peculiar
form of Are (which generated the seven mothers of
Skanda), MBh. iii, 14393 ; Indra, Gal.; N. of an
attendant of Siva, L., Sch.; (o), f. N. of one of the
8 deities ofthe Bodhi-vriksha, Lath, JCXI, 4 0 4 ; cf.
T i ^ a s , in comp. for / a . c a r n - c a , i ; . the
practice o( .'ii tcrities, MBh. ; R. i ; Sarvad.; f - i
/rrs^.Mn* vi, 7 5 ) . - c s J 7 i , f . i d . MBh.
J 13 8 0 ;
Hariv. 14907 f.; MarkF.- c l t m. pi. * accumu-

lating merit by austerities,' N, of 1 clan of deities

Tind viBr,*xv,5
B ;tdmayana niaedfaJcu'd,lfoi.

Tii.par, n. warmth, heat {/aiUa tadna the 5


fires to which a devotee exposes himself in rhe hot

season, viz, 4 tires lighted in the four quarters and
the sun burning from above, Mn. vi, J ; k. BhP.
iv; BrahmaP.; cf.Ragh, xiii, 4 t ) , R V . j AV.; VS.,
SsnkhSr.; pain, suffering, RV. vii, 8a, 7 ; religious
aunerity,r>ijily mortification,penance, severe medi-
tation, special observance (e.g. 'sacred learning
with Brihmans,* protection ofsulJjects will: Ksha-
iriyas, 'giving aims to Qrahrnaiis' with Vaiiyas,
service' with Sudras, and 'feeding upon herbs
and roots' with Riihis, Mn. a i , 2 j 6 ) , RV. ix, t i j ,
3 ; (personified, S 3 , 3 f. & i o l , I, 'rather of
Manyu,' RAnukr.); AV, & c j (m., L.) N . of a
month intervening between winter and spring, VS.;
TS.i; SBr.iv;Suir.; Pin. iv, 4 , 1 3 3 , Vjrtt. 3, Pat.;
Si*, vi, 63 \ the hot season, L., Scb.; pQ-Ii>&rt

Vcdintas. 130; the 9th lunar mansion (aaarmd),

VaiBr. i, 1 9 ; ix, 1 & 4 ; N, of a Kalpa period,

KHI rdpn, m . tap; g. unchadf) heat,

glow, Mn. i n , 76*: Sak. ta. (ifc, f. d, Kom. vii,
84);heating, Njlyam. X I, 33 ; testing(go)d) by

heat, MBh. xii, 13357; Subh. {fana, GarP.); pin

(mental or physical), sorrow, affliction, MBh. & c ;
fevet,W.; (f), f. the Tstptl river('alsotheYamuDa
river.' L A Hariv. ii. loo. ao: BhP. v- 10. i S : X.

K K tdrd, mfn. i V / p ) carrying across, a

saviour, protector (Rodra), VS. xvi, 40 ; SiraUp.;
(Vrshnu) MBh. xiii, 6 9 8 6 ; high (a note), loud,
shrill, (m. n.) a high tone, loud ot shrill note, Tao-
oyaBr, vii, 1, 7 (cwnpar. -tara & superl. -fama);
TPrat,; iksha; MBh. vii; Mricch, & c . ; mfn. (fr.
///V?) shining, radiant, Megh,; Amar.; Kathas.
Uxin ; Sah. \ clean, clear, L . ; good, excellent, well
flavoured, L . , Scb.; tn. ' crossing,' see tjW-, r u - ;
*avi ng/ a my st leal rnoaosy llable( am), Rimat Up.;
SikhUp.; Sarvad,; Tantr.; Andropogon tricolor,!*.;
N. of Mani-rama (luthor of a Comm. on Bblm.) ;
TftrsLkst, mf(r>J[Fln. vii, 3 , 4 5 , V i m . 6],R. ii)n.
causing or enabling to pass or go over, carrying over,
rescuing, liberating, saving, MBh. xii (Siva); Jibal-
Up.; SivaP. cVc, [a particular prayer, b r a & t n a n } \
belonging to the siars, VS. xxiv, 10 i?k); m. a
helmsman, L . ; N. of a Daitya (conquered by India
with the assistance of SkandaJ, MBh. vi (V, (pi. the
children of that Daitya, viii, 1553)! xiii; Hariv,;
Kom. dee.; of an enemy of Vishrm, L . ; of a friend
of Slmanta, BrahmottKh. xxx; m. n. a float, raft,
L.; n. a star, MBh. v, 5 3 9 0 ; Git. vii, 1 4 ; the pupil

TSr*,f.ofV^.q.v. kaTftc*, o.N. ofa ch. of

Tantras-iii. kftrisi^y^n.'the compassion of Tara,*
N, of R. iv, ao. - k*h* <?rai) m. * star-eyed,' N,

of a Daitya {^rakaksha\ MBh, viii, 1 3 9 5 ; of 1

king of I he Nishadhas (uncle of Dhumriksha ),Sambh-
Mah. i i ; of a mountain (also ^ r a k a k t k a ) , Divyiv.
V::L. g-art*, m, a multitude of stars, Hariv. 1 6 6 1 ;
a caparison (ofa horse or elephant) ornamented witL
stars. Heat, i, 8, 315 & 9, a . - g r i r o , m. pi. N.of

ifrztivrd, mf(5)n. (fr. tiv-ra, \ftu) strong,

severe, violent, intense, hot, pervading, excessive,
ardent, sharp, acute, pungent, horrible, RV. &c.; m.
sharpness, pungency. Pan. ii. a, 8 , Vartt. 3, Pat,;
f o T v a r a (?), g. rdjanyidi;
Siva; n, pungency, W,;
a shore(fbr a.rTra?), Un. k.; tin(cf. l . / t r a ) i b > ;r

steel, L.; iron, L.; {cm\ ind. violently, impetuously,

sharply, excessively, W. \ (J), f. Hellcboms niger,
L , ; bbek mustard, L. \ basil, L ; t gaftfa-durvd,
L . ; tsradij \>^\mahd-jyotishmats 'L,;
r (inmusic)
N. of a Sruti; of a Morchanl; of theriverPadma-
g 2 . (ncrer found at the beginning of a
sentence ol verse ; metrically also t h RV.;ckPSn, r

vi, 3, 133) pray 1 1 beg, do, now, then, Lat, dum

used (esp. with the Irnper.], R V . ; hot (also with
evd or aw/ following), A V, iv, i8,6;TS.; SBr. flee;
and, Mn. ii, aa; or, i, 68; xi,aoa ; often incorrectly
written lor n u , MBh. (i, 6151 B & C) ; sometimes
used as a mere expletive ; caass tn, thoughstill
not; na or na caapi tit, notbut; xftmam or
k l m s m ca,tu or Una tn ui param tu, though
still; k&mani or bhuyas or varamna tu it (

is truebat not, erethan; U m tn, still, never-

theless ; naparam tn, oofhowever; tutu,
certainlybut, Hit. i, 3, 33.

Z T Z j r f u l , c l . 10. tolayatior/uf(oiily ful

\ J ^ i l s o f i g . ; A . , M B h O to lift up, raise, Hariv.;
R.;Bhat,l-(fut. Pass, tafayitAyaft); to dttctnanc the
weight of anything by lifting it up, weigh, compare
by weighing and examining, ponder, examine with
distrust, MBh. &c.; to make equal in weight, equal,
compare (with initr., c. g. n a b r d h m a n a i s t u l a y t
b h u t a t n anyat, 'I do not compare any other being
with Biahmaju,' BhP. v; or with an adv. terminating
m - v a t ) , R.; VarBrS. eke.; to counterbalance, out-
weigh, match, possess in the Same degree, resemble,
reach, Megh,; SarngP.; (pf. p. t u l i t a ) Bhartr. Iii St
Ragh, xiii, 7 5 ; [cf. Lat. t e - t u l - i Sec; rAaj-xoi flee;
Goth, t A u t a r t , ] T o l a , m. (for the sign Libra,
Utp. (011 VarB:. xi, xvi xxiii Sc VaiYofav. iv. t O .

Tnlya, mf(d)n. (in comp. accent. Pan. vi, a, 3]

equal to, of the same kind or class or number or
value, similar, com par sole, like (with instr. or gen,
[cf, iL, 3, 73] or ifc.; e. g. U n a f Mn, iv, S6] 01
ttasya [Ka|hUp. i, 22] or ctai- [34], equal tc 1

him'), KltySr.; Lajy ; Pip,flee.;firfor (Instr.),


Suryas, xiv, 6; even, VarBr,.iv, 2\ ; n.N.ofadance;

{am), ind. equally, in like manner, Pin.; MBh.; R. |
Hariv.; contemporaneously, Dharmaiarm. xvii, 14.
_ W W 1 - - I i - - * " -
rjpj tula, n. a tuft of grass or reeds, pa-
nick of a flower or plini, AV, xtx, 3a, 3; Kath.;
Tandya.Br.; ChUp.((rAf,tJ-); *-; Ap.;Pin.(ifc,
ind., vi, a, 131); a pencil, Divyfcv. x x x v i ; **titte,
air,!..; m. the thorn-apple, Npr.; n.(m.,L.)
cotton, MBh.; R . & c ; (<r), f, id., L,; a lamp wick,
L . ; (f),f. id.,L.; cotton,5arnkhyak.i7,Gaudap.;
Un., Sch.; - - f f l l , Subk; RamaiUp. i, So",
Sch.; The Indigo plant,L.; cf. dpa-, tndra-,udat- t

p r & h * , bhasma- iarta-,

r Jta-, hansa-. tana, n.'a
cottonflock,*Nom. ^nay ate to appear worthless,

Dhanarpj, 7. fcinnaxn, n.'cotton-bow/abow-

like instrument used for cleaning cotton, L. *-e&pa.

i.^a^cl.i.jfl^(nietricallyal30 i*;
^ y ^ J i i y a j a , Cla s./fl^,,i 36;
5 J

t a t y a j a , BhP. iii,4; fut. tyakshyati,Pa 9. vii, 2, t o,

Kli.; (vfl/Vj^,R.Ii,vii; MfirkP,; x^ atydAshit;

int t y a & t u m ) to leave, abandon, quit, RV.x, j t 6; p

Met.; MBh, Acc.; to leave a place, go away from,

Mn. vi,77; MBh.&c; (0 let go,dimuss discharge, (

VarBfS. xvii, aa; Shaft.; togive up, surrender,re

sign, part from, renounce, IfiUp. I; Mn.; MBh.&c,
{tanumot deham or ka!cvaram,*\o abandon the
body, die,' Mn, vi; MBh. &c.; p r d t j & n ot tv&sam
o i j i v t t a m ^ x o give up breath or life, ride or lose one's
life/ MBh.; R . & c ) ; P. A . to shun, avoid, get rid
of, free one s selffrom(any passion &c), MBh. cVc;
to give away, distribute, ofter (as a sacrifice or obla-
tion to a deity; tyajate ctysnologically - eifitmi).
Mm; Yajft.; MBlC&c; to act aside, leave unnoticed,
disregard,SaflkhSr.; Mruiii; MBh. 1,3098; Hit.ij,
3,30; (ind.p./^jir^i)toexcept,VarBjS.i Caurap.,
Sch.; Pass, tyajyate, to be abandoned by, get rid of
(iuitr.), Paftcat. i, lo, J ; Caus. lydjayati(aor. ati-
tyaj'at, BhaH.) to cause anyone to quit, MBh.xiii,
3 SB; 10 cause anyone to give up, Kathas, btxxiji,^;
to expel, turnout, xx, 13CJ; tocause any one to low,
deprive of (instr.), Bhaft. xv, 130; to empty the body
by evacuations, fihpr.: Dcsid. tttyakshaii, to be
about to lose (one's lift, p r d n d n ) . Car. v, 10 St la.
T y S g i , m. (, I, ai6) lea ring, abandoning,
forsaking, Mn.&c.; quitting (a plate, <rWa-), Pah-
cat.; discharging, secretion, MBh, xiv, 630; Var-
BrS.; giving up, resigning, gift, donation, distribu-
tion, KatySr.; Mn. &K.\ sacrificing one*s life, RV.
iv, 34, y liberality, Mn. ii, 971 R, & c ; a sage, L.;

s f . a t n t a - , fattu*, d t h a * p r d n a - , i a r i r a - . - ff*tS,

^ (rajftf, mf(f)n. (fr. <rt* Parj. v, 3, 43)

triple, threefold, consisting of 3 of 3 kinds, RV. x,
45, a; AV. iv, i t , 3 V S , & c . l y f v i d y d < t \ triple
; % K

tfjtfv*}, fan. ir, I,88, Pat.-Yidliaf/r/-), mfn. of J

3 kinds, triple, threefold, SBr. ati; Sirtkhfir.; Mn. 3
Sec; -damafAa*zfaj/U'kuala m t o V * Div-
t t t
s r w T. dris (Pres. forms supplied hy
\ K V f a i , q,v.; pf. P. d a d d r i a , RV. &c,
\tyt,.dadariitha m d d a d r a s k t h a , ? l y M \ , a, 6 c ] ;
A . d a d r i t f , AV. [ d d d r i i e , 3 pi. V r r V ^ R V . ; J W ,
TBr.J; p. P. dadyilvds, RV.; fc, Up.;

i/wu, q.v.j A . ddcffitdna, RV.; rat. P. d r a k s H -

y d t i , R u & t e . & * s k y a U andfut.3.rfr^/a,MBh.;

aor. P. a d a r i a m , Sas, iat 3 pi, Jn Br- 1 I pt


a,^rJwa,TS.; G<TV r/mir, JaimBr.; Subj. d a r l a m ,

lat*iathas, RV.*; AV.; A . 3 pi. d d r h r a n , VS.;
AV.; Br.; .rVaj7r, RV.; p. drii&ndordftidna [c
s.v.],RV.; F . d r i S a M z f i - d d r i t e n B i . ; P o t . ^ i -
t t
tfvrtOT,RV.; taw* AV,; P,^nttMfVand fldVtfi,

Br.; A . 3 pi. ddfikshata; Subj. 3 sg. drfkshase,

RV.; m f c ^ / a n d tfrr&sv, R V . ; drdshtum, AV,
& c ; i n i p . drishtva, AV. &c. [MBh.also rf/tViw],
* t v d y a R V , i - d r i i y a , W ? . d a r i a t r t , DaS.)tosee,
t w

behold, look at,regard,consider, RV.; AV,; SBr.;

MBh. &c.; to see, i.e. wait on, visit, MBh.; R.;
to see with themind, learn,understand, MBh.; K l v ,
&c,; to nou'ee, care for, look into, try, examine,
Yajft,; Paite.; to sec by divine intuition, think 01
find oat, compose, comrive (bymns, rites, S i c ) , Br.;
Nlr.ii, 11: Pass.d>'ji^(ep.also /0^ - *'^ o 0r fl(1

RV. & c to be seen, become visible, appear, R V , ;

AV.; SBr.; MBh.Ike.; to be shown or manifested,
appear as { i v a ) , prove, Mn.j MBh.; K l v . & c : Cam
P. A. ^ f l ^ ^ V ^ A V . & c ^ a o r . a d i d r i i a t , Br.;
a d a d a r i a [ Pin, v i i , 4 , 1 , to cause to see or be seen,

to show a thing (A, esp. of something belonging to

one's self) or person (P- and A-with or scil, dimd-
t i a m , also one's self), to {ace,, AV, iv, ao, 6 ; SBr.
SEC; gen., Mn. iv, 5 9 ; MBh^&c; dat.,R.i), 31,
3 3 ; Ragh. & c ; instr. after A . refl.. Pan, i, 4. 53,
Kii.); to show --prove, demonstrate, Mn.; MBh,;
Kav. &c.j to produce (moncy),J.e. pav, Mn. viii,
' 5 5 ! (awitness), 1 5 8 : Desid. A . didrikshatt (ep.
also / i ) to wish to see, long for (acc), RV. iii,
30, 1 3 ; SBr.; MBh. Sect Dcsid. of Caus. atdar-
S t t f h h a t i , to wish to show, Sarpk.; adidarSayi-
shtt, Nid.j Intens. d a r t d r i i y a U , to be always vis-
ible, Bhqjapr.; ddrtdars/tfi or dard, Pan. vii, 4,
no; 9 1 . [Cf. Gk. B i p x o p a t , M & o p m , itpaxav; Goth.
B i l k , in comp. for J. d t t ' i . Bclk-tarria), m,
' eye-cared," a make, L. kaiman, n. an opera-
tion by which any planet of a certain latitude (w-
fohtfa) h referred to the ecliptic, Sflryas. acttiia,
m. see drikdqd, - ksttdlla, m, the WflthfulflcSS of
the aspect (of a planet), SCryas. k*natra prob v H

v r . t A o t - c h a t t r a t ) , v , hahaYa, m. decay of light,


growing dim-sighted, MW, ^ k i h s p a , m. the sine

of the lenfth-distance of the highest or central point
ofthe ecliptic at a given time,S5ryas. chattr*,
n. *eye~cover/ eye-lid, Rajat. viii, 133. tulya,
mfn. (astron.) being in accordance with an observed
tpot, Sfj rjras.; ~td, f. ib. patha, m. range of sight j
thartt v i o r g a m , to appear, become visible,KaTid. \
Rajat p i t * , m.the letting fall a gJance, a look,
esp. a downward 1, Var.; Rajat. prasltdE. f.
'eye-cleaner/ a blue stone used for a collyrram (
kutatthdy U - p r i y B , t 'eye-delight/ beauty,
splendour, L. usrtl, f. (with the Paiupatas) a super-
natural powerofsight,Sarvad. - i r o t i , m . - k a r -
r u t L . ^aainffftma, m, sight of and meeting with

(gen.). Park, i v , 35.

7 > r l t t , in comp, for a, dpi. -ancala, m. a

sidelong glance, Prasannar. (cf. nayandSd 1
t & c a n & r i r ) . - srihyaJiatia, m. * sight-ruler, the

sun, L. antft, m- the outer corner of the eye,

Prasannar. |fttti,f.the' cosine ofthe zenith-distance
ortheaine ofthe highest orccntrai point ofthe ecliptic
at a given time, Atyabh.; Sflryas.; - / i v a , f. (Snr-
yas.); ~jyd, t (Schol. on Atyabh.) id. - irocan,
m. range of sight, horizon, Rajat. gola, tn. a
small circle on the axis of the earth within the greater
circlcsof the anniHarrspherc and accompanying each
planetary circle, W,; -rrrftij,n,N,ofwk, <-J&la,
n, *eye-water,'tears, L . jyS, tthe sine ofthe zenith-
distance orthe cosine ofthe altitude, SOryas.*-dyi-
BytL-praJtajftca, n., *d?lsya-vlv*a:a m. N . of f

wks. ^bhalctt* f, look of lore, Dtulrtas, -bfcE,

%tt d f i g b h i l * m j , f.disease of the eye, L Tudh,
mfn. obstructing the s i g h t , x b t , 70- lans-bama,
n. vertical parallax, Sutras.; Sch, vistaa, mfn,
having poisonin the eyes, L.; m. a Naga or serpent
W.(cf,rffi-), ~ v i M a a , mfn. 'deprived ofsight/
blind. Gal. - vi-itta, n. vertical circle, Suryas,; Sch.

Drift, in comp. for a. d r i i . - nli-stja,raftLwhose

eyes are like the lotus, MW. atsandala, n. verti-
cal circle. Azimuth. Arvab-V
eJ3t darsd, mfn, (Vt/rfi) ifc. * looking ot,
vi e wi ng,' se e avasdtut-, ddtrtava & vadh u ~dn r i d ,
t a t t V G < ; 'showing/see drwij-; m. apnea ranee/see
chddir-darid, dur-, p r t y a - ; {g.patddi) the moon
when just become visible, day of new moon, half-
monthly sacrifice performed on that day, AV.; (pa-
rox,) TS.,TBr. & SBr. x i ; K a o i ; AivGf, Sec, (n,,
MBh- xii, 14306); (Day of) New Moon (son of
Dhatfi, BhP. vi, J 8 , 3 ; of Krishna, x , 6 i , 1 4 ; N.
of a Sadhya, VaynP, ii, 5 , 6 ) ; du. - - p S r n a m d s d ,
TS., Sch. pa, m. pi. * drinking the new moon ob-
lation/aclass of g e ^ MBh. xiii, 1373. pvxsaav-
m&e&, m. du, (the days of) new and full moon,
ceremonies on these days (preceding all other cere-
moni),TS.if.; TBr.ii; SBr.if.; AxtBr.&c; -deva-
t d ; i . the deity presiding on those days, SaAkhGr, i,
yi'ptty m,m*-prdyakittiii.N,cdY/OT\&\
*ydjin r

mfn. - V * . TS. i i ; SBr. x; sdyana, n. - ^ s & h H ,

Sankhor. xii, 1 1 , 4 ; Vaxt.; sM{t\ f-a new and full
moon sacrifice.^Ur^asniTjriii, mfh. offering
sAtt, MaitrS. i, 5 , 13. paurxtaiuasa, in comp.;
prdyatcttta-indAt\ -vidAt, m. - A a u i r a , n. N . ol
worfu; sftA{t t f. ~ d a r i a - f i i r H * . -yaga., m. a
new moon sacrifice. ySmlnl, f. the new moon
night, L.vipadt ro. 'having the misfortune to be
hardlv visible when new,' the moon, L. vrZUtdlsft,

a Srlddha performed on new moon, VP. iii, Sch.

D&ri&ka, mfn. seeing (with gen.), Pan. ix, 3,70,
K i L ; lookingat(acc),MBh.iiii,5097; ifc.looking
for, x* 5559 ; * examining/ see a k s A a - ; showing,
pointing ont (with gen., Kum, vi, 5a ; Hit, Introd.
1 0 ; ite., Mpech. iv, ao; BhP. i, 13, 3 8 ; Rajat, x;
with hhitasya, making blood appear by striking
any one), Mn. viii, 2 8 4 ; m. a door-keeper, L . ; a
skilful man, W,; N.of a prince, VayuP. 1 1 , 3 7 , 3 1 2 ;
pi. N . of a people,, 3G1.
D&TEata, mf(^o. visible, striking the eye, con-
spicuous, beaotifol,RV.; AV.iv, vii,xviii; SBr. xiv,
8 ; m.the sun, Un... Sch.; the moon, ib.; cf. v i i v d * .
a r i , mfn. of conspicuous beauty, RV. x OT, a. f

D i r s a i i a , mf(f)n* showing. Pan. v, 2, 6 ; ifc.

seeing, looking at (see t u l y a - d r v a - , s a m a - ) , Ragh.

xi,93: 'knowing,* t t t d h a r m a - ; exhibiting,teach-

ing, MBh.8,583; BhP.v,4,tt; n.seeing,observing,
looking, noticing observation, perception JtV.i,! t 6 ,
Darsln, mfh. ifc. seeing, looking at,observing, ex-
amining,finding,MBh. viii, 1757; R, cc; knowing,
understanding, (G) ii, 64, 3 ; Sak. i, f t ; Ragh. xiv,
7 1 ; Kum. ii, 1 3 ; Hit. i ; receiving, Mricch, ii, 7 ;
experiencing, R. Hi, 65, f 1 ; composer (of a hymn,
sukta-}; looking, appearing, iv, 40, 4 8 ; showing,
exhibiting.teaching, MBh.; Sak. i v , | K a t h a s . Ivi,
3 0 3 1 inflicting (cf. P&P&-X R. ii, 7 s, 1 1 ; Hariv.

3, DiV, djfi (nom, dyatts; voc, dy&us [RV. vl,

5 1 5 5 AV. vi, 4, 3]; acc.dyatn dtvam;
instr. dwd

or d/vd [see below]; dat. dive \dyavt, MBh. i,

39 34 ]; (mely <r>fr, e. g. RV. iv, a 7,

3 1 115,5}; loc, <AW,dydvi; da.dydvd, s.v. [<rr/<fz!f
as voc. only iv, 56, 5]; pi. nom. dyavas [divas only
ix, 118,11J; acc, dyun [rarely divas, divds, e, g. i,
194, a; iv, 3, 8 ] ; insir. dydbhis; native gramma*
nans give as stems dtv and dyo ; the latterfrdeclined
through all cases like g & , but really does not occur
except in forms mentioned above and \ndyo-satita,
MBh. viii, 4658, white d i p and dyu regularly alter-
nate before vow. aod cons.), m. (rarely in Ved,,
f. in later Skr. heaven, the sky (regarded in Ved. as
rising in three tiers [avama, madhyama, uttamn
ot t r i t i y a , RV. v 60, 6 8 c c ] , and generally as the

lather {dyadsh p i t a , while the earth is the mother

[cf. dydvd-prithivi\ and Ushas the daughter),
rarely as a goddess, daughter of Praj5pati, AitBr. iii,
3 3 ; SBr. 1,7,4, O t m. (rarely n.) day (esp. in pl.and
in such forms %%dlvd\ by day (cf. t. v.); dydvi-ayavi,
daily, every day; dnu dyun, day by day, daily; dyd~
bhis and upa dydbhis, by day or in the course of
days, a long lime, RV,; m. brightness, sheen, glow
(only dydbhis\ RV. i, 53, 4 ; iii, 3, a & c ; fire
(nom. d y i i s ) , L. [Cf. dyu \ Gk. Ztfr, Aifes &c.->
dyads, divas; Lat, Jou, Ju in Ju-ptUr t /avis,
i M i i Rtf mm/fv/niAt, dvsmi * Cl V Tint* C\ W C
a. D i v y a {divya, Pa ij, i v, 2,101), mfh. di vin e, hea-
venly, celestial (upp, to f d r t k i v a , dtttarihsha 01
mdnusha), RV.; AV.; SBr.; Kans.; MBh. &c.;
supernatural, wonderful, magical (^^tjrdjRV.x, 34,
9; auskadha, Bhartr, ii, 18 ; vdsas, Nal. xiv, 24;
cf. -eakshus, - j i l d n a &c. below); charming, beauti
ful, agreeable, R.; Kathas. &c.; m. a kind of animal
{ d h a n m n a ) , VarBfS. Ixxxviii, 9 ; barley, L . ;
bdellium,!,.; N.ofa prince, Pur.; ofthe author of
RV. x , t07 Sec.; i d ) L N. of plants t {^harttakt,
bandhyd, karkotaht, Satdvart mahd-meda
t Sec.),
L.; a kind of perfume -~surd L . ; N. ofa Boddh,

deity,Katac.;ofan Apsaras,, Sch.3 n. the divine; world

or anything d; pi. the celestial regions, the sky,
heaven, RV.; an ordeal(iOkinds, viz. tuld, agni,
j a i a , visAn, kffia, languid, tapta-mdsha, pAd/a,
d h a r m d d h a r m a , ulasi cf. ss. v vr), Yajn. ii, a a, 05;

Paiic.i, \ \\, 45t,453 &c.; oath,solemn promise. Hit

i v , i # ; cloves, L , ; a sort of sandal, L . ; N, of a gram-
mar. [Cf. Gtc. I T 0 1 for ttCtat - dins for diwius

D l p t i , f. brightness, light, splendour, beauty, o" Br.;

Mn.(cf,iff/.4fi-)&c.; theflash-likcflighiofanaTrovrj
L , ; lac, L . ; brass, . ; ro. N . of one of the Vi'five
Deris, ~ k a r & , m f ^ o r j)n. irradiating, illuminat-
ing, MW_ ~ k e t n . m. N . ofa son of Manu Dak-

slia-savarni (cf, dipta~\ VP, mat, mfn*bright,

splendid,brilliant, M l 3 h , ; K a v . & c . ; m, N . o f a son
of Kjishna, Hit.; (/), f. (in music) N , ofa Sruti.

P I T T & p * <^4* & * & p y a t e (dipydte^Br*,

^ydfpjtati, MBh., pf, dtdipte, Ragh. ^ 4 7 ;
fat. dtpishyate, dipttd; aor. adtfi, adlpish(at inf.
dipUum^Vlx). vii, a, S, Sch.; iii, I , 6 1 ) toblase,
flare,shine, be luminous or illustrious, A V , ; Br.;
Mn.; MBh.; KSlid.cVc.; glow, burn (also with an-
ger, Bhatt..); Caus. dlpdyalt, rV, aor. adidtpat or
a d i d t p a l (Pan. vii, 4 , 3) to kindle, set on fite, in-
flame, TSno'yaBr. xvt", 1; A S v G r . i ^ G ; KauS.6o&c, j
illuminate, make illustrious, M B h . ; Hariv. &c.j
excite, rouse, ib,; Dcsid, d i d i p t s h a t c : lntcns. d e -
dipyttU, to blaze fiercely, shine intensely, be very
bright,MBh.; BhP,; r ^ o W ^ d ^ / r , M B h . v u , 8 l 3 S ,
i f i ^ t dlrgltd, mf(fi)n. (com par, dragklyat,
super), draghishtha [qo,, vr.}; rarely d l r g h a t a r a
[Fane iv, tf ] and tama [BhP. vii, 5, 4 4 ] ) long (in
space and time), lofty, high, tall; deep, RV.; AV,; Br.
&c.; long (in prosody), Pr3t,, Mn. &c,; { A m ) ind.
long, for a longtime (yv$ti\.aiainaith BhP, iii, 1,37)*
m, a long vowel, Gobh. it, 8 , 1 5 , KltySr.&c.; a camel,
L,; Saccharam Sara; Shore a Robust a, = u t k a { a , rd*
m a - S a r a &c. L , ; a mystical N . of the letter a , Up.;
the 5th or 6th or 7th or 3 th sign ofthe zodiac, Jyot.;
N, ofa prince of Magsdha, MBh. 1, 4 4 5 1 ; of Siva,
MBh. xiii, 1 1 5 8 ; (if), f. an oblong tank (cf.
* g h i k a ) R. v, 16, 3 7 ; a kind of plant
7 -fattrd,
L , ; a mystical N. of the letter n . Up.; n, a species
of grass, L , ; N , of a Saman, A t s h B r . [ F t V d r d g & ;

J J W t . duhkhd, t a i n , (according t o gram- j

mariana properly written dush-kha and said to be !
from and k h a [cf, j*Ad]; but more probably
a Prakritixed form for dulyttha, q.v.) uneasy, un-
comfortable, unpleasant, difficult, R.; Hariv, (com*
par. -Sara, MBh,; R,); n. (ifc. f. uneasiness,
pain, sorrow, trouble, difficulty, JBr, xiv, 7, %, t$;
Mn.; MBh. &c. (personified as the son of Naraka
andVedan l,V P.); { a m ) , ind. witfa diJficu ttjr, scarcely,
hardly (also dt and erut\ MBh.; R , i impert, it it
difficult to or to be (inf. with an acc. or nom., R, vii,
6, 3 8 ; Bhag. v, 6 ) ; dukkhnm -*fdt tto be sad or
uneasy; Ram, ir, J l ; * V k r U to cause or feel pain.

<j3,ch* (ttho\vrittend5),cl*5. P . 4 . A , ( D h i -
tup. xxvji, to; xxvi, 3 4 ) d t t n a t i ) duyate (cp. also
*/**; pf. duddva; fut. doshyati; aor, a d a u t h U ; inf.

d & t u m ) , to be burnt, to be consumed with internal

heat or sorrow (Prci. dunoti, MBh, iii, HXriSo;
BhP. iii, a, 17: G I L itt, 9 ; but oftener d u y a t e ,
which is at once Pass.), M tJh.; SuSr.; K i v, &c,; (only
d u n S t t ) to born, consume with rue, cause internal
heat, pain, or sorrow, afflict, distress, A V, ix, 4 , 1 8 j
MBh,; VarBrS,; Kav.r Caus.dfivayati,aor. a d Q d u *
vat 1 DesidL dudushaii: ltitens. doduyatt, dedoti.
[Cf. *ai*j for taft<>; M t f , pain; Lit, davytt\ to tor*
5r=T d r i n k or d r i f t , cl. l . P. d r i d h a t i , to
mikefinivrii^eiit^hen.RV.; AV.; VS.
&c. (p. rf/Vfl&fWo/B.AV. xii, a*}); A . /r, to be
firm or strong, RV. Ac. (trans. P. only in d r i $ -
h l t h t , RV. vi, 6 7 , 6 , *fk& drin.h5makait Br. ii, 1,
1 , 9 ) ; el. 4. P. A . only Impf. d r i A y a and Ayasva,
be itrong, RV,; cl. I, 4arhati t to grow, DMtup.

U r i a h * (r dfllluL\ mfn. fixed, firm, hard]

strong,'*oR massive, R V . ; AV.;&Br.; MBh.&c;
firmly fastened,shut fist, light, close (e.g. ship, 5 2 , 5 ;
bonds, fetters, chains, Bit, 1, \ \ ; Mpcch. vii, ; fist,
MBh, 1^,1976); whole, complete (opp. X o b A i n r t j ) ,
MBh. a-Ui, 7 4 5 3 ; difficult to be bent (bow, ChUp.
i,3,e); steady, resolute,persevering, Hiriv.; Kithla_;
con finned, established, certain, mrc, Mn.; MBh.;
K.v. Set j intense, violent, mighty, MBh.; Klv.
sSec.; (in mi them.) reduced to the fut term or small-
est number by 1 common divisor; m, (in music) a
kind of ROpaka; N. of a son of the 13th Minn,
Hariv.; of 1 son of DbriU-rlshtra, MBh. vii; { d ) r

f. N. ofa Buddh, goddess; n. anythingfixedor firm

or solid; stronghold, fortress, RV. &c.; iron, L . ;
(dm), ind. firmly, (art, A V . ; MBh.; R* &c. (comp.
t a r a m , Prab. iv, 11} ; steadily, perseveringly,
thoTOunhly mnch,vcryweil.MBh.; K i r . ; BhP.cte.
W V l - <*W* (Pres. forms supplied hy
\ K V/ai t q-v,; pf. P. daddria RV. Sec

\tt.dadarjitha mAdadrashiha Vln y\\

t r r a, 65];
K . d a d r i i i , AV. [dddriie, 3 pi. Vr*>r,RV.; JW P

TBr,J; p. P. dadyilvds, RV.; fc, Up.;

f/awr, q.v.; A. d d d f i i a n a , RV.; Int. P. draksk-

y & H , l s * * S e c \ & * s k y a U andfut.a.rfraj/a,MBh.;
aor. P. a d a r i a m , AM, 3 pi. Jn Br- 1 I" pt
tbiarsma, TS.; a d r t i m a , JaimBr.; Subj. d a r i a m ,
iat*iathas, RV.S AV.; A . 3pi. d d f t i r a n , VS.;
AV.; Br.; ,fra7r, RV.; p. driiSndordftiana [c
s.v.],RV.; P.*r>i'iflM 3pt.Jrfr<Va Br.; Pot.taW-
( (

rVvam ,RV,; t o m j , A V , ; P,<aaVr*MrVand fltfrrfi,

Br.; A . 3 pi. d d f i f o h a t a ; Subj. 3 sg, d r { k s h & K t

RV.; I n E ^ / a n d o > r ^ RV.; d r & s h t n m , AV,


&c.;irid.p.^to/ AV.&^

*tvdfa RV.;
t - d r i i y a R Y - i - d a r i a m , DaS.)tosee,

behold, look at,regard,consider, RV,; AV,; RT.;

MBh. &c.; to see, i.e. wait on, visit, MBh.; R.;
to tee with themind, learn,understand, MBh.; Kzv.
&c,; to notice, cire for, look into, try, examine,
Yajfi.; Pane; to see by divine intuition, think or
find out, compose, contrive (hymns, rites, SLC), Br.;
o 0r fl( fr
N i r . i i . u : Pass.d>'ji^(ep.also /0^ - ^ ^
RV. Sec to be seen, become visible, appear, R V . ;
AV.; SBr ; M B h . & c ; to be shown or manifested,
appear as ( i v a ) , prove, Mn.j MBh.; K l v . & c : Caul'
P. A. d a r t a y a H ^ U j h W . & c - ^ t . adidriSat, Br.;
adadarfat, Pin, vii,4, 7, to cause to see or be seen,
to show a thing (A, esp. of something belonging to
one's self) or person (P. and A . with or scil. a t m a -
tusm, also one's self), to (ace., AV, iv, ao, 6 ; SBr.
SEC; gen., Mn. iv, 5 9 ; MBh^&c; dat,,R.ii, 31,
3 3 ; Ragh. & c ; instr. after A . wfl.. Pan, i, 4. 53J
Kii.); to show--prove, demonstrate, Mn.; MBh,;
Kav. &C.j to produce (moncy),_i.e. paj% Mn. viii,
' 5 5 ! (awitness), 1 5 8 : Desid. A . didrikshatt (ep.
also */*-') to wish to see, long for (acc), RV. iii J

30, 1 3 ; SBr.; MBh. Sect Desid. of Caus. at'dar-

Sayhhati, to wish to show, Sarpk,; adidarSayi-
shtt, Nid.j Intens. dartdriiyatc, to be always vis-
ible, Bhojapr.; aarxdars/tfi or dkrrf , Pin. vii, 4,

9 0 ; 9 1 . [Cf. Gk. BipxopatitfSQpm, itpaxav; Goth.

Dxlk, in comp. Tor J. dyii. Dirtk-kftriia., m,
'eye-cared, a snake, L. - k a r m a n , n. an opera-
tion by which any planet of a certain latitude (vi-
fohtpa) h referred to the ecliptic, Sflryas. kfiiia,
m. see d r i k d r i a . krodsiss, m, the wrathfulucs* of
the aspect (of a planet), Suryas. kaliatra, prob H

w.tAot-hattra,t\. v, kaha\ym,m.decayof sight,

growing dim-sighted, MW. ^kahspa, m. the sine
of the zenith-distance of the highest or central point
ofthe ecliptic at a given time, Siiryas. chattra,
n. 'eye-cover/ eye-lid, Rajat. viii, 133. tolyav,
mfn. (astron.) being in accordance with an obse rved
spot, Sfjryas,; -fd, ib. patha, m. range of sight j
thapt v i or gam, to appear, become visible,KiYid. ;
Rajat- - p S U , m.the letting fat I a glance, a look,
esp. a downward t, Var.; Rajat. pra^SdJl. f.
'eye-cleaner/ a blue stone used for a coilyrium {
k u t & t t h & y L , ~ p r i y a , t eye-delight/ beauty,
sple adour, L . salrtl, f. (with the Pasupatas) a super-
natural powerofsight,Sarvad. - fentl,m. -Air-
na,V. ^ a a i a g T u n f t , m* sight of and meeting with
(gen.). Pane, iv, 35.

DfleT, in comp, for a. dpi. - aicala, m. A

sidelong glance, Prasannar. (cf. nayandisc and
t & c a n d t i r ) . acUiy&kaha., ra. * sight-ruler, the
sun, L . antja, ro. the outer corner of the eye,
Prasannar, |fati,* cosine ofthe zenith-distance
ortheamc ofthe highest orccntral point ofthe ecliptic
at a given time, Atyabh.; Sflryas.; -pvd, f. (Sur-
yas.); t (Schol. on Atyabh.) id. - g r o a n ,
m. range of sight, horizon, Rajat. fola, tn. a
small circle on the axis of the earth within the greater
circles of the armiilarysphere and accompanying each
pJaneiarycircle,W,; -rarrrfci*,ii,N,ofwk, <-Jal&,
n, *ey e-water,'tears, L . jy5, the sine ofthe zenith-
distance orthe cosine ofthe altitude, Sttryas.^dfl-
*7a-prakarana, n., *drlsya-viv*ka, m. N . of
wk*. ^bhakti, f. look of lore, Dhflrtas. -bfcE,
%tt dyig&hH* m j , f.disease of the eye, L rudh,
mfn, obstroctingthe sight, S& xht, 70. lambajii,
n. vertical parallax, Sutyas.; Sch. vtsiaa, mfn,
having poisonin the eyes, L . ; m. a Naga or serpent
W,{cL ^ T i W a a , mm. 'deprived of tight,'

blind. Gal. vjittav,n. vertical circle, SOiyas.; Sch.

Drift, in comp. for a. d r i i . - xtTi-aJa,rafu.whose
eyes are like the lotus, MW. anandala, n. vertJ-
ral circle. A7.im11f.l1. Arvabh.
a, S?is,n>, (nom, Jt, Ved, , Pin. vii, i , 83) see-
ing, viewing, looking at; knowing, discerning,Yajfi,;
MBh, & c tffc., cf. fyurvtda-cr disAta-d pri~
t t

thag-d*, mdntra-dr, sama^d?, sarva*d, s f i r y a -

O ; f, sight, view (dat, d r U i a* inf.,cf. V i . d p i ) ;

took, appearance (to I ' d * , ki-d*, td-d**); the eve,
R,; Var, & c (also n., BhP. iv, 4 , 7 4 ) ; theory,doc
trine* Vcar.; (astro).) the aspect of a planet or the
observed spot [Cf. Gk. fpa for Span i n imoBpa.}
*>riia,m. look, appearance (cf. i-d, khd, /d-d
Scc,)'- { a m ) , ind, 3.rfjrrV,ifc, (g. i a r a d - S d i ) ;

(<f), f. the eye, L. JD?i&kakahya, n. 'desirable

to the eye/ a lotus, L. Djiiaaphiita-mal* (or
i&.sph l\ 6
f, N. of wk. DriaSpama., n. < re-
sembling the eye/ Nelnmbium Speciosum.
D^llatf, f. look, appearance, RV, vi, 3,
Drliana, rru (cf. t . d r i i ) a Brahman or spiritual
teacher, L , ; N.of a Riih) with the patr, Bhlrgava,
K2fh,; of a demon, L . ; . light, brightness, L.
DrlfSln, m.the sun, L.
D?iai> f. seeing, the power of seeing, Vedantas,
(dat. *idye as int, cf. 1. d r i S ) ; the eye, BhP.(also
L.); a SJstTi,W. mat, mfn. seeing, behold-
ing, BhP.
D f l i i k a , mfn. worthy to be seen, splendid, RV.;
{ d ) f. look, appearance, ib. (cf. t i t r a - , dur~ su-),
t t

kti, m, beholder, TS.

Dyisjny, mfn, - d r t t i k a RV. x, 88, 7.

DjJiaa. See d n a t i - (add.)

1. D?iy*,mfn.risible, conspicuous, RV.; MBh.;
Klv. &e.; to be looked at, worth seeing, beautiful,
pleasing, Hariv,; K i r . ; Pur.; m. (arithm.) a given
quantity or number; n, any visible object, Malav. i T

9; the v world, R T L . 119; N.of a town* - p t t r a ,

Brahmap. jRtl, f, (arithm.) reduction ofa given
quantity with fractions affirmative or negative. tSr
f, (Daiar.), -tva, n. (Var.) visibility, vision, sight.
pnra, n. N . ofa town (see above). STavya,
mfn. being seen or heard; -tva t n. Sah, arthS-
pita, mfn. placed conspicuously, Kathas. xxiv, 93.
D?i7&d?l*ya, mfn. visjble and invisible; ( a ) , f.
N. ofSinlvltt, MBh. iii, 14116. D?iiy6tar,mfD,
'other than visible,* invisible; -td f. Naish.
DfishtA, mfn, teen, looked at, beheld, perceived,
noticed, Mn.; MBh.; KSv,&c,; visible, apparent,
AV,; VS.; considered, regarded, treated, used, Sak.
iii, 7; Pane, i, %l; appeared, manifested, occurring,
existing,found,real, Kav,; Pane.; Hit.; experienced,
learnt, known, understood, MBh.; Kav. & c ; seen
in the mind, devised, imagined, MBh.; R.; allotted,
destined, ib.; settled, decided, fixed, acknowledged,
valid, Mn.; Yajii.; MBh. &c,; n. perception, ob-
servation, Samkhyak.; Tattvas,; (scil. bhaya) a real
or obvious danger, karnutn, mfn. whose actions
are seen or proved, tried by practice, MBh.; Rajat.;
who has seen the practice of others, Suir.; Bhpr.
kuh^sv, mm. who has experienced calamity,
Rajat. kfi$a,,n, riddle, enigma,W, earsvnf(f)n,
seen before, not quite unknown, Jatakam. taa,
ind, as something seen, Oobh, iii, 5, 37. *>, n.
the being seen or Icamt or examined. Var.; Kap.

D t r t t S , f, godhead, divinity (abstr. & concr.),

RV.; AV,; Br. &c.; image of adeity, idol, Mn. iv,
130; MBh.; Pur. {ifc. -jfo, Ku!L viii, 305); N, of
the organs of sense (cf. deva\ SBr. ti, 5 , 2 , 2 &c,;
(if), ind. with divinity, i.e. with a god (gods) or
among the gods, R V . ; A V . - s j l r (^a/*), a.

place, part, portion, VS.; AitBr,; Sr. Sz GrS.; Mn.

&c, j province, country, kingdom, R.; H it.; Kathas.;
Vet,; institute, ordinance, W. (deiam d s/vas or w/-
/vii, to settle in a place, Mn.; it in the proper

place [esp. with AE/*],MBh.; Hit. Often ifc. [f.i,

Ragh. vii 47; RU. i, 37] esp. *fter a word denoting

a country or a part of the body, e. g. kdmboja~ nia~


gttdAa-i agra-fJiaittAa^fSkandha-j dtmrya;one'$

efttj 2. dosha, m . , r a r e l y n . ( v V i t r A ) fault,

vice, defki<ncy,want, inconvenience, disadvautage,
Up.; Mn.; MBh,; Kav. flee; badness, wickedness
sinfulness, Mn.; R.; offence, transgression, guilt
crime (acc. with */f i or iab/i, to incur guih), SrS.
Mn,; MBh. & c ; damage, harm, bad consequence
detrimental effect {nAsha doshah, there is no harm
M t r a d , what does it matter?), Mn.; MBh,; Kav
& c ; accusation, reproach [ ? $ h a m y / j e r i or shem
^^ajwwith acc, to accuse), R.; alteration, affection
morbid elemeut, disease (esp. of the 3 humours o
the body, viz. pitta vdyu, and Mesh m a n [cf.rV*

dosha and dhatu], applied also to the humour

Da.ur, Vfiddhi of dur for dm. sVtmya, n. bad-

heartedness, wickedness, depravity, MBh,; Kav,
<kc; myaia, mfn. wicked, evil (deed), R. tod-
A M ( d a d r - ) , t U / r i d h ) want of success, TBr.
i t i , n, mischief, harm, SBr. Jf*> ee d a u r g a .
~g%Xj*, n, distress, misery, poverty, MBh. Ice.
-ffsvndJia (Divyav.) and CHi (W.), m.; d.hy ft

(MBh.), n. bad smell, fetor. gaJii, m. 'descendant

of Dur-gaha,' patr. of Puxu-kutsa (Naigh. 'horse'),
RV. iv, 41, S. Jsma, mf(f)n. consisting of bad
people (company), Nalac; nya n, wickedness, de-

pravity; evil, wrong, Hit.; BhP,; ill-will, envy, Sarng-

P. - jlvitya ( d a d r - ) , n a miserable existence, AV.

t 7 , 3 . bala, (v.I, for) lya,n, weakness, Im-


potence, MBh. & c brfthmsqiya, n. the state of

being a bad Brahman, KatySr.; Sch. bnitfine-
yss, m. the son of a woman disliked by her husband
(g. k a l y a n y ~ d d i ) \ (f), f. the daughter ofa disliked
woman. triAsrjm, n. (fr. dur-bhaga or -bhqgtr)
ill-luck, misformnc, Vajfi.i, 383; (<fctV-),unhappi-
ness of a woman disliked by her husband, AV.;
MBh. &c. -bhikalaa, n. famine, Tandy*Br.,Sch.
bhratra,, n, discord between brothers,g.yuvUdi.
madya, n. brawl, fight, L. manaaSjana, m.
patr, fr. Ihuwnanas, g. aiv6di, manaaja, n, de-
jectedncss, melancholy, despair, Var.; Parle, dec,
msuattya, n, bad consultation or advice, Bhartr.
it, 34 (v. I, d u r - m a n t r d ) . mitri, m. metron. fr.
d u r - m i t r a (g, b a h v - & d i ) . jnukhi, m, patr. fr.
d u r - m t t h h a MBh. vii, 7008 dec jodbana*

r/r*i_ 1 > i I-*' + r \ jy utrii

Drsvab^ri, m, one who sees, A V . ; SBr,; MBh,
& c (also as and sg. fut., MBh, I, 1685); one who
tees well^R. i i So, 3; one who examines or decides

in a court of law, a judge, Yajft,; Mfkch. tva,

n. the faculty of seeing, Kap.; Samkhyak.: BhP.
^"sT dua&dvd, n . (the repeated nom. of
ir&ij)r^ir coiJpIe,male ind female,TS,; Br.;
t MBh.;
Kav. Sec. {dm, e, or e r t a , ind. by iwo, face it> fece,
iccretly); a pair of opposite* (e.g. heal ind cold, joy
and sorrow ckc,) Up.; Mn.; MBh.; R. &c.; strife,

quarrel, contest, fight (esp. between two persona, a

dncl) MBh.; R,; Hit.; stronghold,fortress,L . ; m,

[tdLsamdsa; rarely n.) a copulative compound (or

any c in which the members, if nncompoonded
would be in the same case and connected by the con-
junction and/cf. devatd-, n a k s h a t r a - \ Pan. ii, j ,
39; 4 i ; m. N. of sev,Ekfthas,KatySr.; the sign of

Ihe^odiacGerninifOol^tinrmii^akind ofmessure;
a species of disease, a complici lion of two disorders.
VI dhara,m f(a) n( >/dftp)liearing, aupport-
jQg(5ciJ.[hc world, M o f Krishna Bad iva),MBh.;
ifc, holding, bearing, carrying, wearing, possessing,
having, keeping (also in memory), siistaJning, pre-
serving, observing (cf, afju- aksi\a-, kviam~
t &t. ),
MBh.; R- Sec,; m. > mono bin, Kir- XT, l a ; (cf.
kshisi-, bkQ- & c ) ; a flock of cotton, L . ; a frivol
ous or dissolute man (--fiftf), L , ; a sword, Gal.; N 4

DfaVasu, MBh.; of a foflowerofthePBndaras,jb,;

ofthe king ofthe tortoises, L . ; of the father of Pad-
ma-pribha (6th Arhat of pres. Ava-sarpinl), L , ;
(<f), 'bearer, supporter/ the earth, M n , ; MBh.;
Kav. Sec,; the u t e r u s or womb, Bhpr.; a vein or
tabular vessel of the body, L . ; marrow, L . ; a mass
of gold] or heap of valuables (representing the earth
ana given to Brahman*), W , ; oue of the 8 forms of
Sarasvati, id,; N. of one of the wives of Kafjapa
(mother of (he landand wateT-btrds,prob.theEarth),
Hariv. aja (v.I, i r d ; n, poison, L . (v.L d a r a ) .
pi4$a * d *ana, m. N* of a priocei of the Vil-
labht dynasty, IQ*CT, *auu|iBtliav, mfn. mountain*
like, MW. BbiiriidJa*xI,f.'support ofthe moun-
tains/ the earth, L,

Phjjcaja*, mf[f)n. beari ng, supporting,VS.; T Ar.;

m, a dike or bank, L , ; the world, L . ; the iun, L . ;
the female breast, L , ; rice-corn, L . ; N. of a king of
the Na gas, atr.;m. or c a sort of weight variously
reckoned as10 Pitas, * l 6 silver MJshakai, 1
ulverPurana, fa Satamana, - J Q Nishpava, (
Karlia - VPala -a4Ralciika,Mn,;YajrL;Su^^
T T (

Var,&c; n. the act of bearing, holding, A c , Kav.;

bringing, procuring (ctidmi'); support, prop. *t*y
(cf, M t h i v T - t a m n a - ) ' , a panic, high number,

Buddh. (of. dhamana, dhamard)\ {I), f., see s, v,

- p r l r i t f, N . of the goddess executing the com-
mands of the 19th Arhat, Jain,
I. B h i r i w , rru (rarely n., g. ardhartddi; the
older form of the RV. Udhdrman,^, v.) that which
ii established or firm, steadfast decree, statute, or-
dinance, law; usage, practice, customary observance
or prescribed conduct, duty} right, justice (often as a
synonym of punishment) ; virtue, morality, reHgion,
religious merit, good works {dhdmtena or mdf,
ind. according to right or rule, rightly, justly, ac-
cording to the nature of anything; cf. below ; me
sthtia, mfh. holding to the law, doing one's duly),
A V . t f c & c . ; LaworJusiicepersonif.(u lodra,S8r.
&c, j as Yama, MBh.; as born from the right breast of
Yam a and father of 5ania, Kama and Harsha, ib.;
as Vishrju, Hariv,; as Praji-pati and son-in-law of
Daksha, Hariv,; M n . & c ; aioneof tbe attendants
of the Sun, L<; as a Bull, Mn. viii, 16 ; as. a Dove,
Kithlfi. vii, 89, &c,) j the law or doctrine of Bud-
dhism (as distioguished from the sahghaot monastic
order, MWB. 70) ; the ethical precepts of Buddhism
(or the principal dharma called siitra, as distin-
guishedfromthe abhi-dharma or 'further dharma
andfromthe vinaya or 'discipline/these three consti-
tuting the canon of Southern B, MWB. 61); the law
of Northern B (in 9 canonical scriptures, viz. Prajha*
piramita, Ganda-vyu ha, Dasa-bhtimftvara, Sarnadhi-
raja, Lankftvailra, Saddharma-pundarika, Tatha-

meyayor dA, the lertinm comparationia. Pan, ii, r,

5, Sch-); apartie.cercnK>ny,MBh.xiv,26?3; sacri-
fice, L . ; the ninth mansion,Var.; an Upnrshad, L - ;
astodatiDg with the virtuous, L . ; religious abstrac-
tion, devotion,L.; ** vjxcmd, L . (cf. above); a bow,
Dharma!.; a Soma-driiilter, L . ; N, of the 15th
Arhat of the present Ava-sarpirjT, L . ; of a son of
Ann and father of Ghrita, Hariv,; of a i of GandhSra
a n d f o f Dhrita, Pur.; of a **of Haihaya and F of
Netra,BhP.; ofa sof r^ithu-iravas and fofUlauas,
ib,; of a J of Su-vrata, VP. (cf, dharma'Suird)\
ofaiofDirgha-tapas,VayuP.; ofakingofKaimira,
R'j.ivjCyS; of another man, ib. vii, 85 ; of a lexi-
cographer &c< (also p a t t q i t & ~ & h a ( ( a
r ind-Sdstrm),
3>harmln, m(h. knowing or obeying the raw,
fafthml to duty, virtuoua, pious, just, Gaut.; MBh.;
R.; endowed with any characteristic mark or pe-
culiar property, Hariv.; Kavyc\(ef, below); Sah,;
(ifc.) following the laws or duties of having the t

rights or attributes or peculiarities of, having any-

thing as a characteristic mark, subject to any state
or condition, Mn.; MBh.; Kiv.; Pur. & c ; m . the
bearer of any characteristic mark or attribute, object,
thing, Kap.; N.of the 14th VySsa, DevibhP.jof*
king, VP.;(iVif), f, a kind of perfume, L . ; N.of a
j . t ft -. n * . _ r- .1

j . dhl cL 3 . A . dldh'tte,
jft t &c R V . (cf.
i/didhi; the forms d k i m a h i and Adhdyi
belong rather to *J I. dkd ; pf. didkaya, "dAirna,
0 0
dAiyuroi dAyur,dAirt,iXV ; t AV.; Br.)toper-
ceive, think, reflect; wish,desire: Intens.dtdhyai,

3, Dhi,f. thought,(esp.)religious thought, reflec-

tion, meditation, devotion, prayer (pi. HolyThoughts
persooif.)RV.; undemanding, intelligence,wisdom
(personif.asthewifeof Rodra-Manyu, BhP.), know-
ledge, science, art; mind, disposition, intention, de-
sign (ifc, intent upon, Kav.); notion, opinion, the
taking for (comp.), RV. Sec. Sec. {ydthd dhiya or
dhiya nd according to thy wisdom or will; i t t h a

dhiya or dhtyafr, willingly, lit. such is thy will, RV.);

N. of the jth house from the Lagna, Var. *a*-

^ T T dhyat, cl. I. P, dhyayati (ep. also U

orcl. v.dhydti; impv,dkydht; \?tiL,dhyd-
ydt Br. % yUa, Up.; pert dddhyau,
t Br, &c.; aor.
ddhydstty Br,; 3 . pi. dhydsur, MBh,; fut. flMyflj-
y a f t l h . \ d h y d t d , & r . i ind.p.dkydtvd,fb.; -dft^f-

/ a , MBh,; dhydyam, Kathas.)to think of, imagine,

conteraplate,roeditateon,callto mind, recollect (with
or sell, manasd or* atatd\ dhiya thyidayeSiG.\
Br.; Gp&SrS.; MBh.; Kav.&c.; to brood mis-
chief against (acc.),T&\; (alone) to be thoughtful 01
meditative, MBh.-, Kiv.fice.; to let the head hang
down (said of an animal), Car,: Pass. dk^dyate t to be
thought of, See., lb.; Caus. dhydfayah, Gr.: Des!d H

didhydsate* 3 B M Intens. dddAydyate, dddhydti,

dddhyeti, Gi.
Dhyftn*,c. meditation, thought, reflection^ (esp.)
profound and abstract religious meditation, { aunt
Spad d'-Jsthdot
t ^nam-Z/gam, to indulge tn r
m )ChUp.i M n . ; MBh,; K i r . &C. (with Budd-
hists divided into 4 stages, MWB. 3 0 9 ; Dharraas.
laaii; but also into 3, ib. cix); mental representa-
tion of the personal attributes of a deity, W.; insen-
sibility, duIness,Bhpr*; (d), m.N.of a partic. per-
sonification, MaitrS.; of the 1 ith day of the light half
tn Brahml's month, Pur. <- ffunysv, mm. attainable
by meditation, MW, SJOOUJI, a partic, class
of deities, Lalit c3crts.njti n. the eye of n f \ R (

cchedsv, m. interruption, of thought or m, Bhartr.

. . -1 M ~c . . * u . ' / 1 r. ~* jo
n n

i.dAru, cl.6. P . diruwfo (Natfrh.ii, 14)

to go i to be firm orfixed(also ct 1. P. dhravati,
Dhltvp. xxii, 4 5 ; p. dhruvtf, knowing, BhaJJ.;
perf. dudhrdva, be killed, lb.)
V d h r u 8c d h r u v ) fixed, firm, immovable, un-
changeable, constant, lasting, permanent, eternal,
RV, etc & c . (e.g. the earth, i mountain, a pillar,
avow&c; withsvdhga, n, an inseparableniembei
ofthe body, Pin. vi, a, 177; wirndtteaa, f. a cow
which stands qniet when milked, A V , I , 45;
with dit, f, the point ofthe heavens directly under
the feet [reckoned among the quarters of the sky,
cf, a. dit\, AV.; Br.; with smrtti, f. a strong ot
retentive memory, ChUp. vii, 1 6 , 1; cf. also under
k a r a q a Sc t t a k s h a t r d ) ; staying with (loc.), RV. 11,
l o r , i a ; settled, certain, sure, Mn.; MBh.; Kiv.
Sec,; iffc. **fdf&, L . ; m. the polar star (peisonified
as son of Uttana-pada and grandson of Mann), GfS.;
MBh. &c.; celestial pole, Sflryas,; the unchangeable
longitude of fiaed stars, a constant arc, ib.; a Knot,
VS. v, a i ; 3 0 ; a post, stake, L . ; the indian fig-tree,
L,; tipof the nosc(?), L . ; a panic. water*biid, ib.;
theremaining(i.e. preserved) G'aha which having
been drawn in the morning is not offered till evening,
SBr.; Vait.; (in music) the introductory verse of a
song (recurring as a kind ofburthen)ora partic. time
or measure { t d f o - v i i a f i a ) * , any epoch to which a
computation of dates isreferred,W.; N . of an astroL
Yoga; of thesyllaWe Om, RamatUp-; ofBiahml,
L , ; ofVishpn, MBh.j of Slva,Sivag.; of a serpent
supporting the earth, GrS.; T A r . ; ofa Vasu, MBh.;
Hariv.; Pur.; of a son of Vasu-deva and Rohint,
BhP.; of an Angirasa (supposed author of RV. a,
173), Anukr.; of a son of Nahusha, MBh.; of a
follower of the Pancju*ib.; of a son of Ranti-nlre
(or Ranti-bhira), Pur.; [ d ) , f. the largest ofthe 3
sacrificial ladles, AV. xviii, 4,5,6 [wiih j u h u &c ufa-
b h r i f y V S . ; b'Bi.ftc.; (sdL t?pV/i) a partic. mode
of life, Bandh.; (scil s t r i ) a virtuous woman, L , ;
Dcanodium Gangeticum^ L . ; Sanscviera Zeylanica,
L . ; (in musk) the introductory veise (cf, above);
n. the fixed point (from which a departure takes
place), Pin, i, 4, 24; the enduring sound (supposed
to be heard a fter the Abhinidhana), RPrit.; air, at-
mosphere, L.; a kind of house, Gal.; ( a m ) , ind.
firmly, constantly, certainly, surely, M n , ; Yijfi.j
MBh.; Klv.&e.; (aya\ina. for ever.Hariv. [Cf,
^ 2. nd, ind. not, no, nor, neither, R V .
(nd, x, 34, 8) &c. fltc. (is well in simple negation
as. in wishing, requesting and commanding, except
in prohibition before an Impv. or an augmentle&s
aor. [cf. I. md] ; irr successive sentences ot clauses
either simply repeated, e.g. Mn.iv, 34; or strengthened
by another particle, esp. at the second place or
further on in the sentence, e.g. by u [cf. nS\, utd,
api, c&piy vd, vSpi or atha vd, RV.i, 1 7 0 , 1 ; 151,
0 j Nal. iii, 34, Set.; it may even be replaced by ca,
vd,apica, apivd, &c. alone, as Mn. 11,98; NaLi,
14, ate; often joined with other particles, beside
those mentioned above esp. with afollowinght, tv
eva, tv tva tu dd, q.v., khatu,
t q.v., h a [cf. g.
eddi and Pin. viii, I, 3 1 ] eVc; before round or
collective numbers and after any numeral In the instr.
ot abl, it expresses deficiency, t.g.tkaySnavitiiati,
not ao by i , Le. 19, Br.; p a U c a b h i r i t a caivdri
iatdnt, 395, ib.; with another n a or an a priv. it
generally forms a atrong affirmation [cf. Vim. v, 1 ,
9], e.g. nfyam n a vakshyati, she wilt most cer-
tainly declare. Sale Iii, 9 ; nddajtq*yo 'sti, he must
certainly be punished, Mn. viii, 335 ; it may also,
liked, form compounds, Vam, v, a, J 3 [cf. below]);
that not, Lest, for fear lest (with Pot.), MBh.; R.;
Dai. flee; like, as, as it were (oaly in Veda and
later artificial language, e.g. gimrc na trishitafy
piba, drink like [lit.'not/Le. 'althoughnot being^
a thirstydeer; in this sense it does not coalesce melm-
caUy with a following vowel). [Cf. Gfc. rrj-;
Lat.n/-.- Angl-Sax, m, 'not;* End, r w . 3 t c l a.
sa y j 2. cl. 4. P. (Dhiitiip. zxvl, 85)
^ I ndtyati (rarely and l,V.ndiati U t ;
pf. t u j t k i j a , 3. pi. neiur; aor. artaSat, MEtti.&c;
antlat nc'int KV*:
t l Ur*[cf.Tat.on,4,1 io]i
fuT. naiishyaii. A V . ; nahkshynti, */t [eonA
a i u n ^ ^ y d / r i ] , MBh.; n a J i t i , ib.; HdrjM/ci, P i n .
vii, a, 4 5 ; HdHft/A^Vop.; inf.tutJitrtmstatisAtum,
Or,; ind p. natitvd, ttasAfvd, mushtvd, \ t>. < n be
lost, perish, disappear, be gone, run away, RV. Ate.
& c . ; to come to not rung, be frustrated orunsuccessful
Mn.; MBh.; K i r . & c : Cms. r . j l . i y a t i ^ ? p. also
^ (aor. -aninatat; dat.inf.-*i7^a^/iss",RV.)
to cause to be lost or disappear, drive away, expel,
remove, destroy, efface, RV. cite. &c.; to lose (also
from memory), give up, Mtih_; Kav.; Paftc.; to
violate, deflower fa girt), Dai.; K-.:l.; to extinguish
a fW', BhP.; to disappear (in md niTUtl&h and

ti. Pan, vii, j , 6 o ; a, 45 ( cra*nzfttM it) i Desid.

of Caus. rttudtayisfiati, to wish to destroy, Dai.:
lutein.ttdnatyatt ot rtdnanihti l Gr. [Cf.Gk.n*-
f it; Lat. ntx, rtacert].

ITa-nhti, mfn. lost, disappeared, perished, de-

stroyed, lost sight of, invisible; escaped (also -vat,mfn.
MBh.), run away from (abl.), fled (impen. with
instr. of subj. Ratn. ii, 3), RV. &c. &r.; spoiled,
damaged, corrupted, wasted, unsuccessful, fruitless,
in vain,Mn.; YljlL ; MBh. &e,; deprived of (instr.),
R.f 14,18 (in comp. 'without/'-leas,' 'un- ; see

below]; one who has lost a lawsuit, Mficch, ia, 4.

klryaWtna, mfh. one who haa lost interest in
HHT n a d a n. (fr. n a f f a ) = n a l a , a hollow

stalk, L , ; (*J), f. N . of a pariie, verse, Viit. pit,

tn. OF n. N. ofa place, S Ilr,; ( Q , f,, ace below.
N&dlruut, rru a more remote descendant of
Nae>, Pip. iv, i , 9 9 ; ' i t a k a , mfn. iv, 3o, Sch.
1, ir&cll, m. the ion of Nana, Pin. iv, t, 99, Kai.
a. N&dl f.any tube or pipe, (esp.) a tubular organ

(aj a vein or arte ry of the body), Bh P. (cf ndqT).oir* v

n, a weaver ! shuttle, L. m-dhama, mfn. swelling
the veins, causing a quicker pulse, agitating. K i d . ;
Hilar.; terrifying, W.; m.agoldsmillj,L. { c f . f d / i . a -
janya-ndifiti%*dh^), m-dhaya., mfn, drinking
or aucking through a tube, L . pattra, n. Cob-
casia Antiquorum, L, manual a, vu the celestial
eqmtor, L.
HT^nS&A, f, ( v ' l . n a b h ) an opening, fis-
sure, spring, RV. ix, 74,6.
Kiiltiuk, ifc. (mm.) nabhi, nave, navel, central
poinl (cf. abjfrndbka, vajra-n su-n & c c ) ; m. N,

cf Siva, MBh.; of a son of Sruta and father of Sindhu*

drip*. BhP.
n i b h S , JotofnJMs ( f c * - r a ) . ~ S * 4 i s l i f a *
(wtf), m. N. of a sou of Mann Vaivasvala and author
of RV. a, 6 1 ; Ga, TS.; Br.; mfh. (also *skklyd)
relating to or composed by N , Br.
N b h i , f. (prob. fr, *Ji.rtabk/xo burst asunder or
into a hole'; ifc, f. t or t, Vain, v, 49) the navel (also
n-string, cf. - k f i n i a n a \ a navel-like cavitv,RV.
&c. &c. (in later language also m. and bhi, f.)j
the nave ofa wheel, ib. (also L*, and *bki, (.)',
centre, centra) point, p of junction or of departure!
home, origin, esp, common o, affinity, relationship;
a near relation or friend, ib. (m., L . ) ; musk
( = mriga*n) L.; m. or f, musk-deer,Megh. 53 {?);

BhP.; m. a chief ( central point) of (gen.), Raghn

Kviii,lo(cf. iTAiffo^i^-n^Ar-/J);asovereigoorlord
paramount { = m u k h y a ~ r f i j } , L . ; a Kshatriya, L-i
N.of a grandson ofPriya-vrata (son of Aguidhra and
father of Rishabha), Pnr.j ofthe father of Rishabba
(first Arhat of the present Avasarpiril), L . [Cf,
Angl.Sax. n a f u , ttafeta; Germ, naba, N a t > e , n a -
bolo, Nabet; Eng. nave, navel,] jrJknf&ka, m.,
-aupllR, f. a protruding or ruptured navel, L .
fcpi&taiaa,n, the cutting of the n -string, Gobh,
tjandlta, m. the odour of musk or ofthe m-deer,
Megh. J3.^ffudai:am, -kaittaka^ L. gnptfs,
m. N . of a son of Hiranya-retaa and of a Varsha in
Knsa-dvipa ruled by him, BhP, grolaka, m.
- k ( a t { a k a > \ j , ~ caa-r a, n.(magicaj) navel -circle.Cat.
-cohsdetna, n. - k r t n t a n a , \ V , ~ J , m . * navel-
fVrm: fiftya, mf(&)rt. (fr* n i ; cf* n U j d ) i n -
nate, native, MBh. Iii, 13941; one * own (opp. 1

to arana), R V \ ; continual, perpetual, eternal, RV,

fitc. dec.; ifc, constantly dwelling or engaged in, in-
tent upon,d<voted or XMed\o{<dJapQ*niahartuart t

dky&na-n**\$attran*\ Mn,; MBh.&c.; ordinary,

usual, invariable, fixed, necessary, obligatory (opp,
to kdmya, n a i m i t t i k a &<,), Br,; SrS.j Mn, cc t

(with samasa* ra. a compound the meaning of which

is not e xpressed by it* member s when not compounded,
Pin. ii, i $ Sch.; with svarita,
t t m. ^jdtya, the
IndependentSrariia,TPrltJi,8); m, the sea,ocean,
L . ; (dT), f. a plough-share, Gal.; N, of DurgS,
BiahmavP.; of a akti, Tanlras,; of the goddess
ManasS, L, j n, constant and indispensable rite 01
ad, W ; { a m ) , ind, alway*, cemriantly, regularly,

by all means, K V. &c. &c* { n a n i i y a m , acver;

niiyam an-dddta, never a receiver, Mn. vi, 8).
i u m s , n. a constant act or duly (a* obser-
vance of the 5 great act* of worship), any daily and
necessary rite, Jaim,, Sch,; N of wk,; ma-pad-
dhati, ' p r a M H k & , -latdj^ -vidki, m.; mdnush-
t h a n a - k r a m a , ra. M. of wks. fcSl&m, ind.

rupted fever, L . t a r p o n a , n. N . of wk, t&j

f. perpetuity, continuance, continual repetition of
(comp.), MBh.; Suir,; necessity, MSrkP. tvft,,; KatySr.* Bhag,; Suir. &c, 6 ind. always,
t r

perpetually, constantly, MBh.; BhP, (cf, g, svar-

ftr^TT n i / i . d r a (or < / d r a t ) t P. A. - d r a -
yatifte {-drati,Slntii.; pf. -dadrau, Naish.), to fail
asleep, sleep, slumber, SBr,; M B h , ; K l v . & c . &xi r

f. sleep, slumber, sleepiness, iloth, RV.; MBb.;

Klv. &e.; the budding state of a flower (hence
drdm *Jtyaj, to bloom), SlcngP.; a mvatie. N . of
the letter M , Up.; ' J t a r a , mm, making sleepy,
hariv.; Suir.; 'ksham. m. or n. a moment of
sleep, BhP.; -*gama { d r / i t f ) , approach or time
of Saiitii; * < a u r a m. stealer of sP, Mpcch.;

*tttra (*dr$i) mfn. sleepy,languid. Cat.;

t -dart'
d r a , mfm suffering from want of deep, Vcar.; m.
N.of a poet. Cat; -dartdrI-*/ri t to deprive of * t

Kpr,; -druh (mfn. nom. dhruk. Pin. viii, a, 3 7 ;

cf.Vim. v,a,88),disturbing 1; ^ n i a r i i a ^ d r S n ^ ) t

mfn, asleep. Pane; -ndha { ? d r & n % mm, blind

with sleep, dead asleep, fist aslecp.M Bh.;-i>fiafiga,m,
rousingiVom i, awaking, W,; JbhtihOta 1?dr&bh?),
mfn. subdued by i, aleeplng, Snsr,; -maya t mf(f}n.
consisting in s% Hariv.; -yoga, m. a state of such
deep meditation ai to resemble sleep, ib. (cf,_t't^u-
/A^; J V c r w ( V r & ) ^
siMs^fastasJeepjHit.j^Jbr/fltV^Xnjl eepiness,
long sleeping, MBh,; Var,; -vaia^ mfn, over*
powered by ileep. Vet.; -vriksha, m. 'sleep-plant/
darkness, L ; -rtfjw/flWArr^n.'produdngsV phlegm,
the phlegmatic humour, L. "clrln*, mfti, asleep.
f H V *W n i- \fbandk, P. - h a d h n a t i , to bind
on, tic, fatten to (loc.), A V . ; Kaui.; MBh. cVc;
to enchain, iettci (lit, and fig.'i, M n . ; MBh.; R .
& c ; lo contract, unite, join, clow, obstruct, Kav.;
Kathii.; to compose, draw np, write down, Mn.;
Var.; R. etc,; tocatch, win, acqoire, MBh,; Paftc.i
to hold fast, restrain, check, MBh,; Ragh.; to put
or tut upon (foot, eye <3cc> i.e. undertake, begin,
with loc.), Hariv.; K3v,; Pane.; to fur,place, locate,
Rajal.; to ihow, exhibit, Sah.; Pass, -hadhyate,
to behoand &c Mn,; MBh. Ac. ^dclJift, mfn.
bound, fettered, chained, tied or fastened to, fixed
on (loc.); covered with, veiled in (inst/.), M B L i
dependent on (instr.), Mn-; MBh. eke; relating
to, contained in (loc), M B K ; Hariv.; composed
or consisting of, accompanied by, furnished with,
adorned or inlaid with (comp.), Mm ; MBh.; Kav.
Ac.; shut up, closed, obstructed, Kathas.; con*
strucied, buih, ib.; composed, written down, R . ;
KlUd. Ac.; used, employed (as a word), Sah.;
called as a witness [ a - r , Mn, viii, 76) ; confined,
costive, committed, intrusted, M W , ; m. (in

music) a partic. instrument, "baddfcawya (!', mfn,

necessarily connected with (instr,), Sah. "band-
Ahr/i, m, binder, fastener, author, composer, Balar.
T, 11 (printed t t i b a d d h r t ) * baArUisv, m. binding
on, tying, fastening R - ; chain, fetter, bondage,
MBh,; BhP,; attachment to, inCcntness on, L . ;
basis, root, origin, MBh. ii. J 5 3 1 ; a grant of pro-
perty, an assignment of cattle or money, YSjri. L
3 1 7 ; jcd property, ib, ii. 131 ; restraint, obstruc-
tion, L . ; consTiption or suppression of urine, Suir.
S~ 1 r -* t m t ~ . . -i_
^ d h a n a k d ) . "bandh&na, mf;On. binding fasten-
ing, fettering, MBh.; BbP.; m. N . of a snn of
Aruna, BhP. (v.l./n-c*); (0 '-band, bond, fetter,
M Bh.; Su^r.; n. lying, fastening, binding together.
Ligation, MIL; Suir.; holding fast, icit raining,
MBh.; K^v.acc.;conSirncting,building(isi bridge),
MBh.; band, fetter (lit. and fig.), support, stay,
ib.; Kav.j Kaihaa.; BhP.; cause, origin, basil,
foundation, Mn.; MBh. &c. (often ifc. supported
by, fastened to, bated or dependent on, connected
with, relating to); seat, receptacle (cf, i s A u - n ) ;
the peg of a lute, L . ; a grant, an assignment or royal
gift, Sit. ii, T 11; composition, arrangement, Kum.;
a literary composition or treatise, Sii, ii, 113; (in
gram.) syntax; a commentary ; - g r a n t h a , an. N .
of a class of wks. ^bandhaiiaka, see eihaka
above, "fc&ndhanl JR, mfn. good or friendly rela-
tion; acc. with * / k f i , to be on good terms with
(inrtrO, Hear, (v. 1- t i i r - P ) , ^ u d n l k v , , sec atva-
nib. ua.ndliIt, mfn. bound, fastened, confined,
tied, W. "handbill, mfn. binding, confining, fetter-
ine.MBh.; K.'v,; (ifc) joined by, connected with.

f ^ W 3 nimitta,?\. (possibly connected with

n i - * J m & above) a butt, mark, target, MBh.; sign,
omen, Mm; Yajfi.;MBh.&c.(cf.dur-n^;canse,
motive, ground, reason, Up.; Kap.; Var.; M n . ;
MBh.; Kiv. ckc. (in all oblique cases ^because of,
on account of, cf. Pan. ii, 3, a*., Pal,; mfn. ifc,
caused or occasioned by; ttairti/yd t to be the
cause of anything, Kid.); finphiL) instrumental or
efficient cause (opp. la u p & d d t i a , the operative or
material cause), Vedantas.; BhSship.; ^dgantv;
deha; adeSa; parvan, L . - k i r a n a , n. in&iru-
meniil or efficienl cause (esp. the Deity as the agent

ftT? nimnd, n . (fr. n i or * / n a m } ) depth,

low ground, cavity, depression, RV. Src. eke, {ais,
ind, downwards, x 78, 5 ; 148, 5 ) ; mf'^n, deep

(lit. and tig.), low, depressed, sunk, Var.; Kiv. Sec;

(ifc.) inclined towards, L . ; m. N . of a prince, BhP.
(fata, mfn. going in deep or low places; MarkP.;
n. a low place, Inscr, s j * . f. 'going downwards,
descending,' a river, monntain-stream, Mn.; MBh,
fatp^ Hi- i / y a m , P. -yacchaii, to
(tran*.)i hold back, detain with (loc); (A.) to slop
(intrant.), Hay, remain, RV.; to keep back, refuse;
(A.) to fail, be wanting, ib.; to fasten, tie to (loc),
bind up (hair S i c ) , ib. &c. Sec;tohold over, extend
( i a r m a ) , A V,} to hold downward* (the hand), TS.;
to bring near, procure, bestow, grant, offer, present
(rain, gifts Sec), RV.; AV.; Br. Acc; to hold in,
keep down, restrain, control, govern, regulate (as
breath, the voice, the organs of sense Acc), Mn.;
MBh. ficc; to suppress or conceal (one's nature),
M n.x ,59; todestroy, ^ tfif),hhP.;
to restrict (food &c; cf. be tow); to tlx upon, settle,
determine, establish, Sarvad,; Kathas.; BhP.; Kai.
on Pin. ii, 3, 66; (in gram.) to lower, pronounce
low I.e. with the AnudJtta,RPrtt.; Cms. -yama-
yati, to restrain, curb, cheek, suppress, restrict,
MBh.; Kav.fice. Vt*(/-),mfn. held back or in,
fastened, tied to (loc), RV,; put together (hands),
R,; restrained, checked, curbed, suppressed, re-
stricted, controlled, Mru; MBh, Sec.; limited in
number, Ratnir. iii, 3 ; connected with, dependent
on (loc), Mn. iv, 356; contained or joined in
(loc), R. iii, 70, 5; disciplined, self-governed,
abstemious, temperate; constant, steady, quite con-
centrated upon or devoted to (loc), MBh,; Kav.
ficc; fixed, established, settled, tore, regular, in-
variable, positive, definite, GrSiS.; Mn,; MBh*
ficc; customary, usual (cf. a-n% MBh. iii, 15416);
(in gram.) pronounced with the Anudatta, RPrat.;
m, N, of the Saipdhi of is before sonants, ib,; (am),
ind, always, constantly, decidedly, inevitably, surely;
n. pi (in Simkhya) the organs of sense;
mfn, limited in time, temporary, KlL, on Pan. i,
4,44; w5/^*iJfW,tnfo.abstemiouj in food,temperate,
R,; -mdneua, min, of subdued mind or spirit, W.;
- m a i t h u n a , mfn. abstaining from cohabitation, R.;
vat, mfn. limited as to the use of words, Nit, 1,15;
- v i b h a k t i k a , mfn. limited as to case, standing
always in the same case, Pan. i, % ,44, Sch.; -vishaya-
v a r t i n , mfn. steadily abiding in one's own sphere,
MW.; - v r a i a , mfn. constant in the observance of
vows, regular in observances, pious, religious, MBh,;
'yat&ttjaii, mfn, putting the joined hands to the
forehead, R.; yat$tman t mfn. self-contiolled, self-
restrained, Mn.; R.; "yat&mtpurvya, mfn. limited
as to the order of words, Nir. i, t$; "yetftyfi, f.
(in dram.) sure expectation of attaining an object
by overcoming a partic obstacle, Sah,; yatSfin,
mm. ***ta~bhi>jana, Yajfi,; "ya/dhdra, mfn. id.;
Tln. ( i v a - m d t i s a - H , eating only dog*sflesh,R.);
^ j a t h t d r i y a , mfh, having the passions subdued or
restrained, Mn.; MBh. ficc f. the fixed
order of things, necessity, destiny, fate, SlnkhBr.;
SvetUp.; MBh. 3 K . (sometimes personified as a
charioteer, MBh.; Ragh. y a m a , m. restraining!
checking, holding back, preventing, controlling,
Mn.; MBh. &e,; keeping down, lowering (as the
voice), RPrat.; limitation, restriction (ma,ind, with
restriction* Lc. under certain condition*, Car.);
reduction or restriction to (with loc. or flrati),
determination, definition,QfSrS.; Prat.; MBh.; Ra-
jat, ; anyfixedrule or law, necessity, obligation (ena
and dt, in<L a* a rule, necessarily, invariably,surely),
Var.; R.; Suir. &c.; agreement, contract, promise,
vow, R.; Kathat,; any act of voluntary penance
or men tori ou l piety (esp. a lesser vow or minor
observance dependent on external condition* and
not so obligatory as yama, q, v,), T A r . ; Mn.;
MBh.; Kav. &c.; a partic. process applied to
minerals (esp, to qdcksilver, w.r. yama\ Cat,;
(in rhet.) a common-place, any conventional ex-
ptc&sion or usual comparison; (in Mtro* phil.) a rule
or precept (laying down or specify tog something
otherwise optional); restraint of the mind (the and
of the 8 steps of meditation tn Yoga); performing
five positive duties, M W B . 3 3 a ; N , of Vishnu,
MBh.; Necessity or Law personified as a son of
Dharma and Dhriti, Pur.; *dkarma, m. a law pre
scribing restraint*, Mo. it, y - n i t h ( k & f, rigid
t %

observance of prescribed riles, MW.: - f i a t i r a , n. a

K i r for t i i s (q.v.) before vowels and soft con-

j sonants. a * a , mm, having no degrees (of latit,

L , ; N . of Durga, L, atiaftya, mfn. unsurpassed

(-tva, n.\Hariv.; Park. &c. - a t i c r a , mfn. u>

not assisting, inofficious, Sobh, npakrama, mfn,

not to be cured, incurable, Car,; having no com~
mcnccracnt. BhP.noakriya, mfn. not useful or
m ^ n i ^ r v d h , P . A . -runaddhi, -rund-
dht, to hoW back, stop, hinder, shut up, confine,
restrain, check, suppress, destroy, R V . A c A c ;
to keep away, ward off, remote, R V . ; Br.; to
suiTO'jnd or invest (a place), Rajat.; BhP,; to
close (lit. 'a door * orfig.* heart, mind* A c ) , MBh.;
Kav, A c . ; to catch or overtake, Mricch. i, ao:
Caus, -rodiayati, to shut or cause to be shut, Rajat.
Vuddha, mfn. held back, withheld, held fast,
stopped* shut, closed, confined, restrained, checked,
kept off, removed, suppressed, RV. { n f - r u d d A a ,
i, 3 2 , 1 1 ; n i - r u d d k a * , x, ag, 10) Ac, A c . ; rejected
( - ^ r * ^ A a ) , T a n d B r , ; Kith,; covered, veiled,
MBh,; Hariv. Sec.; filled with, full of (instr. or
comp.), R , ; Kathas.; BhP.; m. N, of a prince
(v.l. a*mf^ t <J* *)l *k**$tha, mfn, having the
breath obstructed, suffocated, M W . ; ~guda t m,
contraction or obstruction of the rectum, Suir.;
- p r a & a i a , m, stricture ofthe urethra, ib,; -trot, mfn.
having( he has) invested or besieged,Rajat.; BhP,;
iama*vrtitttn\(i\.*who$t state of repose is intemtpt-
ed/wearied,tired,W, rtid]i7ams^sA,betngchecked
or reined in. M W , rtutth*\t, m m , checking,
hindering, suppressing A c , Sak. "rnnahftVnsV, mfn,
obstructing, hindering, preventing, keeping off A c ,
R V ; AVT; SBr.; MBh. Sec rodctlxavy*. mfn.
to be shut in or confined; tu be enclosed with a
fence or hedge, MBh. rodhav, m. confinement,
locking up, imprisonment (-/or, Mn. viii, 37s);
investment, ticge, Cat.; enclosing, covering up,
Var,; Kav, Sec; restraint, check, control, sup-
pression, destruction, Mn.; MBh. dec.; (indram.)
disappointment, frustration of hope, Dafar.; (with
Buddh.) suppression or annihilation of pain (one of
the 4 principles), LahV, M W B . 4 3 , 5 6 , 137 A c ;
a partic, process to which minerals (esp, quicksilver)
are subjected, Cat.; hurting, injuring ( ^ m - g r a h a \
L . ; aversion, disfavour, dislike, W , ; N . of a man,
Laltt.; -jnana, o, (with Buddh.) one of the 10
kinds of knowledge, Dharma*, 9 3 ; - t & k s k a n &
< ? H 4 ' V i v a r x n a \ - v a r n a n a n ~vivriti
t f f. N, of
wkt. ^rodkaJc*, mfn. obstructing, confining, hin-
dering (ifc.), MBh. Ac. "rcVdhavn*, mfh, id., Suir.;
n. confining^ imprisonment, Mn, viii, 3 1 0 ; keeping
back,restraining, subduing, suppressing, MBh, Ac.;
denying, refusing, A V . ; (in dram.) W M
Dalar. rodJiin, mfh. obstructing, hindering, Suir.
fHtIi*M n i r - g r e h y a , mfn. ( y / g r d h ) to be
traced or found put, perceivable, K i r . on P*o,

r_ _- r -. - ' u a w u i , rain.
tree from vexation or annoyance, Kathas. - M l a,
mfn. seedless, impotent { - i v a , n., Tattvas.); (jv f,
a sort of grap* without seeds or stones. L . b a d .

ftV^l n i r - * / b h a P. *bhati (pf. -babkau),

t to
Atne forth, appear, arise, M n , ; Kav,; Pur.; to
look like, seem to be (iva), MBh. viii, 3 I 4 I .
*bnXta, mfu, shone-or shining forth, appeared,
arisen* MBh.; Kav. &c.
f^SrE( nir-\/bhas, Caus. -bhasat/aii, to i l -
luminate, Hariv. ^bnaaa, m. appearance, Sarvad.
(ifc. f. tinibha-t simibr, like, Klrand., printed
Hh&sha). b h l * a i i a , n. itluminafing, illustrating,
making manifest, Sarvad. b h 5 a l t a , mfn. illumin-
ated, illumined, Hariv. \ m d i p i a , L .

frT*Tl nir-s/vm t A.-mtmi/e, T S . : A V . ; Br.;

- m a t i , Kav,; Pur. <pf. - m a m , Mn.; MBh.; ind,
p. - m d y a , Prab,; inf. - m d t u t n , R3jat.); to mete
out, measure, A V . ; to build, make out of (abl.),
form, fabricate, produce, create,TS.; Br,, Mo. &c.;
(with c i t r a m ) to paint, Sak.j Dai,; (with k a J a m )
to compose or write, C a t ; (with g i r a m ) to utter,
KulL; (with n f f i m ) to show, betray, MBh.: Pass.
w i y a i e (pf, - m a * M , Rajat. v, 4 3 5 ; aor. - a m a y i ,
Cat,), to be measured out&c.: Caus, - m d p a y a t i , to
cause to be made or built, Rajat.; Kathas.: Desid,
- m i t s a t i , to wish to make or build, Naish. m&,
f. value, measure, equivalent, Lafy. j n l n a , n.
measuring, measure, reach, extent (often, mfn. ifc);
Hariv.; R , ; forming, making, creating, creation,
butMing, composition, work (ifc * made of/ Suir,),
MBh,; Kav. & c ; (with Buddh.) transformation;
pith, the best of anything ( = i d r a ) , L , ; - a s a t r t a f t -
f a s a , L . ; -krfya, m. the body of transformations,

* enjoying pleasures provided by themselves, a class
i u u mln. without fancy or imagination, Sih.

^ vikadpa, mfn* (or pana L.) not admitting ao


alternative, free from change or differences, Tejofc-

Up.; Vcd&ntat.; admitting no doubt, not watering;
Sharif. { a m ) hid. without hesitation or reflection,

Pane, j -vdda and -vudra, m,N. of wks. T i k a l -

p*&a,mih. -vikalpa, BhP-; BhJihap.; Ved&nu*.;
n. knowledge not depending upon or derived
from the tense*, W . - v l k a r a , mfn. unchanged,
unchangeable, uniform, normal, MBh, (alto - v a t ) ;
Klv,; Suir.; - t & , f. MBh. - v M a a , mm. not
opening or expanded, unblown; ~tva n., Mallio.

Tlfi^ttJLm, Tnd. witboat any hindrance from

(to comp.), Jatakarn, v l g l i M , mf(a>n. uninter-
rupted, unhindered, Hariv,; Kflv.; {am and ana),
ind. und>atruciedly freely,Rajat.; Sah. v i c l r * ,

mf(*Tjn* not needing any conaideration, Yogav;

not reflecting or considering, Rajat,; { a m ) , fnd.
without reflection, inconsiderately, R. vloLkit-
mf(a)n. without reflecting much (trW, ind.),
Kull,; indubitable, Sarvad. - vlcaAftt, mfh,
motionless, insensible, MBh.; R. vitarta,mfh.
am efleeting,]neons td crate, Yogas. vldjra, mfn.un-
learned, uneducated, Kim. VidrUta*, mfn. not
withlog to do, having no designi, MBh. vlnod*,
frTWT n i 7 - \ / > A.-mtotffV, T S . : A V . ; Br.;
- m a t i , Kav.; Pur. (pf. - m a m , Mn.; MBh.; ind,
p. - m a y a , Prab.; inf. - m d t u m , Rajat.); to mete
oat, measure, A V . ; to build, make out of (abl.),
form, fabricate, produce, create,TS.; Br., M n . &c.;
(with t i t r a m ) to paint, Sat.; Dai.; (with kotam)
to compose or write, Cat.; (with g t r a m ) to utter,
KuIL; (with nffim) to shew, betray, MBh.; Pass,
-mlyate (pf. -mame, Rajat. v, 4 3 5 ; aor. -cmayr
Cat.), to be measured out Oct. : Cam. -mdpayatt to
cause to be made or built, Rajat.; Kathls.: Dcaid.
' m i t s t U i t to wish to make or build, Naish. mK,
f. value, measure, equivalent, Lily. w l n * > n.
measuring, measure, reach, extent (often, mfh. ifc);
Hariv.; R . ; forming, making, creating, creation,
building, composition,work (ifc. 'madeof/ Suir.),
MBh.; Kav. & c ; (with Buddh.) tramformation;
pith, the best of anything (r<Jm), L.;oarmafl-
Jasa, L . ; -kdya, m. the body of transformations,
Buddh.; M W B . 3 4 7 ; -kdraka, m. creator, Vishn,;
-ra/a, m. pL finding pleasure in creating,' N . of
a class of gods, MBh.; -nUt-deva, m. p i . id.' 01

r 1
enjoying pleasures provided by themselves, a class
of beitigt inhabiting the fifth heaven, V P , ; La tit,;
AV,; infip.-wJrtiVujn.MBh.; rarely P., eg. Pot,
-varttf, MBh,; Hariv.; Impf. or aub-j. * v a r t a t }

RV.; \}t-vavriur, ib.; f u t . - v a r t i s h y a t i , M B h . ;

-Viirtsyan,Bhat|.; %oT.~avyitat ib,), to turnback,

atop (trans, and intrant.), RV. dec.; to return from

[abl.) to (acc, with or without prati or dat.) ; to
return into Life, revive, be born again, MBh.; Kiv H

Sec \ to turn away, retreat, flee, escape, abstain or

desist from, get rid of (abl.), tt>,; to tall baek,
rebound, R . ; to leave off {sami, in the midst or
when anything U half finished, SBr,), cease, end,
disappear,vanish,TS.; SBr.; Up.&e.; to be with'
held from, not belong to (abL); to be omitted, not
to occur, Lijy.; M m ; MBh.; to be ineffective or
useless, MBh.; Kathas,; to be wanting, not to exist
iyaio ViUo m v a r t a t t t c , for which there are no
words), Ttfp.; to passover to (loc.),MBh,; to be
turned upon (loc, orterra),ib,; Cam, ^ v a r t a y a / t , " / ?
{k*P<A.'Par/ay/a kivit ;r^ -var/ya^ R*^tL),
r r r t

to turn downwards, let sink (the head), TBr,; to

turn back i.e. shorten (the hair), Br,; to lead or
bring baekv reconduct, return, AV. Sec. Sec; to tom
away, avert or keep back from (abl.), MBh.; Klv.
&c,; to give up, abandon, suppress, withhold, refuse,
deny; to annul, remove, destroy, Mn,; MBh.; Kav,;
Pur,; to bring to an end i.e. perform, accomplish
(a sacrifice 8cc), R.; BhP.; to procure, bestow,
Hariv.; MaxkP.; to desist from (abl), MBh.; R H

V j l t t a , mfh. (often w. r, lor n i r - t f r i t t a , v i - v r i t t a t

ni'Vfita) turned back, returned to (acc.), MBh,;
rebounded from (abl.),R.; retreated,fled(in battle),
MBh.; set (at the tun), R . ; averted from, in
different to, having renounced or given up (abl. or
comp,), MBh,; K l v , {fee; abstracted from this
world, quiet, BhP.; HcaL;ridor deprived of (abl.),
MBh.; R , ; pawed away, gone, ceased, disappeared,
vanished, ib,; (with k a r m a n t n. an action) causing a
cessation (of mundane existence), Mn. xii, 83 (opp,
to pravfiUaYt ceased 10 be valid or binding (as
a role), Pat.; Ktf,; omitted, left out (cf. comp.
below); finished,completed,W,; desisting from or
repenting of any improper conduct, ib.; n, return
(see d u m h t ) ; J t d r a n a , mftu without further
cause or motive; m.a virtuous man,oneiininj3ucnced
by worldly desires, W. j i r i j A t - g o r a J k s S a , mfn,
castng from agriculture and the tending of cattle,
MBh.; d a k s A i n d , f. a girt renounced or despised
by another, SBr.; - d t v a - k H r y a , mfn. ceasing from
sacrificial rites, M W . ; - m a Q S a , mfn. one who
abstains from eating meat, Urtarar.; -yajfla-svd-
d J t y d y a , m f n . c a s t tig from ta cri fie a nd the repetition
of prayers, MBh.; - y a u v a n a , mfn. whose youth
has returned, restored to y , Ragh.; - r S g a , mm,
of subdued appetites or paw iocs, W.; - f a u / y a , mfn,
whose desire is averted from, not desiroui pf (comp.),
Ragh,; - v r i t H , mfn. ceasing from any practice or
occupation, W.; * t a t r u , m. * having one t foes kept
off/ N . of a Idng, Hariv,; - t a i p t d p a , mm, one
whose heat or pain has ceased, Suir.; - h ^ i d a y a ,
mfh. with relenting heart, MBh.; one whose heart
is averted from or indifferent to ( p r a t f ) , Ml lav. ii,
t4; ttdtmatt m . 'one whose spirit is abstracted,'

a sage, W.; N . of Vishnu, ib,; tthtdriya, mm.

one whose senses or desires are avertedfrom(comp.),
Ragh. "vrlttl, f. (often w. r. for m r - t f * ) retaining,
return, MBh.3 Ragh.; ceasing, cessation, disap-
pearance, SrS,; Up.; MBh. & c . ; leaving off,
abstaining or desisting from (abl.), M n . ; MBh.;
Bhartr. &,; escaping from (abl.i Pafic, 11, 87
(w.r. ttah); ceasing from worldly acts, inactivity,
rest, repose (opp. t o p r a ^ v r i t t t ) , Bhag.; Prab.; (in
dram.) citation of an example, Slh.; suspension,
ceasing to be valid (as of a rale), Pan., Sch.; des-
truction, perdition, RimatUp.; denial, refusal, W . ;
abolition, prevention, ib.

JTair, Vriddhi form of nir (for nis) in comp.

-ftSjimS, f. N . of a river (Nilajan) falling into
the Ganges In Magadha (Behar), Lalit, autaryft,
n, unintermptedness, dose succession, continuous-
nesi, compactness, Dat,; Yogas, ( ? y t n a , ind. unin-
tcrruptcdly,continually,Samk,; Pane); immediate
consequence, Sarvad. ap$ksn.a>, mm. = (prob.
ny-v'a. as, P . asyati or -asati, to
throw or cast or by or pot down (with loc, eg,
hhuvi t on the earth}, AV. &c, Sec; to take off,
MBh,; R.; to give ap, reign (is life), R . ; to set
in the ground, plant ( p r a r o h d n , thooti), Bilar.:
(with loc.) to throw or hurl upon, poor or shod on
or In, pat or place or fix or insert in, turn or direct
to, deposit with, intrust or commit to; to settle
arrange, MBh.; Ka"v, & c (with ritrt, 'to place tn
a picture' paint, depict; with itrasi, to place on
the head,' receive with reverence; with manasit'to
call to mind/ reflect, ponder; with pit hi, to lay
on the road, give up); to bring forward, mention,
Mall,: Caas. (pt nySsayam a i a or ^jaydrji eairt)
to cause to pot or lay down, MBh. a a a u , D , putting
down,depositing,placing, ananring, Slh.; bringing
forward,mention\ng, Kavyid. a * * n l 7 , mfn. to be
put or placed, AgP, u t a , mfn, thrown or cast or laid
down, put, placed, fixed, inserted,applied, deposited,
committed; given op, resigned,Mn,; MBh,; K i r , ;
tret ehed out, ljing,R,; exposed { k r a y & y a for sale), t

L . ; mystically touched, Mllatim. v, 2 ; put on,

donned, ib. aa; having the low tone (ai a vowel),
RPrJL; short, Srurah.;*cikna, mf(i)n,on* who has
relinquished one's marks or characteristics, destitute
of external signs, Ragh. ii, 7 ; - d i r t a ' j , mfn 'one who
has laid down the rod/ meek, harmless, R.; -dtha,
mfn, 'one who has laid down the body/ dead, ib.|
-ias!ra, mfn.'one who has laid down the weapons,'
averse from strife, peaceful, Mm iii, 1 9 a ; m, the
Pitfis or deified progenitors, L , ; vada, mtn. one
who has ceased to speak, ceasing to speak about
{ p r a t t ) Hariv.; "ta'rtvijya,
% mfn. where the ljitvij
have laid down their office, SankhSr. D
mffr'AaJn., AV. vi, 139, 1. "aatoTjss, mfn, to be
pat down or placed orfixedor established, Vlstav,;
Heat, i / s i y i , mfn. to be laid down or deposited
or delivered or appointed to (loc.), MBh, 3. a a y s ,
ind. hating laid down or deposited & c , ib.
Hy-Saa, m. patting down or in, placing, fixing,
insetting, applying, impressing, drawing, painting,
writing down, MBh.; KSv. Jce, { c t ~ . a i i A a r a ' i A u - t

r a - , rardfw-,w4Aff-,/lrob^^d^- ^//(a,^eli|^-)| j

putting away, taking off, laying aside, MBh,;

Hariv.; Dai,; BhP. (cf, deka-, JarTra-, jajtra*);
abandoning, resigning,Up.; Bhag,; BhP.; depont-
ing, intrusting, delivering; any deposit or pledge,
Mn.; Yajn.; MBh, &e.; written or literal text
fp.f. V t l t h <I- t i V/J Iff f * l \ " P a l - lnnr"!"C /rh*
trgj p d h k a , m , n . (g. a r d h a r c A d h said to
be fr. * f t . p a c * to spread mud,mire, Jirt, clay (ifc,

f. d) Suparn.; M n , ; MBh, &c.j ointment, tin*


gucnt (in comp.; cf. k u h i u m a - , c a n d a n a - S e c . } ,

Kav,; BhP.; moral impurity, sin, L , korvata,

2. p a f i c a , i n c o m p , f o r p^ttaon (sea
P* S?8 ! iftpSla ( f i d i k a ~ ) , mfffjn, prepared or

Itancatay*, mf(f)n, fivefold, having five parts

or limbs, Kap,; Yog. (cf. Pan. v, j , 4a).

F n t h i n , m, (strong stem pdnthan, older p & n -

t h d ; n \ M 6 \ t p a f h i ; y/cuVpafh; sg.pdnthds{nwci ft

voc.) p < f n t h d i t a m [ p d n t h d r n , RV,; AV/{;

t patAd,
*thds, tht; d n . p d n t h d n a u , pathibhydm,
pathSs; pi. pdnthdnas [pdnt/tds, thdsas, R V . ;
pathdyas, Br,]; pathds [pdthds, RV, ii, 3,^4,
perhaps gen. ig.?J; p a t h U h i s ^ M y a s ; pathum
[thtttam, R V ; AV.]; pmhishu;
( cf. P*o. vii. 1,
5 &c.) a way, path, road, course (lit. and fig.;
panthdnatn ^/dd, wiih gen, 1o cede the way to;
p a t h & n m i t , ' in this wor manner, * pat h i n i - V a t *
see under uy-as), RV. Sec. flee; range, reach (cf,
k a n t a * , d a r i a n a - &c.); sect, doctrine, L . ; a divi-
sion of hell, Mn. iv, go; N, of a teacher with the
patr. Saobhara, BrArUp. [Cf. p a t h a ; Zd. p a n ~
t h a n ; Gk, a*<Sros j Lat. portf-em; Old Pruss, p i n *
tisj Stav.

TJTJ 2. p d r a (for i . Geo col. l ) , ind. away,

off, aside, along, on, (Lat, pr; it occurs only in
- t a r a m and -vat, and as a prefix to nouns and rcrbs;
it Is prob. akin to p a r a , p a r a s , p r a . ),
ind. further away, RV. yftt, f, distance (opp, to
arvd-vaf),ib*; AV.; Br.
i pfl'rn,mr[ff)n, ( > / u p r i ; a b l s g . in. n.
f d r a s m & t , rSt; loc. pdrasmin t rt; nom. pi.
m- f A r i , ttfj, *r5sa5; it, PSf. i, I, 34 i vii, I p

16; rt>': far, distant, remote (in space), opposite,

ulterior, farther than, beyond, on the other or far*
Iher side of, extreme ; previous (in time), former;
ancient, past; later,future, neat;following,succeed-
ing, lubseqoent; final, last; exceeding (in number
or degree), more than; better or worse than, su-
perior or inferior to, best or worst, highest, su-
preme, chief (in the compar. meanings [where also
~ t a r a \ -with abl., rarely gen. or ifc.; exceptionally
p a r a r n Satant, more than a hundred, lit. *an
excessire h, a h with a surplus,' R.; pard$ htfa-
ya'i Prab.; Heat.), RV. & c & c ; strange, foreign,

alien, adverse, hostile, ib.; other than, different

from (abl.), Prab.; left, remaining, Kathas.; con-
cerned or anxious for (lex.), R.; m, another (different
from one** self X foreigner, enemy, foe, adversary,
RV. &e.&c; a following letter or sound (only ifc.
mfn,, e. g. t a - j n r a , having / as the f f , followed
by **) RPr*t,; Pan-; (scil. g r a k d ) a subsidiary
Soma-graha, TS.; N, ofa king offiosala with the
patr.A|Dra,Br,; of another king, MBh.; ofasou of
Samara, Hariv.; (tc prdsdda)ofm the palace of Mitra-
vinda, iU; m, or n. the Supreme or Absolute Being,
the Universal Soul, Up.; R-; Pur.; (d), f. a foreign
country, abroad (?), Kathls,; a species of plant, L . ;
N.ofa sound in the first of ib 4 stages, L , ; a panic,
measure of time, Say.; N, of a river MBh.; VP. :

(v. I, pdrd, vend, v t n n t f ) ; of a goddess (cf. a, v.),

n. remotest distance, MBh.; highest point or degree,
ib.; final beatitude, L . (alto - t a r a t n and pardt
p a r a d a r a m ) ; the number io,oooyOOO,ooo (as the
fill] age of Brahma), VP.} N. of partic. Samans,
Kith,; any chief matter or paramount object (ire.
[f. 4 } having as the chief object, given Dp to, oc-
cupied with, engrossed in, intent upon, resting on,
consisting of, serving for, synonymous with & c ,
MBh.; Kav. & c ) ; the wider or more extended
or remoter meaning of a word, Jatm.; Kull,;
(in logic) genus; existence (regarded as the com-
mon property of all things), W . ; ( a m \ ind. after-
wards, later; (with abl.) beyond, after (e.g. p a r a m
vijUdndt, beyond human knowledge; astam-aydt
p % after sunset; m a U a h after me: ata$ p?
ox p a r a m a t a h , after this, farther on, hereafter,
neat; *Va j henceforward, from now; fa/ah p
01 total caf' aftcrtnat, thereupon; ndftndtp*
l [tor
trtJhm pfy no more of this, enough), MBh.; Klv.
& c ; in a high degree, excessively, greatly, com-
pletely, ib.; rather, most willingly, by all means,
ib.; 1 will, so be it, Divyiv,; at the most, at the
utmost, merely, no more than, nothing but, ib.; but,
however, otherwise { p a r a m tn or p a r a m htm tu,
id.; yadip, if at a H, perhaps, at any rate ; na-p t

not-but; n a f ' - a p i , not only-bat also

n a , not only not-but not even; n a j P - j r d v a t , n o %
only-bntevcn), ib,; { p d r e r t a ) , ind, fart her, beyond,
past (with acc.),RV.&c, &c; thereupon, afterwards,
later than, after (with abLor gen.), Mn,; MBh, &e.;
( p a r i ) , ind. later, farther, in future, afterwards, RV.;
MBh.; K l v . (Cf. 2 A . p a r a ; Gk. vipd, srf>dV;
J , a t . p e i e n - d i e ; Q o i h . f i { r r a ; G c T t t u / e m ; Eng.
FfcMUtti, mf(i)n, (superl. of pdra) most dis-
tant, remotesV extreme, last, RV* &c. & c ; chief,
highest, primary, most prominent or conspicuous;
best, most excellent, worst i^mttta c<tasd, with all
the heart; m a - k a n t h t n a 'with all the throat/

roaring, speaking aloud), ib,; (with abl.) superior

or inferior to, better or worse than, MBh.; R,; tn.
N. of 2 authors, Cat.; n. highest point, extreme
\ x n n t { e a { u r - * v i & i a f i ' p atthe utmost 34), MBh.&c.;

chief part or matter or object (ifc, C 4 = consisting

chiefly of, completely occupied with or devoted to
or intent upon), Mn.; MBh,; Kav. Sec.; { a m ) , ind,
yes, very well; p a r a m a * in comp,; see below)
very much, eacessively. excellently. In the highest
degree, MBh.; Kav. &c. ksmtha, only in **tht>ia

AVPirii, (cf. " m d v a f ) . 3

Faram&o'n, m. an in*
finitesimal particle or atom (30 are said 10 form a
mote in a sun-beara), Yijn.; Yogas,; MBh. &c.
(cf, b h r i i y a - p ^ ) ; the passing of a sun-beam past
an i \ t mot*,, r>.ir . r 1 /\C . Ml IT* VP,if *

mat, mfn, deeply distressed, Nal maliat, mfh.

infinitely great, Yogas, rnoksha, m.finaleimn-

Xffl^O'^ pari-nam (VWm), P . A. -namati,

tt (aor. paty*anau$tti ind. p. p a r i - n a m y d ) , to
bend or turn aside, A V . ; to bend down, stoop,
Kav,; to change or be transformed into (instr.),
VedSmas.; Madhus.; to develop, become ripe or
mature, Hilar.; to become old, Kir.; to be digested,
MBh.; PaHe,: to be fulfilled (as a word), Pane:
Caus. - n d t n a y a f t ( i n d . p. - u d m y a ; Pass, -tidmyaff,
p. n d m y a m d n a or ^ m y a t ) , to make ripe, ripen,
mature, SvciUp.; to bring to an end, pass (as a
night), R,; to bend aside or down, stoop, MBh,
nata, mfn. bent down (as an elephant stooping to
strike with its tusks), Megh.; bent down or in-
clined by (comp.), Bliarlr.; changed or transformed
into (instr, or comp,), Kslid.; Kad,; Slh.; deve-
loped, ripened, mature, full-grown, perfect; full (as
tan ini'to limdor 10ripen,Mfgh.; Viddh. n.5ma,
ni. change, alteration, transformation into (instr.),
development, evolution, Sirrikhyik.; Yogas.; Pur.;
Suir.; ripeness,maturity, Kir.; Ottarar.; Mllatlm.;
alteration of food, digestion, Sutr.; Tarkas.; wither-
ing, fading, SarngP.; lapse (of time), MBh.; R.;
decline (of age), growing old, ib.; Suir.; result,
consequence, issue, end (inc. and "me, Ind. finally,
at fast, in the end), Kav.; (in rhet,) a figure of
speech by which the properties or any object arc
transferred (o thai with which it is compared, Kuval.;
N, of a holy man, RTL. 369; - d a r i i n , mfn. look-
ing forward to the issue or consequences (of any
event), prudent, fore-sighted, MBh.; tfr-isJiti, f.
foresight, providence, MW.; - n i r o d h a , m. obstruc-
tion (of felicity caused) by human vicissitude (as
birth, growth, death & c . \ W . ; - f & t h y a , mfn.
suited to a future state OT condition, ib.; - t t i u k h a ,
mfn. tending or verging towards (he end, about to
terminate, Sale.; - ' a m a n l y a , mfn.(a day) delightful
at its close, ib.; -vat, mfn. hiving a natural develop-
ment n.) Saifik.; vddj t m. the 'doctrine
of evolution,' the Slmkhya doctrine, Sarvad.; - J u l a ,

(w.r. lor f n j n i r ~ t ) t nr^uin, mm. cnangmg,

altering, subject to transformation,developing, VP.;
Samk. ^ m i - t v a , n. ib.); ripening, bearing fruits
or consequences, BhP.; ^ t n i - f a a , n. ib.; m i - u i t y a ,

mfn, eternal but continually changing, Simkhyak.,

Sch. niniLUBTi, mfru (ft, Desidl) about to stoop
or to make a side thrust (with the tusks, as an
elenhant). Si*.
T r f t f i n ; p a r i - ^ t a p , P . - t a p a t i (fut. -tapisk-
y a t i , MBh.; - t a p s y a t i , R,; ind. p . - f d p y a , RV.),
to bum all round, set on fire, kindle ; to feel or suffer
pain; (with tapas) to undergo penance, practise
austerities, RV.&c. & c : Pass. - t a p y a U (ti) to be }

purified (as byfire),Sarvad.; to feel or suffer pain,

do penance, practise austerities, MBh.; Kav, eVc,:
Qra%.-tdpeyati y to scorch, cause great pain, torment,
R.; Pane.; Hit, t a p t a ( p d n ~ ) , mfn, surrounded
with heat, heated, burnt, tormented, afflicted, RV.
&c, & c t a p i i , f. great pain or torture, anguish, L .
t&pa, m.glow, scorching, heat, Kalid.; MarkP,;
pain agony, grief, sorrow, R,; KathSs.; BhP. &c.;

repentance, MBh.; Pauc.; N . of a partic. hell, L .

t 5 p i n , mfn. burning hot, scorching, Kim.; causing
min Or sorrow, tormenting. R. t Sii.

^fteJSI^ p a r i - ^/djis (pi. A . - d a d r i i r a t n ,

AV,; \ u L - d r a s h t u m , MBh.), to look at,ace, behold,
regard, consider, find out, know; Pass, - d r i i y t i t e
( j r f . - d a d r i i e ) , to be observed or perceived, appear,
become visible, K^hUp.; R , & c : C t u t . - d a r i a y a t t \

to show, explain, MBh.; Bhaship. *4rishta, mfn. I

seen, beheld, perceived .learnt, known, MBh.; - i n r *
m<i,m f .havi ng much practical expe rience ( m a id,
f.),Car. dtahtrlrn- spectator, perceiveT, MBh.

\ * ' * r ' J * 7 ~ - T

, t l t t g ^ p a r i - V s u d k , P . A , -iudhyati, te t

i to be washed off, become clean or purified, Subh,;

(A.) to purify or justify one's self, prove one's
innocence, Rajat*.: Cans, -iodhayati, to clear, clean,
R.; to clear off, restore, Yajft, ii, 1 4 6 ; to try,
examine, Kathas,; to solve, explain, cleaj up, Git,
j 8uddha, mfn. cleaned, purified, pure; cleared off,
paid; acquitted, discharged, MBh.; Kav,; Pur,;
(tfc.) diminished by, that from which a part has
been taken away, MBh. *nddM, f. complete
purification or justification, acquittal (dJtiip V f y h
to prove one's innocence), Ragh.; Balar.; Kathas.s
rightness, correctness, KSrand. sodJia, m . n e x t ,
W. "socUxana, n, cleaning, purification, Ultarar,;
discharging, paying off, Kull.
^ f r n f t pajy-avaSsa, P . -syati, to result
or end in, amount to (Joe. or acc. with / r a t i ) , Klv.;
Slh.; In finish, complete, conclude, include, MW.;
to endeavour, ib,; to perish, be lost, decline, A.
aEaa, n. end, termination, conclusion, issue (at f

ind. in consequence of), Gobh,; Nig.; Hit.; com-

prehending, including, amounting to (be.), Sarrad.
BfinikH., mfn. coming to a close, tending towards
an end, MBh. v. I. pdryava '%iftyo.,m. = sdmz;
ifc. next, Balar. B*;yiii, mfn. ending with, amount-
ing to, Utlirar.; Samk. (?yi-tva t n.) i t t n ( J a r y *
dva-)j mfn. living further off (^not quite near),
SBr., Sch.; (with U k d t i t a r a m } departed lo,Urtarar,;
finished, concluded, ended, MBh,; KHv, ficc;
amounting to (loc), Sarpk,; resolved, seltled, de-
finitive, Slh.; -mati, mfn. thoroughly acquainted
or fimiliar with (loc.), BhP.

P i r v a n , n. a knot, joint (esp. of a cane or other

plant(cf,/nntfl but alsoof the body), ]imb,uicmbcr

(lit. andfig.),RV.&c.&c; a break, pause, division,

section (esp. of a took), SBr.; MBh.&c.j the step
of a staircase, Ragh.; a member of a compound,
Prat.; Nir,; a period or fixed time, R V . ; VS.;
SBr.; GrSrS.; (esp.) the Clturmisya feaival, SrS.;
the days of the 4 changes of the moon (i.e. the full
and change ofthe m and the 8 t h and 14th of each
half-month), OrSrS.; M n . ; MBh, Over, * sacrifice
performed on the occasion or* a change of the moon,
R.; the day of the moon's passing the node at its
opposition or conjunct ion, Var.; Sflryai,; MBh. & C ;
the moment of the sun's entering a new sign, W . ;
any partic. period ofthe year (as the equinoi, solstice
&c.), lb.; adivisionofi*me,e.g.ahalf-TTK]ntih(a4in
a yeir),MBh.; aday (3&0), BhP,; a festival,holiday,
W.; opportunity, occasion, ib.; a moment, instant, ib.

f^HiSr^ptpflsoi, 7nf(nnr7)n. (fr. p i ,

Desid.) wishing to drink, thirsty, Sak. ua, f. thirst,
&2r. See. fee; -to/, mfn. thirsty, Vedfintas. aala,
mfn. always thirsty, Car. atta (MBh.j Das.), 1

"in (MW.), am (MBh.; R . J , thirsty, athlnt.

p u n , cl. 6. P . p u n a t i y to act piously or
virtuously, Phatup, xxvlif, 4 3 (indented to serve
base forpunya, m-puna etc.?); cl. Jo. ?./e*rqyctfi

to collect, accumulate (v, L for pft/, p u t y a t i ) .

"JIPT p u n y a rnf(n)n, (perhaps fr. / Z . J H . S A ,


according toUn. v, 15 from */pu; e also ^/pttn)

auspicious, propitious, feir, pleasant, good, right,
virtuous, meritorious, pore, holy, sacred, RV. &c.
& o ; iu, N, of a poet, Cat.; of another man,
Buddh.; m. or n . N . of a lake, MBh.; (<z) f, holy t

basil, L . ; Physalis Flexoosa, L , ; N, of a daughter

nf Kratu and Samnati, VP,; n. (ifc, f, 4) the good
or right, virtue, purity, good work, meritoriou* act,
moral rreligioos merit, M Bh.; Ksv.flte.; a religions
ceremony (esp, one performed by a wife in order to
retain her husband's affection* and to obtain a son ;
atso -&r),MBh,; Han>.; a brick trough for watering

ptwrar, ind. back, home, in an op-

posite direction, RV, &c,flee,(with V * , gam, yd,
to go back or away j with * / d & , to give back, re*
store j with *Jbhti, to turn round; with */as and
dat, to fall back upon); again, once more (also
with thuyas), ib, (with *fbhu, to exist again, be
renewed, become a wife again, re'marry); again
and again, repeatedly, ib. (mostly p & n a k p which t

with na -< nevermore); farther, moreover, besides,

ib. (alsopunar a p a r a m ; ddau -pu n o r - p a t e & t , at
first-then-later) ; howerer, still, nevertheless,
MBh.; Kav. Ate (at the end of a verse it lays stress
on a preceding at ha vd, apt vdot vd alone; punar
apt, even again, on the other hand, also; kadd p t

at any time ever ; htm p * , how much more or less?


however; now-now; at one time-at

3*^*1 purusha, m. (m. c. also par .; prob. 0

fr. V p f t and connected with p u r u , p u r u ; ifc, f. J,

rarely fy cf. Pag. iv, r, 34) a man, mate, human
being (pi. people, mankind), RV. Sec Sec.; a person,
{punidnpurushak,*. male person, Si nkhGr,;Mn.;
dancja^p punishment personified, Mn,; esp, gram-

matical pers,; w i t h p r a t h a m a , m a d h y a m a , u t i a n i a
the 3rd, 2nd, istpers.,Nir.; Farj.), an officer, func-
tionary, attendant, servant, Mn.; MBh. &c. (c
lat-p^; a friend, L . ; afollowerof the Saipkhya
philosophy (?), L , ; a member or representative of a
race or generation, TS.; Br,; Mn. Sec,; the height
or measure ofa man { = 5 Aratnis I JO Aftgulas),
SBr,; Sulbas.; Var,; the pupil of the eye, SBr.;
(also with A'dnlyams) the primaeval man as the soul
and original source of the universe (described in the
Purusha-sflkta, q.v.), R V . ; SBr. Sec; thepersonal
and animating principle in men and other beings,
the soul or spirit, AV, Sec Sec.; the Supreme Being
Or Soul of the universe (sometimes with p a r a , / a -
r a m a or vttama; also identified with Brahma,
Vishnu, Siva and Durgl), VS. \ SBr. Sec -Sec,; (in
Simkhya) the Spirit as passive and a spectator nf
the Prakfiti or creative force, 1 W . 8 a Sec; the
spirit' or fragrant exhalation of plants, RV, i , 51,8 i
(with sapta) N, of the divine or active principles
from the minute portions of which the universe
was formed, Mn, i, 1 9 ; N , of a PSda in the Mana-
nSmni verses, LSty.; ofthe 1st, 3rd, 5th, 7th, oth
and n t h signs of the zodiac, Jyot; of a son of
Mann Cikshnsha, BhP,; of one ofthe i8atten<
dants of the sun, L , ; pl_ men, people (cf, above);
N. ofthe Brafamansof Kraorica-JvTpa, BhP.; (with
paRca} N , of 5 princely personages 01 miraculous
persons bom under partic. constellations, Var,;
Rottlcria Tinctoria, L . ; Clerodendrum Phlomoides,
L , ; (i), f. a woman, female, RV, Sec Sec; m, or
D, - p u r u s h a k a m, m, Sis, r, 56, Sch,; n, (J) N .
TJ"f p i r v a , rnf(o}tt- {connected with y u r a ,
pttras pra
1 J and declined like a pron. when implying
relative position whether in place or time, but not
necessarily in abl. n., and nom. \ \. r.i.; sec
Pan. i , l , J 7 . 34; vii, 1,16} being before or in front,
fote,first,RV,&c.&c.;eastern,lothe east ofCabI.)-ih.;
former, prior, p rec ed i ng, pre v iou s to, ea rfier ihan (abl.
or comp.), ib, {gaja-purva, preceding the number
'eight, i.e. seven, the seventh, Srulab.; mas&tapf*
or m/tXa-p*, earlier by a nnth, P3n. ii, I, 3 1 ; tie.
often m fomierly or before, e. g. stri*P f a wife \ t
9 9
dfayn-p , f wealthy; esp. after a pp., e.g. fcrita-p 1
done before, d r i s & { a - p ' seen b; ifc. also preceded

or accompanied by, attended with, t%.smit&purvd

I'iLc,speech accompanied by smiles; sometimes not
translatable, e.g. mrtdtt-purva i r a k , kind speech);
ancient,old,ctttnniary, traditional, RV.&e.&c.; first
(ina scries), in it iaf, lowest (opp -to u t t a r a ; with dama
QTsdkasa 'the lowest fine ), Mn.viii, 1 ao&c.; (with

v a y a f ) first age/ youth, MBh.; foregoing, a foresaid,
mentioned before (abl.), M n . ; MBh.j Pan.; m. an
ancestor, forc&ther (pi. the ancients, ancestors), RV.
& C & C . ; an elder brother, R.; N. of a prince, BhP.;
{ a ) , f. (with or sc. AV) the east, MBh.; R_; N , of
a country to the east of Madhya-deia, L . ; of the
Nakshatrasrflrva-phaigunl, PQrvishlclhi andPDrva-
bhadrapadl collectively,Var.; ii. the fore part, Sak.
ii,4(cf. P3n,ii,a,i);a prtk.high nnmber(applied to
1 period of years), Buddh.; N* of the most ancient of
Jaina writings (of which 14 are enumerated), L . ; N .
of aTantra,Cat,; an ancient tradition, W . ; {atJl) t

ind. before (also as a [>rcp. with abl.), formerly,

hitherto, previously (sometimes with prcs.),RV. & c
Ac. (ofteu ibc., e.g. p u r v a * t e r i n active before, t

purv6hta t said b; also ifc. in the sense of "with/

e . g . p r T e i - p H r v a m , with love; matt-pitrvam, with
intention,intentionally; m r i d n - j f ' / o h d i A , \ i > t p c i k
kindly: cf. above; also with an ind. \>,j* -&hejam
or *bhkiva, having eaten b, Pan. iii, 4,34;*?.iJ'fl-/ l
until now, h i t h e r t o ; / - / ^ A f n s t - t h e n ; j e - / f l i ^ / ,

prev lously -afte rw ards; p-upan, pre v iou sly- su bsc-

q o e n t l y ; p ^ - a d A u n d o t a d y a S o n a c i i y - n o v i ) ; (*vw),
ind. in front, before; eastward, to the cast of (opp. to
,7^JYtf,withgen.oracc.; cf. Pap,^3,35,Sch.), SBr.
&c. &c.; (with fata/}) to the east of that, MBh.
H r n k f t , rnf;7Atf)n. earlier, former. prevtoos,
prior, first, MBh.; Kiv. &c. ( $ I r i - p - 'one who

was formerly a woman/ bhua-p, 'having been

beforeifc, also = preceded or accompanied by, con-
nected with, consisting in ; cm, ind. = after, with,
amid, according to); m. a forefather, ancestor, Hariv.;
P..; MflrkP, P u r Y i y s , only in upttdh&yya-fP,
mfn.' having an edge or border' (of braid), trimmed,
edged,TS PHrvJkiii, mfn. former, ancient, Karanc),;
fomleriv invited. L. I w. r fm *7t^*<t MDk
m i pra-vkai, A. -hasate (ep. also P,
" t i ) , to become visible, appear, shine, become
evident or manifest. Up.; MBh.; Kav.&c.: Caus.
-kdfayati (rarely to make visible, cause to
appear or shine, illumine, irradiate, stow, display,
manifest, reveal, impart, proclaim, ib,; In tens, (only
pr.p. -cdkaia!) to illumine (and) to survey, RV. iv,
53,4* "Ufa-, mfn. visible, shining, bright* SlfikhBr,;
MBh.&c.; clear, manitest, open, public, Mn.; MBh,
6cz.{ndnujdheyajit J>rakdiam kyiivd, pronouncing
name out irad/&nkhGi.) ; expanded, W.; univer-
sally noted, famous, celebrated for (instr. or comp,),
MBh,;Kllid.; renowned throughout (comp,), Ragh.;
(ifc.) having the appearance of, looking like, re-
sembling, M Bh.; R.&c; ibc- and [ a m \ ind. openly,
publicly, before the eyesofall, Mn.; MBKSccCfam
n d b h y u d a i k i h a t a , * he did not look up openly, R.);
aloud, audibly (esp, in dttm. opp t t to a/fta-gafam,
tva-gatam &c,); m .clearness, brightness, splcndou r,
lua:re, light, RV. Jfcc, &c.; (fig.) light, elucidation,
explanation (esp. at the end of titles of explanatory
works,t.g,Jtavya- tarka-ISiK,)i appearance,display,

manifestation, expansi on,d Effus i on, M Bh,; Kav, \ Sab.;

publicity, fame, renown, glory, Hariv.; sunshine, open
spot or air, MBh.;Sak. ;MarkP. (e, ind. openly, pub-
licly, before (he world, ifc. iu the presence of, MBh,;
Prab.); the gloss on the opper part of a(horse sjbody,
VS.( Mahidh, ); w.r. forfirdi TBr.; a chapte r,sccti on,

Cat.; N,ofsev.wks.,ib.; laughter,!..; N.of a Brahman

(ionofTamas), MBh.; ofManuRaivata, Hariv,;(pi.)
the messengers of Vishnu, L . ; n. bell-metal, brass,
L.; - k a r i r i r . \ . 'Light-maker,' K. of the sun, MBh.;
k a r m a n , m. whose work is to give light,' N. ofthe
inn, MBh.; -iJffjd.mfn, wishing for renown, AivSr.;
-&raya,xii, a purchase made publicly, Mv/.; -id, f.
brightness, brilliance j aplendoui, Yajn.;Pancat,; pub-
licity ftdm '/gam, to become known or public,
Mudr.); renown, MBh.; -rev, n, clearness, brightness,
N a i kh., Sch.; appearance, mini festati on ( i v a - , 'ofone't
elf), Sah.; celebrity, renown, M Bh.; - d a i t a , ru. N .of
apoetjCai.; -dez-l, f, N.of* princess,Rajat,;-dhara,
m. N, of an author. Cat,; - n a * i , f-' public woman/
a prostitute, Mf itch.; -vaHeaAa, m. 'open rogue,' a
public deceiver orchcat, MW.; -vat, mfn. {-vat'tva,
n.) bright, brilliant, shining, ChUp.; Ragh,, Sch.;
tsamk.; m. N.of one ofthefeetof Brahml, ChUp.;
-varskat m. N.of a poet. Cat.; vdda,m. -samhiLi,

t, - * a p i a i i , t. - i u i r a , n, N.ofwks.;
t "i&k&ioMftti,
mfn. bright as a clca r sky, M Vv*.; i d l m a k a , mfn,
*4&tman (jka-fva n, the possession of a brilliant

nature or character, bri I Itancy), Sarpk,; *idtmatt t

brilliant in character or nature, brilliant, shining,

Sflryaa.;m. N.of Siva, Sivag,; the tun, U ; N, ofscv,
men and authors (also withyati and t v d m i n ) , Cat,;
^ i d d i i y a , m, * t i & i a n a n d a m N.of auihors. Cat.;
r r


Jtaraqa, n, giving light, illuminating, R.; a.

- k r i m i i yu/e
t to make, produce, accomplis]
perform, achieve, effect, RV, 6tc & c ; to mal
into, tender (with double acc), Mn,; MBh. &c
(with d d r d r t ) to take to wife, marry, MBh.; i
appoint, charge with (loc), PatGr.; M , ; Yljfi
to enable to, make fit for { i n ? , ) , RV,; to remove
destroy, kill, AV,; Hariv.; (only A . by Pin, i ; f

3a) to violate, pollute (a girl/, Mn. viii* 37c

(A.) to induce, move, incline, RV,; to make
person perform anything, PftiGr.; (with mono* c
buddhim) to set the heart upon, make up the min
to (dat, or loc), resolve, determine, Mn.; MBh,
R.; to gain, win, conquer, RV,; to lay out, ea
pend, Fiij, i, 3, 3a ; to put forward, mention firsi
mike the subject of discussion, ib.; to serve, honoui
worship, Bbaff,: Caus. - k d r a y & t i , to cause to b
made or prepared. Gaot. .
tate or condition, RJmatUp,-laja, m. absorption
into Prakriti, the dissolution of Ihe universe, Sim-
khyak.; N. of % elas* of Yogitu, Yogas.-vat, ind,
u in the original form, UpaK - v i X T i t l , f. mutation
P n t - k f i t l , f. 'miking or placing before or ai
Gist,' the original or natural form or condition of
anything, otiginal or primary substance (opp- 1o
V t - & r i t i q.v.), Prit.; Nil.; jaim,; MBh.; cause,

original source, Mn.; M Bh,; Sak.&c.; origin, extrac-

tion, Mrjcch.4 na lure, cturactcr, consti tutionjteniper,
disposition, MBh,; Kav.; Suir. &c. (ibc. and tfa,
ind. by nature, naturally, unalterably, properly, Prit.;
SrS.; M n . & c ) ; fundamentalform,pattern, standard,
model, rule (esp. in ritual), rS.; (in the Samkhj a
phiL) the original producer of (or rather passive
power of creating) the material world (consisting of
3 constituent essences ot Guru* called safJva rajas

and tamas\ Nature (distinguished from pnrtisha.

Spirit as May! is d from Brahman in the Vedinta);
pi. the S producers or primary essences which evolve
the whole visible world (viz, a-vyakta, buddhi or
mahat, a a a m - A d r a , and the 5 tan*matras or subtle
elements; rarely the 5 elements alone), l W . S o & c ;
(in mythol.) a goddess, the pejsonified will of the
Supreme in the creation (hence Ihc same with the
Sakti or personified energy or wife of a deity, as
LakshmS, Durgi & c ; also considered as identical
with the Supreme Being), W . ; IV/. 1 4 0 ; R T L .
3 3 3 ; (pi.) N . of a class of deitica under Manu
Raibhya, Hariv,; (in polit,) pi, a kind's ministers,
the body of ministers or counsellors, ministry, Mn*;
MBh. Sec.; the subjects ofa king, citizens, artisans

rc, Eb.; the constituent elements or powera of the

atate (of which 7 are usually enumerated, via- king,
minister, allies, treasure, army, territory, fortresses,
Mn. ix, 2 9 4 ; 195) j the various sovereigns to be
considered in case of war (vis. the mxdhyama,
vijCgfshu, uddslna and i a t r u - to which should
be added 8 remoter princes, viz. the m i t r a , art-
mfra m i t r a - r r d t r a , a r i m i t r a - m i t r a ,
t pdrshnt-
grdka, d&rattda, p&rshnigrah3sdra, dkrartd^
t & s a ; each of these J 3 kings baa 5 Prakrit is in the
form of minister, territory, fortresses, treasure and
army, so that the total number of Prakritts may be
73), Mn. vii, 1 5 5 ; 157, Kull.; 0" gram.) the
crude or elementarv form of a word, base, root, an
uninflected word, Sah.; Pan, Sch.; Vop.; N . ofa
classes of metres. Col.; (in arithm.) a oc-eflictent,
multiplier, ib.; (in anat) temperament, the pre-
dominance of one of the humours at the time of
generation, W . ; (with IftfTyd) the third nature, a
eunuch, M B H ; matter, affair, Lalit_; the male or
female organ of generation, L . ; a woman or woman*
kind. L . : a mother. L . : an animal. L . : N . of a
H ^ % p r a - v'cffr, P , - c a r a t l (ep.alflo \.te),
lo proceed towards, go or come to, arrive at (acc.),
RV. &c. Sec; to come forth, appear, MBh.; R.
&c ; to roam, wander, Pub,; BhP.; to circulate,
be or become current (as a story), R.; Var.; to set
about, perform, dUchaage (esp, sacred functions,
with instr. of the object or of the means employed),
A V.; Br.; KatySr.; to be active or busy, be occu-
p ed or engaged in (loc.), MBh,; BhP.; to proceed,
behave, act in peculiar manner, Mn.; MBh. Sec.;
to come off, take place, BhP.: Cans, -cdrayati, to
allow to roam, turn out. to graze, Hariv.; to make
public, W, " c i m , m. a road, way, path, L . ; usage,
custom, currency, W . ; going well or widely, ib.;
pi. N.of a people, R, (v. \.praccara andJtra-itara).
cara-xui, n. going to graze, Cat.; proceeding with,
beginning, undertaking, SrS,; Balar,; circu latins;,
being current, W.; employing, using, MW.; (s),
f, (sc. srti) a wooden ladle employed for want of
a better at a sacrifice, &Br.; KatySr. curanija^
mfh, being in actual use, SBr. carit*\, mfn. fol-
lowed, practised, Mn. T , IOO ; arrived at, visited, R.;
current, publicly known, Car., Sch. ca>rltswya,
mfh. to be proceeded with or undertaken, to be per-
formed, AitBr. ^Carlton, inf. (with f u r g ) before
he (the Adhvaryu) sets to work, GopBr,; Vait.
oaryi, f. an action, process, A*vSr. c l r a , m.
roaming, wandering, Hariv. (cf. bhikshd-); coming
forth, showing one s self, manifestation, appearance,
occurrence,existence,MBh.; Kav.ficc.; application,
employment, use, ib.; conduct, behaviour, Mn.;
MBh.&e.; prevalence, currency, custom, usage, W.;
a playground, place of exercise, Hariv.; pasture-
ground, pasturage, Mn*Ix, a i o ( Vishrj. xvih',44,
where Sch, a wav or road lending from or to a

P*3r* fro-cchfid (y/chrid), Caus. -cchor-

dayatiy to vomit, Susr. ccliajcUja, n. emitting,
e xha I i n* ,Vogas,; vomit i ng, a n emet ic, Susr.cohaxtll
(Gar), c^hao7a^aJl(,3,lo8,^^ f, vomit-
ing, sickness.
chfid, cl-7- (Tmpv. ehrinattit, a. eg,

dur 4 , S 3 , Vartt. 3, Pal-) to vomit, BhP. x, n

t (

4 9 ; toutter,leave,TAr.iv,3,3; ?.&.{chpntU)
to shine, Dhatup. xx\x, 3 ; to play, ib-: cl- t-
ckardati (v. L. r f a t i ) to kindle, xxxiv, 14; Cans.

chardqyat '\c\* ib.(v.l. V / a y ) ; to cause lo flow
t t

over, SBr. itf, 4, 3 , 9 ; to vomit, eject {with m

without acc.), MBh. v, 3 4 9 3 ; vi,93; Suir.; VarBrS.;
tocaQsetospitorvomit,Car.i,i3,88; Susr.;
vomit, KatySr- xxv; Lajy.; KauS.: Desid.V<tffl^
dishali l
& &hritsath P*> vii, a, 57: Caus. Dcsid.
cicchardayishaU, 4,S3,Vartt. 3, Pat,; c d-, / r a - ,
Charda, v. L for V i , vomiting, L .
Chardsuifr, mfn. causing vomitioc, Car. vi, 33 ;

L.; **alamhusha t L . ; n. vcmition,Kaus.; Gaut.j

Susr.; retching,W. Cha.rdaniy* mfu, to be caused (

lo vomit,Car. vi, 3a. Chaxdayitavya, mfn. id., Lb.

$ r a - V j R a V . - j a n a t i t i t know, tinder-
t t

stand (esp. a way or mode of action), discern, dis-

tinguish, know about, be acquainted with (acc,), RV.
&c. Sec; to find out,discover,perceive,learn,MBh.;
Klv. & c ; Caus. j h H p a y a H to show or point out

(the way), SBr.; to summon, invite, Lalit. a.

JiU, mfn. (for 1- s e e p r a ' ^ / j a n ) knowing,conver-
sant witb, SBr.
Fra-jna, f. wisdom, intelligence, knowledgej
discrimination, judgment, SBr. &c. &c,; device, de-
sign, SBr.; SinkhSr.; a clever or sensible woman,
"W.; Wisdom personified as the goddess of arts and
eloquence, Sarasvail, L . ; a partic. Sakti or energy,
Heat,; (with Buddh.) true or transcendental wisdom
(which is threefold,Dharmas. no),MWB. latfjiaSj
the energy of Adi-buddha (through the union with
whom the latter produced all things), MWB. 304,
Tp!) prff-nu (v^ntt), P. A. -$avati t* f t to
roar, bellow, sound, reverberate,RV.j AV,; F . ' t j a u *
fa", to make a humming or droning sound; (esp.)
to otter the syllable Om, Br.; ChUp,; SrS. ^ajuiva
(or prd-tp*} t m. (ifc. f. i) the mystical or sacred
syllable 0#* VS.; T S , ; SBr.; Mn. (ifc, also -ia)

&c, (-fra, n., RlmatLTp,); a kind of small drum or

tabor-* (and prob. w.r, for) p a n a n a , L , ; ~ k a ! p a y

m, ' d a r p a n & t m., -/artfiJAfa, n., - v y & k h y d , f.,

t f,, vdrtAa- n i r n a y a , m.,
%&rtha'prakdiikd-vyakhydtta t n., *v$panishad t

f. N . of wks. 9Uta, mfn. praised, celebrated,

lauded, BhP.

HfiyVT pra-ps'-s/JAS ( K i n . viii, 4 , 1 7 ) , P.

A. -dadhdti, - d k a t U i to place tn front, cause to
precede, MBit.; to put down, deposit, ib.; 10 place
in, bring into (loc.), ib.; to set (a gem) in (loc.),
Hit.; to put on, Apply, Suir.; to touch, MBh.; 10
turn or direct (the eyes 01 thnughu) upon (loc.),
MBh.; Hariv. Sec (with nomas and inf. 'to resolve
upon,* Bhajt-; scil. manas, to give the whole at-
tention to, reflect, consider,* MBh.; dtmd p r a t n -
dhlyatdrtt, 'one must think,* ib.); to send out or
employ (a spy or emissary), to spy, MBh.; R.; to
find out or ascertain anything (acc.) to be (acc),
MBh. 'nidliitiiTya,nifn.iob^turncdufHJn{loc,),
Car, "nidlistaia, n. laying on, fixing, applying
(also pL), Car.; Soir.; access, entrance, L . ; exer-
tion, endeavour,SaddhP.; respectful conduct,atten-
tion paid to (loc), MBh.; profound religious medi-
tation, abstract contemplation of (comp.), Ragh,;
Kathas.; Vedintas.; vehement desire, Lalit.;vow,ib-;
prayer (threefold ),Dharm as, 11 a. raicUiyiJi,mfn,
j" . . n O - . . i_ J
flfrT r. f r d t i , ind.(aa a prefix to roots aud
theirderivntive nouns and other n, sometimes/rafF ;
for a. see p> 664) towards, neat to; against, in op-
position to; back, again, in return; down upon,
upon, on; before nouns it expresses also Likeness or
comparison (cf, p r a i i - c a n d r a \ \ or it forms Avja- I
vTbhavas of different kinds (cf, p r a i i - k s h a n a m ,
prati-graharn praty-egni&.c.\^xdfiSc.t,psupa-

/ r a / i , a little broth, ' ... ii, I, 9 ) ; or as a prep, with

usually preceding acc, in the sense of towards,
against, to, upon, in the direction of (eg- sot-dam
f r , in the dir ofthe sound, R.; agrttmpr , against
the fire, Mn.; also praiy-agni, ind., Parj. vi, J , 33,
Sch.; r i p u m pr*, ag the enemy, Mn.; dtmditam
pr*, to one * self, Ratnlv,); opposite, before, in the
presence of (e.g. rodasl pr^fbei heaven and earth,
RV.); in comparison, on a par with, in proportion
to {eg. I n d r a m pr, in compar with I*, RV,;
sahasra$i pr , on a par with i.e. equivalent to
thousands, ib.; also with abt. or -tar; cf. Pan, i,
4t 9 a ; Ii, 3t ' l ) ; in the vicinity of, near, beside,
at, on (c.g. yupam pr, near the sacrificial post,
AitBr.; Gahgdm pr* at or on the Ganges, R.;
ttai pr, at this point, TS.; dyodhanam pr , on
the field of battle, MBh.); at the time of, about,
through, for (e.g. P k a l g u n a m / f , about the month
Ph, Mn.; c i r a m p? * for a loug time, MBh.;
b h r i i a m pr often, repeatedly, Car.); or used dis-

tributively (cf. Pan.i, 4, 90) to express at every, in

or on every, severally {z.g.yajfiam pr , at every
sacrifice, Yajh,; y a j t l a m y a j i i a m p?*, TS.; var-
sham pt^, every year, annually, Pificat.; in this
sense often comp.; cf, above); in favour of, foe
(Pin. i, 4 , 9 0 ; e.g. / d$<faz>dn pr, in favour of the
verse, ib. pakuha, m. the opposite side, hostile
party, opposition, MBh.; K3v. an obstacle,
Divyav.; an adversary, opponent, roe, ib. ( i f c - a
rival LO, match for, equal, similar, Klvyad.); a re-
spondent, defendana (in law), W . ; m. N.of a king,
VayuP,; * g r a h a , nu the taking of the opposite side
{ h a m cakrufr
t they took the opp side), MBh,;
tat$ga*bhait ava t m. N. of the chief of a partic.
sect. Cat.; j a n m ( t n mfti. caused by the enemy,

Sis.; -ta f. (BhP,), -tva, n. (oarpk.) opposition,


hostility; k s k i l a , mfn. contaiuinga contradiction,


contradictory, Bhishap.; nullified by a contradictory

premiss (one of the 5 kinds of fallacious middle
terms), MW. -pa-tftbln, m. an opponent, adver-
sary,amk,; ^jfl/-/(f,f.self-contradiction,the being
HfriqeJ p r n t i - s f p a d , A . -padyafe (ep. fut
also - p a t s y a t i ) , to set foot upon, enier, go or resort
to, arrive at, reach, attain, V S . Sec. SEC. ; to walk,
wander, roam, ChUp.; lo cotue back to (acc.). re-
turn, MBh.; to happen, occur, take place, PlrGf.;
MBh.; to get into face.), meet with, find, obtain,
receive, take in or upon one's self, SBr, Sic. & t ;
to receive back, recover, AitBr.; Sak.; lo Tesfnre ID
favour, Ragh.; lo undertake, begin (acc, da?, or
inf.), practise, perform, accomplish, Nir.; MBh.;
K^v. to do anything to any pcrion, act or
proceed or behave towards or against (loc, gen. OT
acc), MBh.; Hariv,; R.; to make, render, MBh.;
to tail to a person's (acc) lot or share, ParGf.; to
let a person (dat.) have anything, A past.; to give
back, restore, Mn. viii, 183 ; to perceive, End out,
discover, become aware of or acquainted with, under
stand, learn, MBh.; R. Sec; to deem, consider,
regard, Sarpk.; Sah.; to answer affirmatively, say
yes (with or acil. t a t h d or t u t h U i ) , acknowledge,
assent, agree, promise, MBh.; Kav. etc; to begin
to speak, commence (with acc or instr.), RV.; Br.;
to answer, ChUp. (also with u t t a r a w , R.): Cans.
- p d d a y a t i j i o convey or lead to, procure, cause to
partake of (2 acc), give a present to, bestow on
(loc, dat. or gen.\ KauL; Mn. ; MBh. & c ; to
give in marriage, Apast.; to spend, ib.; To present
with (instr.), Karauej.; to put in, appoint to (loc),
K.; to produce, cause, effect, MBh.; R. 6Vc; to
establish, substantiate, prove, set forth, explain,
teach, impart, MBh.; R. Sec, \ to deem, consider,
regard as (2 acc), Paftcat. (v, 1. - v a d a s i for - p d d a ~
y a j t ) : Desid. - p i t s a t e P'n. vii, 4, 54), to wish to
attain, Samk.; to wish to know, B h l m . : Dcsid. of
Caus, - j i i p d d a y i s h a t i ) to wish or intend to explain
or analyze, Samk. ' pattavya, mfn. to be obtained
or received, MBh.; to be given (as an anawer), R.;
to be conceived or understood, Car.; Samk.; to be
done or begun, MBh.; n. (impers.) it is to be as-
sumed or stated, Samk.; one should ad or proceed
or behave, MBh.; Das.; Pancat. "patti, f. gaining,
obtaimng,acquiring,Qagt,; Samk,; perception, ob-
servation, ascertainment, knowledge, intellect, MBh.;
Kav. Acc; supposition, assertion, statement, Bhartf.;
Tattvas.; admission, acknowledge nt,YajPi.; giving,
granting, bestowing on (loc or comp,), M B h . ;
Kim,; causing, effecting, Kim.; beginning, action,
procedure in or with (loc, gen. or comp.), M Bh,;
Kav. & c . { t a t r a A d p r a t i p a t t i f r s y d t , what is to
be done there? MBh.; kd tasya pratipa//it),w\at
is to be done with it? Knll.) j respectful reception
or behaviour, homage, welcome, ib. ("rV
to show honour, Sale.); confidence, assurance, de-
termination, R, (cf. a-pretip); resource, means
for (loc ), expedient against (gen.), Jaim.; high rank
or dignity, rule, reign, Cat,; conclusion, AsvSr.;
~ i a r m e n a . a concludingriteor ceremony, ApSr.,

Sch.; - d a k s h a , mfn. knowing how to ad or what

is to be done, Pancat.; - d a r i t t i , mfn. showing what
ought to be done, SaddhP.; - n i s h t k u r a , mfn.difficult
to be understood, Ragh,; - p a t a h a , ni. a kind of
kettle-drum (allowed only to chiefs of a certain
iank), L.; - p a r d i x m u k h a , mf^f)n. averse fromcom-
pli'ance, nbstinate, uuyielding, Bhaff.; - p r a d d t t a ,
n. the giving of preferment, conferring promotion,
Hit.; -hhfdn, m. diversity of views, difference of
opinions, RPrit.; - m a t mfn. possessing appropriate

knowledge, knowing what is lo be done, active,

prompt, R.; Kim.; Suir.; celebrated, high In rank.
I f f r i f l t ^ prati-pra-*/r. * u , A . -sttttxte, to
allow or enjoin again, Apfir,, Sch, ^prfeMva, m.
counter-order, smpemiOTi of a general prohibition
in a particular case, Saink.; KitySr., Sch.; KulU;
an exception to an exception, TPrJt., Sch. ; return
lo the original ttate, Yogat, ^ i m m t , Ind,, tee
p. 66 3, col, 3. "prasiita? mfiu re-enjoined after hav-
ing been fojbiddcn, KitySr., Sch.

b a d h n f U (ep. Impf, alto ~ a b a i t d h a f ) to tie to

t t

fasten, fix, moor (A. anything of one's own), SBr,;


Hariv. &c.j to set, enchase, MBh.; to exclude,

cut oft R-agh.; Koll.; to keep back or off, keep at
a distance, Dat,; Naish.; to stop, interrupt, Sak.
"Uriah*, mfh, tied or bound to, fattened, fixed,
K i m . i Ragh*; Suir.; twitted, wreathed (a* a gar-
land), Mliatim. ii, ; dependent on, aubject to
(comp.), Kid.; Sarplc; attached to, joined or con*
netted or provided with (instr.), Kap.; MBh.; Hit.;
harmonizing with (loc.), Kum.; fixed, directed
( i t p a r t or comp.), Samk.; PaBcat.; hindered, ex-
cluded, cut off, Mai tin,; kept at a distance, MBh.;
entangled, complicated, Var,; disappointed, thwart*
ed, crossed, vexed, L . ; (in phil) that which i*
always connected or implied (at fire in smoke), MW.;
~ettta mm. one whose mind h turned to or fixed

on (comp.), Faucat.; -tti, f. the being connected

with (comp.), L , ; rfratara, mfn. hindered or
blunted in Its course (as a thunderbolt), Mall in. on
Kum. Hi, 12 ; -rv^T, mfh. ha ring passion in har-
monious conncctiou with (loc.), Kum. vii, 91.
Ixtdbjo, mfn. to be obstructed or hindered, L ,

diction, Sarvad. to&ndliiiL, mfn. meeting with an

obstacle, being Impeded or prevented, pin, vi, a, 6;
(ifc.) impeding, obstructing; -AT, f.^Vikr,
to fasten on, tie to (ace.), RV,; (A.) to pay back
C a U B
(a debt), MBh. ( C . p r a t i - p v y P ) ' * *+y0jayati l

to fix on, adjust (ihc arrow on the bow), MBh,

yoga, m. resistance, opposition, contradiction, con-
troversy, BhP.; an antidote, remedy, Kathas.; co-
operation, association, W,; the being a counterpart
ofanything, ib. jofi, in comp. ** yogin; -jh'dna-
kdranatd, f-, ' j H a n a - k d r a n a t d - v a d a , m.; -jfid-
nasya A V t u i v a - i A a n t f a n a , n. N. of wks.; -id, f.
coneIation,dependentexistencc^BhasMp.,Sch.; mu-
tual co-operation, partnership, W.; id*vdda t m.N H

nfwk.; -tva, n, i d , Tarkas.; - n i r H p a t t a , n,,gy'

a n a d h i k a r & n c ndiasySipatii-nirSsa, m, N . of
wks. VoEflka, mfn. antithetical, relative, correla-
tive {-tva> n.), Tarkas.; Vedantap. yojin, mfh H

id, Tarkas.; Samk.; TS.,Sch.&c. (cf. a-firattyP);

m. an adversary, rival, Mcar.; any object dependent
upon another and not existing without It, W.; a
partner* associate, ib.; a counterpart, match, ib, yo-
JOTltav7&, mfh. to be fitted with strings, Ragh,
dhati (ep. also A . U), to drive away, R V . ; to
keep back, ward off, prevent, restrain from (abl),
Mn.; MBh. &c.; toforbid,prohibit, disallow, Nir.;
MBh,; R. dec.: Cans, -skcdkayati, to keep back,
prevent, restrain, AsvGr.; MBh. cite.; to prohibit,
interdict, ApasL; MBh,; Hariv.; to deny, Sarvad
"hlddha, mfn. driven back, kept off, prevented,
omitted, MBh.; Klv, &c.;forbidden,prohibited,
disallowed, refused, denied, Mn>; MBh. Acc.; -vat,
mfh. one who has forbidden or interdicted some-
thing, Rajat.; ~vdma mfn. refractory when driven

back, Sak. vi, JJ (v.L); ~stvana t n. doing what is

prohibited, W . ; - s a r i n , mfn. following or doing
what is forbidden, ib. nliaAdli&vy*k, mfn. to be
warded off or kept back or prohibited or forbidden,
MBh.; R,; to be denied, Nylyas. ibcld*fl, mfn.
one who wards off or keepi back &C., MBh.; R.j
misting (with acc.), BhP. i h # d h , m . keeping
back, wirdingoff, prevention, repulsion (of a disease),
Mn.; MBh.; Suir,; prohibition, refusal, denial, SrS.j
Nir,; Kalid,; contradiction, exception, W.; (in
(gram,) negation, a negative particle,VPrlt.; Pa?,;
Vim,; (in rhet.) enfordag or reminding of a pro-
hibition, Kwal.; (in dram.) an obstacle toobtain-
ing the desired object, Sah.; ^dhdhshara^ n. * words
of denial,* a negative answer, Sak. iii, aa (v. I.);
" d a i t m a k a , mfh. having a n form or character,
Yajft,, Sch,; ^dhdpavdda, m* annulment of a pro-
hibition, Kai. on Pan. ii, $ 6&;dhdrthlya,
t mfh.
having (he meaning ofa negation, Nir.; dhdkti^
F, expression of denial or refusal, Klvyid.; * d k t f a -
md, f. a comparison expressed in a negative form.
PTHTtT p r a t i - t h ( / t d (VsfAo), P . A . -tish-
tkati, ti, to itand stay, abide, dwell, RV, flcc.&c.;

to stand still, set (as the mn), cease, MBh.; BhP.;

to stand firm, be based or rest on (foe,), be estab-
lished, thrive, prosper, RV, Sec, Sec,; to depend or
rely on (loc*\ Vajraceh,; to withstand, resist (acc.),
MBh.; Ham,; to spread or extend over (acc.),
MBh.; Cans. -shthdpayati t to put down, place
upon, introduca into (inc.), Br.; GjSrS.; to set up,
erect (as an image), Ratnlv,; to bring or lead into
(inc.), MBh.; to establish in, appoint to (loc.),ib.;
R, Sec; to transfer or offer or present to, bestow
or confer upon (dat. or loc), AivGr.; Mn,; MBh,
Sec ; to fix, fbvod, prop, support, maintain, T S . ;
Br.; MBh.; Hariv,; to hold against or opposite, R.
"alathav mfftftu. standinc finnlv. steadfast. SBr:

Pratl-aHtrit, {. (Ifc. f. d) standing still, resting,

remaining, steadiastneH, stability, perseverance in
(comp.), VS. Sec Sec; a standpoint, resting-place,
ground, base, foundation, prop, stay,rapport,RV,
Sec flee; a receptacle, homestead, dwelling, house,
AV, Sec Sec (ifc. abiding or dwelling in, Ragh.;
Pur.): i pedestal, the foot (of men or animals), A V,;
Br.; SSAkhSr.; Limit,boundary, W.; stateof rest,
quiet, tranquillity,comfort,ease, MBh,; Kiv.; set-
ting up (as of an idolflee.,R T L . 70); pre-eminence,
superiority, high rank or position, fame, celebrity,
Kiv.; JCatha*,; Rajat.; establishment on or acces-
sion to (the throneflre.^Hariv,;Sat; Var-; Rajat.;
the performance of any ceremony or of any solemn
act, consecration or dedication (of a monument or
of an idcJ or of a temple Sec; cf. p r & n a - f * * ) , set-
tling or endowmeot of a daughter, completion of a
vow, any ceremony for obiaining supernatural and
magical powers, Var.; Kathas.; Rajat.; Pur.; a
myatical N, of the Tetter d L . ; N . of one of the

Mitria attending on Skanda, MBh.: of sev. metres,

RPrat.; (wllbFrajd-pate)N. ofa Saman,ArshBr.;
- h r a t v a , Naigh, iii, a ; yoga-Hddhi or -msh*
patti, L . ; * k a m a i & k a r a a i , , - k a t $ a l a t d , f . , - k a l -

fiadt, N. of wks.; -idma i f s k t h a - ) , mm. de-

sirous of a firm basis or a fixed abode or a high
position, TS.;TiocjBr.; GrfirS.; BhP.; -kaumudi,
f., -iattstnbhu, m. or 0., - c i n t d m a n i m .t t -taiva,
n., - t a m f r a , n., - t i i a k a , n, N. of wks.; - i v a , n. the
being a basis or foundation, Sanik.; - d a r p a n a , m,,
-dartdy am., -dldhiti, f, -Jyota, m , - n i r n a y a , ni.
Pratj&k, in comp. for Jya%c olnt&maai, t

m. N, of wk. c t a n s , mfn. one whose thoughts

are turned inwards or upon himself Yogas.; ( a ) , f,
thoughtst ira one's self, ib. - U t t a u d l p J k S

V* I " " ( <-" - - - -

ITiHSf pretty-aksha, mf(o)n. present before

the eyes, visible, perceptible (>*ji&i, q.v,),
Up.* MBh, &e,; dear, distinct, manifest, direct, im-
mediate, actual, real, SBr. &c. ice.; keeping tn view,
discerning (with gen.), MBh.; n. ocular evidence,
direct perception, apprehension by the senses (in
NyJya one of the 4 Pramlnas or modes ol
proof, cf. p r a m a n a ) ; superintendence of, care for
(gen.), Mn. tx a/; (in rhet.) a kind of style de-

scriptire of impressions derived from the tenses,

Kuval.; ( p r a i y d k s h a m \ ind. (aliM<j ibc) before
the eyes, in the sight or presence of (get), or comp.),

H i f t 2. p r a t t ( p r a t i - V i )t P . praty-eti, to
go towards or against, go to meet (as friend or foe),
RV. & c & c ; to come back, return, ib,; to resort
or apply to, R V , ; A V , ; Br, j to fall to a person's
(dat.) lot or share, AitBr.; to receive, accept, MBh.;
(also Pass.) to admit, recognize, be certain of, be
convinced that (a acc.), GrSrS.j Nir,; R, Sec; to
trust, believe (with gen.), Kathas.: Pass, prattyate t

to be admitted or recognized, follow, remit, KAv,;

Samk.; Hit. (p. yamdna known, understood, im-

plicit, PSp,; Satu); Cam. p r a i y - a y a y a t i (Pass.

praty~dyyatt)t lo lead towards i.e. cause to recog-
nize or acknowledge, convince (anyone ofthe truth
of anything), Kslid.; to make clear, prove, arpk.;
Sab.: U t i l A . p r a t f t k i s A a t t , to wish or try to under-
sta nd, Pa n. i L, 4 , 4 7 , Sch. Pra-tit*, tnfn. acknow-
ledged, recognized, known (^awKs/*Vbythe name
of S*'), Nir.; M n . ; MBh, & c ; convinced of any-
thing, trusting in, firmly resolved upon (comp,),
KathUp,; MBh,; H i t ; satisfied, cheerful, glad,
pleased, AitBr.; MBh. & c ; respectful, L . ; past,
gone, L . ; clever, wise, L . ; m. N. of a divinity enu-
merated among the Visve Devas, MBh,; -sma, m.
N, of a prince, Buddh,; ^tftksharily f. N, ofa Comm.
on the MitSkshara; Vfariiart, mfn, confident, reso-
lute, MBh.; tdrtha mfn. having a recognized or
acknowledged meaning, Nir.; 0 i v a m. N. of a t
Pr sty ays, m. belief,firmconviction, Irust, faith,
assurance or certainty of (gen., loc. or comp.); proof,
ascertainment, Mn.; M Bh- &c. {pratyayam /gam,
to acquire confidence, repose ciu, MBh.; asiy a t r a
pratyayo m a m a , I hat is my conviction, Kathas,;
firaiyaya'/ra, what assurance is there of that?
ib,); -conception, assumption, notion, idea, KatySr.;
Nir.; Samk.&c; (wiih Buddhisisand Jainas)fianda-
mental notion or idea { - f v a , n , ) Sarvad.; conscious-

ness, understanding, intelligence, intellect (in Ssm-

khya b u d d h i ) ; analysis, solution, explanation,
definition, L,; ground, basis, motive or cause of
anything, MBh.; K a v . & c ; (ira m t d . j * * - t j i m i t t a ,
hetu See, Cat.; (with Buddhists) a co-operating
cause ; the concurrent occasion of an event as dis-
tinguished from its approximate cause; an ordeal,
Katy.; want,need, Kirand.; fame,notoriety, Tan.
vtfi, 3, 58; a subsequent sound or letter. Prat,; an
affix or suffix to roots (forming verbs, substantives,
adjectives and all derivatives), Prat.; Pan.; an oath,
L.; usage, custom, L.; religious meditation, L . ; a
dependant or subject, L.; a householder who keeps
a sacred fire, L , ; - k a r a (R.), -*kdraka (Pancat.),
' k a r a n a (5ak.),mfn.onc who awakens confidence,
Irustworthy; * H r i n , mfn. id., h . ; { i t j t ) f. a seal,

signcl, L.; -tattva-prakdiikd % N. of wk,; ' i v a ,

n. (cf. above) the being a cause, causality, Sarvad.;
- d h & i u , m. the stem of a nominal verb, Pat.; - f r a -
e i v a t r a t t a , n. a certain or distinct answer, Sak.;
- t i t a u k t i k a - m d l f i , f.N.ofwk.; -Apa,m.(ingram.)
elision of an affix; -sarga, m. (in Saqikhya} the
creation which proceeds from Boddha ; svara, m,
(in gram.) an accent on an affix; ay/}trjia, mrn,
causing ccrttfidence, R. { x , \ . p r a t y a g - d t m a ) \ ^ a y A -
dhi, m. a pledge which causes confidence in regard
to a debt,iC; ' ' a y d n i a ' S a b d a - k j i d ' a n t a ' V y S h a , m.
N. of wk. ^tyayfiya, Nom. P. yat to convince, t
L T H K p r a i y - a ' \ / h r i , P , -harati, to draw \ a
or back, SsukhSr.; MBh. &c.j to withdraw (the
senses from worldly objects). Pur.; to replace, fe:ch
or bring back, recover,rS.; MBh.; Kiv. &c.; to
rearrange, restore, R,; to take up again, continue
(a business, sacrifice &c.), MBh,; Hariv.; to re-
pott,relate, MBb,; to otter (a speech), cry, M W , ;
to withdraw (what has been created), destroy, Hariv.;
r^r.;^^d-p>^-Aff MBh.i;c. "Uxara^st,

n. drawing hither and 1 hit her, Gohh.,Sch.; bringing

back, recovery, Vlki.; drawing back, withdrawing
(esp, the senses from external objects), Ved&ntas.
' l a a r a a l j a or " f l h a r t a v j a , mfn, to be taken
back or withheld or restrained or controlled, W.

P r a t r - K b n m. drawing back (troops from


a battle), retreat, MBh.; withdrawal (esp. of the

senses from external objects), abstraction, MBh,;
Mn.; Pur.; Vedantas. (ef. 1W. 93); withdrawing
(of created things), re-ahsorption or dissolution of
the world, MBh.; (in gram.) the comprehension of
a scries of letters or roots &c. into one syllabic by
combiningforshortness the first member with the
Anubandha (s. v.) of the last member; a group of
letters dec. so combined (as ac or hoi in the Siva-
Sutras), Pin- i, I, f ckc.; (in dram.) N. of a panic,
part of the PQrvi-raflga (JU v.), Slh.; speaking to,
addms^rtfJ^-v^fcrSjwith gen., to speak to a person),
Karaiul.tprob. w.r. forpravydky sound, ik(p rob.

w, r, for id.) ^U&rysb, mfn. to be taken back or

withheld &c.; to be heard or learnt from (abl,), MBh,
i h r t t . mfn. resumed, tesiribed. *ithbrlrl \tf
Fiadhlxm, n. a. chief thing or person, the most
important 01 esseatiat part ot anything, KatySj.;
Mn,; MBh. cVe.; (ibt) the principal orfirst,chief,
head of; [often also ifc (f. J), e. g. J n d r a - p r a d h d n a ,
(a hymn) having Indra as the chief object or person
addressed, Nir,; praycgrt-jP, (the art of dancing)
having practice as its essential part, chiefly prac-
tical, Mabv,]; 'the Originator,' primary germ,
original source of the visible or material universe
(in Slrpkhya - p r a k r i t i , q. v,) 1W\ 5 3 , 1 Sec;
primary or unevolved matter or nature, Sarvad.;
supreme or universal soul, L , ; intellect, onderstand-
ing, L . ; the first companion ot attendant of a king,
acourtier,a noble (also m,), L . ; an clcphant-driver
(also m.), L , ; (in gram.) the principal member of
a compound (opp* to ttpasarjana, q. v,); mf(5)m
ehie , main, principal, most inrportant; pre-eminent
in (instr.); better than or superior to (abl,), MBh.;
Kav. Sec; m. N. of an ancient king, MBh.; (a).

J f % p r a - \Sbhu, P , -bhtvoatl (rarely A . *tti

Ved, inf. -bhSshdni), to come forth, spring up,
arise or originate from (abl.), appear, become visible,
happen, occur, SBr, & c . &c,; to be before, surpass
(with p r i s h i h a t n , 'to be greater or more than the
back can cany/ applied to wealth, R V . ii, I J , 4 ) ;
to become or be numerous, increase, prevail, be
powerful, RV. Sec Sec (3. sg. p r a b h a v a t i - t a r & m ,
'has more power,' Vila, v, 18); to rule, control, have
power over, be master of (gen., loc. or dat.), Mru;
MBhu Set.; to be equal to or capable of (dat. 01
loc) ib.; to be a match for (dat.), Pin. ii, 3, 16,

V i m . a, Pat.; to be able to (inf.), KalicL; Kathas.

Sec; to profit, avail, be of use to (dat.), RV.; Br.;
to implore, beseech(?), Hariv.; Cant, -bhdvayati,
to increase, spread out, extend, augment, multiply
(esp, the Soma by placing it in a greater number of
vessels , Br.; to provide more amply, endow more
richly, cause to thrive or prosper, cherish, nurture,
ib.; MBh.&c.; ( -bhdva below) to gam
or possess power or strength, rule over (acc.), MBh.;
R,; to recognise, R.; Dcsid, of Cans, -btbh&vayi-
r A o t i , to wish to increase or extend, AiiBr.
Fn-blrft, mfn. (Ved. also u, f. v i ) excelling,
mighty, powerful, rich, abundant, RV, & c & c j
more powerful than (abl.), MBh,; having power
over (gea.), VP.; able, capable, having power to
(toe, inf. or comp.), Kav,; a match for (dat.), Pin.
ii, 3, 16, V i m . a, Pat.; constam, eternal, L . ; m.
a master, lord, king (also applied to gods, e.g. to
SOrya and Agni, RV.; to Praja-patl, Mn.; to Brah*
mi; ChUp.; 10 Indra, R.; to Lva, MBh.; to
Vishnu, L , ) ; the chief or leader of a sect, RTL H

14a; a sound, word, L . ; quicksilver, L . ; N, of a

deity under the Sth Mann, MarkP.; of a son of
Kardama, Hariv.; ofa aon of Suka and Pivarf, ib.;
ofasonofBhaga aodSiddhi,BhP,; of a poet, Cat,;
of sev. other mcmHParii,; (Miu, f.N.ofa Sakti,
PaTLcar.); - h a t h a , f. N . of wk.; f. lordship,
dominion, supremacy, Yajft, (v.L)i Kathas,; power
ITflT p r a - \ / i n a A , -mmtte
r (Ved. inf, p r a *
mi; Pass.-mTya/e), to measure, mete out, estimate,
AV.; SrS,; MBh.; to form, create, make ready,
arrange, RV.; MBh.; to form a correct notion of
(acc*)* understand, know, MaitrUp.; Hariv*; Hit,;
Caus. -/Jidpayaii, to cause correct knowledge, afford
proof or authority, MW. I. "mac/a, m. (tor a. see
under praWmt) measuring, measure, L ,
F r a - m i , f. basis, foundation, A V . ; measure,
scale, RV.; right measure, true knowledge, correct
notion, Prab,; Kap,; Tarkas-; tW, 59 &c.; a kind
of metre, RPrat.; -rws, n. accuracy of perception,
Bhaship.; - t v a * H h n o n. N . ofwk.

Pramilnft, n. (ifc. f. d) measure, scale, standard;

measure of any kind (as size, extent, circumference,
length, distance, weight, multitude, quantity, dura-
tion), KatySr.; KathUp.; Mn. &c. (instr. on an
average/ Jyot,); prosodical length (of a vowel),
Plg.i, t, 5 0 , Sch,; measure In music, WBh.(Nilak-);
accordance ofthe movements in dancing with music
and song, Samgit.; measure of physical strength,
Sak. (cf. comp. below); the first term in a rule of
three sum. Col.; the measure of a square-i.e. a ode
of it, Sulbas.; principal, capital (opp. to interest),
Col,; right measure, standard, authority, Gr&rS.;
Mn.; MBh.&c. {pramdnam bhavati/your lady-
ship is the authority or must Judge,* Nal.; in this
sense also m. and f. sg. and p|. e.g. veddh p r a -

mandh> 'the Vedas are authorities/ MBh.; strl

pramdntyeshSm'fazy whose authority is a woman,*
Pin., Sch.) ; a means of acquiring Praml or certain
knowledge (6 in the Vedfinta, viz. pratyaksha,
perception by the senses; a n u m d r i a , inference ;
upamdna, analogy or comparison; iabda or dpta-
vatana, verbal authority, revelation; an-upaliwdki
or ubhdva-praiyakshat non-perception or negative
proof; arthdpatti, inference from circumstances;
the NySva admits only 4, excluding the last two;
the Slmkhya only 3, viz, pratyaksha, anumdna
and iabda; other schools increase the number to 9
by adding sambhava, equivalence; a t i i h y a , tradi-
tion or fallible testimony; and tcsh(d r gesture, IV/.
60 See, &c.); any proof or testimony or evidence,
Yijfi.; MBh.; Kav. & c ; a correct notion, right
perception ( ~pramd\ Tarkas,; oneness, unity, L , ;
u i / y a , L . ; m. (cf. n.) N . of a largefig-treeon
the bank of the Ganges, MBh.; (f), f. (cf. n.) N;
F r a - mBda, mi ntoxica tion.RV.; M Bh,; mad ncss,
insanity, L.j negligence, carelessness about (abl. or
comp,), Kau*.; Mn.; MBL. &c; an error, mistake,
W.; a partic high number, L , ; - f d r i n , mfn. acting
in a careless manner, Ksrarjc?.; ^pdfha, m. a wrong
reading,fiarnk.; -ws/,mfn. ~mdiHn L, mldlU t t

l ? i n ^ p r a - V y a t , \ . - y a t r i t c , to bo Active or
effective, TBr. (ep also P . / i ) ; to strive, endeavour,

exert one's self, devote or apply one's self to (loc,

dat., acc., a r t h f i . a r l h t i m , k i t e s OT inf.),3r$.; Mn.;

M !.h. yatmiB, n. effort,endeavour (used voex*

plain p r a - y a t n a ) , Pat. "yattta, n. (Trnpcra.) pains
have been taken with (loc), MBh. ^ratitaTya,
n. (impera.) paini have to be taken with (locAR.;
Blhr.; Car. yatta^mfh.uMem,eager,Bhaiir.7t-
tavya, n. (impers.) ya!itavya, Nal. *rat&a,m,
persevering effort, continued exert bo or endeavour,
exertion bestowed 00 (toe or comp.), activity, action,
act, M m ; MBh. &c, (instr. sg, and pi. abl, and
-tax, ind. with special effort, zealously, diligently,
carefully; t n a , ibc, and t r t d t Ind. aim-hardly,
a Q

scarcely); great care, caution, Paucat,; (in phil)

active erJbm (of 3 kinds, viz, engaging in any act,
prosectfing it, and completing it) ; pl_ volition (one
ofthe 17 qualities of the V scshikaa\ IW\68 ;. 'to

granO effort ID uttering mode of articulation (also

dsya'pray', distinguished into d b h y a n t a r a - f i and
bahya-p" % intemarand external effort), Prit; Pay,
i, r , 9 , Sch.; { d ) , i, N, of a partk. rutt, SarngTtl;

'.1 i, mfh. frustrating a persons (gen.) efforts,

Mudr,; - p r ^ s k a n i y a , mtn, hardly visible, Sak.;
* m u k t & s a n a , mfn.risingwith difficulty from a seat,
Ragh.; - v a t mtn. assiduous, diligent, persevering,

Kim,; ittdnanda, m. N . oif wk.

Fravyogtn, mfn, being employed or used, appli-
cable, usual i ^ g i - t v a * n.), KilySr.; ha v ing some obj ect
in view, W,; performing (on the stage); actor,
Bhar. ^Offiyav, nifa. treating of the application (of
medicines & c ) , Cat. VoffT** m* any animal har-
nessed to a carriage, draught animal, ChUp. y o -
Jftkft, mf(tv^u. causing, effecting, leading to (gen. or
comp,), MBh.; Rajat,; Sarvad.; (ifc) prompting,
Instigating, instigator, promoter, Pan. i , 4, 5 5 ;
effective, essential, Sin.; deputing, anointing, W . ;

creditor, ib.; a founder or tnstitutor of any ceremony,

W,; an employer, A . ; - k a r t f i - t v a , n. the acting
as instigator or promoter, W\; * i d f, (Nyayam.,

Sch.}, -tva, n. (Kai.) agency; kAdhydya-bkd*

shya, n, N. of wk.
Prtv-yoj&n*, n, (ifc f. a) occasion, object, cause,
motive, opportunity, purpose, design, aim, end,
Prit.; MBh.; Kav. Sec.;prayojamna, with a par-
ticular Intention, on purpose, MBh.; n a - v a i d t , id.,
Paftcai.; kena nena t from what cause or motive?
Prab.; kasmai^n&ya, kasmdt >*d/, kasya nasya
a n d k a t m i n , id., JCK on Pan, it, 3, 27; nam
a i i - */kram
t to neglect an opportunity, MBh.; pro-
fit, use or need of, necessity for, Kav.; Paflcat. &c.
(with instr., t a r v n d kim prayojanam, what is
the use of the tree ? Kuvat.; bkavatv etaifr kusu-
vtaty prayojanam, let theseflowersbe used, Sak.;
w ith gen. ordat, K a i on Pan. ii ,3,? 7; ii, 3,7 3); means
of attaining, Mn. vii, ico;(in phil.) a motive for dis-
cussing the point in question, 1W, 6 4 ; ~vai, mfn.
having or connected with or serving any purpose or
interest, interested, R.; serviceable, useful, Suir. (*?-
tva, n., Sarvad.); having a cause, caused, produced,

Pia/vlbbEff*, m . separation, division, distribu-

tion, classification, Mn.; MBh. & c ; a part, portion, (

Uttarar. mfn. having subdivisions, subdivided,

MBh, ind. separately,aingly, MBh.; Heat.
pra*vi+*/bhoj r P. ~bhajati t to
tc parate,di vidc,dijlrlbutc, a ppottion, PraSnUp.; Mn,;
MBh. &e. vibliakta, mfn. separated, divided, dis-
tributed Ac., Mn,; MBh- Btc;one who has received
his share, Mn. viii, f66; (ifc.) divided Into or con-
sisting of, KulL.; divided or distinguished by (instr. or
comp.), Bhag.; Saipk.; variously situated, scattered,
R,; - r a i m i t mfn, having the rays distributed, distri-
buting rays, flak.

17^ pra-</vrit r A , ~vartate (cp. also P,

t), to roll or go onwards (as a carriage), be set in
motion or going, ChUp,; MBh. & c ; to set out,
depart, betake one's self, MBh.; R.&c.; 10 proceed
[ v a r t m a n d or ni on a path; apathena,on
t a wrong
path),K3v.; Kathas.; to come forth, issue, originate,
arise, be produced, result, occur, happen, take place,
VS,; Br,; MBh. Set.; to commence, begin to (inf.),
set about, engage in, be intent upon or occupied
with (dat., loc, o r a r t h a m ifc), MBh,; Kav. Ac.;
to proceed against, do injury to (tocY, MBh.; R.;

Ragh.; to debauch {atty^nyum, 'one another'),

MBh.; to act or proceed acenrding to or with (instr.
or abl.), MBh.; Kav. & c ; to behave or conduct
one's self towards, deal with (foe), ib.; to hold good,
prevail, ib.; to continue, keep on (pr. p.), Hariv.;
Sarvad,; lobe, eaistjMarkP.; toserve For, conduce to
(dat., or a r t h a n t ifc), Sarvad.; to mean,be used in
the sense of (loc), ib.; to let any one (gen.) have
anything (acc), MBh.; Caus, -vartayati, to cause
10 turn or roll, set in motion, RV. &c. Jcc.j to
throw, hurl, pour forth, R V . ; MaitrS.; lo send,
Prab.; to set on foot, circul at c,diffuse, divulge, MBh.;
Kav, &c.;io introduce, appoint, instal, ib.; to pro-
duce, create, accomplish, devise, invent, perform, do,
make, ib. (with setum,X<t erect a dam ; with vyaya-
k a r m a , to effect expenditure ; with foka-yatrdm,
to transact the business of life; with k a l h d m , to
relate a story) ; to eihibit, show, display, R.; BhP.;
to undertake,begin, KatySr,; M B h . & c ; to use, em-
ploy, BhaJl,; toinduce anyone todoanything, betray
into Joe), Kathas.; to proceed against (loc), MBh,
N. ofa metre, Col. VsHttli f. moving onwards, ad-
vance, progress, GfSrS.; MBh.; Suir.; com Lag forth,
appearance, manifestation, SvetUp.; Kalid,; Rljat,;
rise, source, origin, MBh.; activity, eaenioo, efficacy,
function,Kap.;Samlmyak.; MBh.c^c.(intheNyiya
one of the 81 Frameyas, | W . 6 $ ) ; active ILfe (as
opp. to n i - v r i i t i [oj**.] nod to contemplative devo-
tion, and defined a; consisting of the wish to act,
knowledge of the means, and accomplishment of
the object), W . ; giving or devotiog one's self to^
prosecution oQ course or tendency towards, inclina-
tion or predilection for (loc. or comp.), Rajat. j
Hit.; Sah,; application, use, employment, Mn.;
MBh.;MarkP,; conduct, behaviour,practice, Mn.;
MBh. & c ; the applicability or validity of a rule,
KatySr,; Pin., Sen*; currency,continuance, preva-
lence, ib.; fate, lot, destiny, R . ; news, tidings, in-
telligence of (gem or comp.), MBh.; K i v . &c.;
cognition (with vishaya-vaiX, 'a sensuous c*) (

Yogas.; the exudation from the temples of a niltirig

elephant, L . (cf. Vikr. iv, 47); N. of AvantI or
Oujein or any holy place, L.; (in arithui,) the multi-
plier, W . (w.r. f o r p r a - k f i t i f ) ; -fffa, m. ^knowing
1 r
the news, an emissary, agent, spy, L . ; - j M 2 n a , n . *
* V t j B d n a Sarvad.; ' U \ m i i i a n- the reason for the
t t

use of any term in the particular significations which

it bean, M W . ; -nivrttt-mat t mfn. connected with
activity and inactivity, BhP.; -pardhmukka,
mfi^On* dfcinclmed togfr^

m. a belief in or conception of the things relating to

the external world, Buddh,; ~#rtf/mfn. devoted to
anything, Kaiy.; - fndrga,m, active or worldly life,
occupancy about the business acid pleasures of the
world or with theritesand works of religion, MW.;
-vatana, mfn. (a word) expressing activity, KlS.
on Pig. ii, 3, fil; - v i f i l d n a , n. cognition of the
things belonging to the external world, Buddh.;
r n. N, of wk.
H ^ t T ^ p r a ~ \ S A a m P . -samyati,
r to become
dim or tranquil, be pacified or soothed, settle down
[as dust), Mn.; MBh. &c.; to be allayed or extin-
guished, cease, disappear, fade away, ib.: Cans.
iamayati(rarely J(w) to appease, calm, qnench,

allay, extinguish, terminate, ib.; to make subject,

nibdue, conquer, MBh. ama, m, calmness, Iran-
qui 1 HtyX*sp. of mind), quiet, rest, cessation, extinc-
tion, abatement, MBh.; Kav. &c.; m. N . of a son
of Anaka-dundubhiand Simi-deva, BhP.; (f), f, N .
uf an Apsaras, MBh.; - m ~ k a r a , mfh. causing the
cessation of (gen.), disturbing, interrupting, R,;
- r a t i - s u i r a , n. N . of wk.; -sthito, mfn. being in a
state of quiescence, Ragh.; ^ m S j a n a , mfn. walking
in tranquillity, BhP, &Rjtutka, mfn. one who
brings to rest, quenching, allaying, Kficand, i a m a -
aa, mfh- tranquillizing, pacifying, curing, healing,
MBh.; Hariv.; Suir.; n. the act of tranquillizing
flee, MBh.; Kam.; Dai.; Pur.; SuSr.; securing,
keeping safe (of what has been acquired), Mn.vh",56
(others'bestowing aptly;' others 'sanctification;'
cf. Ragh. iv, J 4); killing, slaughter, L . ; (scil. astrd)
N. ofa weapon, R. ^iamita, mfn, (fr. Cans.)
tranquillized, relieved, quelled, quenched, allayed,
MBh.; Hariv. & c ; atoned for, expiated, Uttarar.;
- r i p u mfn. one who has all enemies pacified,
Q e
Mricch.; t & r i , mfn, id., Ragh,; tdpadrava t mfn.
one who has all calamities quelled, MW.

PrswsSn, ind., g. svar-adi( "aSnta,

mfn. tranquillized, calm ,quiet, com posed, indifferent,
Up.; Mn.; M B h . & c ; (in augury) auspicious, boni
on]iuis,Var.; extinguished, ceased, allayed, removed,
destroyed, dead, MBh.; Kav.&c.;-ffjOT,mth, one
whose desires are calmed, content, BhP.; ~aritra-
P i a i i , m. N.ofaBodhi-saltva, I,alit.; -tJmr, h
walking tranquilly/ (prob.) N. of a class of deities,
ib.; -i/rta, mfn. ' tranquil-minded/ calm, Veda nt as.;
^eshta, mfn, one whose efforts have ceased, resting,
MW,'; - t & , f. tranquillity of mind, MBh.; -dkl mfn, t

*--citta, BhP,; -bddha, mfh. one who has all cala-

mities or hindrances quelled, M W , ; -bhi/mipdla,
mfn.'having the kings extinguished/ without a king
(said of the earth), Rajat.; murti, nun, of tranquil
appearance, Var.; *rdga t m, N . of a man, Cat. j
- v i n i k a y a ' p r a i i h d r y a - n i r d e J a , m M . of a Buddh.
Sutra; v i n i t f i v a r a , m. N. ofa divine being, Lalit.;
tdfjnatt mfn. * tranquil-sou led/ composed in mind,
peaceful, calm, Bhag.; BhP,; tdrdti t mfn. one
whose enemies have been pacified or destroyed,
Prab.; t3rja mfn, one whose strength has ceased,
C f
weakened, prostrated, W . ; i 8 l m t i k a , mfn. ea-
tinguishcd,W.; ^nloltJ, mm. - / ^ r , MW. eHn-
t&ka, mfn. tranquil, calm, Dhar. i S n t l , f, sinking
to rest, rest, tranquillity (esp. of mind), calm, quiet,
pari rkation,abatemc nl,cxtinction,dcstruction,M Bh. j
K l v . & c ; 'ddfij. "messenger of rest/N.of old age,
IT _ fl'J r. i. _. di ' I i . .

M d \ pra-i/hvas, P . -*va$lt\t to breathe
En, inhale, MBh.: Cans. -Svdjayafi, to cause to
breathe, SBr.; to comfort, console, Hariv. B V * * I -
tsvya., n.(impcrs ) recovery of breath i.e. recreation

should be procured for (gen.) or by (instr.)or through

or by means of (instr.), TaittUp. s v S a a , m,
breathing in, inhaling, Snir.

IRT^TC p r a - $ a n i - \ f k h t r a , P . - k h j a t i , to
count, enumerate, MBh.; to add up, calculate,
AwSr.; MBh. **, f. total number, sum,
MBh.; reflection, consideration, KltySr. aatx-
knySnfc, mfh. collecting or gathering (only for
preseot needs), MBh. xiv, 385a, v.l. (NTbk,); m,
payment, liquidation, a sum of money, ib. ni, 10398
(Nilak. *a measure to mete out anything'); n.
ennntin^, enumeration, BhP.; reflection, meditation,
MBh.; Tattvas.; reputation, renown, MBh. iii,
138a (Nilak.); - p a r a , mfn. engrossed or absorbed
In meditation, Kum.
JF^prari/saftj, P. k. *sajati tet t (P.) to
hang on, attach to (loc,), Llty,; to hang with U .
to provide or supply with (instr.), SBr.; to cling to
(lot.), Dai; toengage*ithanyone (loc.) in a quarrel
or dispute, ChUp,; (only ind,p.-Aiy<i)to be attached
to the world, BhP,; toresujlt,fbllow,be the consequence
of anything, Sarvad.; to cause to take place, Pat,;
(A.) to attach one** idf to (acc,), MBh,: Pass.
*sajyaU or -tajjatt (f*tf) to attach one's selecting 10,

be devoted to or intent upon or occupied with (loc,),

Mn,; MBh, die.; to be in love (pr.p. -saj/arttf},
Hariv.; (-^ytf/tf),tobelhc consequence of something
else, remit, follow, be applicable, Pat.; Bhashap, j
Sarvad.: Caus. P. *saftjayati t to cause to take place,
Naish.; A . ~tajjayatt> to attach to, stick in (loc.;
with n a . to flv through.* said of an arrov/Y R .

F * *-*,hff a, m .adherence, at rachitic nt> inc I inatton

01 devotion to, indulgence in, fondness for, gratifica*
tion of, occupation or intercourse with (loc, gen. or
comp.), Mn.; MBh, &c. (ena tind. assiduously,
zealously, eagerly; cf. a l below); evil inclination
or Illicit pursuit, Mn, ix, 5 ; onion, connection (ifc.

VRf^pra-i/sad, P. - i i d a t i (ep. alao A, */?),
to fall into the power of (acc), MaitrS.; AitBr,; to
settle down, grow clear and bright, become placid or
tranquil (is the sea or sky; met. applied to the mind},
M Bh.; K l r . & e t o become clear or distinct, KaJhUp,;
K s m t o becomesatisfied or pleased or glad,bc gracious
or kind (with gen,Mo favour ? with inf. 'to deign to;*
Impv.ofren'beso gracious, please*), Mn,;MBh,3ct;
to be successful (as an action), Ragh. : Caus, -sadayaii
(tnx.also Af; Ym^sddyaW), lo make clear, purify,
Kivytd.; Ratals.; to make serene, gladden (the
heart), Bhartf,; to render calm, soothe, appease,
propitiate., ask a person (acc.) to or for (inf., dat,,
loc,, arihe with gen., or artham ifc.), Mn.; MBh.

Fr**aftda, m. (ifc, f, a) clearness, brightness,

peKuddncss, purity (cf. a n t b u - f * ) . Up,; Kalid, &c.
(Nom. P. *jddati, to be clear or bright, Satr.);
clearness of style, perspicuity, Pralip.; KlvyatL;
Slh.; brightness (of the face), Ragh.; calmness,
tranquillity, absence of excitement, KaJhUp,; Susr,;
Yogserenity of disposition, good humour, MBh.;
Suir.; Ragh. &c.; graciousness, kindness, kind be-
haviour,favour,aid, mediation ( V i / , ind. through
the kindness or by the favour of; datp*/kri to be f

gracinus; st.dush~p* drik~pP\Gob\\r,

t MBh.; Kiv.
See; Kindness personified as a son of Dharma and
Maitri, BhP.; clarified liquor, a decoction, Car.;
settlings, a residuum, ib.; free gift, gratuity, Ratntv.;
a propitiatory offering or gift (of food, **p*~dr<xvyat
prasdddnnd]^^ the food presented to an idol, or
the remnants of food left by a spiritual teacher (which
anyone may freely appropriate to his own use),RTL,
6 9 ; I45 & c ; approbation,W,; well-being, welfare,
W.; N, of a Comm. on the Prakriyl-kaumudt;
- d n t a k a , w.r. for v i t t a k a , Bilar.; -ddna, n. a
propitiatory gift, a gift in token of favour, gift of
food by a superior, MW.; -patta, m. a turban of

jftaQ^pra-/tfvap,P.-wapiti or paU (Pot.

A . -svaptta or *ptta MBh,), to fall asleep, go to

sleep, sleep, Br,; MBh.; Hariv.

Pra-nnp, mfn, asleep, RV.
Fra-supta, mfn. fallen into steep, fast asleep,
sleeping, slumbering, Mn.; M B h . & c ; closed (said
offlowers),Kalid.; having slept, Hit.; asleep I.e. .
insensible, Suir.; quiet, inactive, latent. BhP,; - / J ,
f. - next, Susr, * n p t l , f. sleepiness, srngS.(p*~
ralvsit W\1

Pxftff, in comp. for prdite. Agra, mi\)n,

+ .* .1 1 1 * 1

iv, 49 (v. I, *Mir); the eastern side, Var,tin&ra,

m. (prob. fr. Prikr. pabbhdra pra-Avdra, */hvft)
the slope ofa mountain, Mabtlm,; Kathas.; Balar,;
bending, inclining (cf. prdclna-p ; puraia^pt
bent to the front, Lalit.); inclination, propensity,
Lalit. (ifc inclined to, Divyav.); the being not
far from, Yogas.; a (subsiding) mass, multitude, heap,
quantity, Bhartf.; Prab. Sec,; a shelter-roof, L . (v. k
for -btiaga, q, v.}bbAv*, m, prior existence, L,;
superiority, excellence, W . ; w. r. (or-l/tdra in the
sense of ' slope of a mountain* ( L ) and * being not
far from' (Yogas,); -/as, ind, from a prior state of
ITTW^ prdjf or pr&n (pra-*/an), V*prd$iti
(Pin. viii, 4 , i g, Sch.; impf: Prfayat, vii, 3 , 0 9 , Sch.)
OT prdniti (Vop.), to breathe in, inhale, KenUp.;
to breathe, R V , ; A V , ; SBr.; Up,;-to blow (as the
wind), AitBr.; to live, AV.; Shaft-; tosmell, Samk.:
Cain. prSnayati (aor. pr&nin&t, Pan, viii, 4 , 21,
Sch,), to caose to breathe, animate, AV.; Bhatt.;
Derid. pr&ninishati, Pan. viii, 4, 2 i Sch. r

F r a n , mfn. breathing, Pan. viii, 4 , 20, Sch.

3, Fr&9&, m, (ife. f, for t, sec under Vprd,
p, 701) the breath of life, breath, respiration, spirit,
Tiulity:pLHfe,RV. &e. with
or V i * f or /art- V tow, 'to resign or qait life ;* with
*Jraksh, 'to save I*;* with n\-*/h<mt 'to destroy
1;' team me pr&rtdi, 'thou art to me as dear as
1;* often ifc; cf.pati-, mdna*pr*y, a vital organ,
vital air (3 in number, viz. prStta^ ap&na and vy-
Sna, AitBr.; TUp.; Susr.; usually 5, viz, the pre-
ceding 3 with tarn-Una and ud-ana, SBr.; MBh.;
Suir. A c ; cf. MWB. 3 4 3 ; or with the other vital
organs'6, SBr.; or 7, AV.; Br.; MuntfUp.p or 9 ,
A V . ; TS.; Br.; or 10, SBr.; pi. the 5 organ* of vi-
tality or sensation,,vae, cakskus, i r d t r a ,
rnanat, coIIeclively,ChUp, ii, 7,1; or * nose, roouthj
eye* and can, Gop-Br.; SrS.; Mn, iv, 1 4 3 ) ; air in-

BhP, PrAiifiyima, m. (also pi.) N i of the three

* brcalh-ciercites' performed during Sarpdhyi (see
paraka,recaia,kumbhakalXW^<fi\ RTL.40J;
MWB. J 3 9 ) , Kaos.; _Yajfu; Pur.; -Jajjnd. with
frequent b-exercises. Apart.; min mfn. exercising

t h e b ( i n 3 ways),Ys5B. P r n 4 r t h a - T a t , mfn.

a-^yam, P . -yaechati and (Ved.)

-yamaiit 10 stretch, lengthen out, extend, R V . ;
A V . ; U | y . ; Suir.; M Bh. &e,; to stretch (a bow);
to put on (an arrow &c.); to draw near, bring
hither; to fetch, procure,RV_; to keep, stop, hold m,
draw back, restrain, Mn.; Yajru; MBh.; BhP, flee;
to prodoce, Shaft*: A . -yacchatt <cf. Pan, i, 3, 2%
& 75) to stretch one's self or be stretched or strained;
10 grow long, L . ; to grasp, possess, L . ; Caua. -w-
mayatU to bring near, draw near; to carry, fetch,
R V . ; to lengthen, extend, Sosr.; to produce or
make visible; 10 show, M Bh.
A-y&mi, as* m. *Aretching extending, RPrat.;
Suk. &c.; restraining, restrained, stopping, M n . ;
MBh.; Bhag. & c ; expansion, length (either in space
or time), breadth (in mensuration), Suir.; A S V G T , ;
R.: Merii. Sec. - v t , mfn. extended, long.

2. p r a i i (for I , soo under v V ) *

'bodkl-p'*. blLa,mf(f)n. (fr. ~$hd) intuitive, divtna-
tory ; n. (with or scthJUdttd) intuitive knowledge,
intuition, divination, Sit.; Kathas. j TUT. {-vat, ind.
Nyaya*.); (J), f. presence of mind, MBh. bha^ya,

I f f i W p r a r i V A A a , P . -M5x(, to shino
upon (acc.), L i \ y . ; to come in sight, present or offer

one's self to (gen. or acc), MBh.; R. eVc.; to appear

to the mind (also with mannsi), flash upon the
thoughts, become clear or manifest, occur to (acc.
or gen.), Up.; MBh, &c. (nSttaram pratibhdti
me, *no answer occurs to me,' Hariv.); to seem or
appear to (gen., acc with or without pratt) as or
like (nom. with or without iva or yathd or -vat,

ind,), MBh.; Kiv, &c.(tVipratibhdti me mcnak%

'so It seems to my mind,' MBh.); to seem lit, ap-
pear good, please to (gen.or acc), Vikr,; Paficat &c,
{sd bhdryd pratibhdti we, 'this one would please
me as a wife.' KathaO Vh%. mfn. wise, intelligent.

JIPJT; pradur^ tfld. (prob. fr. p r d = p r a +

dur, out of doors ;* grd-dds, g. svar-ddi} dush
before k and p , Pin, viii, 3,4 r; ^duh sky at, shattti
for sydt, santt, 87) forth, to view or light, in sight,
AV. &c. &c. (with *Jas or bhu, to become mani-
fest, be visible or audible, appear, arise, exist; with
* / k r i , to make visible or manifest, cause to appear,
reveal, disclose), bnSva, m. becoming visible
or audible, manifestation, appearance (also of a deity
on earth), G.r$rS.; MBh. dec. -bafctft, mfh, come
to light, become manifest or evident, appeared, re-
TlPfT prdnta (nrc-ania), m. n. (ifc. f. a)
edge, border, margin, verge, extremity, end, MBh,;
Kav, &c. {yauvana-pp, the end of youth, Paficat.;
osktha-prantau, the corners of the mouth, L.); a
point, tip (of a blade of grass), Kaus.; back part (of
a carriage), Vlkr, (ibc, finally, eventually, Kav.;
Paficat.); m, thread end ofa cloth, h,; N. of a man,
%,aivMi; mfh.dwclling near the boundaries.D i vy Av.

plant, L . tonuxni,f. final place or term; {au\

ind, finally, it last (others *up to the verge of the
border'), Yogas. vixaaa, mfn. tasteless in the

TSr^pAoI, cl. I. P . (DhStup, X V , 9) pha-

faii (ep. also A . U; pf. papndla, MBh., a. pi.
phctuh, Bha^.; cf. Pin, vi, 4, iaa ; aor. aphdftt,
Gr.; fut. pkatkhyatiy MBh.; phalitd, Gr,), to
burst, cleave open or asunder, split (intrant.), MBh,;
R. Sec; to rebound, be reflected, K i r . ; BhP.;
(Dhatnp. xv, 33; but rather Nom. Tr.pAa/a below)
to bear or produce fruit, ripen (lit. and fig.), be
fruitful, have results or consequences, be fulfilled,
result, succeed, Mn.; MBh.; Kav. &c.j to fall to
the share of (loc), Hit.; to obtain (fruit or reward),
MBh.; to bring to maturity, fulfil, yield, grant,
bestow (with acc, rarely instr.), MBh.; K l v . & c ;
to give out, emit'(heat), Kir.; (DhStap, xx, 9) to
go (cf. */pal)\ Caus.phdlayati^ anr. aplphalat,
Gr.(cf.phdlita)\ Dcsid,#]r>A^trfa/t,Gr,; Ititcns,
pampkulyate,pamphu!itt pamphu!ti
t t ib. [Cf.
VstAat. sifhut: Germ, steltem Ensr. stlit."\

Fh&la, n. (ifc. f, J or i) fruit (esp.of trees), RV,

flee. Sen.; the kernel or seed of a fruit, Amar.; a nut-
meg, Susr.; the 3rayrobalans{^Iri^phald, q. v.),
L . ; the menstrual discharge, L . (cf, puskpd)\
fruit (met.), consequence, effect, result, retribution
(good or bad), p i n or loss, reward or punishment,
advantage or disadvantage, KatySr,; MBh,; Kav,
& c ; benefit, enjoyment, Pallcat.ii, 70; compensa*
P.A. bandhaH, le, MBh.; cl. 4. P. badhyaii,

Hariv,; Impv. badhdna, AV., bcmdhdna, MBb^,

-bcdhmhi. BhP., bandha R.j pf. P. babdndha,

3, pi. bedhdf,k^i.
t babandhus, MBh.; A , W / f

Srx^bandhisfyaii*it, MBh.; banddhd, G i . ; aor.

tr^rti^i7,Gr.; Prcc.badhyat,ib.; inf.banddhum
or bandhiiutrtt R., bddhe, AV.,tod.p. baddhvd,

later also P. 'on one's self ) AV.; SBr.; MBh.
dec*; to catch, lake or hold captive, met. to attach
to woild or to ain, M n . ; MBh.; Kap.; to tlx,
direct, fasten, rivet (eyes, ears or mind) on (loc. or
Inf.), MBh.; KAv.; Kathas.; to arrest, hold back,
restrain, suppress, stop, shot, close, Yajff.; MBh.;
Kathas.; to bind a sacrificial victim, otter, sacrifice
fwith dat. of the deity to whom it is presented),
RV.; Br.; KatySr.; to punish, chastise, Hit.; to join,
unite, put together or produce anything In this way,
e. g. fold (the hands), clench (the fist), knit or bend

over (a rivei), conceive or contract (friendship or

B&ndh&j m. binding, tying, a bond, tie, chain,
fetter, RV. Sec. Sec; a ligature, bandage, Susr.;
damming np (ariver),MaricP.; capture, arrest, im-
priionmentj custody, Mn.; MBh. & c ; connection
or intercourse with (comp.), Pa&cat*; BhP- (ifc
connected with, conducive to, MBh.); putting to-
gether, uniting, contracting, combining, forming,
producing, MBh.; Kiv. Sec; joining (the hollowed
hands), Ragh.; anything deposited {?dkei/sth&
to remain deposited), Campak.; a deposit, pledge,
Rajat*; any configuration or position of the body
(esp. of the hands and feet), Ragh.; Kum*; a
partic. mode of sexual anion (there are said to be
16, 18, 36, or even 84, L.), Caur.; eonsiructing,
building; (of a bridge Sec,), MBh.; Rajat.; bridg-
ing over (the sea), Vcar.; knitting (the brows),
Rajat.; filing, directing (mind, eyes, & c ) . Cat*;
assumption, obtamment (of a body), Ragh.; (ifc,)
conceiving, cherishing, feeling, betraying, Hariv.;
K 'lid.; a border,framework,inclosure, receptacle,
L ; a sinew, tendon, L . ; the body, L . ; (in phil.)
mnndancbondage, attachment to thh world, SvetUp.;
Bhag. See* (opp. to mukt{t moksha, *finalemanci-
pation,' and regarded in the SSrnkhya as threefold,
v i i . p r a k r i t i - , v a i M r i k a - , mddaJeshi'fta-i); com-
bination of sounds (in rhet.), construction or ar*
rangement of words, KSvyid,; Pratlp.; arrange*
ment ofa stanza in a partic* shape, Kpr.; arrange-
ment of musical sounds, composition, Satr.; a disease
which prevents the eyelids from quite closing, Suir.;
(ife. with numerals) si part (cf. pafite-, d a i a - b ) .

B a l a , n. (orm., g.ardftareildi) power, strength,

might, vigour, force, validity, RV. Sec. Sec. (baldt,
* forcibly, against one's will, without being able to
help it; also W a ibc, or bafana, bala-fas~ -witi\

gen. or ife., *by force, by the power or on the

strength or in virtue or by means of, by *); force or
power of articulation, TUp.; force considered as a
sixth organ of action (cf. kartttSttdriya), MBh.;
(the Buddhists reckon 10 forces, the ascetic Saivas
four, which accord ing to Sch. on R.[B.] uesdman,
ddna, bhtda, and nigr&hd); Force personified as
one ofthe Vi$ve Devati, MBh*; power of, expert-
ncss in (loc,), Nal*; stoutness, bulkincss, L . ; (also
pL i ifc. f. J) milLtaty force, troops, an array, Mn.;
MBh, &c-i (L. also shape; body; semen virile;

Sni; blood; a young shoot; bone); m. a crow,

Bh.; Crataeva Roxburghii, L . ; half-ripe barley,
^ K V ^ bah& t ind. (the final s h changed
before k and p into J A , ' cf Pin, viii, 3, 41) out,
forth, outwards, outside (a house, village, city, king-
dom Sec; also with abl. or ifc. out of, apart from,
except, besSde>, Br.flee.Sec. (with * J k r i t to place
outside, expel, banish, exclude; with V b k H , to come
forth; with ^gant or .yd, to go out Sec; cf. comp.)
t a n v n , mfn. one whose limbs extend over the
body (of the fire-altar), Sulbas. tapsw, n, outward
penance, YogaS,
B a b l 2 L in comp. for bahis* afiUL, f. an outer

hall, GrS. s f t a , mfn. cool or cooling on the out-

side, Suir. a r t ( jlM*) ind. said of a panic, pro-

nunciation, Br. a a r n a t b a , mfn. lying or situated

outside (the town), Kathas. s a d , mfn. one who
sits outside (said of a person held in low esteem),
Ttir. a&daa or -aad&Bam, ind. outside the Sadas,
SrS. <- riuridliya, mfn. one who performs his morn-
ing and evening prayers outside (the village), Gaul.
(-Sivx,n.) utornft-btk!ifr4m, ind. outside the bricks
called Stoma-bhaga, SBr. * s t h a , - a t h f t j l i i , * a t n i -
ta, mfn. being outside, external, outer, MW.
B a j i l x - , in comp. for bahts, a&cya, mfn. relating
to the exterior, external, unessential (opp. to an tar-
ahga), atpk.; Pan,, Sch. (-tdt f.; t v a , n . ) ;
external part, outer limb or member, property, Scc. t

W ; a stranger, indifferent person, ib.; the pre-

liminary part of a religious ceremony, M W . - suite,
ind. externally and internally, ib. a r f f a l a (only
ifc, f. 1), an outer bolt or bar, Kathas. - a r t h a ,
in, an external object, BhP. fttmam, ind. outside
one's own person, away from one's self, MahrS.
indriya* n. an outer organ, organ of sense or

e ^ T V badh t cl. 1. X . (Dh&tup. Si, 4) 65-

^ dhatt, ep. and m. c. also P. (pf. babd*
dhl,RV.; ia*Mdhishta ib>,bddhishf&m,TkTA
t fut,
i^/f^>^, /i,MBh.flcc.,*2jMiVi,Gr.; MMdAe,
RV., b&dhttum, MBh.; ind. p. bddhitva, sec s.v.,
bidhya, RV,), to press,force, drive away, repel, re-
move, RV. &c, &c.; (with vtfriytw) lo force asun-
der, RV, x, J13, 5 ; to harass, pain, trouble, grieve,
vex, RV. Sec Sec; to resist, oppose, check, stop,
prevent, MBh.; K l v , & c ; to set aside (a a rule),
annul, invalidate, Pan., Sch.; Nilak, Sec j to suffer
annoyance or oppression, TS.; Pass, bddhyate, to
ESdhana., mfn. Oppressing, harassing (see t a t r u -
opr*edng, reMng,L.; (a),f,uneasiness,trou-
ble, pain, Nyayas,; n. tmr^ition, resistance, oppres-
aion, molestation, affliction (also pi/:, R.; Sak.;
removing, suspending, annulment (of a rule & c ) ,
Vedaiitac: Pan.. Sch.

^T^T JwAyo, mf(J)ia. (fr, lekia; in later

language also written vahyat q.v.; m. nom, pL
fli^jv, SBr.) being outside (a door, house, Sec.),
situated without (abl. or comp.), outer, exterior
l D , n
(acc. with VArt * expel), AV. Set, Sec.]
not belonging to the family or country, strange,

j / - j JH. . . i O d L C I

end or comer (of the eye), L. Bfihya.ntn.r, ind.

from without and wiluin, Prab. BRUyatoLyari-
tara, mfn, external and internal (as disease;), Suir,
BUiy&TftniA, m. a partic. disease of the nems, ib.
JUhyart&a, m . an external meaning (cf. b&hya
a r t h a above), Madhus.; external objects or matter

n. (also written vija, of doubtful
origin; ifc, f. &) seed (of plants), semen (of men
ind animals'), seed-com, grain, RV. Sec. & c ; a
runner (of the Indian fig-tree), Vcar,; any germ,
element, primary cause or principle, source, origin
(ifc.*= caused or produced by, sprung from), ChUp.;
MBh.; Kiv.orc,; the germ Of origin of any com-
position (is ofa poem, ofthe plot ofa drams, of a
magical formula&c), R_; BhP,; Dasar.; Pratip.;
calculation of original or primary germs, analysis,
algebra, Col.; truth (u ihesced orouseof being),L,;
anything serving as a receptacle or support { * = a l a m -
b a n a ) Yogas.; the mystical letter or syllable which

forms the essential prt of the Mantra of any deity,

KTL. 197 eke.; the position ofthe arms ofa child
at birth, BhPr.; quicksilver (7), 50 ryas.; marrow,!,,;
m, bTjaka, the citron tree. Arvabh. k a r t r i . m.
I, budh, c l . i , P . A (Dhatup.xxi,Ti)
> U d h a f i , u; cl. 4, A.(xavi, 63) bddh-
yatc (ep. also P. /* ; pf. P. bubodha, MBh.; Subj.
kdbtdhaH> R V , ; A . biAudhi,?. bubudhdnd \\>.',

aor. P.Sub). bodhishal, ib.; Impv. bodki, ib.; A .

3 pi. abudkram, ran; p. budhdnd, ib., Subj.
dhdnto t ib.; ^abhutii, ib.; Free. A . bhutsUkta, Pa 0,
i, 3, i i , Sch.; fut. bhoisyati
t te, Br. flee,; boddhd,
Gr.; Ind. p. buddkva, Yajft.; MBh.; -budhya, Br.
&c,; i n f . 3 ^ * , Br.; RV.; boddhum, MBh.
fltc), to wake, wake up, he awake, RV.flee,flee.;
to recover consciousness (after a twooa), Kavyld.;
OT ass
Bha^t. (* * P - abodhi)\ to observe, heed, attend
to (with acc, or gen.), R V . ; to perceive, notice,
learn, aadersund, become or be aware of or ae-
quaintcd with, RV.flee,flee.; to think of i. e pre-
i Eentaperson^withj'instr.^RV.iv,i5,7; vi^at,!;
to know to be, recognize as (with two acc.), MBh,;
R.flee;to deem, consider or regard as (with two acc),
! R.; Kathas.: Pass, budhyate (aor. abadki)
t to be
awakened or restored to consciousness; see Above :
C I K U . bodhdyati, te (aor. atmbudhat; Pass, bodh-
yate), to wake up, arouse, restore to life or conscious-
ness, RV.flee.flee.;to revive the scent (of a per-
fume), VarBrS,; to cause (aflower)to expand, Kav.;
to cause to observe or attend, admonish, advise, RV.
flee. & c ; to make a person acquainted with, remind
OT inform of, impart or communicate anything to
(with two acc.), MBh.; Kav.flee.;Dcsid, bubhut-
$ati, te (Gr. also bubodhuhati, *te and bubu-

dhtshati t td) to wish to observe, desire to become


acquainted with, Nylyas.j BhP,; Dcsid. of Cms.,

see bibedhayishu and bubodkayishu: Intern, bo-
budhxti (Gr. also bobudhyate, boboddkt), to have
an insight into, understand thoroughly (with acc.),
Snbh. [Cf. Zd. bud; Gk. *v$ for in w & i -
vofiat, meteeM Shv.bdtti,btXdr; I*ith. budlftt,
budtiis; Goth, biudan; Germ. H o t a n , bicten;
And. Sax. biodan: Ene. bid.]
Bn4abft,mth. wakened, awake, MBh,; expand-
ed, blown, SamavBr.; conscious, intelligent, clever,
wise (opp, to m u t i h t i ^ , MBh.; Kiv, &c,; Icarntj
known, understood, Apast.; MBh. ('by/ usually
instr., but also gen, according to PBi.i. ii, 3, 13; 3 ,
67, Sch.); m. a wise or learned mao sage,W.; (with

Buddhists) a fully enlightened man who has achieved

perfect knowledge of the truth and thereby is
liberated from all existence and before bis own at-
tainment of Nir vlria reveals the method of obtaining
it, (esp.) the principal Buddha ofthe present age
(born at Kapila-ranu about the year 500 B.C-, bis
father, Suddhodana, of the Sikya tribe or family,
being the Raja of that district, and his mother,
Maya-dcvT, being the daughter of Rija Su-prabud-
dha, MWB, 19 & c ; hence he belonged to the
Kshatriya caste and hit original name Sakya-muni
r Sakya-sioha was really his family name, while that
of Gautama wis taken from the race to which his
family belonged; for his other names see ib. 2 3 ; he
Is said to have died when he was 89 yean of age,
prcb. about 430 n.c. ib. 49, u. i ; he was preceded

by 3 mythical Buddhas of the present Karpa, or by

34, reckoning previous Kalpai,or according to others
by 6 principal Buddhas, ib, 136; sometimes he is
regarded as the 9th incarnation of Vishnu, Hariv.; '
Kav.; Var. & c ) ; n. knowledge, BhP, (B. b u d d h i ) .
HuduJii, f, the power of forming and ret lining
conception* and general noti on s, intelligence, reason,
intellect,mind,discernment, judgment, Mn.; MBh.
Ste.; perception (of which 5 kinds are enumerated,
or with rrtanas 6; cf. i n I r . y o , 1
buddhSndriyd) .
comprehension, apprehension, undemanding, Sah,;
(with dtminafai or buddkir brahmt) knowledge
of one's self, psychology, Car,; (in Slrpkhya phil.)
Intellect (^adfty-avasdya, the intellectual faculty
or faculty of mental perception, the second of the
25 Tartvas; buddhi-tattvx), IW. So &c.; pre-
sence of mind, ready wit, Paheat,; Hit.; an opinion,
view, notion, idea, conjecture, MBh.; Kav. &c.;
thought about or meditation on (loc. or comp.),
intention, purpose, design, ib. [buddhyd, with the
intention of, designedly,deliberateTy; anugroha-^^
with a view to i, e. in order to show fawur; buddhim
* / k r i o r p r a - V k r i , to make up one's mind, resolve,
decide, with loc., dat,, acc. with prati; or inf.);
impression, belief, notion (often ifc. considering
as, taking for), Kav.; Kashas.; Pur,; Hit.; right
opinion, correct or reasonable view, R,; Ragh.; *
kind of metre, L.; N. ofthe 5th astroL mansion,
VirBfS.,Seh.; Intelligence personified (as a daughter
ofDakshaand wife of Dharma andmotheiof Bodha),

"eTc* 2 . brih or &rinA, cl. 1. P. (Dhatup.

xvii, 8s) fyinhati (alsofr, S Br. and bru
katit AV.; pf. babarha, A.V.; A . p. babrihd^d t

RV,), to be thick, grow great or strong, increase

(the finite verb only with a prep.): Caus. b r i t f h a -
yaii, te (also written vt) to make big or fat or

strong, increase, expand, further, promote, M Bh ;

Kathas.; Pur.; Susr.; barhayati sttsam-*/i.
t brih:
Iniens. barbyihat r barbrihi, see u p a - i / b y i h .
hrdhman r n, (lit. * growth/ ' espan-
sion/ 'evolution/ 'development, 'swelling ofthe
spirit or son]/ fr. ^ a . tyi'A) pious effusion or utter-
ance, outpouring of the heart in worshipping the
gods, prayer, RV,; AV,; VS.; TS.; the sacred word
(as opp* to vdt~, the word of man), the Veda, a sacred
text, a text or Mantra uird as a spell (forming a dis-
tinct class from the ritat, sdmdni and yajunshi;
cf. brahma-vedd), RV.; A V . ; Br,; Mn.; Fur.; the
Brahman* portion of the Veda, M n . iv, 100; the
sacred syllable Om, Prab., Sch. (cf. Mn. 1^83); reli-
gious or spiritual knowledge (opp. lo religious obser-
vances and bodily mortification such as tafias & ,\,
A V.; Br.;Mn.; R.; holy life (esp. continence, chast-
ity; 1. .'.'M \ma-cary<i), %%k.i 1 \ \ \ Samk.; Sarvad.;

(exceptionally treated asm.) the Brahma or one self-

cxiftcot impersonal Spirit, the one universal Soul (or
one divine essence and source from which all created
things emanate or with which they are identified
and to which thcyrcturn), the Sclf-ciistcnt, the Abso-
lute, the Eternal (not generally an object of worship,
but rather of meditation and-knowledge ; also with
j y M t h a , prathama-jd, svaydm~bhit, <t-m$rta 9

para, p a r a t a r a , parama, mahat, tandtana. JdJ-

vata; and - paramdtman, dtntan, adhydtma,
pradhdrta,hshttra-ina tattva\
t A V , ; SBr.; Mn.;
Crirjss, n. study of the Veda, the state of an un-
married religious student, a state of continence and
chastity (also J , f., Hlfiv,), AV. Sir.. Stc, (acc. With
V e r a a ar, vas a-i/gam,
t t upa~^i
t to practise
err; cf. -cdrtn); ~/va n . the unmarried state, con-

lineuce, chastity, Hariv.; -vat, mm, leading the

life of an unmarried religions student, practising ch r

A past.; MBh.; - P r a i a , n. avow ofeh, BrahmaP.;

-skhalana, n, deviating from ch, M W , ; r y $ i r a *
ma, m. the period of unmarried religious student-
CTT car, cl. i . cdrati me]yte(&\xbj*cd-

^ <^ r a t , 3 pL t d r a t t , RV.; perf. (AV.

etc.), 3 sg. t a c a r i f t a , BhP, iv, 38, J ; pi. c t r u r ,
Sec.; ratur, SBr. &c.; A . r * , BhP. iii, I, i g ;
fut. t a r i s h j t a t i , te; aor. a t a r i / [SBr. xiv &c.1;
mf.^tVimfifcMBh.i, iii; R.l or t a r t u n t [MBh.
iii,iiii;R.iii; B h P . v ] , V e x l . ^ ^ ^ i [ R V . i,6r,
ra], c & r i i a v t [113, 5], omto (9a, 9 # v, 47,
4], carayai[vii, 77,1], *Trjfcir (AitAr. i, 1,1, 7];
ind. p . c a r i i v a , SBr. xiv; BhP. z, 75, 19; t a r t v a t

MBh. v, 3790; t t r t v d , 495; p. flfra/) to

move one's self, go, walk, move, stir, roam about,
wander (said of men, animals, water, ships, stars,
&c), KV.; AV. & c ; to spread, be diffused (as fire),
VarBrS. xix, 7; to move or travel through, pervade,
go along, follow, Mn.; MBh. flee.; to behave, con-
duct one's self, act, live, treat (with instr. or Joe.),
RV.; A V . & c ; to be engaged in, occupied or busy
with (instr., e.g. yajnhta r , 'to be engaged in a
sacrifice,' $Br.),RV.x, 71,5; AV, vi, 117,1; Ait-

Caryis, mfn. (Pig. iii, 1,100) to be practised or

performed, Mn. iii, 1; m. (mra) the small shell
Cypraa moneta, L . ; n, ife. driving (in a carriage),
MBh. viii, 4 H 5 ; (), going about, wandering,
walking or roarniug about, visiting, driving (in a
carriage, r a t h a - M Bh. ix, xiii; K . i, 19, ip), MBh. j

R.; BhP. br,l6,i; (often ife.) proceeding,behaviour,

conduct, SBr. xi, 5, 7, ( ; Lily. i \ ASvSr. xii, 4 ;
Mn. vi, 33 &c.; due observance of all rites and cus-
toms, Sarvad, viff.; a religious mendicant's life, L . ;
practising, performing, occupation with, engaging in
(instr. [Gaut.] or generally in comp.), SBr. xiv;
AsvOr. hi, 7; Mn. i , i l l ; MBh. &c.; deportment,
usage,W.; (in music) a kind of composition; N.of
Durxa,GaL; (cf. brahma-, bhikshd- t bhaikshya-).

H^T bhavd, ra. {'/bhu) coming into exist-

ence, birth, production, origin (~W4wr,Vop.; ifc,
with f. ^arising or produced from, being in, re-
latingto),Yajn.; MBh.;Kav.&c; becoming,turn-
ing into (comp.), Kith.; being, ate of being, exist-
ence, lifc(-Jaf-tf, L.). SarngP. (cf. bhavdntara);
yTT i bhd, cl. 2, P . (Dhatup, xxtv, 4 3 )
bh&H (pc.p.bAif, f . b h d n t i o x bhdtl, op*J
Pot* bhdydt, TBr.j pi. babhau, M n . ; MBh. &c.;
aor. abkdslt, Gr.; Bhatt.; fat. bh&sydti, Br.&c),
to shine, be bright or luminous, RV. &c. to
thine forth, appear, show one's self, ib.; to be
splendid or beautiful or eminent, MBh.; Kav. &c.
(with n a , to cut a poorfigure,Kathas.); to appear
as, seem, look like, paw for (nom. with or without
iva or adv. in v a t ) , MBh.; Kav. &c.; to be,exist,
W . ; to show, exhibit, manifest, Bhatt* (v. 1.): Pass,
bhdyate, impers. radiance is put forth by (instr.),
Bhaft.: Cans, bhdpayate; aor. ablbkapat, Gr.;
Dtsid. bibhasati, ib.: Intou. bdbhdyait, bdbhtti,
bdbhaii, ib. [ C L * / b h a n bhdsh, bids ; Gk. <pt}t*t,

ip&atto; Lat./art" & c ; Germ. B a n n ; Eng. ban,']

W i bhavd, m, (y/bhu) becoming, being,

Misting, occurring, appearance, SvetUp.; KltySt.
dec; tunung or trausitioninto(loc.oTcomp.),MBh.i
RPrlt,; continuance (opp, to cessation; ehdti-bhdva,
continuity ofthe thread of existence through succes-
sive births, Buddh,, wrongly translated under ,k$ti-
bh \ MBh.; state, condition, rank (with sthavira,
old age; anyam bhdvam &padyat< eiiphem. he%

dies; State of being anything, esp. ifc, e.g. bdta-

bhava, the state of being a child, childhood - * b a l a -
t& o r , * sometimes added plconastically to an ab-
stract noun, e.g. ianatd-bhdva, the slate of thin-
ness), Up,; SiS.; MBh.&c-; irue condition or state,
truth, reality (ibc. and bhdvena, ind. really, truly),
MBh.; Hariv,; manner of being, nature, tempera-
ment, character 'eko bhdvafy or eka^bh^f a simple or
irtJess nature; bhdve bhdvam n i g a a h n t i - birds of
a featherflocktogether), MBh.; Kiv. Ac.; manner
of acting, conduct, behaviour, Kiv.; Slh.; any stale
of mind or body, way of thinking or reeling, senti-
ment, opinion, disposition, intention {yddriicna
bhdvena, wirti whatever disposliion of mind; bhd-
Vdfft amahgalam * / k r i with loc.,to be ill disposed

against; bhdvam dridham * / k r i to make a firm


resolution^, Mn.; MBh. A c ; (in rhct.) passion,

emotion (a kinds of Bhlvas arc enumerated, the
sthdyin or prima ry,a nd vyabh U d r i n or subord inatc;
the former are 8 or 9 according as the Rasas or sen-
timents are taken to be 8 or 9; the latter 33 or 34),
Kiv.; Slh.; Pratlp,flee.;conjecture, supposition,
Mn.; Part-cat.; purport, meaning, tense {itibhdvah,
'such is the sense ity a r t huh or ity abhiprdyaft,
constantly used by commentator* at the end of their
explanations); love, affection, attachment {bhdvam
t/kfi, with Loc, to feel an affection for), MBh.;
Klv.&c,; (he seat ofthe feelings or affections, heart,
soul, mind {paritushtcna bhavena, with a pleased
mindj, SvetUp.; Mn.; MBh. fire; Ihat which is
or exists, thing or substance, being or living creature
{sarva-bhdvdfi, all carthty objects; bhdvah stkd-
vara-jahgamdh, plants and animals), MunelUp.;
MBh.&c.; (in dram.) a discreet or learned man (as
a term of address- respected sir), Mricch,; Mllav.;
Mllatim.; (in astron.) the state or condition of a
planet, L,; an astrological house or lunar mansion,
ib,; N. of the 27th Kalpa (tv ), ib.; of the 8th

(42nd) year in Jupiter's cycle of 60 yean,VarBrS,;

(in grain.) ihc fundamental notion of ihc verb, the

sense conveyed by the abstract noun (esp. as a term
for an impersonal passive or neuter verb having
neither agent nor object expressed, e.g. pacyate,
'there is cooking* or 'cooking is going on ), Pin.
iii, r, 66; 1 0 7 &c; N. of the author ofthe BhaVa-
prikaia ( mtlra-bhdvaj, Cat.; wanton sport, dal-
liance, L.; birth, L . ; place of birth, (he womb, L.;
the world, universe, L.; an organ of sense, L.;
superhuman power, L . ; the Supreme Being, L . ;
3. B5i&TOVUa., mf(f)n. (fr. Cans.; for i , see a. &z,
p. 750) causing 10 be, effecting, producing, display-
ing, manifesting, MBh.; Kiv.; BhP.; promoting or
effecting any one's (gen. or comp.) welfare, MBh.;
R. &c.; imagining, fancying, AshtavS.; teaching,
MBh.; m. a creator, producer, efficient, MBh.;
Kiv,; N, of Siva ( ^ d / t y d i r i ) , MBh,; of Vishnu,
A.; of the 32nd Kalpa (q.v.); (a), f., and n. the
ad of producing or effecting, Nir.; Slh ; BhP,; H

forming in the mind, conception, apprehension,

imagination, supposition, fancy, thought, meditation
{bhSvatuiydy'xM, in thought, in imagination ; ndm
t with loc-, to occupy one's imagination
with,direct one's thoughts to), MBh.; Kiv,; Samk.;
VedSntas. & c ; (in logic) that cause of memory which
arises from direct perception, Tarkas.; application
of perfumes Sec. ( = adktvdsarta), L.; (a), f. de-
monstration, argument, ascertainment^Yljo.; feeling
of devotion, faith in (loc), Pineal.; reflection, con-
templation (s kinds with Buddhists, MWB. 12ft);
saturating any powder with fluid, steeping, infusion,
SlrngS.j (in arithm.)findingby combination orcnn>
position; (with Jainas) right conception or notion;
the moral ofa fable, HPartfi.; N . of an Upanlshad;
a croWj L.; water, L . ; n, furthering, promoting.
MBh.; the fruit of Dihenia Sptciosa,L.; (ifc.) nature,
essence, RflmatUp.

B l i i v a n l , f. of prec,, in comp. -uurtJslaSt-

tamrL-n$aka,n. N. ofa drama. maya, rnf{i~; n.
produced by imagination or meditation; (J), f. (with
v t d y d ) wisdom obtained by n:ed, Dbarmas. mKi-

srrt, m, a spiritual state, Divyav. -yuktsv, mfn.

thoughtful, anxious, MW. vleSra, m. -vi'vefca,

m. N . of wks, - sraya fWi**), m. 'refuge of

thought,' N.of Siva, Paticar. s&ra-samgrstha,
m. N. of wk. Bn&TOn&pruilsltiLd, f. N . of an

BituvaUH,, n. a being, liviug creature, man, man-

kind, RV. &c. &c.; (rarely m.) the world, earth,
ib. (generally 3 worlds are reckoned [see t r i - h h u -
vana aud b h u v a n a ' t r a y a \ but also 2 [see bkuva*
na*dvaya\or 7 [MBh. xii, 6934] or 14 [Bharif.];
cf, R T L . ioa, n. i ) i place of being, abode, resi-
dence, AV.; SBr.; a house (v. I. for b h a v a n a ) L ; 9

(?) causing to exist { = b h t i u a / t a \ Nir, vii, aa,;

water, Naigh, f, 15 ; m, N.of a partic month, TS.;
of a Rudra, VP.; of an Aptya (author of RV, x,
157), KAiiukr.; of a teacher of Yoga, Cat.; of
Bhntfc, rnf()n. become, been, gone, past (n. the
past), RV, &c, & C . I actual)/ happened, true, real
Co, an actual occurrence, fact, matter of fact, reality),
Yajfl.; R , & c ; existing, present, Kan.; (ifc) being
or being like anything, confuting of, mixed or joined
with, Prat.; Up,; Mn, &c, (also to form adj. out of
adv., e.g. ittkatn- vattt~ tafha-b}Py,
f f purified, L,{
obtained, L , ; fit, proper, L . ; often w.r, forMrr/a/
m. a son, child, L . j a great devotee or ascetic, L . ;
(pi.) N, of an heretical sect (with Jamas, a class of
the Vyantaras), L , ; N. of Siva, L . ; of a priest of
the gods, L , ; of a ton of Vasu-deva and Pauravi,
BhP,; ofa son-in-law of Daksha and father of
numerous Rudras, ib,; of a Yaktha, Cat.; { a , C) the
14th day ofthe daTk halfofthe lunar month, SkandaP,
(L, also m.); N.ofa woman, HParii; n. (cf.above)
that which it or exists, any living being (divine,
human, animal, and even vegetable), the world (in
these senses also m,), RV* &c* &c.; a spirit (good
or evil), the ghost of a deceased person, a demon,
imp, goblin (also m,), GfS.; Up.; Mn, & c (cf.
K T L . 241) 1 an element, one of the 5 dements (esp,
tf 0,
a gross tl = tnaAd't>h o,,v,; but also a subtle el

tatt^mdtra, q. v,; with Buddhists there are only

4 ei), Up.; S&mkhyak.; Veduntas, & c ; N, of the
number *five* (cf. mahd-bh* and p d A c a b h a u i t k a ) ;
well-being, welfare, prosperity, VS,; TS,; AitBr,

txixia* n. a species of grass, L. tv%, n, the state

of being an element, MBh. dattS, f. N.^of a

Bhumi, f, (Ved. i\$onom,bAumtygtn^ tbl? myds,

loc, mydm) the earth, soil, ground, RV, &c. Sec;
(pL divisions of the world; cf. b h $ n r i - t r a y d ) \ a
territory, country, district, tb,; a place, site, sit nation,
SBr. Zfcc. & t ; position, posture, attitude, MBh.;
Kav, Sec t the part or personification (played by an
actor), Kathas,; the floor of a house, story, Megh.;
KathSs.; the area, Sulbas,; the ba*e of any geo-
metricalfigure,Col.; (metaph,) a step, degree, stage;
Yogas, (with Buddhists there are 10 or 13 stages of
existence or perfection, D harm as. 4 5 ; 4 6 ) ; extent,
limit, Kir.; (ifc) a matter, subject, object, receptacle
i.e. fit object or person for (cf, vih>dsa- f smha-bh*
Sec, and p & t r a , b h d j a n d ) ; the tongue, L . ; m. N.
of a son or grandson of Yuyndhana and father of
BhumikS, f. earth, ground, toil, Kas. Kathas. ;

&c.; (ifc.) a spot, place foi {t> e. d k & r a - b A * an

eating-place, Kathas,; akshora-bh a place i.e. a %

tablet for writing, Ragh.); a story, floor, Inscr.;

Pancat. {with grihtpan, the flat roof of a house,
Sukas.) j a step, degree, Yogas,; (in dtam.) an actor's
part or character, Vikr,; Malatim. &c.; decoration
(is of an image), L . ; preface, Introduction, ChUp.,

H i d , cl'j.V. X . (Dhatup. xix, a)

bhxnditi, b h i n i t i (impf, a- 3. sg. dbhi-
tiat RV.; Subj. bhinddah,lb,
t t l m p v . bindal, ib,;
binddhi, Var. [ct binddhMav*n\; cl. 1. P.
dati, RV.; Pot.WiaVffirt,AV,; pt. bibA/da, RV.;
aor, 3.3,ig. *W/,RV_i abhaitsTt, R.; bhitthast

f u L
TS.; Prec.WtV/fMf^Gfi bhetsydti te Br,
t t

&c_; Cond. abhetsyat, Up.; fut. M*tfr, Gr.; inf.

bd/ttavai, SBr, j bhtttum \b.
7 Stc.i ind. y.bhittva,
-bhidya, RV. & c ) , to split, cleave, break, rat or
rend asunder, pierce, destroy, RV. &<. & c ; to pass
through (as a planet or comet), Hariv,; V a r ; to
disperse (darkness), R.; ak.; to transgress, violate,
(a compact or alliance), MBh.; Kiv, & c ; to opto,
expand, MaitrUp.; Megh.; to loosen, disentangle,
dissolve, MBh.; Kav, etc.; to disturb, interrupt,
stop, ib.; to disclose, betray, Mn.; MBh. Ate.; to
disunite, set at variance, ib.; to distinguish, dis-
criminate, L . : Pass, bhidydta (ep. also /i, aor.
abhedi, Br.; MBh. Sec.; pf. hibhide, Kfllid.), to be
split or broken, burst (intraus.), Br. 3ie. &e. ; to be
opened (as a closed hand, eyes &e.), Kav.; Pur.;
to overflow (as wafer), R.; Hariv.; to be loosened,
become loose, MunjUp-! K i v . ; to he Stopped or
interrupted, MBh.; to be disclosed or betrayed,
Kav,; to be changed or altered ^in mind), be won
over, Kiv.; Pur.; to be disunited, MBh.; to keep
aloof from (instr.), ib,; to be distinguished, differ
from (abl.), Samkhyak.; Kav* &c.: Cans, bheda-
yafi, te (aor. a b M i d a t ; cf* also b k i d d f i a r t a ) , to
cause to split ot break &c.; to split, break, shatter,
crush, destroy, MBh.; Hariv,; Hit.; to separate,
divide (see bhedita)', to disunite, set at variance,
perplex, unsettle (in opinion), seduce, win over,
MBh.; ft.; Desid. bibhitsatx, U to wish to break

through or disperse or defeat, R V . ; MBh. (cf. bt-

bftitjd)'. Caus., see bibhtdayishu: Inten*.
bebhiditi OF bcbhtUi, to cleave repeaiedly, BhiJJ.
frf l\at. finds - Germ, beiiten : F,n. brteJ\
vctj bhedd, m. ( y f b h i d ) breaking, splitting,
cleaving, rending, tearing, piercing (also pass, the
being broken & c ) , KatySr.; Yajri,; MBh,; Kiv,
fee; breaking open, disclosing, divulging, betrayal
(ofa secret, cf. r a h a s y a - b h * } ; buren'ngasnnder, open-
ing, gaping, parting asunder, BhP,; Suir.; bursting
forth or out, expanding, blossoming, shooting out,
sprouting, Kiltd.; Bakar.; a deft,fissure,chasm (cf.
H l d - b k ; do. pooendurn muiiebre), RV.; rupture,
breach hrni,mjtn7 sedu<tion Kinv; MBh.; Kathls,;
t r r

shooting pain (in the limbs), paralysis (of. a r d h a -

bh^i, Suir,; separation,division,partition,part, por-
tion, Kiv.; Pur.-distinction, difference, kind, sort,
species, variety; SrS.; Up.; MBh. &e.; disturbance,
interruption, violation, dissolution, RPrat.; Kltv&r,;
Sah.; disuniting, winning over to one's side by sow-
ing dissension (cf. $*fdya) t Mn.; Yajn.; Kim.; dis-
union, schism, dissension between (instr.) or in
(comp.), MBh.; Var.; Rljat.; change, alteration,
rrralificatton, MBh.; &ak.; contraction (cf. b h r i i -

ttqf 3. bhttj, tsL 7. P . A , (DhStitp. xxix,

a \ ) b h u n d k t i , b h u n k t f (rarely cl. t>. P.
I 7

X. b h u n j a t ^ U , Up.; MBh.; 3,pi, A. bAuHjdf/,

RV,; Pot. P, bhuHjlyaty Gobh.; pf. A , b u b h u f a
ymdhf, jrir/ RV,; 3. pi, P. j u & MBh.; aor,

abhctukshUt abhuktctjGi*; bhSjam^bhdjaittbhu-

j e m a , R V . ; bhukshishSya, Br.; fut. b%okshyati t

"iVjMBh.&c.; b h f f k i d ^ ; \ n \ * . b h & j a s e b h i } a r n ,

MsjftRV.; b h o k t v m M W n > 8 c c ; <nd.p.MwM>d


or bhuhktva',1b."), to enjoy, use, possess, (esp.^enjoy

a meal, cat, eat and drink, consume (mostly A, j in
bkoga, m. {1/3. hhuj) enjojrrnent,
eating, feeding on, RV, ice. &c. (with Jaitias 'en-
joyine once,' as opp. to upa>bhaga\ q. v.-); use, ap-
plication, SBr.; GprS, &c,; fruition, usufruct, use
of a deposit & c , Mn.; Yajn,; sexual enjoyment,
Mn.; MBh.&c,; enj of the earth or of a country
Lo-rulc, sway, MflrkP,; experiencing,feeling,per-
ception (of pleasure or pain), Mn.; M B h . & c ; pro-
fit, utility, advantage, pleasure, delight, R V . &c,
cc.; any object of enjoyment (as food, a festival
Sec), MBh.; R,; possession, property, wealth, re-
venue, Mn.; MBh. Ac.; hire, wages (esp. of pro-
stitution), L . ; (in astron.) the passing through a
constellation, VarBrS.; the part of the ecliptic oc-
cupied by each of the 37 lunar mansions, SQryas.;
(in arithm.) the numerator of a fraction (?), W . ;
N. of a teacher. Cat.; (J), f. N . of a Suranganl,
C ; , n h 4 c n ta> r f X r fil/ttr^r/w n-r ' i l l i i i ?

b h a u m d , mf(i)n. relating or dedicated

to the earth, produced or euming from the earth,
earthly, terrestrial, VS,flee*&c, (with naraka, m.
hell on earth,MBh.; with brahman, n, th.. V :di,
ib.); consisting or made of earth, earthy, PaBeavBr.;
KatySr-; MBL&c.; coming from the land (as revenue
&c,),L.; { { r . b h a u m a , ihc planet Mars) relating to
the pl Mara or to his day, tailing on Tuesday, Vet;
m, a red-flowering Ponar-nav3, l . l = a n r b a r a L . ; t l

N. of the a th MuhOrta, L , ; metron. of a partk.


earth-deity, GrS.; of Atri, RAnukr.; ofthe Daitya

Naraka, MBh,: ofthe planet Mars (whose day is
Tuesday), ib.; Var.; Pur. &c.; m. or n. N . of AV,
' ; (Ot * produced from the earth/ N . of SJta,
L . ; n. dust of the earth (p!.) MBh.; cone, grain, (
)T? bhram t cl. I. P . (Dhatup. xx, ao)
^bhramatifcv. also /*) and cl. 4. P. (xxvi,

96), bhrainyatt (Pol. bhramydi, PlrGr.; pf. ia-

bhrdma t 3. pl b a b h r a m u f t
H or dhrcmufy, MBh.;
Kav.ctc,; firt, W W/J^
aor. a b h r a n t i i ib,; inf. b h r a m i i u m or b h r d n t u m ,

MBh.; Kay. &c.; ind. p. h h r a m i t v d , b h r d n t v d ,

bhramya, ib.), lo wander or 10am about, rove,
ramble (with deiam, to wander through or over a
country; with bhtkshdm, go about begging\ MBh.;
Kiv, &c.; to fly about (as- bees), Kiv.; Var.; to
roll about (as the eyes), KflvyW.; to wag (as the
tongue), iflrngP.; to quiver (as the fetus in the
womh), BhP.; lo move to and fro or unsteadily,
flicker, flutter, reel, totter, $Br.; Kslid,; Pur.; to
move round, circulate, revolve (as stars), MBh.;
Hariv.; SOryas.; to spread, be current (as news). Das.;
to waver, be oervlexed. doubt, err. Bhnp.: Pnr.t
BhrtntifCwaiidering or roaming about, moving
10 and fro, driving (of clouds\ quivering (of light-
ning), staggering, ceding, Kav,; Kant.; turning
rouud,rolling(ofwheels),Vikr.; (ifc.)moving round,
circumambulating, Ratnav.; perplexity, confusion,
doubt, enor, false opinion (ifc., false impression of,
mistaking something for, supposing anything to be
or to exist), K i v . ; Kathas.; Pur. &c. -fcftta.

*Tftr man{ r m. (t, f. only !, f. SinhtU.;

mattiva mant [du.J i v a , Nairn.) a jewel, gem,
pearl (also fig,), any ornament or amulet, globule,
crystal, RV.&c.&c; a magnet, loadstone, Kap. ;glans
penis, Suir.; N.of the jewel-lotus prayer, MWB. 371;
clitoris, L . ; the hump (of a camel), MBh,; the de-
pendentfleshyexcrescences on a goat's neck,VarBrS.;
thyroid cartilage, L . (cf. JkanJ&a-rrf*}} the wrist
( = m- bandha), L . ; a large water-jar, L . ; N.ofa
Na^a, MBh.; ofa companion of Skanda (associated
with Sd-man i), lb.; ofa sage, ib.; nfason of Yoyo-
dhana, ib, (in Hariv. v,1. W r i t ) ; of a king jf the
W U l v u t d h y Q , rjf ajn. middle (used likeme-
dius, e.g. mddhye samudrJt* !u the midst of the sea'),
RV,; Vrrit.l KathUp,; middkmost, intermediate,
central, Vir.; Megh.; standing between two, impar-
tial, neutral, K i m . ; middle i.e. being of a middle
kind or size or quality, middling, moderate (with
vritti, f. 'a middle coarse'), Llty.; Mn.; Soir, flee;
(in astron.) mean Lc. theoretical (opp. to i^aiA/a
or ipkuia), Suxyai* (-rxw, n,); lowest, worst, L.; m.
n. (ifc d) the middle ofthe body, ( p . ) a woman's
waist, &Br,flee.&c,; (in alg.) the middle term or
the mean of progression. Col.; \d\ fa young woman,
a girl arrived at puberty, Slh.; the middle finger,
L . ; (in music) a partic tone, Samgit.i (also n.) a
kind of metre. Col.; n.{jn.j g.ardAariddi) the mid-
dle, midst, centre, inside, interior, RV.&c. Sec.
ind. Into the midst of, into, among, with gen. or ifc.,
MBh.; Kav. flee.; c n a t ind. in or through the midst

of, on the inside, through, between, with gen,, acc.

f*. . n*m P - _ . t. J t - L - *

man,cl. S . ^ A . f D h i t u u . x x x . a j x x V i
67) m a n u t i mdnyatt (ep. also *ti; 3.0L

manvati, RV.;pf, tric*ie '&\Mz.\Piamnathcf't%att

l l

R V . ; aor, dmata, dtnanmahi, Snbj. mattamahe,

t n a n a n t a p. mandttd q.v., RV.; ma&si, ama&-
t t

sta, Subj, mausaUi Prec. iria&stikla, I. pers, m,c.

maslya, ib,; fflftirjf/a, AV., "stdm, T A r . ; w*in-
tfftvcMW, Br.; arrrantshta, Ii:.; fut. ma&syaU, Br.,
MBh,; jnatitd, m a j i i l d Gr.;
t vianishyatt t

RV.; iuf. m a n i u m , MBh. A c , Wj*7azv, ^taval,

RV.,mdntos,ht.; ind. p. t/mtva. Up, flee.; marti-
tvd, Gr.; -tnatya, Bi, fitc.; -martya, MBh. Arc),
to think, believe, imagine, suppose, conjecture, RV.
flee,flee,{martye, T think, methinki, is in later lan-
guage often inserted in a sentence without affecting
the construction; cf. g, dJrff and Pan. iv, 1,106);
to regard or consider anyone or anything (acc) as
(acc with or without /a\a, or adv., often in -vat; in
later language also dat,, to express contempt [ci
Pln.ii, 3,1 J],e g, rajyarp tfindya manyef] value
empire at a straw,' i.e. 1 make light of it,**/aghu
*i/fttatt and opp, xnbahuox sadku -i/man, to think
much or well of, praise, approve), ib.; to think one's
self or be thought to be, appear as, pass Lor (nom,;
also with iva), ib.; to be-of opinion, think fit or

ri^ht. MBh. Kiv. Ac ? In aim* nr Kf fvf ih f>m*

U&naa, ru mind (in its widest sense as applied to
all the mental powers), intellect, intelligence* under*
standing, perception, sense, conscience, wilt, RV. tec.
flee, (in phil. the internal organ or a i ? / t t $ ~ i a r a f / a
of perception and cognition, the faculty ot instru-
ment through which thoughts enter or by which oh*
jeets of sense affect the sou), IW, 53; in this sense
manas is always regarded as distinct from dtmun
and purusha t * spirit or soul * and belonging only to
the body, like which it isexcept in the Nyaya
considered perishable; at to its position in the various
systems see for Nyaya and Vaiseshika, 1W. 63; 6 7 ;
76, for Saipkhya and Vedftnta, ib. 84; 109; i t ; ;
in RV. it is sometimes joined with jir/Vor J i r i d a y a ,
the heart; Mn. vii, 6 with cakshus^ the eye); the
spirit or spiritual principle, the breath or living soul
which escapes from the body at death (called asu in
Animals; cf. above), ib.; thought, imagination, ex
cogitation, invention, reflection, opinion, intention,
inclination, affection, desire, mood, temper, spirit,
ib. (ifc. after a verbal noun or an inf. stem in
having a mind or wishing 10; cf. i w A t o * w & c ; e

m a i i a h ^ h f i , to make up one's mind; with gen.,

" Mtatrft, m. (rarely a,; ifc. f. J) 'imtmmeot of

thought/ speech, sacred text or speech, a prayer or
song of praise, RV4 AV.; TS. j aVedic hymn or

sacrificial formula, that portion of the Veda which

contains the texts called r U oiyajus ovsaman (q.v.)
as opp, to the Brahmanaaud Opanishad portion (see
1W. 5 &c>, Br.; Gr&S. & c ; a sacred formula
addressed to any individual deity (e.g. O m Stvaya
u a v t a h ) , RTL* 6 1 ; a mystical verse or magical
formula (sometimes personified), incantation,charm,
spell (esp. in modern times employed by the Slktas
to acquire superhuman powers; the primary Man-
tras being held to be 70 millions in number and the
secondary innumerable; R T L . 197-303), RV. (i,
J 47, ; Aiv5r.; Mn.; Kathas.; Suir,; consultation,
resolution, counsel, advice, plan, design, secret, RV.
&c. A c ; N. of Vishnu, Vishn,; of Siva, MBh,; (in
H"c5 mdta, n. (in later language also m.;
prob. ft. \ f m i a f ) dirt, filth, dust* impurity (physical
aod moral), AV. dec & c ; (ia med.) any bodUy excre-
tion or secretion (esp. those ofthe Dhatus, q.v., des-
cribed a jphkgm from chyle, bile from the blood, nose-
muctjs and ear vraxfromtheflesh,perspiration from
the fat, nails and hair from the bones, rheum ofthe
eye front the brain; cf, also the t i impurities of the
body enumerated in Mn,v, 135), Susr,; Vigbh.&c;
(with Saivas), original sin, natural impurity, Sarvad.;
camphor, L . ; Os Scpjae, L , ; ra. the son of a $udra
and a Milukf, L . ; (4), f. Flacourtia Cataphracta, L . ;
_ J. __. 1 ^1 _ 1 J:-*..

F J. V

I. M * b A , mm. great, mighty, strong, abundant,

RV.; m* (cf.txaAa,magJta)*ki&\ festival, MBh,;

M a t r a , m. a Brahman of the lowest order i, e.

only by birth, Heat.; ( a } , f, see s.v.; element,
dantntary matter, BhP.; (ifc.) measure, quantity,
sum, sbtc, duration, measure of any kind (whether of
height,depth,breadth, length, distance, time or num-
ber, e.g. aftgufa-nuftratrt, afinger'sbreadth, Paucat.;
arthtt~matram f a certain sum of money, ib.; kro$*\

m d t r t ^ x K the distance of a Kos, Hit*; masa-ntatre,

in a month, Lljy.; i a t a ^ n t d t r a m , a hundred in
number, Kathas.); the full or simple measure of
anything, the whole or totality, the one thing and
no more, often nothing but, entirely, only (eg,
r a j a - m & t r a m - , tbe whole class of kings, SinkhSr.;
bbaya^m t all that may be called danger, any danger,
VarUrS.; ra(i*m nothing but sensuality, M n . ;

i a b d a - m a t r t n a , only by a sound, 6ak.); mf(a and

i*)n, (ifc.) having the measure of, i, e. as large or high
or long or broad or deep or far or much or many (cf.
a U g u s h t h a - tditi~ b a h u - , yaya-^ t t i v a n -
t t f etdvatt*
n t ) ; possessing (only) as.much as or no more than
1 { c L p r d t t a - y d t r i k a - m ) ; amounting (only) to (pleo*
itastieally after numerals; c f . / W W ) ; being nothing
but, simply or merely (cf, paddti- % mattwhya-tfP;
after a pp. scarcely, as soon as, merely, just, e.g.
jatom , scarcely or just born, Mn.; kfiskia-m ,
merely ploughed, KatySr.; 6 h u k t & - m d t r t \ x m i * ' i
Hitoyfi, ind. (contractedfromm i t h u y a ) nvn-
edly,comrarily,incorrectly,wrongly, improperly, SBr.
&c.&c. (with Caus.of * / k r i , \ Q pronounce a word
wrongly 'once' [P.] or 'repeatedly' [A.],Pan.1,3,
71; with p r a - y c a r to act wrongly, Mn. ix, 284 ;

with p r a - ^ v r i t ^ to behave improperly, MBh. iii,

34l4);falsely,deccLtruLLy -untru]y Mn.; Mfrh.&c.
r p

(often with - ^ a r u , v a c or v a d , lo speak falsely,

orteralie; withv fi,todeny,MBh,; to break one's
word, w(h n a *Jkftt to keep it), R . w i t h *Jbh8,
to rum out or prove false, MBh.; not In reality, only
apparently, Madhui.; to no purpose, fruitlessly, in
vain, MaitrUp.; MBh. &c. (ibc. often false, untrue,
sham; Mithvab personified wife of A-dharma,
KalkiP.) ~ k i r m a u , n. a false act, failure, SBr,
kExurxika, mfn. pretending lo be false, Paftcat.
^ f Ita i y n i t h y a - ) , mfn. wrongly done, ib, atopa,,
m. feigned anger. Vet, krayu, m. 2 false price,
FaTical. k r o d i a , m . - ^ - k o p a , A.
ginJu* (wi-

/Ay$g Y)
r m. improper persistency-useless obstinacy,
ib.; (also hana, a . ) misconception, misunderstand-
tag, A . ~glr*ha, in. a false game at dice, MBh.
caxya, f. false behaviour, hypocrisy, L , c i r a
{ m t i h y $ f \ m, improper conduct, wrong treatment
(in medicine), Suir.; mfn. acting falsely or hypo-
critically, Bhag,; m .arcgue,hypocrite; - p r a h a s a n a t

n. N . ofa comedy. Jalplta, n, a false report or

rumour, Paficar. ^jivStti, m. ofa man, Kau-
lukas. 11. a false conception, error, m istake,
Yogas.; Paftcat. (cf. 1W. 104)- - k h a y f a n a , n. N. of

J T f T - <A 2 mu
1. A . (Dhatup. i i , 15) mrf-
^ ^ ^tftefep.andm.c.alsoP. //; pf. rrri/ffK&fr,
RV.; t n u m u d e , MBh. & c ; aor. a t a o d i - h t a , Gr.;
Pot. m t 4 d i m a M K V . ; Free. modishirhthds
J tAV,;
fut.rwrffVfl,Gr.; modishyatt,MBh.; ind.p..m^
fltrm, MBh.), to be merry or glad or happy, rejoice,
delight in (instr. or loc.), RV. &c. & c : Caus. ow-
dqyatii U (aor. a m u m i t d a f y , to gladden, give plea-
sure, exhilarate, MBh.; Bha|t,.- Did. of Cans.
nmmcdayiskati, SBr.; Desid. t n u m o d i s h a U or
mtimudishatt. Pan. i, a, a6: Intens. momudyate,
m o m u d l t i , i t t & m a t t i Gr.
Mu41t4, mfn, delighted Joyful, glad, rejoicing h
(instr. or comp.), MBtu; Kiv, Set,; m. * partic sor
of servant, R , ; (a), f, joy, gladness, complacency
Latit; sympathy tn joy, Divyav.; n* a kind of sexua
embrace, L , ; a panic Siddbi, Simkhyas., Sch, ; w,r

m U r d h d n , m . ( U n . i , 1^8) t h e fore-
head, head in general, skull, (fig*) the highest or first
part of any thing, lop, point, summit, front (of battle),
commencement, beginning, first, chief (applied to
persons), RV* Sec &c, { t n u r d h n i with ' J V f i t & c ,
to be above everything, prevail; with * / d h f i or
dWdd^murdhnd k f i , to place on the head,
hold in high honour); the base (in geom. j opp, to
a g r a ; perhaps w.r* for b u d h n d ) > C o \ . \ (in gram.)
the roof or top of the palate (as one of the 8 Sthanas
or places of Dtteranoe), Par;, i, i , 5 , Sch,; (with
Buddhins) 'the summit,' N. of a state of spiritual
exaltation, DivyaW,vat,mfn, containing the word
m i i r d h a n , TS.; SBr.; m, N, of a Gandharva, TAr, \
of an Angirasa or Vamadevya (author of RV, x, 88),
Hit*!*, n, (or in., g. a r d h a r c & d i ; ifc. f. a or T;
prob. for 3. m u r a sec above) *firmlyfixed,'a root

(of any plant or tree; hot alsofig.the foot or lowest

pan or bottom of anything), RV. &c. & c { m u l a m
*Jk?ioi bandA \o
t take or strike root); a radish or
the root of various other plants (esp. of Arum Cam-
panulatum, of long pepper, and of Costus Speciosos
or Arabicus), L.; the edge (of the horizon), Megh.;
immediate neighbourhood {mama m i l t a r n ^ to my
side),R.; basis, foondati on, cause, origin, commence-
ment, beginning {muladarabhya or a m i i l a t from
the beg ; mil/at, from the bottom, "thoroughly; m U -
t a r n k r a m a t a i ca right through from beginning,

Divyfiv,), Mn.; MBh. &c. (ibc,= chief, principal,

cf. below; ifc, - rooted in, based upon, derived from);
a chief or principal city, ib,; capital (as opp. to 'in-
terest *), SamavBr.; Prab.; an original text (as opp.
10 the commentary or gloss), R.; Kithas.; Suir.; a
king's original or proper territory, Mn. vii, 184; a
temporary (as. opp. to therightfnl)owner, Mn. viii,
aoa; an old or hereditary servant, a native in-
habitant, MW.; the square root, Surya*.; a partic,
piwition ofthefingers( m u l a - b a n d h a ) , Pancar.;
a copse, thicket, L.; also m. and (), f. N, of the
17th (or 19th) lunar mansion, AV, &c. Sec.; ra.
herbs for horses, food, Divyav.; N.of SadMiva,Cat. j
(<f), f. Asparagus Raccmosus, L , ; f* * species of
small house-lizard, I*,; mfn, original, first, Cat.;
~ m j a own, proper, peculiar, L . karm&n, n.

* root-machination/employment of roots for magical

purposes. Mn. ix, aoo&c. Cn\so ma-iriyd t f., MBh.)

3, W n r a , n, (prob. also fr. A / I . mu and meaning

* something firm and fixed/ cf. Kai, on Pan. viii, 1 ,
) 8 ) w / d , a Toot, AV. i, 38, 3, deva ( m u r a ~ \
ro. pi. N . of a class of demon*, RV. (accord, to Say,

H?id&, mf(if or vt)n, soft, delicate, tender,

pliant, mild, gentle,VS. &c. &c.i weak, feeble, AV.;
slight, moderate, Suir.; slow (gait), MBh.; Ka*.
& c ; (in astron.) situated in the upper apsis, Ganit.;
m. the planet Saturn, VarBrS.; ti. o f a king and
various other men, VP. (cf, g. bidBdi)\ (*). f. Aloe
Perforata, L,{ (vt), f. a vine with red grapes, L .
( d m r i d v t H ) ' , n. softness, mildness, gentleness,
MBh.; Kav, & c (also m., Pin. it, a, 8, Vartt. 3,
m a n a ) Sprinkler/ a cloud, RV. Sec, & C . (also -
doudy weather); a maSF, multitude (teerrtha-nPy
Cvpena Rotundas, L.; (in music) a panic RSga,

f f l g i . nwA, cl. I* P . (Dhatup, xxiii, 33)

^ mikati (ep. also A . Vi, p. *megkatndna t

RV,; pf. t r t t m e k e . G r . l *xft.amikskat $Rt,\

f fut.
Gr., mtkshydtl, AV.; inf. f/wMKV.),to
void or pass urine, make water upon (loc. or ace,)
or towards (acc,), RV.&c* Sec,; to emit seminal flnid,
BhP,; (mfmiiftfkt) - y d t f i d - k a r m a n , Naigh. iii,
19: Cans, n u k a y a t i {Mxrarnlmikat, Gr,) to cause
to make water, RV.: Dt&A.fnimikskatt, see *Jl.
miksk: Intern, m l m i h a t , see m-^/mik, ^ f CC Gk.
lfttx*tv j Lat. mingtrf, me/ere; Slav, m i g l a v , Lith.
n&Ui; Angl, Sax. m i g a n ; Germ. Aftj/.J

MaltTt, f. friendship, friendliness, benevolence*,

good will (one of the 4 perfect states with Buddhists,
Dharmis. 1 6 ; cf, MWB. 128), MBh,; Kiv. & c ;
Benevolence personified (a* the daughter uf Daksha
and wife of Dharma), BhP.; close contact or union,
Megh.; Vcar,; (ifc.) equality, similarity, Prasannar.;
M, of the Nakshatra Amaradha, U ; N.of an Upanj-
shad (cf. under n t a i t r i ) , kftruiiS-m'acU.ta, m, a
panic, Sainadhi, Karand. ~dEiut, n, friendliness

ift? mdha, tn. (A/I. muhj ifc. f. 5) loss of

consciousness, bewilderment, perplexity, distraction,
infatuation, delusion, error, folly, A V . & c Sec. (OT<T-
h a m *Jbru, to say anything that leads to error;
mh&m *Jyd, to fall into error; mohSt, ind. through
folly or ignorance); fainting, stupefaction, a jwoon,
MBh.; Kav, &c,; (in phil.) darkness or delusion of
mind (preventing the discernment of truth and lead-
ing men to believe in the reality of worldly objects);
(with Buddhists) iguorancc (one of the three roots
of vice, Dharmas. J39); a magical art employed to
bewilder an enemy ( - t / w k a w ) , Cat.; wonder,
amazement, L , ; Infatuation personified (as the off*
2. y a J . c l , i - A . f p r o b . connected w i t h

Dhatup. ii, 29) y & i a t t (Ved. and ep, also P, /ry p,

ydfafttdna,ydtdna w A y a t d n d , RV,; y i . y e t e , 3,
yet i r e , ib. & c ; aor. ayatutya, Br,; fut.^a/f-
thy ate, Br., MBh.; 'mi yatitum,
t MBh.; ind,p.
f MBh.), (P,) to place in order, marshal, join,
connect, RV,; ( P . or A,) to keep pace, be in line*
rival or vie "with (instr, \\h.; ( A . ) to join (instr,), asso-
ciate with (instr.), march or fly together or in line,
ib,; to conform or comply with (instr, 1* ib.; to meet,
encounter (in battle), ib.; Br.; to seek to join one's
self with, make for, tend towards (to*)* J to en*
deavuur to reach, strive after, be eager or anxious
for (with loc,, dat., acc. with or without p r a t i , once
with gen.; also with arfht, arthdya, arthdm and

Yfctna, m. activity of will, volition, aspiring after,

Kaii.; Bhlship.; performance, work, Bhar.; (also
pi.) effort, exertion, energy, zeal, trouble, pains, care,
endeavour after (loc or comp,), Mil.; MBh. &c.
(yatttatn with v O e , dWsthd, samd-v'sthd, a-
V d h d and loc. oritif,,' to make an effort or attempt,'
take trouble or pains for/ yatnena or tnais, * with
effort,' 'carefu My/ 'eagerly / 'strenuously* [ a \ v > y a t n a ,
>bc.]; y a t m n & p i f in spite of every effort;' yatttatr
vind, wil hotit efl;' yatttdt,vthh or not withstand! ng
eff*; mahatoyatndt, * with great eff V * very care-
fully *); a special or express remark or statement,

T&thSr, ind, (it) Veda also unaccented ; fr, $,ya,

correlative of tdtkd} in which manner or way, ac-
cording as, as, like (also with eid, ha, ka vat, i v a ,
ivdhga, i v a ha, eva, a ltd followed by corrcl, tathd,
t a t h d t a t h d , t a d v a t , c v a t t i Ved, also e v d ) , RV.
tkc. StcAyat/ufttat or yat htftvai tat,'it for thai;
yatha-tatltdotyatkdtatasatytnafit surely as'
-'so truly 'J; as, lor instance. mn\tly(tt]satadyathd,
21 here follows'1, Up,; GprS,; Nir.; as it is or was
(cllipiicaHj), Bhl\; that, so that, in order that (with
Vot. or Subj., later also with fat, pres., imperf. and
aor.; in earlier languageyathd is often placed after
thefirstword of a sentence ; sometimes with ellipsis
oisyiiti\\di<aaV6t\R V.&c.Scc; thit(esp.after verbs
of "knowing/ 'believing/ 'hearing/ 'doubting'Ac.;
dther with or without i i i at the end ofthe sentence) (

Up.; MBh.; Kav. Sec." toon ai, Megh.; as, be-

cause, si nee (yathd-tathd,'n'-'thctzfate*), MBh.;
Kav. &c.; as if (with Pol.), Das.; ak.; how ( -
quam, expressing* ad miration^). Pin. viii, 1,3 7, Sch.;
according 10 what is right, properly,correctly { = y a -
thdfat),bhP.^ydthdyathd-tdthd tathd at tvdtva,
'in whatever maniier,'* in that manner/ 'according
as * or 'in proportion us/*so/ 'by how much the
1 1 1
more by so much/ * th e more the more; * yathd
tathd, i n whate ve r matiner/'in e very way, *' a nyhow
withftvr, 'in noway/ 'really not * yathdhathamdt,
* in ny way/'somehowor other :* y a i h t f t v a , ] a & is;*
TfantL, ni_ a rein, curb, bridle, RV. v, 61, 2 \ a
driver, charioteer, ib. viii, 103, Jo; the act ofcheck-
ing or curbing, suppression, restraint (wiih v a < & m t

restraint uf words, silence), BhP.; telecontrol, for-

bearance, any great moral rule or duty (as npp. to
n i y a t n o , a minor observance; in YajTi, iii, 313 ten
Yamas are mentioned, sometimes only five), M n . ;
Mob. ficc; (in Yoga) self-restraint (as the first of
the eight Angas or means of attaining mental con-
centration), 1W, 9 3 ; any rule or observance, ParGr.;
{ y a / a d ) , m i $ or i ) a . twiU'borij, twin, forming a
pair, RV. & c &c,; m, a twin, one of a pair or
couple, a fellow (dn, the twins,' N . of the Aivins
and of their twin children by Madrt, called Naknla
and Saha-deva; yamait m U h t t n a u twins of dif-

ferent sex),ib.; a symbolicalN. forthc number 'two/

Heat.; N . of the god who presides over the Pitf is
(q, v.) and rules the spirits ofthe -dead, RV. Acc. &c.;
IW. i S ; 197, 198 & c ; R T L . 1 0 ; 16; 3 8 9 &c.
(he is regarded as thefirstof men and born from V i -
vaivat,' the Sun,* and his wife Sarariyu ; while his
brother, the seventh Mano, another form of the
first man, is the son of Vivasvat and Sarnjhl, the
image of SaiauyO; his twin-sister is Yam!, with
whom he resists sexual alliance, but by whom he is
mourned after his death, so that the gods, to make
her forget her sorrow, create night; m the Veda he
is called a king or samgamarto jattdttSftt 'the t

2. yu(cf. *fyujf), cl.a.P.fDhatup.xiiv,

i $ ) y a u t i (Ved. also k . y u U and cl. G.yit*
vdti^fe; accord, to Dhatnp. xxxi, 9 abo cl. 9.
ymtati^yttniU; f>,i.sQyuyavithOjVin.
vi, 4,12f> Sch. \ yuyirv/,
( R V . ; aor. -ydvith(am (j%
ib,; < t y i v i s h ( a , Q \ . \ T j t / c . y i i y d i , \ h , \ uCyuvttd,
Br,j yavitd,yttvishyati U,
t Gr,; ind. p.ytttvd,
Pit), via, 2 , i i , S c h r , y x y a , R V r > y u t y a G t $ r S . )
r r r

lo unite, attach, harness, yoke, bind, fasten* RV.;

to draw towards one's self, take hold or gain pos-
lession of, hold fast, AV.; TS.; SBr.; lo ptish on
towards (acc.), A V , ; lo confer or bestow upon<dat,),
4J 4 | (ct\/2.ytf) cI*7P*A (Dhatflp,
t t

xxix, *f)yundkti,yuhkti (ep. also ^ufl-
fe; Ved. yojaii, te; yttje, yujmake, 3. pi.
ytijaia,\m\yt.yttkihvd; Po\.yuiij7yd X..;
t pf.yu-
y f j a yttyuj'J,
3 RV. &c. & o , j . sg. ytiyojaU, RV.
viii, 70, 7; aor. Class. P. ayo&sjkti, ayaukshii 01
ayujai; Ved. also A . d y a j i ; Ved. and Class, ayuk*
ski, a y u k i a ; fut, yokia, Br.; yokskyatx, ib.;
fc AV, &c. & c ; i n C ^ v i / ^ B r , ; j w f t R V . ;

i n d . p . y u k t v d , ib.&c&c,; jwhtvaya,RV,-, Br.;

~yujya, MBh.&c),to yoke or join or listen or harness
(hQrsesorachiriot),RV_&c.&c*; to make ready, pre-
pare, arrange,fitout, set to work,use, employ, apply,
ib.; loequip(anarmy) R.; to orTer,perform (prayers,

a sacrifice), BhP,; to put on (arrows on a bow-string),

MBh.; to fix in, insert, inject (semen), Sfir.; to ap-
point to, charge or intrust with (loc, or dat.), MBh.;
VP,; to command, enjoin,BhP.; to turn or direct or
fix or concentrate (the mind, thoughts Sec.) upon
{loc,),TS. & c . & c ; (P, A.) to concentrate the mind
in order to obtain union with the Universal Spirit, be
absorbed m meditation (also w i t h y c g a m ) , M u U U p . ;
Bhag.flee.;to recollect, recall, MBh.; to join, unite,
connect, add, bring together, RV. Sec, Sec. (A. to
be attached, cleave to, Hariv.); to confer, or bestow
anything (acc.) upon (gen. or loc), BhP.; M3rkP,
(A. with acc., to become possessed of, MBh.; with
dtmaniy to use for one's self, enjoy. M I L vi, 12);
to bring into possession of, furnish or endow with
(instr.),Mn.; MBh.; R . & c ; to join one's self to
(acc), RV,; (in astmn.) to come into union or con-
junction with (acc), VarBrS,: Pass, ytijydte (ep.
also H; aor. dy<rfi), to be yoked or harnessed or
joined Sec, RV. eVc & c ; to attach one's self to
*ft*T ytfjf&t m. { < / l . y u j ; ifc. f. 5) the act
of yoking, joining, attaching, harnessing, putting to
{of horses}, RV, i MBh.; a yoke, team, vehicle, con-
veyance, &Br.; Kani.; MBh.; employment, use, ap-
plication, performance, RV. Sec. &c.; equipping or
arraying (of an army), MBh-; fixing (of an arrow
on (he bow-string),ib.; putting on (of armour), L . ;
a remedy, cure, Susr.; a means, expedient, device,
way, manner, method, MBh.; Kav. & c ; a super-
natural means, charm, incantation, magical art, lb.;
a trick, stratagem, fraud, deceit, Mn.; Kathas. (cf.
yoga^ttattdaY, undertaking, business, work, R V . ;
A V . ; TS.; acquisition, gain, profit, wealth, property,
ib.; K a u i ; MBh.; occasion, opportunity, K i m . ;
Mirk?,; any junction, union, combination, contact
with (instr. with or without iaha, or comp.), MBh.;
Kir. &c. {jfogam v7, to agree, consent, acquiesce
in anything, R.); mixing ofvarious materials, mix-
ture, MBh.; R.; VarBfS.; partaking of, possessing
(instr. or comp.), Mn,; R,; Hariv.; connection, re-
lation (yagdt, yegena and yoga-tas, ire, in conse-
quence of, on account o by reason of, according to,
thjough),KafySr.; SveiUp.; Mn, &<*; putting to-
gcthcr, arrangement, disposition, regular succession,
K*lh.; SrS.; fitting together, fitness, propriety,
suitability yogena andycga*tas End.suitably, filly,

duly, in the right manner), M Bh.; Kav.&c.; exer-

tion, endeavour, zeal, diligence, industry, care, atten-
tion ind. strenuously, itfiduonsly j fur-
n t n a ycgena,-m\h all one * powers, with overflowing
zeal], Mn.; MBh.etc.; application or concentration
of (he thoughts, abstract contemplation, meditation,
(etp.) self-concentration, abstract meditation and
mental abstraction practised ai a system (as taught
by Patafijali and called the Voga philosophy; it is
the second ofthe two Sajpkhya systems, its chief
aim being to teach the means by which the human
spirit may attain complete union with Israra or the
Supreme Spirit; in the practice of self-concentration
it is closely connected with Buddhism), Up,; MBh,;
Kav. , .JW, 92); any simple act or rite condu-
cive to Yoga or abstract meditation, Sarvad,; Yoga
personified (as the son of Dharma and Kiiya), BhK;
afollowerof the Yoga system, MBh.; Samk.; (in
Sarjikhya) die union of soul with mailer (one of the
10 Mulikarthis or radical tacts), TaTtvas.; (with
Paiiipatas) the union of the individual soul with the
universal soul, Kulirn.; (with Pancailtras) devotion,
.1..,, ^ - r. _ 1 f> 1 * -! i " *

Yotfin, mfn. joined or connected with, relating

to accompanied by, possessed of (camp.), KatySr. j

MBh.; Hariv.- being in conjunction with (cg.fdf

tfra-y^MlrkP.; possessed of superhuman powers,
W\; rn. a follower of the Yoga system, a Yogin
(usually called Yogi) or contemplative saint, de-
votee, ascetic, MaitrUp.; Bhag. &c,(cC R T L . 8 7 ) ]
Y6sjya, mm. ( f t . y o g a and * / i . y u f ) fit for the
yoke, P9a,T, t f i o t ' r belonging to a partic. remedy,
SiTflgS.; useful, serviceable, proper, fit or qualified
for, able or equal to, capable of (gen., loc., dat,, inf.
with act. or pass, sense, or comp.) KatySr.; MBh,;

Kav. Sec,; perceptible, Kap.; fit for Voga, proper

for religious meditation, L . ; ni. a draught animal,
A V.; S Br.; a cakul ator of exped ients, W.; the con-
stellation Pushya, L . ; (a), f. preparation, contri-
vance,RV.; exercise, practice, (esp.)bodily exercise,
gymnastics,drill, M Bh.; Kar.; Suir.; (pi.) the straps
with which horses are attached to the yoke of a car-
riage, traces (?), RV. iii, 3, 6 ; the earth, L . ; N. of
Bharanl, L . ; of the wife of Sfirya, L . ; n. (only L.)
a vehicle or any machine; a cake; sandal; a kind
of drug. 1&> f. suitableness,fitness,propriety,abiIity,
R . ; Kathas. & c ; - g r a n i h a r a h a s y a , n., - p u r v a ~
paksha-raAasyOi n,, -rcthasya^ n.,-v&da t m., -vi'
cdra,m. N.of wks. tv, n. <--/a,Kap.; Vedintas.
v l i o s l i & - g a ^ a v - v l c S r a , rn. N. of wk. Yo|rya>
n npaJ*t>dill-1ahasya>, n. or d h i - v S d m. N, t

of wks. T o f r y - r t i i a > , m. a carriage employed in

rrff n o , n . ( / i , r ) a gift, present, goods,

wealth, richcs,RV,; A V . ; SBr.; a jewel, gem, trea-
sure, precious stone (the nine js are pearl, ruby, topaz,
diamond, emerald, lapis lazuli, coral, sapphire, Go-
meda ; hence r a i n a is a N . for the number 9 ;
but accord, to some 14), Mn.; MBh.&c.; anything
valuable or best of its kind (e. g. ptttraV, an ex-
cellent son); a magnet, loadstone, Kap,, Sch. (cf.
m a n ! ) ; water, L . ; * * r a t t t a - h a v i $ SBr,; ni, (with

bkattdS N . of a man. Cat. ka/ntha.. tn N. nf vad.

X 3. r a , mfn. (*/ra)acquiring, possessing,

Naish.;gmng,efTecting,Sii.; ni,(only L.) fire,beat;
love, desire; speed; ( a ) , f. (only L,) amorous play
2. ras (ruthcr N o m . f r . rasa below),
ao. P, (Dhatup, xaxv. 77) rasdyati
(rarefy AJ!e, ep, also rasati an.l r$-.yati\ to taste,
relish, SBr,; Up.; MBh. flee,; to ted, perceive, be
eroible of, Sah.; to love, Dhatup.: Dcsid. r i r a s a -
yishaii, to desire to taste, fri,
R i i i , ra. (ifc- f. a ) the sap or juice of plants,
juice of fruit, any liquid or fluid, the best or finest
or prime part of anything, essence, marrow, RV.
Sec & c ; water, liquor, drink, MBh.; Kav. &c.;
juice ofthe sugar-cine, syrup, Suir.; any mixture,
draught, elixir,potion,R.; BhP.; melted butter,L,;
(with or scil. gtzvam) milk, MBh.; (with or aci),

vishasya) poison, Dal.; Kljii,; rieetar, L . ; sou

broth, L.; a constituentfluidor essential juiee of ti
body, serum, (esp.) the primary juice called chy
(formed from the rood and changed by the bile int
blood),ib.i mercury .quicksilver (sometimes, regardc
as a kind of quintessence ofthe human body, eltt
where as the seminal fluid offiiva),5irvad,; seme
virile, RV, J, 105, 3 ; myrrh, L, ; aay mineral G
metallic salt, Cat.; a metal or mineral in a state c
fusion (ct u p a - raAj-**)j gold, L . ; Yanguleti

Spinosa, I-.; a species of amaranth, L,; green onion

L . ; resin, L.; a m j i t a , L . ; taste,flavour(as th
principal quality of fluids, of which there are 1
original kinds, rit. m a 4 k u r a sweet; a m l a , sour

lavanit, sah; fratuha, pungent; t i k t a , bitter; ant

k a s h & y a , attriugent; sometimes 63 varieties aredis
tinguished, va, beside the 6 original ones, 15 mix
tures of I , 30 of 3, 15 of 4, 6 of 5, and 1 of i
flavours), 5Bt. Sec. &e.; N. of the number 'sit,'
VaiBrS.; $rutab.; any object of taste, condiment,
ance, spice, seMcning, MBh.; Kav. Sec/, the tongue
[as the organ of laite), BhP.; taste or inclination or
badness for (loc. with or scil. v f a r i , or comp.),
ovc, affection, desire, MBh.; Kav. &e.; charm,
rfeiiurc, delight, ib; (inrheu) the taste or character
f a work, the reeling or sentiment prevailing in it
from 3 to 10 Rasis ale generally enumerated, viz.
f t h g a r a , ioTCj v l r a , heroism; b l b h a t i a , disgust;
a u d r a , anger ot fury; Aasya, mirth; b h a y a n a k a ,
frror; h a r u n a , pity; adbhuta, wander j i a n t a ,
ranquUlity or contentment; v a i i a i y a , paternal fond-
ess; the last or Ust two are sometimesftmittcdi cf.
TTQ rag-a, in. (ft. - J r a f y ; ifc. a o i l ) the
act of colouring OT dyeing (cf. murdkaja-r**); colour,
hoe, lint, dye, (etp.) red colour, redness, MBh.?
Kiv. Ac.; inflammation. Car.; any feeling or passion,
(eip.) love, affection or sympathy for, vehement de-
sire m, interest or joy or delight in (loc. or comp.),
Up.; Mn,; MBh. flic.; loveliness, beauty (esp. of
voiceor songj, Sak.; Pahcat.; a musical note, har-
mony, melody (in the later system a partic. musical
mode or order of sound or formula ; B ha rata enume*
rates 6, viz. S h a i r a v a , K a u S d a , H \ t i d o t a D t p a ~

ka, Srl'rSga,ii\i J/e^^e*ehniode exciting some

affection; other writers give other names; some-
times 7 or 36 Ragas are mentioned; they are per-
sonified, and each of the 6 chief Rigas is wedded to
or 6 consorts called Raginis; their union gives rise
to many other musical modes), Bhar.; Sarngit.;
Rajat.; Piftcat.&c.; nasalization,RPrat.; a partic,
process ID the preparation of quicksilver, Sarvad.;
seasoning, condiment, Car,; a prince, king, L , ; the
sun, L . ; the moon, L , ; (J), f. Elcoiine Coracana
(a sort of grain, commonly called Raggy, and much
cultivated in the south of India), L . ; fc, ofthe second

^^s-up (prob. N o m . fr. rvpa) cl, 10. P .


(Dhatup. JJtXv, 79) rupayatU to form,figure,re-

present (esp. on the stage), exhibit by gesture, act,
feign, Hariv,; Kav.; BhP. & t ; to view, inspect,
contemplate, Kir. viii, 3 6 ; Pan. iii, a, Sch.;
(A. ^yate) to show one s self, appear, Vop,
BupA, n. (perhaps connected with varpa, var*
pas; ifc. f. a, rarely t) any outward appearance or
phenomenon or colour(oftenpL),form,shape, figure.
RV. Sec. Sec. ( r u f e t t a , ifc. in the form of; r r ' p a t r t
i/kyi or *Jbhu, to assume a form; often
'having the form or appearance or colourof,* 'formed
or composed o f 'consisting of/* like to;' sometime*
used after an adj. or p. p. to emphasize its meaning or
almost redundantly, ctghora-r; or connected with
a verb, e . g . p a t a t i - r f t p a m he cooks very well, cf.

Pan. viii, i , 57); dreamy or phantom shapes (pi),

VS.; Br.; handsome form, loveliness, grace, beauty,
splendour, RV.cVc.&c; nature, character, peculiarity,
feature, mark, sign, symptom, VS. & c & c ; like-
ness, image, reflection, Mn.; Kathis.; circumstances
(opp, to 'time* and * place*), Mn. viii, 4 5 ; sort,
kind, R; Suir,; mode, manner, way, Kap.; (ifc.)
trace of, R. a single specimen or exemplar (and

listing of rmin ), N f h k . - t v a , n. id. or the state of


having form orfigure.Sarvad.: i d . K i t . : - r a t i -

r X r j j laksh, cl. r. A . lakshaU, to per-

\ ceive, observe, BhP.; Kathas,; ( P . / i ) ,
to recognise, MBh,; cl. I o. P, A . (Dhatup. xxxii, 5 ;
xxxni, 33; rather Nom. ft. laksha below) laksha-
yati, (aor. a l a l a k s h a t , ta; inf. l a k s h a y i t u m ;
ind. p. lakshayitvd,-lak$hyd),%o mark, sign,MBh.;
to characteriie, define (inCkmims,); to indicate, de-

aim at (as to aim an arrow at any object), direct

towards, have in view, mean, K l i . on Pan, ii, 3. 37
&c,j to consider or regard any one (acc.) as (aoc.
with or without i v a ) , MBh.; Hariv.; Pur.; to sup-
pose of any one (acc.) that he will &c. (oratio recta
with i t i ) , MBh. iii, 1 0 3 7 5 ; to know, understand,
recognise by (instr.)or as (acc.) or that Sec. (oratio
icdawithr"*V),MBh.; Kav,; Pur.; tonotice, perceive,
observe, see, view, MaitrUp.; Mn.; MBh.Sec.: Pass.
lakshyate, to be marked & c ; to be meant or in-
tended, Kai. on Fan. ii, 3 , 14 &c.; to be named or
called (with double nom.), BhP.; to be perceived or
seen, appear, seem, look like (nom. with or without
/wrtY MRh : K 5 T . & C . : Desid.. see H l a k s h a v i t k i t a .
lVfvkvhAXL*, mfh, indicating, expressing indirectly,
Ved&ntas.; m, Ardca Sibirica, L . ; N.ofama^Rajat.
(often wnfoandedwith/a4j^^a^);(5),f,scci.v
n,(ifc f* } a mar k, sign, symbol, token, cba ractc ristic,
attribute, qua lity(ifr.** marked or characterized by,
'possessed of*}, Mn.; MBh. & c ; astrolce, line (op,
those drawn on the sacrificial ground), Br.; GprS.;
a Incky mask, favourable sign, GrSrS.; Mn.; MBh,
& c ; a symptom or indication of disease, Cat; a
sexual organ j MBb. xiii, 3303; aspoou (?) Divy&v.;

ccurate description, definition, illustration, Mn.;

Sarvad.; Susr.; Killed rate,fixedtariff. Mo, viii, 406;
a designation, appellation, name (ife. =-* named, 1

called*),Mn.; MBh.; Kav.; a form,species,kind,
tort (ifc.''taking the form of,' 'appearing as*),
Mn.; Saink.; BhP.; me act of aiming at, aim, goal,
scope, object (tie. "'conccining/'rebting to,'*com-
ing within the scope of), APrat.; Yajn.; MBb,;
BhP.; reference, quotation. Flu. 1, 4, 8 4 ; effect,
operation, influence, ib. i, 1,61 & c ; cause, occasion,

nntvFtnnitv. R ? Dot.- oWrvatfnn itiffht. vi-inp.

eS^j teyAtf, mf(tit or u)n. (a later form oj

ragkUf q.v.) light, quick, swift, active, prompt;
rumble, Mn,; MBh, &c(als said ofa partic rooid
of flying peculiar to birds, PaftcaL; applied to tbi
Nakshatras Hasta, ASvinl, aud Pushya, VarBrS.) j
light, easy, not heaTy ot difficult, AV. fitc Stc.j
light in the stomaeh, easily digested, Susr.; easy in
mind, Hght-hearted, Hariv, ;Katid.; causing easinesi
or relief^ Slipkhyak.; well, in good health, L.; un-
impeded, without attendance or a retinue, MBh. iff,
6440 ; short (in time, as a suppression ofthe breath),
MaikP.; (in prosody) short or light (as a vowel or
syllable, opp. xoguru); (in gram.)easily pronounced
or articulated (aid of the pronunciation of va, as
opp. to madhyama and g u r u ) ; small, minote, slight,
little, insigiiitlcaM, SBr. &e. 6tc.; weak, feeble,
wretched, humble, mean, low (said of persons), Mn.;
MBh. & c ; young, younger (see -bkr&tri)'. dean,
pure (see -utarf); soft, gentle (as sound), KatMs.;
Bh?.; plewiug, agreeable, handsome, beautiful*
'ftf{ I' ( c t v ' H J p d . ^ . P . (DhStnp. xxxi,
31' l i n & t i , to adhere, obtain (not usually
found); c l I. P, Aijfafi(xxxiv 6) to melt, liquefy,
t t

dissolve (not usually found); cl> 4. A- (xxvi, 30)

ityate (Ved. also idyaie; pf. tifa* B r & c
- -1
/i/dya, iafauj Gr.; aor. altshta, SBr.; a t a h h i t

aldfitfddsia, Gr.; fut. / : U s h y a i i _r -

yati fe t t ib.; inf. /ffuffi or I d t u m , ib.j ind.p. -/d-
t M , AV.; Br.; -/ijw, MBh.; Kav. &c), to ding
or press closely, stick or adhere 10 (loc.), MBh.; R.
&c. t to remain sticking, Suir.; lo He, recline, alight
or settle on, hide or cnwtr down in (loc), disappear,
vanish, MBh.; Kav. &C.; Cans. V j d f a y a t t or I d -
yayati, to cause to cling &c, Br.&c.; . l & p a y a t t ,
to deceive; to obtain honour; to humble, Flu. j, 3,
7 0 ; Desid. Utishati*tc t Gr.: Intens. U H y a t t , U-
I q y i t i , foleH* ib. (cf. U/dyay
Laya, m. the act of sticking or clinging to (loc),
Sis. (Jayatft i/ga with loc., to become attached to
any one/ Krml.)* lying down, cowering, MBh.;
melting, dissolution, disappearance or absorption in
(loc. or comp.),Up.; Kap. dec. {/ayam */gam OT
yd 'to disappear, be dissolved or absorbed
r layar/i
samWgafrt^ 'to hide or conceal one's self*); ex-
tinction, destruction, death, MBh.; Kir,Sec.(layam
Vyd, * to be destroyed, perish'); rest, repose, &it;
BhPi (cf. a - i a y d ) \ place of rest, residence, house,
dwelling,W.; mental inactivity, spiritual indifference,
Kap.; Vedantas,; sport, diversion, merriness, Vas.;
delight in anything, Harav.; an embrace, L.; (in
music) time (regarded as of 3 kinds, vji, d r u t a ,
quick,' r r t a d h y a , 'mean or moderate/ and vilatrt-
b i t a , 'slow'), Kllid.;Dasar.; Paneat. & c ; a kind
of measure, Sanplt.; the union of song, dance and
instrumental music, L.; a pause, MW.; a partic. agri-
cultural implement (perhaps a sort of harrow ot hoe),
VS.; a swoon, L . ; the quick (downward) movement
of an arrow, L.; { a ' , f. N. ofa Yogini, Heat, ( v j ,
j ' a y d ) ; n. the root of Andtopogon Mtmcatus, Bhpr.;
I M ( t t y / r a b h ) , c l . I. A . (Dhatup.
N 6) labhate (p. also / / tod J a m -
bhatt} pf, W , ep, also htabka ; aor. a i a b d h a ,
alapsaia^t. \ Piee, Ar//Q'a,Pa'n.viii, a, 104. Sch.;

Kiv.; inf. tabdkum, MBh.; Ind. p. labdhvi,

AV. &&; - l a b h y a , - l a m b h a m , Br. &c,; U b k a m ,
Pan, vii! I, 69), to take, seize, catch; catch tight
of, meet with, find, Br, &c. &c. (with antaram, to
find an opportunity, nuke an impression, be effective;
with avakdiam, tofindscope, be appropriate; with
kdfom, to God the right time or moment); to gain
possession of, obtain, receive, conceive, get, receive
('from/abl.; *as/aec.),ieeover,ib.(withirfM<jfl,
'to conceive an embryo/ ' become pregnant j* with
padam t to obtain a footing); to gain the power of
(doing anything),fucceed in,be permitted or allowed
to (inf. or dat., e.g. iabhate draskptm ot a*ar-
iandya, 'be is able or allowed to see'), ChUp,;
MBh, &c.; to possess, have, Slh,; MsrkP.; to per-
i t k n o w . n n d m t V u L 1*>*m. GnA nut ff*t1>3a *

Ii&bb*, m. meeting with,finding,Mn.; Kathas.;

obtaining, getting, attaining,acquisition, gain, profit,
Mn.; MBh.&t,; capture,conquest,Hariv.; VaiBjS,;
apprehension, perception, knowledge, atpk.; Slh.;
BhP.; enjoying, MW.; N . of the llth astrological
bouse or lunar mansion VarBrS. (also sthana, Cat.)

l A v a n j a , n, (ifc. f. i ) sadness, the taste or pro-

perty ofsalt, Amir. ;beauty, loveliness, charm Inscr.; t
fHl? Una (cf. a i l i n g ) , c l . I* P. fcdjratf,
to go, Dhfttnp, v, 4 8 ; ch 10. P. l t n g a v a i i to paint,

variegate (tifri'afca$) t ib, xxxiii, 6 5 ; to change

or inflect a noun according to itgender, Vop.,Sch,
IVingm, n. (once m. in NrisUp.; ifc, f <f, r only
in 'vifH^udingf; prob. fr, V f a g ; cf, laksha, lak-
shana) a mark, spot, sign, token, badge, emblem,
characteristic (ifc, ^ i a l - l i k g a ^ having anything for
a mark or sign*), Up.; MBh. Sec; any assumed or
false badge OT mark, guise, disguise, MBh,; Kav.
Ac.j a proof,evidence,Kan.; KatySr.; Sarvad.; a
sign of guilt, corpus delicti, VajTi., Sch.; the sign of
gender or sex, organ of generation, Mn.; Hariv,;
Par. Vc; the male organ or Phallus (esp. that of
Siva worshipped in the form of a stone or marble
column which generally rises not oixymi, q. v., and
is set up In temples dedicated to Siva ; formerly 1 %
principal Siva-lingas existed, of which the best known
ate Sonu'nitha in Gujarat, Maha~k3l*-at Ujjayint,
VU vii vara at Benares cVc.; but the number of Ungai
in India b estimated at 30 millions, I W , 33s, n. 1;
R T L . 7 3 , 1 ; go), MBh.; R, & c ; gender (in gram.;
c f . / * ^ - / ) , P r * t . ; Pip.; the image of a god, an
idol, VarBfS,; (in logic) v y & f i y a the invariable

mark which proves the existence of anything in an

object (as in the proposition * there JJfirebecause
there is smoke/ smoke is the Hhg&} cf. IW. 6 i ) i
i nfere nce,concl osion, reason (cf, k&vya~F*)\ c= Hfaga-
t a r i r a (tn Vedanta); anything having an origin and
therefore liable tobe destroyed again, Kap.; akRta,
K i n rid.! fin Samkfcvat A r a k r i / t or -hntdhdna.

bh* \ -fehladilUptir&fiA, n. N, of wks.mJftra^ u.

the intellect ,Yogas. inUSttny*, n, N.of a section
l M c l 6 p
f v M > * * * l u b h a t i (onrjrDhatnp.
O ^xxviii, a a) or d . 4 . P. (xxvi, 134) id*
bhyati (pf. lutubhe, R . ; tor. a t u b h a i or a fabh\t%

Gr.; fut. lobdha or t e b h U a \ tobhishyati, ib.; iof,

lobdhum, MBh.; ind. p. hbhitva t lubAitvd, lub*
dhv&t Gr.), to be perplexed or disturbed, become dU
ordered, go astray, AitBr.; to desire greatly or eagerly,
bug for, be interested in (dat. or loc), Mn.; MBh.
& c ; to entice, allure, R.: Cam, tcbhdyatiU (aor,
a l U l u b h a t , Br.; Pm.tobAyatt, MBh.),to confound,
bewilder, perplex, derange, & Br.; to eaose to desire
or long for, excite Inst, allure, entice, attract, MBb.;

Dcsid. of Caus. 4ulobhayiskaSi, see

Desid. l u l u b h h h a t i or luhbhishati, Gr.: Intent.
lolubhyatc (Gr. also l o l o b d h i ) , to have a vehement
desire for (loc), Kim. [Cf. Lat. fubet, libit, ti-
bide; Goth. U v f t ; Germ. /iW, l i t b j u b e n ; Angl.
Sax. Eng. luf t lev*.]

Lobha, m. perplexity, confusion (see a-/); im-

patience, eager desire for or longing after (gen,, foe.
or comp.), Mn.; MBh. &c,; covetonsness, eopidity,
avarice (personified as a son of Push^i or of Dambha
and Mlyl), ib, * t u , ind. from greediness or de-
^m^vaj (prob. corrupted fr. yvraj), cl. I*
r\ vajatt (pf, wtvaja, Fut. t W i / J & c , Gr.), to go,
Dhawp. vii, 8 ; I'm , or cl. L O . P, v d j a y a t i , lo
prepare leeway; to trim orfcather an arrow { m d r g a -
or m d r g a n a - s a m s k a r t ) , Dhatup. a xxii, 74.
Another or / , ' to be hard or strong,' may
be inferred from u g r a , o j a s , v a / r a , v d / a (qq. TV.),
the last of which gave rise lo the Nom. vdjaya,<[.v.
[For cognate words sec under u g r a and ojas.'\
VaJJa-dava, ot. (profa. for vajra-d) N. of a
king, luscr.
Vajra.m. n.'the hard or mighty one/ a thunder-
bolt (esp. lhatof Indra, said to have been formed out
of the bones ofthe ijishi Dadhlca or Dadhici [q^v.],
and shaped like a circular discus, 01 in later times
regarded as having Ihc form of two transverse bolls
crossing each other thus x; sometimes aIso applied
to similar weapons used by various gods or super
human beings, or to any mythical weapon destructive
ot spells or charms, also to M a n y u , wrath,' RV. (

or [with a p d m \ to a jet of water, AV. &c.8cc.; also

applied to a thunderbolt in general or to the lightning
evolved from the centriftidal energy of the circular

^ I . vat, m affix (technically t e r m e d

van'; seePaij. t X, 1 1 5 See.) added to words to

imply likeness or resemblance, and generally trans-

latable by Mike' (e.ft. b r d h m a n a - v a t , like a
Brahman \ p i t f i - v a t - p i t e v a , p i t a r a m i v O y P i t u r
iva 2ndpiariva).~-\fLt*.,m. ihc affix vat, Sarnie.
i . vdrat m. (fr. - / i . vrfy ' environ tog/
'enclosing/ circumference, space, room, RV.; AV.;
TS. {vjradpyithivyah, on the wide earth); stop-
ping, checking, RV. i, 143, e.-ffa-, m.or n,(?)N.
of a place.Cat. l*-*-vare-ja, Pin. vi, 3,16.-014,
mfn, sitting in a circle or In the wide space, RV. iv,
40,5. Vfci-t-ji- v a r a - j a t Pin. vi, 3, 16.
I. Va,raka, m. a cloak, L . ; n.eloth.L.; the cover
or awning of a boat, L .
j . varana, m. a rampart, mound, L . ; a canse-
way.bridge, L . ; the tree Crnueva Roxburghi. (also
called varana wn&seiti; it is used in medicine and
supposed to possess magical virtue*), MaitrS.&c&e.:
any tree, W.j a camel, L . ; a kind of ornament or
decoration ou a bow, MBb.; a partic, magical for-
mula recited over weapons, R. {paruna, B.); N. of
Indra, L . ; N . of aconntry, Buddh.; (pi.) of a town,
Pan. iv. 3,8* (cf. K K . o n Pan. i, a, 53); (CT), f. N.
ofa small river (running past the north of Benares
into the Ganges and now called Barna),Up-; Pur,;
n. surrounding, enclosing, L . ; keeping off, prohibit-

vas cl- 2, P . (Dhatup. 3xiv 71) td-

t P

shti (i, pL uitndsi or Sntasi, RV.; 3. pL

uidnii, ib.; p. vdt, uSdnd and utdm&na, ib.; cl.
1, vdSa/t*ndc\ t 3. vivashti[also vavdsati],
vavJfo/ti/ib.', pf.vdvaji$ *Sj p. artd iv.; uvd-
t t

ia,aJuh,Qt.', aor.awzjT/, ib.; 2. sg. vasty, MBh.;

Prec. uiydi Gr,;fat*vaiiid, Sishyaii, ib.), to will,

command {jp.uidmdnaf 1
having at command ), RV.;
AV.; to desire* wish, long for, be fond of, like (also
with inf.), RV. &c.&c. (p. uJdt and uSdnd, will-
ing, glad, eager, zealous* obedient; the former with
tuperl. uiat-iama, also- charming, lovely, BhP.
[accord, tn Sch. a\x>=Sudd/to, dcdifiyamdna, and
tv-arcita)); to aver, maintain, affirm, declare for
(two acc.). Maitrllp.; VarBrS.: BhP.: Caus, vdia-
yati{iw. avivaSaf), to cause to desire & C . ; to get in
one's power, subject, Cat.: Desid, vivaiishafi, Gr.:
Intern, vdvaiyats, vdvaJItt, or vavasfyi, ib.; p.
vdvaidnd\ 'willing, eager/RV. [Cf. Gk. ^rrvvfor
fmwr, ' willirjE.'l
I, V i s a , m, wit!, wish, desire, RV.&c. &c.(aIso
;!. vdSdn a n a or dim vdSa, 'according to wish or
will,su pleasure*); authority, power,cnntrn!,dominion
(in AV, personified), ib, face, with verbs of going,
e.g. with V i , a r m W h -/gP * d-i/gam, */yd,
d~*/pad,d- yfstJtd JSCif to fall into a person s[geu.j
power, become subject or give way to; * acc, with
V'< d-V"t and f r a - V y u j , or loc, with -s/kyi,
* / I a b h or Cans, of /stha or satft-i/stkd, to re-
duce to subjection, subdue;* loc. with \ / & J t i i ^ v r t t , f

i/sfhdxwd sam--/sthd 'to be in a person's [gen.]

T 0
power ; vatemi, idl kndia-ta$, t with gen, or ifc,
by command of, byforceof,ou account of, by means
of, according to'); birth, orison, L . ; abrothel,L.
( c f , . ; CarissaCaranda L . ; ihc son of a VaiSya (

and a Karatri "L,; N, of a Rishi preserved by the


Asvins,RV.; (with Aivyd) ofthe supposed author

of RV, viii, 46 (in SBr. &c. also o>f this hymn itself);
- V d l m i k i i G d r , pJ. N. ofa people, AitBr., MBh.;
( d ) , f., see below; mfl[fljn. willing, submissive,
obedient,object to or dependent on (gen.), Katies.:
BhP.; Pancat.; docile, L . ; free, licentious, L. m-
voda, nitu. (mostly ifeO submissive to the will of
another, obedient, compliant, devoted ot addicted to*
actuated or transported or overcome with (sv&t/td-v'*,
dependent on one's own wilt), Kiv.; Sah. t c ; -tva t

n. submission to the will of another, complaisance,

Ra^h.j dita, mfn. made compliant, fascinarcd,
Bham. fcara, mfCOn-subJugatii]^ winning MBh.; t

j - W J

a. V a i l , in enmp. for l . v a i a . katra^mfti.bring

ing in to subjection, subjugating, ^ifc.) making anyone
subject to one's will, MBh.; Paticar.; - p r a k a r a n a
n., - v & r d h i , f, N . wks. karana, n. the act o
making subject, subjugating, bewjjehing (by tncani
of spells & c ) , overcoming by charms and incanta-
tions Stc. (with gen- or ifc). Part?!".; R-i Paficat,
& c kfira., m. id., Yogas.; Kath.1i. &c \ f \ t ? l ,
P. A. -kat oti, -kurittt* to reduce to subjection, sub-
due, Tm~. & c . & c k^lta, mfn. brought into sub-
1UITA * . . u . * . J moi.u-'-.ri... 9--.1 T, .1 >
Vasya, mfn. to be subjected &c,; subdued, tamed,
humbled; bringnnder control, obedient to another's
will, dutiful, docile, tame, humble at the dis-
posal of (gen. or comp.), MBh.; Kflv. & c ; m. a
dependent, slave, M W . ; N. of a son of Agmdhra,
MlrkP.j^i.f.adocileand obedient wife, W.
(Cat,)om.(ib.; Prab.Jthe supernatural power of sub-
jecting to one's own will, any act (such as the repeti-
tion of spells) performed with that object, VarBrS.;
Grihyas.; cloves, W. - k a r a mfn. giving power

over others, Cat. k&eman, n.thc act of subjecting

to one's will (by spells & c ) . Cat. k&xin, mfn,
- k a r a , L . - t S , t{MBh,; Hariv.; R. &c.) or-tva,
n, (MBh.; R,) the being under the control of (gen.
or com p.),fitnessfor subjection, obedience, humility.

a, V a s t n , n. (for i , see p. 93(,cL 3) the seat or

place of (see k a $ i ! a - v r a n a - l f * } ; any really existing

or abiding substance or essence, thing, object, article,

Kav.; VarBfS.; Kathas. & c . (also applied to living
beings, e.g. Sak. ii, j ) ; (in phi).) the real (opp. to
a-v , 'that which doe* ncrt reallv exist, the unreal;*

a-dvittya-v, 'the one real substance or essence

which has no second'), 1 W, 53, n. 1; 103 &c.; the
right thing, a valuable or worthy object, object of or
for (comp,), Kav-; goods, wealth, properly (cf, - f i-
n i m a y t t and - h d n i ) ; the thing in question matter,

affair, circumstance, MBh-; Kav. &c.; subject,sub-

ject-matter, contents, theme (of a speech Sec), plot
(ofa drama or poem), Kav.; Dasar,; S'h. & c ; in
music) a kind of composition, Samgit.; natural dis-
position, essential property, W-; the pith or substance
of anything, W.krita, mfn. practised, cherished,
Buddh. toift, m. N, ofa dictionary, kftb&ii&t,
ind. at the right moment, MW.J&ta.n. the aggre-
gate of things, Sarvad, tattva, n. and -tattva-
proJrJ^ixft.f.N. of wks. tamtta,mfti, dependent
on things, objective -tva, n. , Samk- - t u , ind,
owlngtothe nature of things, EhP,;infact,in reality,
actually, verily, essentially, ib,; Rajat,; Sarvad. 1 % ,
f. (ifc.) the state of being the object of, Parieat.;
next, BhP. - t v a , n, reality, Kap, dHarma,
m-sg, and pi- the true nature of things ( - t v a n.) t t

Kap.; Kathas.; Sah,; mtn mfn,dependenton the


nature of a thing, objective, Kpr, ~nlrd*&a, m.

I- va tnd, or (excluded, like the L i t .

ve from thefirstplace in a sentence, and generally


11nmediately following, rarely and only ni. c. preced-

ing, the word to which it refers), RV. &c. Sec. (often
used indisjnnctive sentences \ vdtw/eiiher ''or/
'on the oneside''on theother/rw t*Ifa or ira
Vd,' neither"*nar;'vd na4w,'cithernot "or/
4 1 1
yadivdvd, whether o-';* in a sentence con-
taining more than two members vd is nearly always
repeated, although if a negative is in thefirstclause
it need not be so repeated; vd is sometimes inter-
changeable with ca and api, and is frequently com-
bined with other particles, esp. w'vdi atAa at A3, N t a
r r

Attn, yad, Jadii q.v. [ -g- atha t>dr ' O T else'];


it is also sometimes used as an expletive); citheror

not, optionally, KitySr.; Mn. &c. (in gram, vd is
used En a rule to denote Us being optional, e.g- 1'an.
h t 1 3 ; 35
* ( - * * ) , HirCJf.; MBh.
&c.; just, even, indeed, very i eva^ laying stress
on the preceding word), KatySr,; Kav.; but even H\
even supposing (followed by a future), Paftc, v, C l ,
however, nevertheless, Badar.; Bilar,; (after a ret,
or inteTT.) possibly, perhaps, I daresay, MBh,; Kiv.
&c. (e. g, kim vd Sakuntatlty ajya ntdtur dkhyd,
'is his mother's name perhaps Sakuntall ?,' Sak,
rii, | ; ; ko vd or ke vd followed by a negative may
in such eases be translated by * every nue, all/ e.g,
kevdna syuh paribhava-padam nishphaldram-
bha-yatna^, * everybody whose efforts are fruitless
is an object of contempt, Megh, 55).

* n ^ r o c , f, (fr. -Jvcc) speech, voice, talk,

language (also of animals), sound (also of inanimate
objects as of the stones used for pressing, of a dnim
& c r ) , RV, &c,&tc.{v&tam */rt, fr, or isA,io raise
the voice, utter a sound, cry, call); a word, saying,
phrase, sentence, statement,asseveration, Mn*; MBh,
&c. {vdcam */vad, to speak words; vdcatft vyd-
V h f i t IQ utter words; vdcam *fda with dat., to
address words to; Vdfd satyarn n/krt, lo promise
verbally in marriage, plight troth); Speech personi*
fied (in various manners or forms, eg, as Vac Am-
bhpnt in RV, x, 1 25 ; as the voice of the middle
sphere in Nafgh. and Nir,; in the Veda she is also
vacate, rs\f{ikS[ahd t w. r.J)n. speaking, saying,
B n p
telhng anything fjgen.)* Hit.; ! speaking of,
treating of, declaring (with gen. or ifc), RamatUp.J
MBh, & c ; expressive of expressing, signifying,

RPrat,; RamatUp.; MBh. Acc;, expressed by

words, MW.; m. a speaker, reciter, MBh,; R* & c ;
a significant sound, word, W,; a messenger, ib. *-t8v,

Vx/ittl, f. rolling, rolling down (of tears), Sak. iv,

5 ; 1 4 ; mode of life or conduct, coarse of action,
behaviour, (esp.) moral conduct, kind or respectful
behaviour or treatment (also v.l, for vfitta),GrSrS.;
M n , ; MBh- & c ; general usage, common practice,
rule; Prat.; mode of being, nature, kind, character,
disposition, ib.; Kav.; state, condition, Tattvas.;
being, existing, occurring or appearing in (loc. or
comp.),Laiy.; Hariv.; Kav.&c.; practice,business,
devotion or addiction to occupation with (often i f c *

'employed about/ 'engaged in.' 'practising *) MBh.; p

Kav. & c ; profession, maintenance, subsistence, live-

lihood (often ifc j d.uiUha-v ; vrtitim * J k r i or
* / k l r i p [Cans,] with instr.,'to live on or by ;*
with gen., 'to get or procure 1 maintenance for;*
only certain means of subsistence are allowed to a
Dptkman * M n im A A\ rQ M n TlAKh $rf *

T m 3 . vasd t m, (fr. y^j, vas) staying, re-

maining (esp, * overnight *), abiding, dwelling, resi-
dence, living in (loc. or comp.; cf. Pan. vi, 3, 18,
Sch.),abode, habitation, RV. & c & c ; ifc. ~having

V&*a,n5, f the impression of anything remaining

unconsciously In the mind, the present consciousness
of past percept ions, knowledge derivedfrom memory,
Samk.; Kav.; Kathas.; fancy, imagination, idea,
notion, false notion, mistake (ifc, e.g. bJteda-v , ihe
mistake that there is a difference), ib,; Rajat.;
Sarvad, &c.; thinking of, longing for, expectation,
desire,inclination, Kathas.; liking,respectful regard,
Bham.; trust, confidence, W , ; (in math,) proof,
demonstration ( upapattt) Gol.; a kind of metre,
V$ha,mf(J)n, (ifc.) bearing drawing,conveying,
carrying,Kathas,; BhP.;flowing,BhP.;undergoing,
MBh,; m, the act of drawing & c , MBh,; Hit.;
riding, driving, &&ingP.; Mowing, current, Kathas,;
a draught*animal horse, bull, ass, RV.&c. & c ; any

vehicle, carriage, conveyance, car (ifc, = having any-

thing as a vehicle, riding or driving on or i),S\etUp.;
MBh.: Kav.&c: a bearer, porter, earner of burdens

2, VSliita, mfn. (for I, see col I) caused to be

borne or conveyed, R.; <ifc.) urged on, driven, ac-
tuated by, Ragh.; given, administered (as medicine),
Bhpr.; taken in, deceived, Parlcat.

VShln, mfn, conveying along, driving along (as

a ear), MBh.; (ifc.) drawing, R.;flowing,stream-
ing, Hariv.; Pur.; Kathas.; causing to flow, shed-
ding, MBh.; Kav. &c.; bearing along (said of rivers),
ib,; wafting {said of the wind), ib.; bringing, caus-
ing, producing, effecting, Hariv.; Kathas.; BhP,;
carrying, bearing, wearing, having, possessing, K5v.;
Kathas.; Rajat.;undergoing,performing,practising,

f% 3. cf, ind. (prob. for an original dvi t

meaning*in two parts;' and opp. to tam q.v ) t t apart,

asunder, in different directions, to and fro, about,
away, awayfrom,off, without, RV. &c, & c In RV.
it appears also as a prep, with acc, denoting' through
or' between ' (with ellipse of the verb, e. g, 1, t Si, 5 j
x, S6* 20 &c.) It is esp. used as a prefix to verbs or
nouns .ind other parts of speech derived from verbs,
to express 'division,' * distinction/ 'distribution,'
'arrangement/ 'order/ 'opposition/ or 'delibera-
tion ' (cf, vi-*/5/tid t ~sts& 'dAd * m d h - < a r , with
t f i

their nomi na) deriva tiv es); someti tries it gi vet a mea -
ing opposite to the idea contained In the simple root
(e, g. V k r i , ' to buy; v i - * J k r t ' to sell *), or it in-

tensi Rest hat idea { e, g. y * h 15/,' to injure; * vi* / & iff T t

*to injure severely').

of skull, ib, - 1 . -leara, min, (lor a. see vt-y i*zp)

depri ved of ha,nd s (as a pu nishmen t), V ish 0. - 1 . -ka-, mfn, (for i. see ib.) deprived of organs of
sense {-r*w, n.) Badar., Sch. -fcarftla, mf(i)n.
f%]R\vi-*/klrtp,A.-JtQlpalei t o change o r
alternate change with (instr,), A V . ; M B h . & c ; to
be undecided orqucstioitablcoroptionablc,Nyayjun,;

PaTicat.; to be doubtful or irresolute, waver, hesitate,

Hit.: Caus. -Jkaipaya/t\ to prepare, arrange con-

trive, form, fashion (in various ways), RV.j A V . ;

BhP.; to choose one of two alternatives, proceed
edecticatly, VarBrS,; to call in question, prescribe
variously, pronounce optional, Kls.; Prab,; BhP.;
to combine variously, vary, Car.; to state a dilemma,
Samk.; to consider with distrust (?), BhP.; to sup-
pose, conjecture,imagine, presume, K3v.; PaTicat.;
to reflect upon, Bhatt.
a. Vl-kalpa, m. (for t. see p. 950, col. 1) alter-
nation, alternative, option, SrS,; Mn,; VarBrS. & c
(ena, ind. 'optionally'); variation, combination,
variety, diversity, manifoldness,KatySr,; M B h , & c ;
contrivance, art, Ragh.; difference of perception,
distinction, Nylyas.; BhP.; indecision, irresolution,
doubt, hesitation, M Bh.; Ka v. & c ; admission, stat c-
ment, BhP.; false notion, fancy, imagination Yo^as.; (

Git,; calculatioii,VarBrS.; mental occupation, think-

ing, L , ; - k a i p a - t t h d n a , Car.; a god, BhP. (Sch.);
(in rhet,) antithesis of opposite s,Prat5 p.; (in gram.)
admission of an option or alternative, the allowing a
rule to be observed or not at pleasure { v t t i vikaipafy,
Pan. i, 1,44, Sch.); a collateral form, VarBjS.; pi.
N.of a people, MBh, (C. v i k a l y a ) * , mfn, ditferent,
BhP.; ^/<a/rt,n, a number of possible cases, dilemma,
Sarvad,; TPrSt.,Sch.; -/&vj,n. manifoldness,variety,
Susr.; ~ v a t mfn. undecided, doubtful, Vedftotas,;

s a m a m. a partic. sophistical objection, Sarvad.;


t f, untenabteness owing to a dilemma,
Sarvad,; pdsaha mfn. not standing (the test of) a
dilemma (-/z*a, n.), ib.; pSpaJta~ra r m. an optional
offering, M W . "kalpafca, m. a distributer, appor-
tioned MBh.; a contriver, composer, Cat.; a trans-
former, changcr,Cr.; a.w-&z?jJw,TcjobUp. k a U
f*fep{vtWlship t P. A, -tekipaii, U tot

throw amuder or away or about, cast hither and

thither, scatter, disperse MBh.; Kav.etc.; l o r e -

move, destroy (pain), Suir.; t o extend, stretch out,

ib.; to bend (a b o w ) , draw (a bow-string), MBh.;
R.; to handle, manage, Kit. on Pin. u, 3, 57- to
separate, SQryas.; to cause to Aviate i n lati[ude, ib.
Vi-kahipta, mfn. thrown asunder or away or
about,scatleied&c.; distorted, contracted ($>ee comp.);
agitated, bewildered, distraught, Sarvad.; frustrated
(sced-r/^jieu^dispatchcd.W.; refilled,falsified,ib.;
projected, MW. (see vi-ishepd); n. the being dis-
persed i n different places, KPrlt,, Sch.; -tiia, mm.
distraught in mind, Madhus.; -bkru m f n . having
contracted eyebrows, BhP,; ttndrtya-dhi mfn. be-

wildered in senses and m i n d ,

dead body which has been torn asunder or lacerated,
Ti-kBhpa, ro, the act of throwing asunder or
away t r about, scattering, dispersion., Mark P. J
Dhatup.; casting, throwing, discharging, Ragh. j V P.;
moving about or toandfro,waving,shakiug, tossing,
MHL; Kav.cVev; drawing (a bow-string), Hariv.;
letting loose, indulging (opp. to SQTiyama), BhP.;
letting slip, neglecting (time), L . ; inattention, dis-
traction, confijsion, perpleiity, MaitrUp.; Yogas,;
Matatim.; extension.ptojcctio^Vedintas.fsee-iak~
i t ) ' , abusing, reviling, Hilar.; compassion, pity,
Da'ar.; celestial o r polar latitude, SQryas.; a kind
of weapon, MBh.(Nilak.); a camp, cantonment (?),
Buddh.; a kind of disease. Cat.; sending, dispatch-
ing, W.; refuting an argument, ib,; -<thrwz>a, m.
(inastron.lthe greatest inclination o f a planet's orbit,
W.r -/rW. m . a kind n f w f i t i i i F . Lalit.: - v r l i t a . n .
ft^^fll-Vctzr, P. - c a r a l t , to movo m dif-
ferent directions, spread, expand, be diffused, R V . ;
MBh.; VarBrS.; to rove, ramble about or through,
traverse, pervade, RV.flcc&t; lo sally forth, march
against, make an Attack or assault, Mn.; M B h . & c ;
to wander from the right path, go astray, be disso-
lute, Mn. ix, 20; to commit a mistake or blunder
(with words), BhP,; lo run out, conic to an cud,
R V . ; to stand or be situated in (loc.; applied to
heavenly bodies), V31B7S.; to associate or have
intercourse with (instr.), BhP.; to act, proceed, be-
have, live, MBh.; Paftcat,; to practise, perform,
accomplish, make,, do, Mn.; M B h . & c ; to graze
upon, feed upon (a pasture), Balar.: Caus. -cdra-
y a t i to cause to go or roam about, MBh.; R . ; to

cause to go astray, seduce, R.; to move hither and

thither (inthe mind), ponder, reflect,consider, M n . ;
MBh.&c-; to doubt, hesitate,ib.; to examine, in-
vestigate, ascertain, ib. o a r , mfn. wandered or
swerved from (abL), MBh. v, 8lz. i. carftiia,n.
(for I.see p. 950, col. a) wandering,motion, Suir.
c a j a ^ i J y A , mm. it is lo be acted or proceeded,
Pancat. *carlta, mfn.movedinditTerenldirectioiis
Bit,; n. wandering, roaming about, MBh.

V t - c i r a , m. (ife. f. a) mode of acting or pro-

ceeding, procedure (also = a single or particular case),
&r.; change of place, Gobh.; pondering, delibera-
tion, consideration, reflection, examination, investi-
gation, RPrat.; M B h . & c ; doubt, hesitation, R.;
KathSs.; BhP.; a probable conjecture, SSh,; dis-
pute, discussion, W.; prudence, M W , ; - k a r t r i m. t

one who makes investigation, a judge, investigator,

W_; -tintdniarjt\ m. N , of wk.; - j i i a , mfn. know-
ing how to discriminate or judge, able to decide on
the merits of a case, a judge, M W . ; -dyiS, mm.
* employing no spiesforeyes. (see c & r a ) , and 'look-
ing at a matter with consideration/ Naish.; - n i r *
t j a y a , m. N . of wk.; * p a r a t m. N. of a king,
Siohis.; -Mr7, f. a tribunal, L . ; the judgment-seat
of Vama (Judge of the dead), W,; - m a r l / a r t , f,,
-mi/rt,f.N,6fwks.; - a n l i f h a , mfiu foolish or mis-
taken in judgment, Ragtu; Kit.; - v a t mfn.proceeding

with consideration, considerate,prudent.Sitr.; Kiv/,

-vid* m, {probO knowing how to discriminate,'
N . o / i v a , M B h . ; - i d s t r a , n.N.of wk,; -JJ/tf,dis-
posed to deliberation or reflection, considerate, de-
liberative, M W . ; *sttdlidkara> m., ^ d h & r n a & a , m.
R-raffJ vi-cchid Wchid) t P. -cMnattt,
-chinttt, to cut or tear or cleave or break asunder,
eat off) divide, separate, AV, Ac. &c.; to interrupt
( s e e v i - e M d y a ) ; to disturb, destroy, BhatJ^; to be
divided, TS. c o b i t t l (v/-) f, cutting asunder or

off, breaking off, prevention, interruption, cessation,

TBr, Sec, Sec,; wanting, lack of (instr.), Sis.; (in
rhct.) a pointed or cutting or sharp style, Slh.;
Kuval.; irregularity or carelessness in dress and
decoration, Vss.; Dasar.; colouring or marking the
body with unguents, painting, Sat.; Sis.; cfesura,
pause in a verse, W, cclilcTya> ind. having cut off
&c.; separately, interruptedly, Prab.; Vedantas!
Vi-cchimia, mfn. cut or torn or split or deft or
broken asunder & c , AV.; Hariv.; BhP.; inter-
rupted,-disconnected {~t&\ f. disconnectedness), inco-
herent, GrS.; Kav.; VarBjS.; ended, ceased, no
longer existing,Rajat.; crooked, L,; anointed, L , ;
^i?jwa-/rffjtffti mfn,havingthe tree course ofthe

smoke interrupted, Ragh.; -prasara {vieehimta-

p r a s a r a \ mfn. hiring its progress interrupted (said
ofsdence), Rajat. \ - b a l i ' & a r r H a n , mfn.hiving sacri-
ficial rites interrupted, ib.; 'tnadya^ mm. one who has

Vl-cdieda, m. cutting asunder, cleaving, pierc-
ing, breaking, division, separation, Kav,; Sah.;
interruption, discontinuance, cessation, end, MBb.;
Kav. &c.; removal, destruction, Rajat.; KathSs.;
(ifc.) injury to, Kim.; distinction, difference (ifc
also * variety/ i.e. different kinds of), MBh.; Samk.;
Sarvad.; division of a book, section, chapter, W.;
space, interval, ib.; caesura, pause in a verse, Ping.,
Sch. *cchedaka, mf(f"&j)n. catting off or asunder,
dividing, separating, a cutter, divider, W. o o h s -
dana, mfn. separating, Interrupting, Suir,; (a), f.
breaking off (pi.), Bslar.; n. cutting off, removal,
annulment,destruction, Kav.; VarBrS.; distinguish-
ing, MBh. coheda.nIya, mfn. to be separated,
divisible, W , c o h e d i n , mfn,breaking,destroying,
MBh.; Paficar.; having breaks or intervals, VarBrS,
i.vid, cl- 2 . P , (Dhatnp, x x i v $ 6 ) t

V {vidmahe B r ; vedati,
t tc Up.;

MBh. *fa/r //, A V . & c ; * A d b / i \ / * , M B h .

&c.; Impr. vidam-karetu, Paiicat. [cf. Flo. iii, I,
4 1 ] ; impf. avcdarx, i.ig.avct or aves [Pin.
i>i a. 75] R
- v
&c.j 3. pi. avidut, Br.fcf,
Pari.iii,4,109]; avrdaa, MBh.Sec.; pf.v/da [often
substituted for pr. V e t l i , cf. PHn. \\\ 4, 83], 3, pi.

vidds or v i d r t , RV.; viveda, M Bh. &c. ;J vtddftt-

t a k d r a , Br. &c. [cf. Piu. iii, 1, 3 8 ; accord, to
Vop. abo viddm-babhuva\\ aor. avedit, ib.;
diim-altran,TBr.; rat vedita SBr.; ivtta, MBh.;

fut. vtdishyati ie
t t Br.,' Up.; veixyaii U t tMBh.
l r
& c ; \ i \ l v e d i j u r n ' t Q T Br.; vettum,
t t MBh. & c ;
ind. p. v i d i f i - i , Br. Sec), to knew, understand, per-
ceive, learn, become or be acquainted with, be con-
scions of, have a correct notion of (with acc., in older
language also with gen.; with inf. to know how
to), RV. &c. & c {viddhi yatha, 'know that;
v i d y & t , 'one should know, 'it should be under-
stood ;* ya evam veda [in Br.], * who knows thus,
who has this knowledge '); to know or regard or
consider as, take for, declare to be, call (esp. in 3.
pi. vidus, with two acc. or with acc. and nom- with
i t i , e. g. t a r n sthavtrarp viduh,' they consider or

V l a v i s , mf(i/jAf)n. one who knows, knowing,

understanding, learned, intelligent, wise, mindful of,
familiar with, skilled in (acc, loc., or conip.'), RV.
&c. &c, (cf. v i d v a t - t a r a , vidvat-tama, 1/idusA*
t o r n , v i d t t t k * - t a r a ) \ m, a wise man, sage, seer,
VV.J N . ofa Brahman, Hariv.
ftig vuVdhr%f P- A . <-dharati,te(only pf.
-dadk dra)>to hold, bear, arty, BhP.: Cans, -dhd-
r a y a t i (rarety Ved. inf. - d k a r t d r i ) to keep

asunder or apart, separate, divide, distribote, RV.f

SBr,; Kan*,; to arrange, manage contrive, MBh.t
to keep off, withhold from (abl,), TJLr.; H a m . ;
K.; to lay hold of, seize, hold fast, Hatir.; to check,
restrain, Suir.; to support, maintain, PrainlTp.; (with
v a y i t t i s A i ) to possess or have bodies, MBh.; (with
m a n a i ) to keep the mind fixed upon (loc), BhP.;
to preserve, take care of, BhP.: Inters, (only impf.
v y * d d a r d h a r ) to divide, separate, RV.
Vi41t&vavr>a, mf;f)n. checking, restraining^ Br.;
(f), f. maintaining, supporting, ib. *4hrtfi, m,
a distributer, arranger, supporter, RV.; VS.; AV.
2. V f - d h a r m n , m, (for j . see p. 951, col 1) a
maintainer, arranger, disposer, RV.; AV,; n, that
which encircles or surrounds, receptacle, boundaries,
circumference, RV.; AV.; PancavBf,; disposition,
arrangement,order,rule, RV.; AV.; N. ofa Siman,
ArshBr. *&h|&r, rn, (prob,) a receptacle, RV, ix,
1 to, 4 (others 'running through,' fr. V * d k d t r ) ,

dhkran,mf(r)n.diTiding,separating,Vas.; BhP.;
n. stopping, detaining (a carriage), Kathls*; checks
Irtg, restraining, retention, suppression, APrat, j

maintaining, supporting, MBh. dliarayii, mfn,
(prob.) disposing, arranging, VS. 'taiSxftyitavyn,
mfn. to be (or being) sunnorted or maintained,
V I * i . d h S r a , mf(i)n. W d h r i ) h o l d i n g
supporting, containing (itc.3 cf, k a r n a - , c h a t i r a -

tu/d-Scc+y, m. N . of Vishnu, L , ; debt, L .

i . Dh&raka, mfn. = ptee. (ifc; cf. h u l a - , deha-,
n S m a - Sec.); keeping in the memory (with gen.),
KSrand.; m. a receptacle or vessel for anything,
Suir.; a water-pot, L , ; (rii), f.prop,pillar,Heat.;
a division of time ( = 6 K*banas = J MuhQrta), L . ;
( d h A r a k i ) , f. the vulva of a female, VS.; SBr,
Dliirana, mf(f)n. holding, bearing, keeping
(in remembrance), retention, preserving, protecting,
maintaining, possessing, having (ifc, or with gen.),
T A r . : MBh. j Suir.: BhP.; assuming the shape of
(gen. Vesenib1ing,M Btcxiii, 739; m.N.of 5l va.M Bh.;
of a son of Kasyapa, ib.; of a prince of the Candra-
vatsas, ib.; du. the t wofemalebreasts, L . ; { d h a r m a \
n, the act of holding, bearing & c , S Br.; Mn.; Yajii.;

D h & r i i a a , f. (cf. #o, col. 1) the act of holding,


bearing, wearing, supporting, maintaining, MBh.;

R.; retaining, keeping back (also in remembrance),
agoodmtmciryjKa^hUp,; GjS ; MBh.; BhP.;col-

lection or concentration ofthe mind (joined with the

retention of breath ),Mn.; MBh.; Suir.; Kav.; Pur.
Sec.; cf. MWB. 239 ^ i f d m - V d h f i , to exercise con-
centration, Yljft.; *ndm gata$ t having composed
one's self, R.); understanding, intellect, Yajfi. iii, 7 3 ;
firmness, steadfastness, righteousness, L . ;fixedpre-
cept or settledrait,certainly, Mn.; MBh.; pUthcSth
to thel ith day in the light half of month Jyaish^ha,
f*IfnQHj?i~nt- Syvj, A . -yunkte (rarely P .
-yunakti; cf, Pit. on Pan. t, 3, 64), to unjroke,
disjoin, loose, detach, separate, MBh,; to discharge
(an arrow) at (loc,), R.; to assign, commit, appoint
to, charge or entrust with, destine for (dat., loc-, or
< t r t k a - m \ MBh.; W. &c. (with sakhye, to chose for
a friend); to apply, use, employ, Kav.; Kathas,;
Car,; to eat, Dh&rtas.: Pass, -yujyaie, to be un-
yoked fix.; to fall 10 pieces, decay, M Btu: Caus.
t to appoint or assign 10, commit to (loc,,
or arthdya or a r t h a m ) , Yajft.; Hariv, &c,; to
entrust anything (ace.) to (be.), Mn. vii, 226; to
offer or present anything (acc.) to (dat,). Pant at,;
to use, employ, SvetUp.; Car.; to perform, Paftcar,
aljtakto, mfn. unyoked,digomed 8cc.; appointed
to, destined for (loc,),Sarvad,; enjoined,commanded,
MW.; "tStman, mfn, one who has his mind fixed
on or directed towards, Kum.
Vi~niyoktav7a? mfn. to be appointed to or em-
ployed in, W , ; to be enjoined or commanded, MW.
aiyoktri, mfn. one who appoints &c.; appointer
lo (loc.),employer,MBh.;Kim.; muffin, contain*
ing the special disposition of anything, KatySr., Sch.
Vl-Taiyogsv, ro. apportionment, distribution, di-
vision, Nir,; appohitment to (loc), coirrJniasion,

charge,dut/,task c<^ur>ation,MBh.;R.cVc.;emr4oj

ment, use, application (esp, of a verse In ritual]

TAr.; Hariv, &e.; relation, correlation, VPrat
Pin. viii, t, 61 eke,; adftikara, 'governing rule
Kls. on I'ln, i , 3 , i t; separation, abandonment, W
impediment, ib.; -moldt f., -samgraha, m,, -xtu
kriyd, f. N . of wks. nlyojlt*, mfn. (fr, Caus
appointed or directed or applied to, destined fo
chosen as (with loc., artham or arthdya}t R.
Harjv.&c, {paSu-f^den hied for a sacri6cial victim
adhipati-tvt) appointed to the sovereignty); coir
missioned, charged, deputed, R. jiiyojyn,, mfi
10 be applied or used or employed, Kav,; Par,
f T i p f t vi-pari (fjart-J-V^.i), P . -pary~etit
to tarn round or back, return, SBr.; to tarn out badly
or wrongly, fail, Mabtim.
V i * p a r i t , mfh. turned round, reversed, inverted,
ASvSr.j Nir^tc; being the reverse of anything, acting
i a a con trary mattner,oppo*ite,contrary to (abl, ),K i r ; t

Kathlt&c.; goingajunder or in different directions,

various, different, KathUp.; perverse, wrong, con-
trary to rule, MBh. i K i v . & c ; adverse, Inauspicious,

Vl-paryaya, mto. reversed, inverted, perverse,

contrary to (gen.), BhP,; m. turning round, revolu-
tion Jyot.; running off, coming loan end, R,; trans
position, change, alteration, inverted order or suc-
cession, opposite of, AivSr.; Nir,; MBh. $cc. (e.g.
twddAi'V , the opposite opinion j svaptta-zP, the
opp of steep, state of being awake ; satiidhuvipar*
yayau, peace and it* opposite i.e. war; viparyaye,
ycna *nAyat ind. in theopp case, otherwise); ex-

change, barter (e.g. dravya-v t eachange of goods,

buying and telling, trade), M W . ; change fur the
worse, reverse of fortune,calamity misfortune, Mn.;

MBh. See; perverseness, R,; Kathis.; BhP.; over-

throw, rnin, loss, dest rue tkm (esp. of the world), K i v.;
change of opinion, Slh.; change of purpose or con-
duct, enmity, hostility, W.; misapprehension, error,
mistake, Mn.; BhP.; Sarvad.; mistaking anything
to be the reverse or opposite of what it is, MW.;
shunning, avoiding, R. vii, <J3,3t(Sch.)i N.ofpartic.
forms of intermittent fever, Suir. pa-rylya, nu
v6arttetva. reverse, comrarietv. L ,

fftr^ vi-\/pac, P, -pacti> to cook

Jioroughly, dissolve by cooking or boiling, IfttySr,;
Suir,; Pass, ' p a c y a t e , to be cooked or baked or
roasted, M Uh. j to be digested, ib,; to be completely
matured or ripened or developed, Ragh,; Suir.; to
bear fruit, develop consequences, VarBrS.: Caus.
- p a c a y a t i , to cook thoroughly, dissolve by cooking,
melt, liquefy, Suir. ^paktavysv, mfn. to be cooked
or boiled, Car,
Vl-paka, mf<f)u. ripe, mature, RV.; m. cook-
ing, dressing ( * * p a c a n a ) i L.; ripening, maturing
(esp. of the fruit of actions), effect, result, conse-
quence (of actions in the present or former births
pursuing those who commit them through subsequent
existences), YajTi,; M B h . & c ; maturing of food (in
the stomach), digestion conversion of food into a

state for assimilation, MBh,; Hariv.; Suir.; bad di-

gestion, Car.; any change of form or state, Uttarar.;
calamity, distress, misfortune. YaifL : Uttarar.t

drag or draw apart, lead away or home, MBh.; to

remove from (abl,), Naish.
Vl-pra&arsha, ni, dragging away, carrying off,
MBh.; remoteness, distance (in space or time),
Gobh.; Kflv.; difference, contrast, MBh,; (in gram.)
the separation of two consonants by the insertion of
a vowel,
Vl-pra3tyl*n.$a, mfn. dragged or drawn apart
Sec.; remote, distant, a long way off, R.: Parlcat.;
Suir, (with gen.or abl.; Pag. ii, 3,34; "(JJdgatafa
comefromafar, ib. if, I, 39, Sch,); remote in rank,
tee a ^ v i p ; protracted, lengthened, MW.; ' i v a , 11.

remoteness, distance, MBh,; i d n t a r a mfn. separated

1 >

by a long distance, Sak, p r a k r l s h f a k a , mfn. re-

mote, distant, L f

ftpf*^- Jbhajt P . X. - b h a j a t i , U to di-


vide, distribute, apportion, assign (with two acc., or

with ace, of thing and dat. or loc, of pert., or with
acc, of pcrs. and instr. of thing), RV, &c. &c, (A.

equal parts; with a r d k a m and gen., to divide in

halves); to separate, pan, cut, Mn.; MBh. &c,; to
Vf-bhafcta, mfn. divided, distributed" among
(instr.}, AV, &e, cc, (e, ind. after a partition, Yajft.
ii, t l 6 ) ; one who has received his share, Mn. ix,
210; 2 1 5 ; one who has caused a partition to be
made, BhP, (Sch,); parted, separated by (instr. or
comp.),MBh,;Kav.&c.; separated from, i.e. with-
out (instr.), Yajfj. iii, 103; isolated, secluded, R.;
distinct, different, various, manifold, MBh,; Kav.
&c,; divided into regular parts, harmonious, sym-
metrical, ib.; ornamented, decorated, Hariv.; Kathas.;

fat*^ v i - V r & m t P . -ram&U (rarely 5 , ; cf.

Pin. i, 3 , 8 $ ) , to stop (esp. speaking), pause, cease,
come to an end, TS. ice, & c j to give up, abandon,
abstain or desist from (abl.), KatySr.; MBh. &c.:
Cans. -rim ay ait to cause to stop or rest &c., bring

to an end, finish* R,; BhP. i Dcsid., see Vt-rtraQt

Vl-rfcm*, m. cessation, termination, end, Sinkh-

Gf.; Mru&c. {acc. with *Jy& oTpra-yyd, to come
to an end, rest); end of a word or sentence, stop,
pause (ifc, -ending with), APrat,; Fan.&c; end of or
cafsura within a Pada, Srutab,; (in gram.J * the stop/

d t e ( V , ) to hinder, obstruct, invest, besiege, R.; to


close, Ritos.; (A.) to encounter opposition from

(instr.), TS.: Pass, -rudhyate (m.c, also /*)* to be
impeded or checked or kept back or withheld, R.;
Kathas, &c,; to be opposed, to contend with (instr.
with or without s&htt, gen., loc., or acc. with j r r a t i )

MBh,; Kiv. & c ; to be at variance with or contra-

dictory to (Instr,), MBh.; BhP,; to fall, MBh.: Caus.
-rodhayati (rarely *fc), to set at variance, disunite,
MBh,; R,; to oppose, encounter,tight against or con-
tendjwith (acc,, rarely gen,); to object to (acc), MBh.
x, 180: Destd. - r u n * is ait, to wish to commence
hostility, MBh.

Vl-iodJut, m. opposition,hostility,quarrel, strife

between (gen,, rarely instr,, or comp,) or with (instr.
with or without saha, or comp,), MBh,; K3v. &c.;
hostile contact of inanimate objects (as of planets
&c.)j VarBfS.; (logical) contradiction, contrariety,
fafa^ w- % / v i e , P, -49Mfffctf to sift (esp.
. grain by tossing or blowing), divide asunder, separate
froni (instr. or abl.), SBr.; SrS,; BhP,; to shake
through (acc), RV. i, 39, 5; to canse to lose, de-
1 0
prive of (abl.), Bhatt.; distinguish, discern, dis-
criminate, Ka|hUp.; BhP.; to decide (a question),
MBh.; to investigate, examine, ponder, deliberate,
Kiv.; Kathas,; BhP.; to show, manifest, declare,
MBh.: Pass, vUyatt^ to go asunder, separate (in-
trant), AV.: Caus, -veeayati, to separate, distin-
guish, Mo.; Suir.; to ponder, investigate, examine,
Pancar,; Sah.

V i - v e t a , n i . discrimination, distinction, M n . ;
Sarvad*; Suir.; consideration, discussion. Investiga-
tion, -GTt.; MlrkP.; Sarvad.] true knowledge, dis-
cretion, right judgment, the faculty of diatinguiih-
ing and classifying things according to their real
properties, ChUp.; Kap.&c.;(inVedanta)the power
of separating the invisible Spirit from the visible
world for spirit from matter, troth from untruth,
reality from mere semblance ot illusion); a water-
rise of true knowledge or wisdom, Bhanj. vekln (

mfn. diicrim i nating, J isti ngu ishingjR aj a t.; sepa rated,

kept asunder (in a - z r i v * ) , KuvaT.; examining, in-
vestigating, Cat.; discriminative, judicious, prudent,
discreet, wise, Kav.; Kathas. &e_; m. N . of a king
(son of Deva-seoa), KalP.; *Jii-fd f., -rwa, iu

discrirrimativcneu, disccmracnt, judgment, Yliu.;

ftf?f\ v i - V & i s h , P . -sinashti, to dis-

tiaguish, make distinct or different, particularize,
specify, define,Sarnkhyak.; Sarvad,; to distinguish
(from others), prefer to(instr.), MBh.; to augment,
enhance, MBh,; Pass, -$ishyate i to be distinguished
or particularized by (instr.), differ from (abl. or instr.),
Prlt.; Ragh,; to be pre'eminent, excel, be better
than (abl. or instr.) or best among (gen. or loc.). Mn.;
MBh. &c.; Caus. - I c s k a y a t i , to distinguish, define,
specify, Pat; Kai.; to prefer, K:m.; lo enhance ihc
worth or value of (acc), Bhartr,.; to surpass, excel,
MBh.; Kiv. &c.: Pass- -teshyatc 7 to be of much
account, MBh. f, 3174 (vj.)
Wl S l * U > f- J : _ L ^ J _ , - 1 ..
V i - i e i h a , ci. (once in Paricat. n.j ifc. i". a) dis-
tinction, difference between (two gen^ two Loc., or
gen, and instr.), GjfirS.: MUh. & c ; characteristic
difference, peculiar rn ark, sptdal pr
peculiarity, Ma.; M B h . & c ; a kind, species, indi-
vidual (e.g. vriksJia-v^f a species of tree, in comp.
often also special, peculiar, particular, different, eg.
chando-v, 'a particular metre,* if'/rtawfana, 'a
peculiar ornament;* arg&a-viitsAdA, 'different
prices'), MBh.; K i v . &e.; (pi.) various objects,
Megh.; distinction, peculiar merit, excellence, sn-
periority(m comp. often ^excellent, superior, choice,
distinguished, e.g. dkriti-iP, 'an excellent form;
cf, if-pratijaiti), Mn.; MBh, & c ; (in gram.) a
word which defines or limits the meaning of another
word (cf. tr-ia/iaia and vi-it$hatta)\ (in phit.)
particularity, individuality, essenliil difference 01 in-
dividual essence (with the Vaijeshikas the 5th cate-
gory or Padn rtha, belongin g to the 9 et ern al substances
or Dravyas, viz. soul, time, place, ether, and the 5
atoms of earth, water. Light, air, and mind, which
are said to be so essentially different thai one can

favourable tum or crisiiofa sickness, Soir.; (inrhei,)

Statement of difference or distinction, individualiza-
tion, variation, Kuvil. {c\*viicxhSktt)\ a sectarian
mark, any mark on the forehead ( tilakd), L . ; {in
geom.) the hypotenuse, Sulbas.; N . ofthe primary
elementsorMahI-bhutas(q.v.),MaltrUp,; the earth
as an element, BhP.; the mundane egg, ib.; vi-
rdj, ib.ifibc^jurcrrf/, ind. exceedingly, especially,
particularly, even more, Mn.; MBh. etc.; St, ifc,

viitshttta, in any way whatever, MBh.); w

extraordinary, abundant, Ragh. ii, 14 (B. vihshdt
for viitshtT)\ *karanat rj, making better, improve-
ment, Malav.; -kfil, mm. making a distinction, dis-
tinguishing, RPrat.; -gnrhantya, mfn. cspcciallj
reprehensible, even more blamable, Kuval.; -ptna,
tn. a special or distinct quality, Nilak.; (in phil.)
1 substance of a distinct kind (as tout, time, space,
ether, and the five atoms enumerated above),
W>; 'jttft, mfn. knowing distinctions, judicious,
Kiv.; Kathls.; (ifc.) knowing varionB kinds of, R. j

Mn. xi, 3 ; especially,particularly, above all, Mn.;r

MBh, & c ; individually, singly, Veuaotas,; -tvat
n. distinction, notion ofthe particular, L.; -driiya,
mfn. of splendid aspect or appearance, Ragh,; -dhar-
ma, m. a peculiar ot different duty, W,; a special
law,MW.; -m^amo^m.apartic.ob^ance,MBh.;
ntntkti, f, (ibc) 'explanation of chnerencesN,
of wk. (-kr&ta m., -ttkd f., -prakdSa, m.; ty-
r r
afoka \n. N. of wks,); -pataniya,w. a partic crime
or tin, Yijn, iii, 398; 'Paddrtha, m. (in Nyflya)
the category of particularity (cf. above under vi*
Sesha); -pratipiiti, f. a special mark of honour or
respect, Ragh.; -pr&tishedha, m. a special exception,
MW.; -pramdn&y n. sp authority, ib.; -bhdga, m,
a partic. part of an elephants fore-foot, L.; -bhd-
vartd, f reflecting on or perceiving difference, W.;
(in irithm.) a partic operation in extracting roots,
composition by the difference of the products, ib.;
-bhuta-parshskta, n. N. of wk.; -manaana, a.
a peculiar ornament, Sak.; -mati, m. N. of a Bodhi-
sattva and of another man, Buddh,; -mitra, m. N.
of a man, Buddh,; -ramaniya, mfn. especially de-
lightful, particularly pleasant, Vikr,; -lakihami, n,
any specific or characteristic mark or sign, W.; {nd'

property, attribute of a subordinate class, Kap.; *va-

tana, n . distinguishing or defining word, an adjec-
1 1

tive, apposition,Pn, viii, 1,74; a special text, special

rale or precept, W.; -vaty mfn. pnrsuing something
particular, MBh, ii, 849; possessed of some distin-
guishing property or specific quality, BhP,; excellent,
superior, better than (abl.), MBh.; Hariv,; making
a difference (see a-v); -vdda, m. the above doctrine
Df the Valteshikas; {-{ika\ f. N, of wk-; di*>
m. an adherent of that doctrine, Samkhyak., Sch.);
fasfai vi*ioka. See p. 952* 3*

. hill), MBh. -SQlca, m. cessation of sorrow, Uhl'.;

m ( ( d ) a .freefromsorrow; removing sor , AitBr.; Up,
& c ; containing no description of any sor, SSh.; m.
Jonesia Asoka, L . ; N, of a spiritual son of Brahma,
VP.; of a Rishi, SV.; of the charioteer of Bhima,
MBh.; ofa Dinava, Kathas.; of a mountain-chain,
MirkP.; (), f. N . of one of the perfections which
are obtained by Yoga, Sarvad.; VP.; exemption from
grief (one of the original properties of man), MW,;
N. of one ofthe Matfis attending on Skanda, MBh.;
n. N . of a Saman, SV,; -Afffl, N. of a mountain,
MW.; -4& f. freedom from sorrow, MBh,; MarkP.;

-/leva, t n . N. of a man, Cat.; -dvadait, f. a partic,

lath day, tb.; -parvdn, n. N. of a section of the :
Maha-bhirata; -shashthi, f, a partic. 6th day, Cat.;
-saptami) f. a prtic. 7th day,ib.; * k i " J k r u to free
fais vishaya, m. (ifc.f. a; prob, either fr.
*/l.visk, *\o act/ or fr. v i + V> 'to extend,' cf.
Par; .viii, 3,70,Sch.)sphere (of influence or activity),
dominion, kingdom, territory, region, district, conn-
try, abode (pi. = lands, possessions), Mn.; MBh.&c;
scope, compass, horiwn, range, reach {of eyes, ears,
mind &e.), SiftkhSr,; MBh. &c.; period or duration
(of life), PaBcaL; special sphere or depart ment, pecu-
tiar province or field of action, peculiar element,
concern (ifc. concerned with, belonging to, intently
engaged on;* Z'*!rA0rtv,withgen.orifc.== inthe sphere
of,with regard or reference to a t r a vishaye,* with
regard to this object'), MBb.; Kav. &c.; space or
room (sometimes fitness) fcr(gen,) Kflv.; Paiicit,;

an object of sense (these arefivein number, the five

vtdriya or organs of sense having each their proper
viskaytt or object, viz. 1. JaSaa, 'sound,' for the
ear, cf, Sruti-vishaya; 2, j p a r f a , 'tangibility," for
the skin; 3. r u p a , 'form or 'colour/forthe eye; |

4. rasa, 'savour, * for the tongue; frgandhaf odour,'

for the nose: and thesefiveVishayas are sometimes
called the Gurus or * properties* of thefiveelements,
ether, air,fire,water, earth, respectively; cf, i r u t i -
vishaya-giitta\ Vajii.; Samk.; Sarvad,; 1W. 83; a
symbol ical N . of the number *five/VarBrS.; anything
perceptible by the senses, any object of aflectionor
concern 01 attention, any special worldly object or
aim or matter or business, (pi.) sensual enjoyments,
sensuality, KathUp.; Mn,; MBh. 8tc. \ any subject
or topic, subject-matter, MBh.; Kiv, &c; ajj object
, *

affairs, MW, tS, f, the character or condition of

being an object or having anything for an object,
the relation between an object and the knowledge
of it, Sah.; Ved&nias,; Sarvad.; -rahasya, n. *vdda t

{or -vicdra), m,, -vdda-tippana, n,, ~vdddrtha, m,

N. of wks. t v * , n, = ^d, Sarvad,; Yajn., Sch.;
(jfc.) the being restricted to, occurring only in, Pat.

rahaeya, n. N, of wk, vat, mfn. directed to

objects of sense, MBh.; objective, Yogas, varUii,

H % 2. vir, cl. IO. / L (Dhatup. xxxv, 49;

rather Nom, fr. vSrd below) vtrdyaie, to be power-
ful or valiant,display heroism, RV.; VS.: TBr.; (P.
vlrayati) to overpower, subdue, Nir. i, 7.
Viiyfc, n, (ifc. f. a) manliness, vatour, strength,
power, energy, RV. &c, &e.; heroism, heroic deed,
ib.; manly vigour, virility, semen virile, MBh,;
Kiv, &c; efficacy (of medici tie), Kuni.; Kir.;pobon,
BhP.; splendour, fustre,W.; dignity,consequence,
ib-i (d)j f. vigour, energy, viriliiy, L . ; N , of aser-

cart i,-prff,d.i. A.(Dhatup,xviii* 19-) wfr-

* ^/ofe (rarely / / ; in Veda also roa^/iand
[once in RV] vartti; Subj. vavdrtat, vavartali,
vavritat; POL vavrUydt, vavrittya ; lmpv. T'-
vyiisva; impf. dvavrttran, t r a n t a ; pf. vavdrta,

aor. a i ' a r t , a v y i t r a n , Subj. vdrtat,

varitta, RV.;
avjitat, AV, &e. &e.; avariishfa, Gr.; 3. pi.
avrttsata, RV.j 2,%g.vartith&S MBh,; Prec.flirr-

tisMshta Gt,*
r t iWt.vartitd,Gt,-
r vartsydtiftckV*
Sc.; vartiskyati te t t MBfu&c.; Qjnd.imrW^ii/,
Br.; arvartishyata, Gr.; inf. -vrite RV.; -vyUas, f

Br.; v a r t i t u m , MBh. &c.; ind. p; vartttvd and

vrtttvd, Gr.; -i7'/'tf,RV. &c. &c.; -vdrtam, Br.
flee), to cum, turn round, revolve, roll (also applied
to the rolling down of tears), R V . & c & c . ; to move
or go on, get along, advance, proceed (with instr.
'in a partic. way or manner ), take place, occur,
be performed, come off, Mn.; MBh.&c. j to bo, live,
exist, be found, remain, stay, abide, dwell (with at-
ttiani n a , 'to be not in one's right mind;' with
manasi or ftridaye, 'to dwell or be turned or
thought over in the mind;' with tuura*am\ 'to be
at the head of/'to be of most importance;* katham
vartats with nom. or hiipvartate>t/\x}\x. how
is it with? ), ib.; to live on, subsist by (instr. ot ind.
p,), AsvGrS.; MBh. &c.; to pass away (as time,
t i r a q i vartategatdndvt,* it Is long since we went *),
BhP.; todepend on (loc,), H.; to be in a partic. con-
dition, be engaged in or occupied with (loc.). A past,;
M B h . & c ; to be intent on, attend to (dat.), R . ; to
stand or be used in the sense tf (loc.)* Kfli; to act,
conduct one's self, behave towards (loc, dat, or
acc,; also with i t a r t i a r a j n or//^aj/tfraiOT, mu-
tually'), Mn.; MBh. Sec,; to act or deal with, follow
a course of conduct (also with v t i t t i m ) , show, dis-
play, employ, use, act in any way (instr. or acc.)
towards (loc.withparttjfiayd,'to act under another's
command ;* v n x h p t ' a j d - r r / p e n a , ' toassume the form
% 1
of a son\ with prtydm ' t to act kindly; with svd-
n i , 'to mind one's own business;'_ 4 iflz idam var*
/to/what areyoadoingihre?*),SB/.; Mn.; MBh.
Sec; to tend or turn lo, prove as (dat.),Sukas.; to be
or exist or live at a partic time, be alive or prcseni
(cf. v a r t a t r t d n a , varfisfiyamd/ja, and vartsyat,
p. gas), MBh. & c . & c ; to continue (with an ind.
p., atttya vartantt,' they continue to excel; * i t i
vartate me hxddhify, such continues my opinion'),
MBh.; K a v . & c ; to hold good, continue in force,
be supplied from what precedes,Pat.; K3>; lo origi-
nate, arise from (abl.) or in (loc.), BhP.; to become,
TBr,; to associate with { s a h a ) , Pancat.; to have
illicit intercourse with (loc.), R.; Caus. v a r t & y a t i
(aor. avtvyitatoxavavartat; in TBr. also A . ava-
varti; inf. vartayudAyaijKV*',Pass. vartyate,fSt.)

to ca use to turn or revolve, wh irl,wave, brandish, hurl,

RV,fitc,& c ; to produce with a turning-lathe, make
anything round (as a thunderbolt, a pill &e,),RV.;
R-; Susr,; to cause to proceed or take place or be OT
exist do, r^fcrtro, accomplish, display, exhibit (feel-
ings), raise or utter (aery), shed (tears), MBh.; Ka"v.
&c.; to cause to pass (as time), spend, pass, lead a
life, live, subsist on or by (instr.), enter upon a course
of conduct & c (also with vritttm or vrittyd or
v r i t U n a ; with bhaikshena^'tolive by begging *)j
conduct one's self, behave, Mn.; MBh. Sec; to set
forth, relate, recount, ex|^i^ declare,MBh,; Hariv,;
R.; to begin to instruct (dat.), SankhGf.; to under-
stand, know, learn, BhP.; to treat. Car.; (in law,
with tiros or Sirsham) toofier one's self to be pun-
ished if another is proved innocent by an ordeal,
Vishn.; YajTi.; 'tospeak'or 'to shine' {phashdrtks
01 bhdsdrthe) y Dhatup. xxxiii, 108-. Derid. vkfit-
satiate (RV.; Br.), vivartishate (Pan- i, 3 , 9 3 ) ,
to wish to lum Sec.: Intens. (Ved,, rarely in later
language) vdrvartti, van vartti, varfvartydte

v a r T v a r t a i e , p. ndrvyttat and v d r v r U d n a , impf

3, sg.mwtizw, 3. pi. avartvur (Gr. also varivart-
ti vaAvrittti,
t D a r v r i t U i , varivyityate), to turn,
roll, revolve, be,exist, prevail, RV.; $Br. ; K5v. [Cf.
Liuverterc; $\*v,vriHtti vratiti ; lAth.var(yti ;

Gotib. t t r a i r t h a t t ; Germ, warden; Eng. -uazrtf.l

V f l t U , f. rolling, rolling down (of tears), Sak.iv,
g; 1 4 ; mode of life or conduct, course of action,
behaviour, (esp.) moral conduct, kind or respectful
behaviour or treatment (also v,L for ^'riV/o),G[SrS,;
Mn.; MBh, Sec; general usage, common praciic,
rule. Prat.; mode of being, nature, kind, character,
disposition, ib.; Kav,; state, condition, Tattvas,;
being, existing, occurring or appearing in (loc. or
comp.),Lajy.; Hariv.; KSv.&c j practice, business,
devotion or addiction to,occupation with (often ifc,
employed about/ 'engaged So,' 'practising *), MBh.;
Kav, Sec; profession, maintman,subHstcnce, live-
lihood (often ifc;tf*uficha-*v;vrittirp *fkfi or
*Jklrip [Cans.] with instr., * to live on or by;'
with gen., 'to get or procure a maintenance for;*
only certain means of subsistence are allowed 10 a
Brahman, see Mn. iv,4-6),tS,; Mn.; M B h . & c ;
wages, hire, Pahcav.; working, activity, function,
MaitrUp.; Kap.; Vedintas.&c; mood (of the mind),
Vedontas.; the use or occurrence of a word in a
partic. sense (loc), its function or force. Pi?.; Sah. j
Sch. on KatySr. Sec; mode or measure of pronun-
ciation and recitation (said to be threefold, viz, vi"
lambita, madAyamd,^ad aVff/,q,v,), Prat.; (in
gram.) a complex formation which requires explana-
tion or separation into its parts (as distinguished from
a simple or nncorrrpoutided form, e.g. any word
formed with Krit or Taddhfta affixes, any compound
and even duals and plurals which are regarded as
Dvandva compounds, of which only one member is
left, and all derivative verbs such as desideratives
Sec); style of composition (esp. dram, style, said to
be of four kinds, viz, r. Kai&iliT, 2 . Bharatf, 3. Sat-
vatf, 4, ArabhalT, qq. w.; thefirstthree arc described
as suited to the Srifigflra, Vlra, and Raudra Rasas
respectively,the last as common lo all), Bhar.;DaSar.
&c,; (in rhel.) alliteration, frequent repetition ofthe
same consonant (five kinds enumerated, scil. rrta-
dhur&t prcthfhd, pur-tshdi latitd, and bhadrcT),

Daiar., Intro L; final rhythm of a verse ( o r v.l.

f o x v r i t l a , q. v.); a commentary, comment, gtoas, ex-
planation (esp. on a SQtra); N.of the wife of aRudra,
i, Vdan&, mfn. (for a. see p. 1017, col. a) an*
noundng, proclaiming (see M^-z'**); n, perception,
knowledge Kir,; MBh,; Kav. &c. (rarely d f.): t

making known, proclaiming, Rajat,; (a), f, pain,

torture, agnny (also personified as a daughter of
Anrtta), MBh,; R, &c, (exceptionally a * ) ; feeling,
sensation, Yajri.; &ii. (with Buddhist* one of the 5
Skandhas, MWB. IQQ); f. the true skin or cutis,

Vedanjya, mfn, to be denoted or expressed or

meant by (Ifc, j -Af, f,), Sarvad,; to be (or being) fdt
by or as (ifc, j "-id, f., *tva n.), ib.; to be known or

to be made known. W.

2. va{, Intl. a particle of emphasis and

affirmation, generally placed a f U r a word and laying
stress on it (it is usually translatable by 'indeed /'truly,*
* certainly/ * verily,* 'just'flfce.;it is very rare in the
RV,; more frequent in the AV., and! Tcry common
in the Brahmanas and in works that imitate their
style; in the Sutras it h lessfrequentand almost
restricted to the combinationyady u vat; in Maim,

^JUWraffrisAflyG .(fa vt-tr^ p a)quen eh- 1

ing of thirst, Mn. v, 138; freedom from desire, in

difference to (ifc*)* MBh.; BhP,; Yogas, flee,

fever), AV,; n. a third, SBr. - t i i s h or - t r U l m ,

-mfn, free from thirst, BhP.- tr^stb^a, mf(d)n, id.,
MBh,; free from desire, not desirous of (comp.),
BhP.; (d), f . n e x i , BhP, (cf. under v i W i r i s h ^ -
*td, f -tea, n.freedomfromdesire, satiety, Kav,

v a i r a , mfn, (fr. v t r a ) hostile, inimical,

revengeful, AV.; n. (exceptionally, m,[?], ifc. f. d)
enmity, hostility, animosity, grudge* quarrel or feud
with (instr, with or without saha or sdrdham^ or
comp.; often pi.), AV,; PaftcavBr,; MBh. & c ;
heroism, prowess, W,; a hostik^host, 3is\; money
V&lrgya, n. change or loss of colour, growing
pale, Suir,; Kim.; disgust, aversion, distaste for or
loathing of (toe., a b U v t comp.), Bha^.; Ragh. &c,;
freedom from all worldly desires, indifference to
worldly objects and to life, asceticism, Up,j MBh.

vairaga, u . (fr. vuraga) absence of

worldly passion, freedom from all desires, W .
f%T3^vi--/ranj t P, A. -rqjyati, /e, to be
changed in colour, be discoloured, lose one's natural
colour, Kav.; VarBrS. & c ; to become changed in
disposition or affection, become indifferent to, take
no interest in (abl.or loc.), M B h , ; Kiv. Sec. % Cans,
-raftfayaJt, to discolour, stain, Suir.

a. Vi-rlffa, t n . (for I, see p. 95a, col. 1) change

or loss of colour, Naisb,; excitement, irritation, Pan.
vi, 4, 91; aversion, dislike or indifference to (loc,
abl,, or comp,), Kav.; Rajat.; BhP.; indifference
to external things or worldly objects, Saipkhyak.;
the faulty suppression of a sound in pronunciation,

^TTTeJ vai&arada, mf(T)n. (fr. v i - i a r a d a )

experienced, skilled, expert, unerring, BhP.; n.
profound learning, PL
Vaisixadya, n. experience, skill in (loc.), ex-
pert ness, wisdom, M Bh.; Balar,; Sah,; clearness ofin-
telted, infallibility, Yogis,; BrArUpSch.; Buddha's
confidence in himself (of four kinds), Pivyuv, (cf.
**T"5I iiy- VfHj, P . A . H m o & f i , -Qikte {k.)
t to
inoint thoroughly,RV.; io decorate,adoni,beautify,
ib,; (P. A,)tocause: to appear, manifest,display,RV.
Sec. Sec.: Pat*. -ajyatc, to be manifested or ex-
pressed, R V . ; Ragh,; Paricat.: Gant.-a#jayati t to
cause to appear, make clearly visible or manifest.
Mm? MBh. &c.
Vy-aita, mfn. adorn.d embellished, beautiful,

RV.; caused to appearmanifested, apparent, visible,


evident {dm, i o i apparently, evidently, certainty),

MBh,; Kiv, Scc> \ developed, evolved (sec below);
distinct, intelligible (see -vac); perceptible by the
senses (opp. to a-vyobta, transcendental), MBh.;
BhP.; specified, distinguished, L . ; specific, indivi-
dual, L , ; hot, L| wise, learned, Lalit.; ni. heat,
L.; a learned man, L . ; an initiated monk, Sll.; 'the
manifested One,* N. of Vishnu, MW.; of one 01
the r i Ganidhipa* (with Jainas); n. (in. Siqikhya)
Mhe developed or evolved' (as the product of
a-vyakta,q,v.),Samfchyak.(cf,IW.8a); -kfitya,
u. a public action or deed, Rajat,; - g a r t i t a , c, cal-
culation with known numbers,arithmetic, IW. 176,
n. 3 ; -gandhd, f. (only L.) long pepper 1 jasmin*;
a species of Sanseviera ; Clitoria Ternatea ; -td,
or -tva, n. distinctness, manifestation (instr/ clearly,
distinctly; acc. with V g a m / Y ' appear }, Up.;
1 1

Kathis.; -tdraka, mfn. having clear it in, M W . ;

<a*ar$an1. mfn. one who his attained to right know-
ledge, R.; -dfishtdrtha^^ perceiving or witness-
ing a transaction with one's own eyes, a vftnMtj 1..;
-dauj, rnln, consuming all manifested or visil.*
things (said oftime), MW.; -mayo, nif(O - relating
tn what is perceptible by the wises, MBh.; -mdri-
cia,mfn. much peppered,Car,; -raja, mfn. hiving
a perceptible taste {-id, f.), SuSr.; ' r a t i , m. (in
arithm.) known or absolute quantity; - r u p a , m.
4 1
having aria ni felted form, N.ofVishnu,MW.j - r u -
p i n , mfn. having a discernible shape, ib.; -laJeth-
m a n , mfn, having evident signs or marks, clearly
characterized, W.; - l a v a t j a , mfn. much salted, Car.;
-vdc, f. a clear or distinct speech, Pan, i, 3, 4 8 ;
v i k r a m a , mfn. displaying valour, M W . ; tdva*
dhuta,tti\r\. one who has publicly shaken off worldly
lies (opp. \o gitptdif*, q.v.),W,; " t & H t a , mfn,
spoken clearly or plainly, MW.
ST^VT vu-ava*v i* dha, P . A . -dadhati,
-dhatU, to place apart or asunder, SsnkhBr,; to put
or place between, interpose, Ragh.; lo leave out,
omit, KalK; to separate, divide, interrupt, BhP.;
Pass, -dhiyati, to be separated or divided or inter-
rupted, R.; BhP.: Caus. -dftdfayaii, to separate,
Yy-a/radhE, f. covering or anything that covers,
L, avadWF.tryft, n. (tmpcrs,} it is to be sepa-
rated ordivided, MBh. ^v&dbJKtfi, mfh. one who
seprate* or interposes or screens, MW.
Yy-avadliRlia, n.intervening,intervention(esp.
in gram, 'the intervention ofa syllable or letter },
Prat.; AivSr. &c. {ena ind,* indirectly/ Nilak.);

obstruction, hiding from view, Ragh.; covering, a

cover, screen, Kntn.; fiarpk.; separation, diWsion,
BhP.; interruption,ib,; cessation, termination,ib.;
interval, space, L . ; -vat, mfh. (ifc.) covertd with,
V r - a v a d t a y a k a , mf(ifof)n. intervening, inter-
posing, separating, Prat,; interrupting, disturbing,
Rajat.; concealing, screening, biding, W . a v a -
db&ylka, w.r. for prcc.
V y - a v a O M , m. covering, concealing, intervene
lion, SiS.
Vy-avafllioya, mfn, to be put in between or
Interposed, MW,
V y - a v a h l t a , mfn. placed apart or asunder &c.;
separated, not contiguous or immediately connected,
Prat.; interrupted, obstructed, disturbed, oak.;
screenedfromview, concealed, coveted, Samk.; hos-
tile, opposed, BhP.; remote, distant, BbP.; passed
over, surpassed, excelled, put to shame, W , ; done,
acted, performed, ib.
*n<OT v^a*-/kkt/a, P, -khydti, to explain
in detail, tell in full, discuss, SBr.; SrS.; to relate, com-
municite, MBh.; BhalJ.J to flame, t a l l , S f U T . b , ;
Dcsid. tikhydsatt, to wish to explain, Sarnk.
Vy-KUiy!t,f. explanation, exposition, gloss, com-
ment, paraphrase, MailrUp.; Hariv. &c_; -kusumd-
v a i l , f. N. of wk.; - h r i t , m. the author ofa Com*
mentary, Cat.; -"gamya (fkhyfyf), n. anything
which can only he understood by explanation, a kind
of u t t a r d b h & s a (q. v.), MW.; indistinct assertion or
declaration (said to proceed from grammatical inac-
curacy or faulty construction), any obscure statement
or passage, W.; - " n a n d a ( ? & h y t t n ) , ra. N, ofa Comm.
on the Bhajii-kavya; - p a r i m a l a , m., * $ r a d l p a m., t

~mrita Ckhydm^t n., -ynkti, f., - r a t r t d v a i l , f.

N.ofwks.;-JMj,m.(-iJrt i),L,;-joV^m,,-/**-

dkd,t. N.of wks.; -fMiJwtr, n/place for explanation,'

lecture-loom, school-room,Vcar.; -svara, m. 'tone
of exposition/ the middle tone (irt speech), AivSr.
Vy^AkhyEta,, mfh. explained, fully detailed,
related, told, SBr. &c,&c.; conquered, overcome (?),
W. ' ffknystavy*, mfn. to be explained or com-
mented upon", Nir.; PJn.; MBh, S x i y a t i i m. an t f

explainer,commentator, eirxwnder, MBh.; Kathis.;


Vy-ftdM, m-(less probably from *fvyfadh$* 1031)

disorder, disease, ailment, sickness, plague (eq>, le-
prosy), ChUr^j Mil,; MBh.&c, ; D i s ^
(asa Child of Mjityu or Death), VP.; any tormenting
ofawoman verytronblesomewoman),VarBrS.;CoS'

lus Spedosus_or Arabicus,L- kaj&, mfn. causing

TTJr^T vy-ut-tha (-uri-\/rfA5) t P. A. -ftaft-
thali U to rise in different direction! (is light),

R V . ; to turn away from (abl), give up, abandon,

SBr.; to swerve from duty,forgetone's self, MBh.;
R. \ to come back (from sea, cf. vy-ut-^pad)t
Dityflt.;, -ihdpayaii, to cause to rise op Sec.;
to c*H in question, disagree about (ace.), MBh.; to
seduce, win over, ib.; to set aside, remove, depose
(from a place), Kit his.; to abandon treacherously, ib,
Vy-ntth&ta.TT* n. (impers-) it is to be desisted
from (abl.), Samk.
V y - u t t h u a n, rising up, awakening (a partic.

stage in Yoga), Vedintas.; yielding, giving way (In

MBh.; swerving from the right course, neg-
lect of duties, ib. -.opposition, L.; independent action,
a kind of dancing or gesticulation, MW. t*
thKpitft, mfn. (fr. Dsns.) made to rise up, roused,
brought up, ib.

^ t n / V l . vh, P. -uhati (ep. al*o te t

impf. avyuhata Aanta t as iffr.a \^vyu/*) tc push t

or move apart, place asunder, divide, distributees, j

SBr.; SrS.; liUp.; to arrange, place in order, draw
up in battle-array, Mn.; MBh. Sec.; to shift, trans-
pose, alter, AitBr.; SBr,; A&v&r.; to separate, re-
solve (vowels, Sarridhi flee), RPrat

I. Vy-fihA, m. placing apart, distribution, ar-

rangement, R.; VarBr.5. &c.; orderly arrmgemcnt
of the parts of a whole (cf. arana-vy), disposition,
Nyiyas.; military attx\y an army, host, squadron

(various arrays arc dautfa-* staff-like arrayaka{a-t

'cart array;* vardha-i'honx array;* manuals-* cir-
cular it*;* a-sarfiJiata-t*\oost ar ;' akheta-vyuhat
'huntingarray OK.),Mn.vii, i$y;MBh.&c; shift-
ing, transposition, displacement, SBr.; SrS.; separa-
tion, resolution (of vowels, syllables &c.) RPrlt.; r

detailed explanation or description, SaddhP,; a sec-

tion, division, chapter, Sarvad, ; fonu, manifestation
(esp. the quadruple manifestation of Purusho itam a as
Visudcv a,Samka rsha n a, Prady umna,and Ani lud dha),
appearance (often ifc. after numerals, cf. satur- t
trir^y ) i MBb.; BhP.; Sarvad-; formation,struc-
ture, [uanufacture,L-.; an aggregate,flock,multitude,
Vasvj Satr.J the body, W7; breathing, Nyayas.;
SJeJi sak f d . 5. P. (Dhatup. xxvt 1,15) s a h -
neti (pf. , RV. &e, &c,; aor.
<&v&i/, AV, fltc, [VJ, also Pot. jtatyum and
jram; Impv. AijrfA/, i a k { a r n ) ; fut, ia*Af or Mt/Ai,

Gr,; Saktkyati) t, Br,flee;takiskyait, a

te, Gr.;
inf. 'iaJtitavt, RV.; i a k t u m or JaitMt Gi,), to t

be strong or powerful, be able to or capable of or

competent for (with acc., dat, or loc., rarely acc. of
a verbal noun, or with an inf. in am or t u r n ; or with
pr. p.; e.g. with grahatidya or g r a h a i j t . Mo be
able to seize;' v a d h a * n i r t i t k a m a * t a h / t t m a n t

' unable to atone for slaughter i a k i m a vajittoyti-

m a m , 'may we be able to guide horsesvfksftifuTtt
n a t a k n a i i , 'he is not able to sec ;* pitraytttt na
i a h t a t i , 'he h not able to fill \ RV. flic. &c. (in
these meanings ep. j i l s o f a k y a / i ^ f t t whh mf. In t u r n ;
cf, Dhatup, xxvi, 78) j to be strong or exert one's
self for another (dat.), aid, help, assist, RV. vii, 67,
5 ; (S3, 8flee;to help to (dat. of thing), ib. ii, a,
13; iv, at, 10 & c : Pass.iakyatt (ep.also /r), to
be overcome or subdued, succumb, MBh.; 10 yield,
give way, ib.; to be compelled or caused by any one
linstr.) to (inf.), ib.; to be able or capable or pos-
sible ot practicable (with an tnf* in pass, sense, e.g.
t a i k a r i t t m t a & y a t e , * that can be done ; sometimes
with pass, p., e.g. n a Sakyate varyamana$ t *he
cannot be restrained*' or used itnpets., with or with-
out instr,, e,g, yadiUvaya] i a k y a U 'if ti can be

done by thee/ * if it is possible'), Mn,; MBh. & c :

Caus. i & k a y a t i (aor. a i i i a h a f ) , Gr,: Dcsid., see
*JHksh* [C , accord, to some, G k, Arts, cW^rr}^ ;
Germ,,A^f, Hedte t hegen; bthagett.]

SilEtl or sakti, f. power, abiliiy,strength, might,

erTort,cncrgy,capability ( i a k f y d or dtnta-i* or sva-JP f

* according to ability;' p a r a m }aktyiS 'with all

one s might;* vitta~iaktya *according f to the capa-
bility of one's p r o p e r t y S a k t t m a-hdpayitvS^ *not
relaxing one's efforts, exerting all one's strength*),
faculty, skill, capacity for, power over (gen,, loc. f

dat., or iitf,)i R V, tc, & t ; effectiveness or efficacy

(ofa remedy), SarngS,; regal power (consisting of
three parts, prabhntva, personal pre-eminence ;
m a n t r a , good counsel, and u t t a h a , energy), Kim.
(cf. Ragh, iii, 13) j the energy or active power ofa
deity personified as his wife and worshipped by the
*IJ kabd (ratber a N o m . sabdaya fr.
N ia&dd) t\. TO.P.(Dh3tijp.xxxuu40)^-

dayaii, to make any noise or sound, cry aloud, SiS.;

PaficaL; BhP.; to call, invoke, Sarrjk.; Kathas,;
(iabdapayati, *u\ to call, address, R,: Pass, ieib-
dyatt, to be sounded & c ; to be called, MBh.;
(impers.) it is chattered, Nir. i, iS.
Scbda, m. (In DhylnabUp. also n.; ifc. f.
perhaps connected with /3. Jap, cf. also a. iap)
l f
sound, noise, voice, lone, note iiakittm >
utter a sound, laise the voice, cry aloud; sound is
snpiracd to be sevenfold (MBh* xii, or ei^ht-

fold [Dharmas. 35] or tenfold [MBh. xiv, J 4 1 S ] ;

in (he MimSQsa it is taught lo be eternal); a word
{iabdetiat by word, explicitly, expressly), ib.; Kai.
on Pari, ri, 3 , 19; speech, language, BhP.; the right
word, corrcci expression (opp. to apa-iabda), Pat.;
the sacred syllable Om, AmritUp.; (in grain.) a de-
clinable word or a word-termination, affix, Pan.,
Sch.; a name,appellation,title,Mn.; MBh.&c,{(at'
ehabddt,' because it is so called,' KatySr.); a technical
term, TPrat.; verbal communication or testimony,
oral tradition, verbal authority or evidence (as one
of the Pramanas, q.v.), Kyayas,; Sarvad. kar-

STTfa U A r a , n. (once in R. m.; ifc. f. a ;

either fr. +/ri and orlg. = ' support or supporter,*
cf. a. iaratia and Mn. i, 7; or accord, to others, fr.
VSri, and orig. 'that which is easily destroyed or
dissolved') the bodv, bodily frame, solid parts ofthe
body (pi. the bones), R V . & c . & c ; any solid body
(opp. to udaka Sec.), MBh.; VarBrS.; Paficat.;
one s body'sown person, Mn.xi,22Q; bodily
stiength, M W . ; a dead body, ib. -Jcartri, m.
'body-maker,'a father, MBh. karalaaftft.n.ema-
^fjra 2 s a n t d * m f t i , (iY,\^I*aSm)appeased,
t t

pacified, tranquil, calm, free from passions, undis-

turbed, Up,; MBh-&e; soft, pliant, Hariv.j gentle,
mild, friendly, kind, auspicious tin augury; opp. to
dtpta) tAV. &c. i c . ; abated, subsided, ceased,
stopped, extinguished, averted (Sdtttam or dhtk
idntarn or idntam pdpam t may evil or sin be
averted! may God forfend I Heaven forbid! not sol),
SBr.; MBh.; Kav. flee.; rendered ineffective,, inno-
xious, harmless (said of weapons), MBh.; R . ; come
to an end, gone to rest, deceased, departed, dead,
died oLt,ib.; Ragh.; Rajat.; purified,cleansed,W,;
m. an ascetic whose passions are subdued, tran-
quillity, contentment (as one ofthe Rasas, q. v.); N .
of a son of Day, MBh.; of a son of ManuTSmasa,
MlrkP.; of a son. of Sambara, Hariv.; of a son of
Idhma-iihva, BhP. I of ason of A pa, VP.; ofa Deva-

i , i l l (rather N o m . U . s d a below), I
cl. i . P. i i l a i i (pf. Sr'Stla Sec,), to medi-
tate, contemplate, Dhatup. xv, i d ; to serve, worship,
ib.; to act, do, practise, make, ib.: Caus. (orcl. 10.
P., Dhatup, xxxv, a6) J i l a y a f i (aor. a i t i i l a f ) , to
do, make, practise repeatedly or exceedingly, be in-
tent upon or engaged in (acc), exercise, cultivate,
Apast.; MBh.; Kav. &c.; to wear, put on, GIL;
to visil, frequent, Bhim. (cf. l i h ' / a ) ; lo exceed,
excel, Vop.
8il& n. (andra.,g. a r d h a n & d i ; ife. f. d) habit,

custom, usage, natural or acquired way of living or

acting, practice, conduct, disposition, tendency,
character, nature (often i f c . * habituated or 'ac-
1 1
customed or 'disposed or 'addicted to,' 'practis-
ing; cf. gvifa-t d & n a - i p u n y a - f &c.), VS. &c.
ficc.i good disposition or character, moral conductj
integrity, morality, piety, virtue, Mn.; MBh. &c.;
c f . l W . a o 3 ; (with Buddhists i t i a 'moral conduct/

is one of the 6 or to perfections or Paramitas [q, v.]

and is threefold, viz. sambhdra, husalasamgrSha^
sattvdrtha'kriyd, Dharmas. 106}; a moral precept
(with Buddh. there are 5 fundamental precepts or
rules of moral conduct, cf, p a f t f t x - i t i d ) , MWB. 1 2 6 1
form, shape, beauty, W . ; tn. a large snake \m this
sense prob. fr. */t, if), L . ; N . ofa man, Buddh.;
Surf, mfn, (f. nom, pi. iiuyas, Mn. riu\ 77)
shining, glowing, learning, radiant, bright, ftV.&c.
&c.j briilumly white, whit-e, Bhartr,; dear, clean,
pure (lit. and fig.), holy, unsullied, midefiled, inno-
cent, honest, virtuous, R.V. &c. Sec,; pare (in a
ceremonial sense),ChUp.; Mn.; Bhag.&c; (ifc)
one who has acquitted himself of or discharged (a
duty,seeraha/ft-P); m.purification,purity,honesty,
virtue, Kiv.; fire, L . J N . ofa partic. fire (a son of
Agnt Abhimamn and Svaha or a son of Antardhana
and SikbaydiriT and brother of the fires Pavaniana
and Psvaka), Pur.; oblation to fire at the first feed-
ing of an infant, W.; a partic. hot month (accord,
to some Ashadha or Jvesht ha, accord, lo others
TJT^I sudh or undht cl. u P . A , (Dhatup.
*S ^ iii, 37) iundhaii, (Impv. iunddhi,
AivQr-i pf. ittstirtdha, aor. alundhit, fut Jtr-

dhitdiiundhishyati,Gr,), to purify (A,'ene'ssehV

become or be pure), RV.; VS.; TBr.; GrSrS.; cl.
4 . P. A- (Dhatup. xxvi, 8a) Sudhyati (m. c. also
pf. itthdha, aor. aiudh&t, rut. SoddhS &t~t

syatt, inUSeddkum, Gr.), to be cleared or cleansed

ov purified, become pure (esp. in a ceremonial sense),
VS. Mn.; M Bh. & c ; to become clear or free from
doubts, R,; Mpcch. j to be cleared or excused from
blame, to be excusable. Hatha*.; Pars, iudhyate
(aor. alodnt), Gr.: Caus. Sundhayaiit to dear,
purify, VS.; iodhayaU(aor. aitifudkat), to purify
(esp. in a ceremonial sense), TS, &c. &c.; to cor-
rect, improve, Yajfu, Sch.; to remove (impurity or
anything noxious), Mn.; MBh. & c ; to clear off,
pay (debts), Rajat.; Kull,; to acquit, exculpate,
justify, Mn.; Kam.; to put to lest, Kathas.; 10 try,
examine, Pafkat,; Yajh., Sch.; to make clear, ex-
plain, Vcdjkntas.; Madfius.; to subtract, Ganit,;
Desid. iu3utsalit Nidanas,; Intcns, iciadhyati,
ioltfddhi, Gr.

Snddha, mm. cleansed, cleared, clean, pure, clear,

free from (with instr.), bright, white, R V . & c . Sec;
cleared, acquined, free from error, faultless, blame-
less,right,correct, accurate, exact, according to rule,
Kiv.; VarBrS.; Susr.; upright (see comp.); pure,
i.e. simple, mere, genuine, true, unmixed (opp. to
miira), Mn.; MBh, cVc,; pure, i.e. unmodified (as
a vowel not nasalised), SSrtkhBr.; Prat.; complete,
entire, Raja],; unqualified, unmitigated (as capital
punishment), Mn. fx, 279; (in phil.) veritable, un-
equalled ( mdviiiya-rahia)tWW, \ tried, examined,
Kam.; authorised, admitted, W_; whetted, sharp (as
an arrow), ib.; m. the bright fortnight (in which the
moon increases), Inscr.; N . of Siva, MBh.; of one
of the seven sages under the 14th Mann, BhP.; of
a son of Anenas, ib,; (with bhikshu) of an author,
Cat.; of a bird, Hariv.; (pi.) of a partic. class of
gods, MBh.; (), f. N . of a daughter of Sirjha-
hanu,Buddh.; (*w?s),n. anything pure&c.; pure spirit,
e i d d M , f, cleansing, purification, purity (lit, and
fig*), holiness, freedom from defilement, purificatory
rile (esp. a partic, Srlddha performed at the cost of
4 person who needs purification), TBr. &c & c ;
setting free or securing'(from any danger), rendering
secure, Kam.; VarBrS.; justification, exculpation,
innocence (established by ordeal or trial), acquittal,
Yajfi,; quittance, clearing off or paying off, discharge
(ofa debt S i c ) , MW.; retaliation, ib.; Kiv,; Kathas.;
verification, correction, making true, correctness,
accuracy, genuineness, troth, Yajfi.; Milatim.; clear-
ness, certainty, accurate knowledge regarding (gen,
or comp,; ittddkim * / k n , * to ascertain for certain

S n a j * , mf (d) n. empty, void (with v&Jin - < a

T :
riderless horse ; with r d j y a =.*akinglesskingdom*),

hollow, ban-en, desolate, deserted, Br. &e, & c ;

empty, i.e. vacant (as a look or stare),absent,absent*
minded, having DO certain object or aim, distracted,
MBh.; K i v . &c,; empty i.e. possessing nothing,
wholly destitute, MBh,; Kathas,; wholly alone or
solitary, having no friends or companions, R.; BhP,;
void of, free from, destitute of (instr. or comp.),-
wanting, lacking, Kav,;' Kathas.; Pur.; Sarvad.;
non-existent, absent, missing, Kiv.; Pancat.; vain,
idle,unreal, nonsensical, R.; Rajat.; Sarvad.; void
of results, ineffectual {ek-juttyatjt */kj"i 'to effect,'

* accomplish'), Sak.; Ratnav,; free from sensitive-

ness or sensation (said ofthe skin), insensible, Bhpr.;
bare, naked, MW.; guileless, inoocent,ib.; indifferent,
ib,; (i),f.ahollowrecd,L,;abarrcnwoman,L,; Cac-
tus Indicus = m a l t (torn-afi?) L,; n.a void, vacuum,

empty or deserted place, desert { i i i n y e , in a lonely

place),MBh.; R . & c ; (in phil.) vacuity, nonentity,
absolute non-existence (esp. with Buddhists), IW.83,
n.3; 105, 11,4; MWB, 7,n. I ; 142; N, of Brahma,
MW.; (in aiithm.) nought, a cypher, VarBrS.;
Ganit. (cf, IW. 183); space, heaven, atmosphere,
L , ; a partfe. phenomenon in the sky, L.; an ear-
ring (see next). [Cf, Gk. Ktv6t Ktvels;
i -JEOJ. xiv*
^HT saha, m.n.(frV2. H t h ) remainder, \h at
which remains or is left, leavings, residue (pi. ' all
the others ), surplus, balance, the rest { U s h a , loc.
'for the rest,* *in all other cases;* ieshe r a t r a u ,
'during the rest of the nigtir;' m a m a lesham asti,
* there remains something to happen lo me*); that
which his to be supplied (e.g. any word or words
which hive been omitted in a sentence ; ifi U s h a h ,
'so it wis left to be supplied, a phrase commonly
used by Comm. En supplying any words necessary to
elucidate the text) > lht which is saved or spa red or
allowed to escape (nom, with V * " 01 * J b h i i * to t
be spared;' iesham * f k r i , Ho spire, 'allow to
escape;' Usham av3p 'to escape ), Mn.;
t MBh.;
R. & c ; remaining (used as an adj. at the end of
adj. comp. [f. a ] , cf. kathd-P, k r i t y a - f ) , AitBr.
&<. &c,; remaining out of or from, left from (with
abl. or \oc^.%.praydtebhyffye icshafy, * the persons
left out of those who had departed ;' but mostly ifc
after a pp. in comp., e.g. b h u k t a - U s h a , ' remain-
1 1
ing from a meal, 'remnant nffood; hata-ishdht
'those left out of the slain,' the survivors* & c ) ,
Mn.; MUh.&c.; end, issue,conclusion,Anish,result,
R\\ 77, 15; last, last-mcntioned,Rajat.; a supple-
ment, appendix, Nir. Hi, 13; a keepsake, token of
remembrance, Dai,; secondary matter, accident,
KatySr., Sch.; dcith, destruction, ; m. N . of a
celebrated mythological thousand-headed serpent re-
garded as the emblem of eternity (whence he is also
called An-inta, * the infinite in the Vishnu-Purlna
he and the serpents Vasuki ind Takshaka are described
as sons of Kadru, but in one place Sesha alone is
called king ofthe Nagas or snakes inhabiting Pitlla,
while elsewhere Vasuki alto is described is king ofthe
Ninas and Takshaka of the serpents; the thousand-

Sa-ithilya, n. looseness, laxity, Hariv.; R. &c,;

flaccidity, Sn*r.; decrease, diminution, imallnets,
weakness, relaxation, remission, depression (of the
mind), unsteadiness, vacancy (of gaze), MBh,; Kav.
& c ; negligence in (comp.), Campak.;- relaxation of
rule or eon nection, W.; di I atorioe*s,snatte nt ion, M W.
kaucd, tn. (fr. m t i ) N, of a man (also
called Ahneya), T A r . ; n. cleanness, purity, purifica-
tion (esp. from defilement caused by the death of a
relation), AivSr,; Mn.; M B h . & c ; purity of mind,
integrity, honesty (esp. in money ^matters), M Bh.;
R. &e. - (with Buddhists) self-purification (both ex-
ternal and internal), MWB. t^ot evacuation of ex-
crement, MW. Valpn, m. mode of purification.
^njirofi o r ^ r ^ & r d d , ind, (accord, to Naigh.

iii, \o s a t y a 'truth, faithfulness;' prob. allied to


Lat. e r t d a for crtd-def; c o r , t o r d - U ; Gk. vap&a,

trpntiirfi Eng.'heart;' opty in comp, with y i r / a n d
d d n a and * / d h d and its derivations, see below),
S r a t - V k r ^ P* -karoti,\o make secure, guarantee,
RV. viii, 75, 2 (cf Pin. v, 4, 57, Sch-)
Srad-diidbttna, mfn. having faith, trustful, be-
lieving, RV, Sec, Sec, -1&, f. belief, faith., Mn. vii,
86. Tat, mfn. trustful, believing, VP.
. Srad-clSna, n, faith, belief, faithfulness, Sarvad.
&rad-dna, mfn. having faith, believing in, trust-
ing, faithful, having confidence, Kith.; T S . ; (*),
f., see below; n . I r a d d h d , W,
S i ad-dliayat(?),rnfri. * > i r a d - d a d J t d n a , M un Up.
Srad-dhajita, mfh, trustful, believing ^n (gen.),
BTS^'V'dh P.k.-dodkd/irdaa/(e(pr,p.Jrad'

d e h i h a t ^ i r a d - d M h a n a ; Ved. v e d d r a d d h i , d.srdt
above), to have faith or faithfulness, have belief or
confidence, believe, be true or trustful (with n a to t

disbelieve'&c), RV. &c. &c.;tocredit,think any-

thing true (two acc.), MBh.; Kav, & c ; to believe
or have faith in or be true to (with dat., and in later
language witn gen. of thing or person, or with loc
of thing), RV. Sec, Sec; to expect anything (acc.)
from (abl.), MBh.; to consent, assent to, approve,
welcome (with acc.j with ua, 'to disapprove ), T

Kathas.; to be desirous of (acc.), wish to (inf.), ib.;

BhP.: Cans. ^ d h d p a y a t i to make faithful, render

trustful, inspire confidence, RV. x, 151, 5.

Sra*ltllii f. faith, trust, confidence, trustfulness,


faithfulness, belief in (loc or comp,; i r a d d k d y d

<^gam r'to believe in,' with gen,, Divyiv.), trust,
confidence, loyalty (Faith or Faithfulnesses is often
personified and in RV,x, 151 invoked as a deity ; in
TBr. she is the daughter of Praja-pati, and in SBr.
of the Sun ; in MBh. she is the daughter of Daksha
and wife of Dharma; in MarkP. she is the mother
of Kama, and in BhP. the daughter nfKardamaand
i . i.-avd, mfn. ( - A , sm) sounding,
VS.; m. hearing (d7, 'from hearsay/ with gen,,
'within hearing of), MBh.; Hariv.; the car, VarBrS.;
Kathls,; the hypotenuse of a triangle, Sdryas,
2. Srava, in comp. for I. iravas, esli&, m.
desire of praising, RV.
I. Sr&vapa, n. the act of hearing (also 'that
which Is heard*-iruti, q.v,; iti iravandt^ 'be-
cause it is so heard or revealed* i.e.' according to a
Vedic text'), SBr.; Mn.; MBh.&c.; acquiring know-
ledge by hearing, learning, study (ef. a-Jravandt),
Kim.; Sarvad,; (in phil.) the deter mining by means
of the six signs the true doctrine of the VedAnta (in
regard to the only really existing Being), Ved tolas.;
fame, repotation, AivSr.; Nir.; wealth, MW,;
(rarely n.) the ear, MaitrUp.; MBh. 6>c,; m.
{tramand) a Buddhist or Jain monk (cf. Ird*

Srat&, mfn. heard, listened to, heard about or

of> taught, mentioned, orally transmitted or com*
municated from age to age, SBr.; ChUp.; MBh, & c ;
known, famous,celebrated, RV.; AV,; Br.; MBh,;
known as, called (nom, with MBh.; R. &c,;
m, N . ofa son of Bhaglratha, Hariv,; of a son of
Krishna, BhP.; of a sou of Su-bhashana,ib,; ofa son
of Upagu, VP.j (d) f. N, of a daughter of Dlrgha*

darjshlra,Kathas.; ( a m \ n . anythingheard,that which

has been heard (esp, from the beginuing), knowledge
as heard by holy men and transmitted from genera-
tion to generation, oral tradition or revelation, sacred
knowledge (In the Pur. personified as a child of
Dharma and Medha), the Veda, AV. &c. 8cc.\ the
act of hearing, MundUp.; Kiv.; Kathas.; learning
or teaching, instruction (irutatp V&rt\ 'to learn ),

Apast.; memory, remembrance, AV. i, i , 2.rtaU

(irutd*), mfn. (cf. Srttta-rshi) having famous

Siotva., n. the organ of hearing, ear, auricle,

RV. &c, &c.; the act of hearing or listening tn,
AV. &c. &c.; conversancy with the Veda or sacred
knowledge itself, MW. - k 5 n t S , f. a kind of medi-
*5JW i . i w f f ( c f V 3 ^ * A ) , c l . 2 . P . ( D h a t t i p .
^xxiv, 61) ivasiti (Ved. and ep. also Svdsa-
fi r>; Impv. j W j r ' ^ A V , , A'flj^MBh.; impf. [or
aor.] oiPfl/r^ep.also-TA^J^;Pot.orPr.ft'(]rj'iir f

ep. advtivaset; pr. p. fvasat, ep. also Svasamdna

[for Jvasdr/a, see below]; pf. iatvdsa, MBh.; fui.
ivasftd, Gr.; Svasishyati* MBh.; inf. tvasi(um 9

lb.; ind. p. -svasya, i b . \ lo blow, hiss, pant,

snort, RV. &e. fitc; to breathe, respire, draw breath
(also live), MBh.; K*v. &c.; to sigh, groan, ib.;
to strike, kill, N- igh. ii, TO: Caus. t v & s a y a f i (aor.
a i i i & a s a f ) , to cause to blow OT breathe &c.; to
cause heavy breathing, Susr.: Desid. ffivasifhati,
Or.: Juiens. Sdivasyaie, i ib. (only p. fa-
Jvasat, snorting, MaitrS.)

Svfiia, m. hissing,snorting, panting, R.; Kathls.;

BhP.; respiration, breath (also as a measure of time
^ f r d r i a , dJtf), MBh,; Kiv. Sec,; breathing or
aspiration (in the pronunciation of consonants),
RPrac, En trod.; inspiration, Sarvad.; sighing, a sigh,
ak.; Slh.; affection of the breath, hard breathing,
asthma (of which there are five kinds, viz. kshudra,
t a m a h a , c h i n n a , ntahat, and U r d h v a ) , Suir.; [ a ) t

f. N . ofthe mother of Svasana (the god of wind),

MBh.; Convolvulus Turpethum, L . ; - k a m t a ^ r a -

V fj. s4, the actual base for the nom. cane

of the 3rd pers. pron. tdd, q.v. (occurring only in
ihe m.f. [si or sds, sd], and in the Ved. loc-
[sdsmin,\\V. i, 1 5 1 , 6 ; i, 174,4 ; x. 95, 11] i the
final s of the nom. m. is dropped before all conso-
nants [except before $ in RV. v, 3, 4, and before t
in RV. viii, 33,16] and appears only at the end of
a sentence in the form of Visarga; j a occasionally
blends with another vowel [as in sdls/tak"] ; and it
Ii often for emphasis connected with another pron,
as wiih a h a m , tvam, tska, ayam &c, [e.g. sc
'AavifSa f v a m 1 (or thou) that very person y cf,

under tdd, p. 434], the verb then following in the

TTTI^sam--Jynm P. -yacchati{rarely
f K.),
to bold together, hold in, hold fast, restrain, curb,
suppress, control, govern, guide (horses, the, senses,
passions), RV. &c. & c ; to tie up, bind together
(hair or a garment), MBh.; Kiv. & c ; to put to-
gether, heap up ( A , for one's self ). Pin, 1, 3, 75,
1 1

Sch. j to shut np, close (a door), Bhag.; to press

close to or against, Susr.; to present with, give to
(A. with instr. of person, when the action is per-
mitted, P. with dat., when the action is not per-
mitted). Pan. i, 3, 35: Cans, -yatttayati(cf. -ya*
fVu},to cause to restrain &c.; l o o k u p (the hair),

Sam-yama, m. holding together, restraint, con-

trol, (esp*) control ofthe senses, self-control, Mn.;
MBh. die.; tying up (the hair), Sah.j binding,
fettering, VarBrS.; closing (of the eyes), MarfcP.;
concentration of mind (comprising the performance
of DhlranH, Dhy3iia,aiid Samadhi.orthelasit three
stages in Voga), Yogas.; Sarvad.; effort, exer-
tion 'with great difficulty*), MBh.; suppression,
i, e. destruction (of the world), Pur.; N. of a son of
mfn. rich in self-restraint, MBh.; - p t i n y a - t t r t h a ,
mm. having restraint for a holy place of pilgrimage,
MBh.; *vat, mfn. self-controlled, parsimonious,
economical, Kathas.; tttaj*ni m. the Are of absti-

nence, Bhag.;'W/atfAaj, o.thefloodof waterat the

to join or attach together, conjoin, connect ,combinej
unite, RV, &e.&c.i to bimJ, fetter, Vait.; to endow
or furnish with (instr.), SvetUp.; MBh. Set.*, to form
an alliance, league together, RV, viii, G J , I I ; to
place in, fix on, direct towards (loc.), MBh.; BhP.:
Pass. <yujyatt
t to be joined together, be united eke.;
to meet or fall in with (instr.), Ragh.; to be married
to (fnstr.), Mn. ix, a ; (with ratyd or gramya*
d h a r m a t a y a ) to have sexual intercourse, PramUp.;
Samk. on ChUp.; to be supplied or furnished with
(instr.), MBh.; R, & c : Cans, -yofayatt, to cause
to join together, bring together, un ite, M Bh.; Kathl s.;
MirkP,; to put to (horses), yoke, harness, ib.; to
hold together, cheek, control (the senses), MattrUp.
(v. I.); to furnish or endow or present with (instr.),
Ysjn.; MBh.&c; to give over to, entrust with (gen.
of pers. and acc. of thing), R.; Pancat.; to add to
(loc.),Suryas.; tofixon,direettowards(loc.),Maitr-
Up,; MBh.; BhP,; to shoot, discharge (a missile),
MBh.; to equip (an army), ib.; to use, employ, ap-
point, ib.; to institute, perform, accomplish, Hariv.;
BhP.; (A.) tobeabsorbed, meditate, MBh. v,726o.

Sam-yoffa^ m. conjunction, combination, con-

nection \,gff or geshu, ifc. 'in connection with, with
regard to, concerning *), union or absorption with or
in (gen., or instr. with and without saha, or loc., or
ife.), Apast.; M Bh. &c.; contact (esp. in phil.'direct
material contact,' as ofsesamum seed with rice-grains
[in contradistinction to contact by tbe fusion of par-
liele^ as of water with milk], enumerated among
(he 24 Ounasof the Nyaya,cf. under saw-ban i/j a )r

Yogas.; Kan.; Bhlshap.; carnal con tact, sexual union,

MBh. Sec; matrimonial connection or relationship
by marriage with or between (gen., saha with
instr., or comp.), Gam.; Mn.; MBh. Sec; a kind of
alliance or peace nude between two kings with a
common object. Ram.; Hit.; agreement of opinion,
consensus (opposed to b/redd), R.; applying one's
self closely tn, being engaged in, undertaking {gam
* / k r i , 'to undertake, set about, begin; o g J i i k o t r a -
sar/jy^ar/t V k y i ^ to undertake the maintenance of
a sacred fire ), Apast,; Mu.;R.;(in gram.) a conjunct
consonant, combination of two or more consonants,
Prat.; P ii.&c.; dependence of one case upon another,
syntax, Vop.; (in astron.) conjunction of two or
more heavenly bodies, M W . ; total amount, sum,
VarBrS.; N . of Siva, MBh.; - p r i t h a f c t v a , n. (in
flfag samWi-vid, cl, 2. P . A . ~vetti
t *vitte
(3. p i -vidcttc or -zrn/nrrV, Pan. vii, l , 7^ to know
together, know thoroughly, know, recognize, RV.
Sec Sec,; to perceive, feci, taste, Susr.; to come to
an understanding, agree with, approve (acc.), MBh,;
R,; Cans, -wtdayaii, to cause to know or perceive,

1. Sam-Tid, f, consciousness, intellect, know-

ledge, understanding (in phil. m a h a f ) , VS. Sec. Sec;
perception, feeling, sense of (gen. or comp.), Rajat.;
BhP.; Sarvad.; a partic. stage of Voga to be attained
by retention ofthe breath, Mi rkP.; a mutual under,
standing, agreement, contract, covenant (acc with
* / k r i or Caus.of ^sthdoivi-*/dkd
t 'to make an
agreement with,' instr. (with and without saha, or
gen.]or*to'[inf.ordat.]; with Caus.of * / l a h g h or try*

fff^^aawi-\/ij t A . -vljate^ to tremble or

start with fear, start up, run away, AV,; VS.; to
fall to pieces, burst asunder, ApSr.; Caus. - v e j a y a H ,
to frighten, terrify, RV.
Sanx-vifrna, nifn.agitated,florried,terrificd,sfiy,
MBh,; Kav.&c.; moving to and fro, BhP.; (ifc.)
fallen into,ib,; -tnd&asa,mfn,agitated or distracted
in mind, MBh.
Sam-voga, m. violent agitation, excitement,
flurry, MBh.; Kathas,- vehemence, intensity,high
degree, Uttarar.; Rajat,; desire of emancipation,
HPatli.; - d h a r i t r t , f. N . ofa Kirn-narT, Karand,

fiam-veda, m, perception, consciousness, Hariv.

Vedana, n. the act of perceiving or feeling, per-
ception, sensation, MBh.; KSv.; Sarvad.; making
known, communication, announcement, information,
Kathis.; SirngS. "vedanlya, mfn. to be perceived
or felt, Ny5yas,, Sch, veclita mfn. (fr. Cans.)

made known, informed, instructed, MW,

sa>p-"s/$t, A.-iffe ( p r * p - - & y a n a ; ind.
p,'Jajyfit),to gtow languid, become feeble,MW.; to
waver, be uncertain or irresolute or doubt till, hesitate,
MBh.; Kav.&c.; to despair of (Inc.), Kathit; tn
lie down for rest, MW.; (P. - i a y a i i ) , tn differ in
opinion ordisagrco about (arc), Yajft., Sch,
Sajn-uayft, m. (ifc. f. a ) lying down to rest or
sleep, L . ; uoccrtainty, irresolution, hesitation, doubt
in or of (loc., acc. with prati, or comp. \ satitiaydJi
with Pou,'there is doubt w h e t h e r n a s * n i h i i f t t

ndtm i, n a h i ndsty Qtraa"&c, 'there is no

doubt/'without doubt ), AivSr.; Mn.; MBh &C,; H

a doubtful matter,Car.; (in Nylya) doubt about the

point to be discussed (one of the ifj categories),
IW. 64; difficulty, dinger, risk of or in or to (gen.,
loc., or comp.), AivGf,; MBh.&c.; - k a r a , mf(i)n.
causing doubt or risk, dangerous to (comp.), Sii.;
' k a r a n d r t h i i p a t U ' p u r v a -pahsha - raJtasya, n.

-terandrihdpatti~raftasyat n. N . of Nylva wks_;

- g a / a mfn, fallen into danger, 3ak,; -csJteda, m.

the solution of doubt t?dya t mfn. relating to it),

Ragh.; -akcdwy mfn. clearing all doubt, decisive,
sk.; - t a i t v a - n i r u p a n a , n., pakshatd-raJiasya,
n., -pakskatd-vdda, m , - p a r i i i M , f,, -vdda,
4 m,,
-vdddr/Aa, m, N, of wks.; -satna, m, (in Nyiya)
one of the 34 J^tb or sel Confuting replies, Nyayas.;
Sarvad. (cf, IW. 64); - s a t n a - p r a k a r a t t a , n. N. of
wk.; - j t h a , mfn. being in uncertainty, doubtful,
W.; y3kikepa, r a , 'removal of doubt,' a partic,
figure of speech, Kavya*d. ii, 163 ; 164; ya*tvjaka,
mfn. consisting of doubt, dubious, uncerUin,Pancau;
yditflatt mfn. having a doubtful mind, a sceptic,

n. N . of wks.; ydpanna, mfn. beset with doubt,

dubious {-mditasa, mfn. irresolute in mind), W:;
ydviiAa, mfn. causiug danger, dangerous to (gen,
orcornp,),MBh.; ^ydechedin, mfn.resolving doubts,
Hit., lutrod.; ^ y i p a r n a , t a comparison expressed
in the form ofa doubt, KavySd.ii.iG; y5f.2in* mfn.
possessed of uncertainty, doubtful, uncertain, MW,
3T*3i saqt-s-i/l* I j i (cf. sam-kri; ttpa-s-tiri
and p a r i * s k - k r t ) , P. A . -skarott, -tkitruU (impf.
sattt-asJzurvata, TS.; pf. sam-caskdra, Nir.; aor.
sam-askrita; Prec. tarjt'Skriyaf, satft-skrtshl'
shea; fbt tam-skari$hyati t MBh.; inf. s^tp-ska-
ri/urrtjDivykr,; ind. p.sam-skritya SEr.;Parj,vi,

I* 1 3 7 ) , P together, form veil, join together,

1 0 01

compose, RV. dec. &c.; (A.) to accumulate (pdp&'

irf, *to add evil to evil'), Mricch, ix, 4; to prepare,
make ready, dress, cook (food), MBh.; R. & c ; to
form or arrange according to sacred precept, conse-
crate, hallow (in various ways; c L s a m - s k & r a ) ^ ^ - ,
MBh. dec.; to adorn, embellish, refine, elaborate,
make perfect, (esp.) form language according to
strict rules (cf. sarp-skrita), Sarvad.; to correct
(astronomically), Sfiryas.; Pass, sam*s&rfyaur to
be put together or arranged or prepared or conse-
crated or refined, Mn,; MBh, &c,: Caus. satn~
skdrayati, 10 cause to (be) put together &c.: to
cause to be consecrated, MBh,: Dcsid. taqt*tishkir'
sAaJi'.Vop.t Intens. sarn-et$khriyatet ib.

Snm-ikatana, n. the act of putting together, pre-

paring, Gobi).; cremating(a corpse), M Bh. akmtsv-
vyih mfn. to he arranged or prepared or made ready,
Hariv.; Sarpk.; KatySr., Sch. ^skai-tri;mfn. one
who prepares or dresses or cooks (food), Mn. v, 51 j
one who consecrates or performs a rite, Ultarar.;
one who produces an impression, jaim., Sch.
8ai-BkS*a,m* (ifc.f. d) putting together, form'
ing well,making perfect, accomplishment, embellish-
ment, adornment, purification, cleansing, making
ready, preparation, dressing (of food), refining (of
metals), polishing (vf gems), rearing (of animals
ox plants), GjSrS.; MBh.; Kav., &c.; cleansing
the body, toilet, attire, Hariv.; forming the mind,
training, education, R,; Ragh,; correction (also in
an astronomical sense, Sflry as,), correct formation or
use ofa word, Nir,; Sarvad.; correctness, purity (esp,
of pronunciation or expression), MBh.; R, & c ;
making sacred, hallowing, consecration, Mn,; MBh.
&c.; a sacred or sanctifying ceremony, one which
purifies from the taint of sin contracted in the womb
and leading to regeneration (fa such ceremonies are
enjoined oa the first three or twice-born classes in
STsT^ sam-^/han, P. - h a n t i (ind. p. -katya,
q. v.), in mike or put together, join, shut, close
(eye*, wings, hands), RV. Sec Sec,; to beat together,
mike solid, Suir,; to put together L e. frame, fabri-
cate, SankhSr.; (A.) to rush together (in battle),
meet, encounter (instr,), RV. vii, 56, aa; {jigk-
ttttfc), to meet as a friend (instr.), ib. ix, 14, 4 ; (P.)
to break, crush, kill, destroy, ib.; Pass. -hcnyaU,
to be put together or joined, join, unite (mtr.),
amk.; to become compact 01 solid, SBr.; Caus. -ghd-
tayati, to strike together, kHl, destroy utterly, MW.
S a r a - h a ( p t o U ^ M m - ^ X a ) in c o m p , ; - t a t a . t n .
the two hands joined with the open palms brought
together, L. (cf. samhata- and s a r j i g h a - f ) ; -tqpa-
n a , rru N . ofa serpent-demon, MBh.
B a m - t a t , f. (prob.) a layer, pile, RV. iii, 1, 7.
S a r o - h a t a , mfn. struck together, closely joined
or united with (instr.), keeping together, contiguous,
coherent, combined,comr^ted,terming one mass or

Ssupb&ti, f. striking together, closure, Kav.;

SjrfigS.; compactness, solidity, MBh,; VarBjS.;
thickening, swelling, SirftgS.; keeping together,
saving economy, Kav.; firm union or alliance, junc-
tion, joint effort, close contact or connection with
(instr.), Ka>.; Pur.; Rajat.; a seam, Kum.; a com-
pact mass, bulk, heap, collection, multitude, Kav.;
Kathas. fee,; -^atffl.mfa. thick, dense, SiS, b a t l -
b h S v a , m. close union or connection, Car. h A t y a ,
ind. having struck or put together A c . ; joined,
combined, together with (instr,), MBh,; Kav.&c.;
k a r u t j mfn. working together or with Joined effort,
BhP.; (Vs")-/fl, , -tva, n. common work or endea-
vour, KatySr,
Sam-ha.n&na, mfn, compact, solid,firm,MBh.;
BhP.; making compact or solid, Suir.; striking to-
gether, M W . ; killing, destroying, a destroyer, ib.;
m. N . of a son of Manasyu, MBh.; n. the act of
striking together, Suir.; hardening, Ib,; solidity,
compactness, robustness, streQgth,muscularity, M Bh,;
R, &c.;firmness,steadfastness, Sfl,; junction, con-
nection (in *w) ,Nilak.; agreement, har mony, M Bh
the body (as having the limbs well compacted), L . ;
a mail-coat (?),L.; rubbing the limbs,W.; -bald*
p$ta mfh. endowed with firmness and strength,

BhP.; *va, mfn. strongly built, muscular, robust,

jStakam.; /tdpta, mfn. endowed with strength or
muscularity! MBh. ^liuiaiiiya, ntfn, compact,
solid, firm, strong, MBh.

T T ^ sam^kfi, P. -Jctrati, to mix or pour

together, commingle, MBh.; to pour out, bestow
liberally or abundantly, R V- A V . ; TS.; Pass, -kxr-
yak, to become mixed or confused, MBh.
Sam-kara, m. mixing together, commingling,
intcnrifcaturc,, confusion (esp, of eastes or races, pro-
ceeding from the intermarriage of a man with a
woman of a higher caste or from the promiscuous
intercourse of the four tribes, and again from the in-
discriminate cohabitation of their descendants; cf.
ycm''SP) Mn.; MBh.&e.; the offspring of a mixed

marriage, R.; any action similar to the intermixture

of castes (sometimes n.), MBh.; (in rhet.)thc con-
fusion or blending together of metaphors which
ought to be kept distinct (opp,to sam-syishtiy^.y^,
Sam; Kpr.; anything that may be defiled by the
touch of any unclean thing, MBh.; dung, Car.; dust,
sweepings, L , ; the crackling of flame, L . ; N . ofa
man, Buddh.; +jt\ mm - bom from a mixed caste.
Cat.; -Jdfa, mfn. id., Mn, v, 8 9 ; -Jail, mfn. id.,
BhP.; "jatiya, mfn. id., MW.; U (sec vanta-
-mtmdnsd, f. N. of wk.; -satnkara, m. ihe
mixed offspring of mixed offspring, Vishn.; -svedtr,
m. a partic. sudorific treatment; r&pdtra-kriiy<i,
f. an action which degrades a nun to a mixed caste
or makes him unworthy to receive gifts, Mn. xi, 136;
rdJztt, m.'monErel horse,' a mule,L. xara,ltft T
Saxn-k3i &.&, mfn, poured together, mixed, com-
mingled & c ; crowded with, fall of (comp.)* MBh,;
jpined or combined with (comp,), Yijfi,, Sch.} min-
gled, confused, disordered, adulterated, polluted, Im-
pure, Mn,; MBh, Jfec; born ofa mixed marriage,
MBh.; mixed, miscellaneous, of various kind** mani-
fold, 6 bar.; Da jar. ; sprinkled (esp. with fluid-eiuda-
tion, a* a rutting elephant; but cf, ~ft4go)

contracted, narrow, W . ; scattered, mewed, spread,

diffused, ib,; m, a man of mixed caste, Bhar.; (in

nmt yaw*-vkhjfd P . -jfcAy ali, to reckon


or count ap, sum up, enumerate, calculate, SBr.;

Mn.; MBh, & c ; to estimate by (in$tr.), M B h . ;
A . (only aor, m m ^ a k h y c U a ) to appear along with,
be connected with, belong to (instr.), RV.; VS.:
Caus, -khydpayati) to cause to be looked at or ob-
served by (inr.), TS.; SBr,
SamOtbyt, mfn. counting op or over, reckoning
or summing up, Pan, iti, a, 7, Sch. (ifc; cf.
rrj, N, of a man! Cat,; (*?), f,, e below ; n, con-
flict, battle, war (only in loc.; cf, Nalgh. ii, 17),
MBh.; K i v . ; Rajat.i-fd> t -tva^
t n. numerabteness,
numeration, MW. kny*]c&, mfn. numbering,
amounting to (ifc.; cf. sahasra-^).
Sniii~khy&, f, reckoning or summing np, num-
eration, calculation (ifc. * numbered or reckoned
among*}, R.; Ragh,; Rajat,; a number, sum, total
(ifc'amoontingto^SBr.fitc.&c.; a numeral, PTaXj
Pin, flic.; fjn gram.) number (as expressed by case-
ternrioations or personal t), Ka*. on Pay. ii, 3, l ;
deliberation, reasoning, reflection, reason, intellect,
M Bh.; Ka v,; na me ^appellation{*=dAAyd)>r\,; a partic
high number, Buddh.; manner, MW,; (ingeom.) a
gnomon (for ascertaining the points of the compass),

Kit. on Pin. ii, 3, 7. "khyftna, n, becoming seen,

appearance,BhP,; reckoning up, enumeration,calcu-
\ lation, Kajh.; SrS.; MBh.&c,; a number, multitude,
Heat.; measurement, Hariir.; MirkP.
(T*P s a r n - \ / $ a m , A . -gacchate (rarely P.
/r,and accord, to Pan.i, 3, 39 only with an object;
V i rm c
pf, - j a f m f i edifc <> * # ' -tfmtmtthit -gamd-
mahat, - a j a g m i r a n , -agata [3, sg,], - a g a n m a h i ,
~ a g a i m a h i or -agagsmafii, ~gmishzya y gasIsAfa
or - g a & t l s h ( a -gansyatc
t &c.; cf. V i - g a j f i and
Pin, 1, a, 1 3 ; vii, 3, 3 8 ) , to go or come together,
come into contact or collision, meet (either in a
friendly or hostile manner), join or unite with (instr.
with and without saha or t d r d h a m ) , R V . &c. Sec;
to unite sexually with (acc), Bhaff. j to harmonize,
agree. At, correspond, sail, R.; KathSs.; Vedimas.;
to go to or towards, meet (acc.),BhP,; income to-
gether or assemble in (lot), AV.; to undergo or get
into any stale Or condition, become (e.g. with vi-
S r a m b h a m , 'tobecome trustful,confide'), BhP,;
(P.) to partake of (instr.), R V . ; to go away, depart
(this life), decease, die, L i | y . ; (P ) to visit (acc,),

Pan. i, 3 , so, Sch.: Cans, -gamayati(ind,p.-ga-

mayya)j to cause logo together, bring together, con-
ned or nnitc or endow or present with (instr. of pers.
and acc* of thing), AV.&c. Sec; to lead any one to
(two acc.), Hit,, [ntrod.; lo deliver or hand over to
(loc.), transfer, bestow, give, MBb.; Ragji.; to con-
nect, comtrue (words), Sah.; to cause to go away
or depart (this life),kill, MBh. (Nflak.); Deaid.-jV-
t to wish to meet with (instr.), Pat.; - j i g a n -
sati, to wish lo attain to (acc), ib.

Barn-ffti, m. (for sahga see i / s a U J ) 'coming

together,' conflict, war, R V . (c Naigh. ii, 17).
HSTJT*a;w-V'proifor i/grabh), P.A.-^riA-
nati -grihuite
t (Ved. generally -gribAudfi, -gfibk-
1fttt)i tn seize or hold together, take or lay hold of,
grab, grasp, gripe, clasp, clench, match, RV.&c&c.]
to take, receive (kindly or hospitably), encourage,
support, favour, protect. Hit,; BhP.; 10 seize on,
attack (11 an illness), MBh.; to apprehend, conceive,
nnd e island, BhP.; tocarty nfT,ib.; to gat her together,
assemble, collect, compile, ib. &e.; to include, com-
prehend, contain, Gant.; Pat,; to draw Together,
contract, make narrower, abridge, SBr.; to draw to-
gether (a bow in order to unstring it), MBh.; tc
hold in, restrain, check, govern, M Bh.; to constrain,
torce, Mn. viii, 48 ; to Keep together, close, shut (is
the mouth), K3tyr.; to concentrate (the mind),
BhP.; to take in marriage,marry, ib.; to mention,
name, ib.: Cans, -grahayali, to cause to grasp 01
take hold of or receive or comprehend or understand,
impart, communicate (with acc. of thing and acc. or
dat. of person). Car.; BhP.; Desid. -jighrikshati,
to wish to take hold of &c.; lo wish to collect, MBh.;
to wish to lake in marriage, desire to marry, Dai.
Sam-grlbhAyu, ^ M t a &c. See col. 1.
Satp-g-rlhlta, mfn. grasped, seized, caught,
taken, received, collected, gathered, MBh.; Kav.
&c; made mrrowcr contTJCted,abridgcd SBr.; held
( p

in, restrained,ruled, governed,M Bh,; received kindly,

welcomed, BhP. j - r & s k t r a , mfn. (a king) whoLhas
a well-governed kingdom, Mn. vii, 113. g r i n l t i ,

f. curbing, taming,Vis, g r i b j t r i , mfn. (ofMI v. I.
orw,r. for sarp-gr&k) one who holds in or restrains
or rules, (esp.) a tamer of horses, charioteer, M iih*;
R. &c. (cf. Pin. iii, raj, Vtrttt 1. Fat.j
^TiitT garp-Sjrtd, P . A . -jSnatt, - j a n t t e , (A.)
to agree together, be of the same npinion, be in har*
mony with (loc; accord, to Pap. ii, 3,2 2, also instr.
oracc.),RV.; AV.; VS.; SBr.; (A.) to obey (dat.),
AitBr.; (&.) to appoint, assign, intend (for any pur*
pose), destine, ib.; (only ind. p. -jfldya} to direct,
order, command, Hariv.; to acknowledge, recog-
nize, own,PiQ.i, 3, 46,Sch.; (P.) to acknowledge
or claim as one's own, take possession oC SaddhP.; r

(P.) to think: of, recollect sorrowfully (with acc. or

gen.), P3g.; Vop.; A . to know well, understand,
R.; to watch for, Bhatf.t Cans, - j i i t p a y t x t i , *U, to
cause to be of the same opinion or agree together,
AV.; AitBr.; to cause to acquiesce or agree in
(euphemistically said ofa sacrificial victim, which
ought not to be led forcibly to its death but made to
resign itself),SBr,; GrfirS.; MBh.; BhP,; to appease,
satisfy, MBh.; Kalid.; to make to be understood or
known, cause to understand, SBr.; to make signs
to (acc), communicate or make anything known by
signs, Mricch,; Hear,; to command, enjoin, instruct,

fiam^iii, L (ifc. f. a ) agreement, mutual under-

standing, harmony, TBr.; SBr.; Kathas.; conscious-
ness, clear knowledge or understanding or notion *r
conception, Br, &c. dec; a sign, token, signal, ges-
ture (with the hand, eyes Sec.; samj/idnt * J k r t or
d / t o ^ v e a s i g n a i ' ) , M B h . ; Kav.Sec.; direction
(in a - k r i t a J * , ' one who has received no d *), MBh,;
a track, footstep, BhP.; a name, appellation, title,
technical term (ifc 'called, named *),Nir.; Mn.;
MBh- Sec.; (in gram.) the name of anything thought
of as standing by itself, any noun having a special
meaning {samjftdydm therefore denotes * [used] in
some peculiar sense rather than in its strictly etymo-
logical meaning/ e.g. as a proper name), Pap. 1, I,
341 i 53 &c.; a technical expression in grammar
(see - s i t i r d ) ; (with Buddhists) perception (one of
the 5 Skandhas, q.v.), Dharmas. za; MWB.109 ;
N,ofthe Glyatri(q. v.), L.; of a partichigh number,
Buddh.; N.of a daughter of Tvashfji or Viiva-kar-
man (the wife of the Sun and mother ofManu,Yama
r mf($fl/i)n.(pr\p, of 1/1. as) being,
existing, occurring happening, being present (sniff
me, * when I was present ;* often connected with
other participles or with an adverb, e.g. n a m n i k ? i U
t a l i , ' when the name has been given ; * f a t h S salt,
'if it be so;* also inc., where sometimes possessed
of/ cf. s a t - k a t p a v r i h h a ) , RV. Sec Sec.; abiding
in (Toe.), MBh.; belonging to (gen.), SBr.; living,
MundUp.; lasting, enduring, Ksv.j RV. Sec See,;
reaf, actual, as any one or anything ought to be,
true, good, right { t a r t n a sal, ' that is not right
beautiful, wise, venerable, honest (often in comp., see
below), R V . & c . & c . ; m. a being, (pi.) beings, crea-
tures, RV, Sec; a good or wise man, a sage, MBh.;
R.; good or honest or wise or respectable people,
Mn.; MBh. dec.; ( t ) f., see sad below; {sat) xu
t t that
which really Is, entity or existence, essence, the true
being or really existent (in the Vedanta, *the self-
existent or Universal Spirit, Brahma'), RV.&c. dtc.;
that which is good or real or true, good, advantage,
reality, truth, ib.; water, Naigh. I, I a ; (in gram.)
the ternrdnations of the present participle, Pin. iii, 7 r

137 &e- j {saf) ind. (cf. sat-^/kfi

r Sec) well, right,
fitly. [Cf. Gk. &v, i & v fot low ; hit. sins in ab-
aens,pra-stns; sons,'guilty,' oris;, 'the real doer;'

Bat-tva, n. (ifc. f. a ) being, existence, entity,

reality (tfoara-s / the exUtenceofa Supreme Being'),
TS Sec. Sc.; true essence, nature, disposition of
mind, character, PaftcavBr.; MBh. Sec; spiritual
essence, spirit, mind, MundUp.; Yajrj.; MBh.; BhP.;
vital breath, life, consciousness, strength of character,
strength, firmness, energy, resolution, courage, self-
command, good sense, wisdom, magnanimity, MBh.;
R . & C . ; the quality of purity or goodness (regarded
in the Sarjikhya phil. as the highest of the three
Gunas [q.v,] or constituents of Prakrtti because it
renders a person true, honest, wise Sec, and a thing
pure, clean etc.),MaitrUp.; Mn.; Yajft. Sec*; MBh.;
R.; material or elementary substance, entity, matter,
a thing, Nir.; Prat.; a substantive, noun, W.; m,
n. a living or sentient being, creature, animal, Mn.;
MBh. Sec; embryo, fetus, rudiment of life (see
- l a k s h a r t a ) ; a ghost, demon, goblin, monster, R.;
VarBrS,; Kathas.; m. N, of a son of Dhrita-rashtra,
SatyA, nif(a)n. true, real, actual, genuine, sincere,
honest, truthful, faithful, pure, virtuous, good, suc-
cessful, effectual, valid (satyam V & r i / t a nuke true,
ratify, realise, fulfil*), RV. &c. &c!; m. the upper-
most of the seven Lokas or worlds (the abode of
Brahma and heaven of truth j see l o k a \ L . ; N . of
the ninth Kalpa (q.v,), Pur.; the Asvattha tree, L. ;
N. of Vishnu, L . ; of Rama-candra, L . ; ofa super-
natural being. Gam.; VarBrS.; Heat*; of a deity
presiding over the Nindl-mukha Sriddha, L , ; of one
of the Viive Devah, Cat.; of a VySsa, Cat.; ofa SOD

Sadft, ind, always, ever, every time, continually,

perpetually (with n a * never'), R V . & c & c . - k i n -

tS, f. N . of a river, MBh. - k & r l n , mill, (for

sad-Ak see under i.sad) always active, GirudaP.

H * t sam-^tush,!?. -tushyati,to feel quite

satisfied or contented, be pleased or delighted with,
i have great pleasure in (instr.; ~iwkya t ind.' with
i joy, j o y f u l l y M B h , ; Kav. &c.: Caus, -ioshayati
(m.c. also to make well satisfied or contented,
propitiate, please, rejoice or present with (instr.)
Saon-tuslilta or "taka, m. N . ofa Deva-putra,
Sam-tttsht*, mfn. quite satisfied or contented,
well pleased or delighted with (instr. or eomp.),
MBh.; K a v . & c ; - l a r n a k a - m t i f. (a cow) having

an easily satisfied calf, Heat, ^tuinil, f. complete

satisfaction, contentment with (insu.), MBh.; BhP.
Sana-toshft, m. (ifc, f, a ) satisfaction, con tented -
ness with (instr. or loc,; sham * J k r i > to be satis-
fied or contented*), MsitrUp,; MBit.&c; Content
(personified as a son of Dharma and Tushji and
reckoned aniongihe Tushitas, q,v,\ Prab,; Pur.j
(<i), f. N. ofthe mother of GaAga-dSsa, Cat. \ -vat,
mfn, satisfied, contented (in a-s), Paiicat.; ^shd-
Baxp-nidhi, m. depositing together or near,
KatySr.; Sah.j juxtaposition, nearness, vicinity,
presence { a u with gen. or ifc, ' in the presence

of, near;* i t n , * near to, towards;* id., with \ / i f it

v i - * / i . dhd or *Jbandh aud loc^ to take one's seat
or place or abode in*), AsvJsr.; Mn.; MBh. &c.;
visibility, existence (cf, a-s), Kusurn.; receiving,
taking charge of, W.; - i d r a , m, laying aside (food
for one's self), Buddh.; - v a r t i n mfn. being near,

neighbouring, M W - j ^ i y o ^ m. separation (of vi-

cinity), MlJav,

! Saptadba, ind. in 7 parts, 7-fold, TS. Sec Sec.;

I 7 times, Ra*h..

Ba"(to be similarly prefixed^oriie following);

- b i n d u , m, N. of a mountain, MJrkP, - b t j a j
mf(a)n. with seed or germ {lit. and fig.), containing
*OT g {-tw, n.), MBh.; Kap. j VP. - brbti&tsam,

^tsT 6 t j a ru{also written v i j a , of doubtful


origin; ifc f. d) seed (of plants), semen (of men

and animals), seed-corn, grain, RV, See. See,; a
runner (of the Indian fig-tree), Vcar,; any germ,
element, primary cause or principle, source, origin
(ifc. caused or produced by, sprung from), ChUp.;
MBh.; Kiv. See.; the germ or origin of any com-
position (as of a poem, of the plot of a drama, of a
magical formula&c.) R.; BhP,; Daiar*; Pratip.;

calculation of original or primary germs, analysis,

algebra, Col.; truth (as the se ed or cause of being), L . ;
anything serving as a receptacle or support ( = d l a m ~
6 d n a \ Yogas,; the mystical letter or syllable which
forms the essential part of the Mantra of any deity,
RTL, 197 &c,; the position of the arms of a child
at birth, BhPr.; quicksilver (?),Suryas.; marrow.L.;
Hfa *ffm- \Aj.t", P . -eti, to go or come to-
gether, meet at (acc.) or with (instr, or dat,), en-
counter (as friends or enemies), RV, Sec. &c.; to
come together in sexual union, cohabit (ace, or
sdrdham % s a h a ) , MBh.; R.; to come to, arrive at,
approach, visit, seek, enter upon, begin, RV, Sec.
Sec.] to lead to (acc), RV. iii, 54, 5 ; to consent,
agree with (instr. * it is agreed between,* with gen.
of pen. and loc of thing), SBr.; MBh.: Pass. J y a t t ,
to be united or met or resorted to Sec: (mens,
- Tyat,, to visit, frequent, R V . ; to appear, be mani-
fested, BhP,
S u n - a f i , m, (ife. f, a) coming together, meet-
ing or a place of meeting, AV,; SBr.; intercourse
with (instr.), Mn, x, 53 ; coming to a mutual un-
derstanding, agreement, compact, covenant, treaty,
contract, arrangement, engagement, stipulation, con-
ditions of agreement, terms U n a or a t or -tas 'ac- t

cording to agreement, conditionally ;* U n a s a m a -

y e n a , 'in consequence of this agreement;' s a w a -
jrarn, ace, with * / k r i 'to make an agreement or

engagement," agree with any one [instr, with or

without s a & d ] , * settle," stipulate;' with Sam-
* / v a d , id.; with t / d d . ' t o propose an agreement,'
'offer terms;' with ' J b r & Q t y v a c or a b k i W ^ A d ,
to state the terms of an agr ,' 'make a promise
with * f g r a h Q t p r a t i - ^ / p a d ^ X o enter into an agr,
'make or accept conditions of an agr;* with *<fpdi
a t i / r a k s h or p a r t - * / r a k s h Sec, Mo keep an agr/
' keep one's wordwith * / i y a j t y t * J b h i d c * i vy-abhi-
i / e a r Sec,*to break an agrV abl. with - f b h r a n l ,
id,; loc, with * f s t h a , 'to keep in engagement,*
'keep one's word acc with Caus, of * j s i h a or of
nx-*/ vii,' to i.x OT settle tern 1 a/' impose conditions'),
TS. Sec. A'c.j convention, conventional rule or usage,
established custom, law, rule, practice, observance,
MBh.; R.; BhP.; order, direction,precept, doctrine,
Nir,; MBh.; Samk.; Sarvad.; (in rhct.) the con-
ventional meaning or scope of a word, Kustim,; ap-
pointed or proper time, right moment fordoing any-*
thing (gen. or Pot,, Pan, iii, 3, 68), opportunity,
occasion, time, season (ifc or ibc. or e ind., 'at the t

appointed time or at the right moment or in good

lune for,' or 'at the time of, 'when there is;* t e n a
s a m a y e n a , 'at ih=t time*), MBh ; Kav, S e c , junc-

ture, circumstances, case \iha s a m a y e , ' under these

Hreumstances/ 'in this case'), Paftcat.; Hit.; an
>rdeal, Viihn,; sign, hint, indication, W.; demon-
strated conclusion, ib. j Emit, boundary, ib.; solemn
address, harangue, speech, declaration,Vish^.; (in

_ > - V-J: l-i-L S- - f c -t

^PTPTT faro-ff-Vi. dha, P. X. -aadhati,
r to place or pnt or hold or fix together,
SBr,; MBh. Sec; to compose, set right, repair, put
iu order, arrange, redress, restore, MBh.; Hit.; to
put to, add, put on (esp, fuel on thefire),AV. j SBr,;
R.; to kindle, stir (fire),Br.; to place, set, lay, fix,
direct, settle,adjust (with astrmrt* to adjust marrow;'
withgarbham, 'to impregnate with savituh, 'to
lay in the sun;' with drish(im,\ttatn cetii5,Ptatim,

mattat,* to direct orfixthe eyes c*rnind upon [1c*.]; 1

with tnatim/ to settle in one's mind, resolve/ 'make

up one's mind' [followed by iti]; with dtm&nam or
manat, 'to collect the thoughts or concentrate the
mind iu meditation &c.;* without an acc. Mo be
absorbed in meditation or prayer'), RV. &c. &c.; to
impose upon (loc.), MBh,; to entrust or commit to
(loc.), ib.; to establish in (loc.), Ragh.; lo effect, ciuse,
produce, Hariv.; (in the following meanings only A.)
to take to or upon one's self,conceive (in the womb),
put on (a garment or dress),assume (a shape), under-
go (efTbrt),show,exhibit,display,MBh.; Kav. & c ;
S&m-3dM, m. putting together, joining or com
bining with (instr.), L l \ y , ; a joint or a partic. posi-
tion of the neck, Kir.; union, a whole,aggregate, set,
R.; Hariv.; Ragh.; completion, accomplishment,
conclusion, Kum.; setting to rights, adjustment
settlement, MBh.; justification of a statement, proof,
Sarvad.; bringing into harmony, agreement, assent,
W.; RPrat,; ia tense application or fixing the min<!
on, intentness, attention(fdhim * / k r i * to*attend'),

MBh.; R . & c ; concentration ofthe thoughts,pro-

found or abstract meditation, intense contemplation
of any particular object (so as to identify the con-
Jcmplator with the object meditated upon; this ii
the eighth and last stage of Yoga [IW. 93]; with
Buddhists Sam ad hi is the fourth and last stage oi
Dhyana or intense abstract meditation [MWB. 209];
in the Karanda-vyfiha several Ss are enumerated))
Up.; Buddh.; MBh. &c,; intense absorption 01
a kind of trance, MBh.; KSv.&c; a sanctuary 01
tomb of a saint, W,; R T L . a6t; (in rhet.) N . oi
various figures of speech (defined as & r o k & v a r o k a *
k r a m a , artka*driskti
t anya-dkarman&ta anya-
t r A d k i r e h a r t a &c.)/lCavySd.j Vam.;*Kpr, &c.;
N. ofthe 17th Kalpa (q.v.), of the 17th Arhat oi
the future TJtsaipinI, L . ; ofa Vaiiya, Cat. (accord,
to L , also 'silence; a religious vow of intense devo-
tion or self-imposed abstraction; support, upholding;
continuance; perseverance in difficulties; attempting
Impossibilities; collecting or layingup grain in times of
dearth'); g a r & A a , t a M * of a Bodtu-sattva, Buddh,;
-H>a n. the state of profound meditation or devo-
tion, Sarvad,; -ntshtha, mfn. devoted to m ,Pa&eaL;
- p a r i h d i f i f, diminution of m% Dharmas. $9; - / m -

k a r a n a , n. N . of wk.; - b a l a , n. the force of m,

Dharmas. is. t - b h a h f l a . m . t h * dittnrHin* n r f n i i r .

tj^rrm sam-a-\fdhyai, P. ~dfojdyatit to me-

ditate deeply upon, reflect upon, be lost in thought,
Hariv.; R .
flUIH samaiwf, mf(i or )n. (coDtiected with
E. and a. J<WWJ ; In RV. v, 87, 4 abl. sg. samd*
ttdsmdt for samdnit
t see \*sama; for sam-dtta
ittfam-\fan foTsa-fndttasteto\ $)
t t same, identical,
nnifocm, one (tf4a, L.% RV. &c. & c ; alike,
similar, equal (in size, age, rank, sense or meaning
&e.), equal or like to (with instr., gen., or comp.),
VS. &c. cVc; having the same place or organ of
utterance, homogeneous (as a sound or letter}, Vop.;
holding the middle between two extremes, middling,
moderate, BhP.; common, general, universal, all,
RV.; Br.; SiS.; BhP.; whole (as a number, opp.
to * a fractionPin. v, a, 47, Virtt. 4 ; being (-
sai, after an adj.), Divyfcv.; virtuous, good, L.J
* = v a n i a - b h i d h . % (am), ind. Wee, equally with

R*fme, sam-a- >/pad, A . -padyate, to fall

upon, attack, assail, MBh.; to fall into any stale or
condition, attain to, undergo, incur, ib. & c ; to
undertake, begin, Ksran<J.; to take place* occur,
appear, APrat., Sch.: Caus, -pddayati, to cause to
come to pass, MW.; to bring about, complete, ac-
complish, ib.; to restore, ib,
S&u-Spa-ttt, f, coming together, meeting, en*
countering, Kalid,; accident, chance (see comp.);
falling into any state or condition, getting, becoming
(comp,), Yogas.; assumtrtg an originalform,APrat.;
completion, conclusion, A past. (v. I, sat-dpti}\

yielding, giving way (in a.-**), ib.; (with Buddhists)
a subdivision of die fourth stage of abstract medita-
j tion (there are eight Samapattis), MWB. 3 3 3 ;
: - d r i s h t a ^ mfn. seen bv chance. Dai.
S u a p i d , f* success, accomplishment, completion,
fulfilment, perfection, YSjB.; MBh. a cnctdi-
tion or requisite ofsi>ccess&e,,BhF.; concord, agree-
ment, stipulation, bargain, TS.; ApSr.; equalization
of similar things, Samk,; attainment, acquisition,
possession, enjoyment, advantage, benefit, blessing,
VarBrS.; Sarvad.; Pur-; turning into, growing, be-
coming, arnb*; being, existence (ifc. * possessed
oT),R.;Kathas-; BhP.; right condition or rnethod,
correctness,RPrat.; MBh.; excellence, glory,splen-
dour, beauty, Mn, i MBh,&c.j excess, abundance,
high degree, MBb,; Kav,&c.; rate,destiny,Bhag,
(also pL); good fortune, prosperity, riches, wealth

VTYSX $am-pra-\fjfia P, A. -jSnati, -j'ri-


n t U lo distinguish, discern, recognise, know accu*


ratety or perfectly, MBh.; Hariv,

Smn-pmJanyaC?) n.fuIlconsciou3ne33 Divyv
> J H

pmjfina(?), id., L.
Bnm-praOtUt&, mfn, distinguished, discerned,
known accurately, Yogas.; -y&gin m. a Yoginwhc

is still in a state of consciousness, KapS,* Sch.;

vasihd, f. the above state, ib,

**i$i\Sam-pra-*/yvj t P . X . -ywnahU,
-yuhkte, to yoke or join together, yoke, harness,
MBh.; R,; to employ, make use of, BhP,j to per-
form, execute (a song), L . ; to instigate, incite, in-
duce to (instr.),R.; Pass, -yujyait, to be joined or
connected with (instr.), be added or attached, Nir,;
Hariv, 6te.; to be united sexually, Rljau; to be

- j \ rvi -
Bam-prnjokta-Tya, mm. to be used or em-
ployed, Sih, ^rayoff*, m. (ifc f, S) joining to-
gether, attaching, fastening, Mficch.; conjunction,
union, connection, contact with (instr, with and
without jaka or comp.), A past. J MBh, flic, (cf,

MWB. 4 4 ) ; matrimonial or sexual union with

[comp,), MBh.; VarBrS.; (in astron.) conjunction
[of the moon and the Lunar mansions), VarBrS.;
mutual proportion, connected series or arrangement,
IV,; application, employment, Cat.; spell, L . ; mfn.
0 0
**artkif& U t pr*yoffikl I N . of wk,
( prs-
rogin, mfh, addicted to sexual intercourse, wanton
H^**{&am-'/bandJt t P. -badhnatl t to bind
or fasten or tie together, bind or fix on, attach, con-
nect, join, construct, form, SBr.&c.&e.; to procure,
furnish, supply,Ragh.; Pass, -dadhyatt, to be bound
or fastened together & c ; to be connected with or
supplied, belong to, Kai.on Pin. i, 4 , 5I&C-: Causn
' b a n d k a y a t i , - \ G cause to bind or be bound together
&c., R.; to cause to connect with or refer to (instr.),
Kull. on Mn. r, 85,
B a m - b a d d h a , mfh.bound or tied together, joined,
connected, SBr.; KatySr.; connected in sense, co-
herent, having meaning (see a-s*); shut, closed,
Kam.; connected or covered orfilledwith, belong-
ingor relating to (instr. or comp.),Mn.; MBh.&c.j
combined with, i.e. containing (comp.), Hariv.;
attached to anything, i.e. existing, being, found in
(loc), Kaltd.; (affj), ind. jointly, moreover, MBh.
'* 3443J - d n r p a * ntfn, one who has feeling* of
pride (existing in his heart), MBh.; saittydttgha,
mfn. one who has the main body of troops concen-
trated, Kanu; ddkdnta (si/s-), mf(J)n,joined with
the ends, SBr. "badhyamF-na-, mfh, being bound
together or connected, MW. ^ b a d h y a m i n a t a ,
mfn. (ife.) bring In some degree related to, L.
B a r a - b a n d h a , m. (ifc. f. d) binding or joining
together, close connection or union or association,
conjunction, inherence, connection with or relation
lo (instr, with or without saha, or comp.; in phil.
relation or connexion is said to be of three kinds,
viz. samav&ya, satftyoga, and sva-ru$a, q.v.),
SrS.; Samk.; Sarvad,; personal connection (by mar-
riage), relationship, fellowship, friendship, intimacy
with (instr. with and without saka \oc. or comp,),
t f

ParGj".; Mn.; MBh.&c.; a relation, relative, kins-

man, fellow, friend, ally, Apast.; MBh.; BhP.; a
collection, volume, book, &ukas,; a partic, kind of
calamity, VarBrS.; prosperity, success, L , ; fitness,
propriety, L . ; the application of authority to prove

satn-y/budh. A , -budhyate (pr. p.

-budhyamdna t q.v,), to wake up, MBh.; R*; to
perceive* or understand thoroughly, notice, observe,
know, ib. &c.: Caus. -bodhayatt t to cause to wake
np, rouse, R.; lo cause to know, inform, advise, in
struct; teach (two acc)> MBh.; Kiv, & t . \ to call
to,MBh.; Kai.on Pan. 1,3, 3 3 ; to cause 10 agree,
MW.: Desid. of CanL. see satn^bubfldA/rt/ttha.
8tUa*bodlUt, m. perfect knowledge or under-
standing, MBh.; Hariv. (sometimes w-r. for satft-
r c d h a ) * *ltfhiuuh mfn- (partly fr.Caus.) awak-
ing, arousing, MBh.; perceiving, noticing,observing,
MBh.; recognising, MartrUp.i the act of causing
to know, reminding, MBh.; Hariv.; calling to. Pin.
Z* 47; tKe vocative case or its termination, Siddh.;
Snbh. boelliayltTl, mfn. (fr. Caus.) causing to
know, informing, MailrUp. *bodtt, f. (with Bud-
dhists) perfect knowledge or enlightenment, MWB H

^CdSy-ahga, n. 'an integral part of perfect know-

ledge or enlightenment/ Lalit.) ^ttosUiita, mfn.
fully warned, duly apprised, MBh. b o d h y a , mfn.
to be enlightened or instructed, Paftcat.; Kathas,

T&sdrva, tnf{c)n. (perhaps connected with

x S r a , q.v.; inflected as a pronoun except nom. acc.
sg. n. $ a r v a r n and serving as a model for a series of

pronominahjCf.fante* n a m a n ) whole,entire all,every r

f 1
('everyone;' p i . all;* n. sg.'everything;
sometimes strengthened by viiva [which if alone in
1 1
RV. appears in the meaning all/ 'every, 'every
one *]and n i A a r/ajsarvt'pt togethersarva^
ko 'pi,' everyone so e v e r g a v r i w sarvam, a\\ that
comes from cows;' sarva with a negalion' not
4 1 1
any/ no/ none * or not every one, ' not every-
thing "), RV. Ac. cVc.; of all sorts, manifold, vari-
ous, different, MBh. & c ; (with another adjective
or in comp.; cf. below) altogether, wholly, com-
pletely, in all parts, everywhere, RV.; ChOp.&c;
\ a m ) , ind. (with sarvena) completely, Div yiv.; m.

Sarvatha, ind. in everyway, in ev respect, byall
means(oftenjoined w i t h s a r v a t r a i n A s a r v a d d j i A s o
with api; with ma/in no case/ 'not at all'), Mn.
&c. &cs, in whatever way, however, MBh.; R . ;
RPrlt.; altogether, entirely, in the highest degree,
exceedingly, MBh.; Kav.; Hit.; at all times, MW.
-rrifSta.Ta. n,in in what* v. T WAV armeirlnf. Cat.
TS. v i k a l p a , mfn. possessing variety or admit'
ting of distinctions, differentiated, Ved&ntas, (also
"fata, ib. admitting of an alternative or op-
tion or doubt, optional, doubtful, MW,; together
with the intermediate Kalpas, BhP. v i k & r * , mfn.
with iU developments or derivatives or products,
Gaat.; Bhag,; BhP.; altered in feeling, growing fond
of, Gtu; under
(as food), SinhfU, v i k a s f t , mf(<f)n. shining, radi-
ant, Kathas. - v t k r a m a , mfn. vigorous, energetic,
t i L rfkroiam, ind. with a cry of alarm, MBh.
v i k l a v a m , ind. piteousry, dejectedly, Mala v.
v i g r a h a . , mfn, having body or form, embodied,
Rajat,; having meaning or import, meaning, im-
porting, W . v l o a r a , mf(df)n. that to which con-
sideration is given, Lalit. v i c i k U s i t a m , ind.
having or causing doubt, doubtfully, Mcar. r i -
J&Raa mfn. endowed with right understand-
ing, SBr.; +tpa, n., S a y . v i t a r k a m , mfn. accom-
panied with reason or thought, Lalit.; (am), ind.

HI? 2,9ff/^,ind.{prob. fr. 7.5a+rfA5 which t

in Veda may become d h a ; cf. i . sadha) together

with, along with, with (with */grah and d-Vdd,
j eating t* with (comp,), Kasom.Vhu, mfn, being
! together (used in explaining saca-bkd), Nir. r, 5;
j appearing t with (comp.), Apr, Sch.; innate,
: natural, Ratn&v.; Kad,; counterpart of (Ken.), Ka<U

Eat shit, ind. (abl. of s&ksha above) with the

eyes, with one's own eyes* Kav.; Kathas,; Sarvad.;
before one's eyes, evidently, clearly, openly, manl-

festly, A V . & c . & c ; in person, in bodily form, per-

sonally, visibly* really, actually, MBh,; K2v, & c ;
immediately, directly,Sarvad.; KulUptirurtidt*
SaqUirana mf(/or tf)n,'having or resting on
the same support or basis, belonging or applicable
to many or all, general, common to all, universal,
common to (gen., dat., instr. with and without f a J i a ,
or comp,), RV. Sec. See,; like, equal or similar to
(instr, or comp.), Hariv.; Kalid.; behaving alike,
DhQrtas.; having something of two opposite proper-
lies, occupying a middle position, mean (between
two extremes, e g , 'neither too dry nor too wet,'
neither too cool nor too hot'), Suir.; Kam.; VarBrS.;
(in logic) belonging to more than the one instance
alleged (one ofthe three divisions of the fallacy called
ana%kantika t\.v.);
t generic, W . ; m.N. ofthe 44th
(or 18th) year of Jupiter's cycle of 60 years,VarBrS.;
(f), f,a key, L . ; a twig of bamboo (perhaps used as
a bolt), M W . ; m. or n, (?) N . of a Nyaya wk. by
Gadl-dhara; ( a m ) , o. something in common, a
league or alliance with (comp.), Subh.; a common
rule or one generally applicable, W.; a generic pro-
perty, a character common to all the individuals of
a species or to all ihe species ofa genns See,, ib,;
( a m ) , ind. commonly, generally, L . ktoda, m.,
-fjrantHa, m. R of wks, 1&, f. commonness,
community i ? ( a m V * f Mo make common pro-

perty'), Rajat. tva, n. universality, Nyiyam.,

Sch.; ternperatencss, Susr. - d e v a , m. N . of an

m + t i & a m t / a , n. ( f y . 2 * 8 a m a ) equality,even-
ness, equilibrium, equipoise, equal or normal state
(ace.with A / H F / X O bringto that it*/ calm'),MBh.;
Kiv. Sec,; likeness, sameness, Identity with (instr,
with and without saha, or gen, or loc, or comp.),
MuncjUp.; MBh. Sec,; equality of rank or position,
Mo,; Yajft,; VarBrS.; fiomogeneousness (of sounds),
Vop; measure, time, MBh.; equability towards (loc.
o x p r a l i ) , impartiality, indifference, Bhag.; Kum,;
BhP.; justice(satnyami/&j*t,*taact jnstly towards
[loc.}'), M B h . ; v . l for i a f y a , KivyriU 1, 3 9 ,
Sarfipya, n, (fr, m - r i i p d ) sameness or similarity
of form, identity of appearance* resemblance, like-
ness, conformity with (gen.), Mn.; MBh. &c,; as-
similation to or conformity with the deity (one of
the grades of Muktl or beatitude, msarufa-td, sd'
tokya), BhP.; (in dram.) a mistake caused by the
mutual resemblance of two persons (as in Vegls. vi
Yudhi-shfhfra takes Bhima for Doryodhaua and in-
jures him), Bhar.; Sah.; mf(a)u. seasonable, fit,
proper, suitable* Lalit. tas, ind, in consequence
of similarity of form, MW, * t * f, likeness, i e n >

Paneat.' r f l p a (**-)i having the same shape

or form, uniform, similar, Hke, resembling (gen, or
comp.), R V . Sec. & c ; having the same sound*
Identical in s, consonant* KaryaU; having shape
or form, embodied, VP.; shapely formed* beautiful,
hand some(prob.also w.r. for /w-^PancavBr.; Kiv,;
m. a partic. mythical being, Suparn.; (J), f. N . oi
the wife of BhOta and mother of innumerable Rudras,
BhP.; ( f p a y k r i t , mm. producing the same form or
coloor, AV.; < j p a r t t ) - k d r a n a , mf(i>. id., ib.; ~ t a

f., -too, n. identity of form, likeness, resemblance to

(comp.), AitBr.; MBh.; K a m . & c ; assimilation to
the deity (one of the four stages in the progress to-
wardsfinalemancipation), R T L . & c ; *vatjJ, f, a
row uith a calf of the same colour. GrSrS.: t>Sfitf

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ja.

tfTcTfT salctmha, mfn. having anything as

a support (comp.), Kathas.
S&laznbaua*mfn,belonging to or connected with
a partic. mental exercise (see d F ) t
w e a l c f o r m o f sStdh cl
TO^T 3- ' ^ )> - 4'
^ P. (Dhatup. X*;VJ,83) sldhyati (ep. and
m.c. also pf, Ushtdha, RV, i, 31, 13; aor,
asidhai, Gr.; saifsli, Sarvad.; Prec. sidhydj&m r

Gr.; fut.swrW.ib.; utsyati, te, MBh. Sec; inf,

scddhum, Gr.; ind. p. s M i t V d , sidhitvd, or .,:"./'
dkz\% ib.}, 10 be accomplished or fulfilled or effected

or settled, be successful, succeed, RV. &c dec.; to

hit a mark (loc), Sak.; to attain one's aim or ob-
ject, have success, MBh.; Kav. &c; to attain the
highest object, become perfect, attain beatitude, R.;
BhP.; to bo valid or admissible, hold good, Mn.;
Yajri.; to be proved or demonstrated or established,
result from, Pat.; Paflcal,; Sarvad.; to be set right,
(esp.) be healed or cured, Suir.; BhP.; to be well
cooked, W,; To conform to a person's will, yield to
en.), Kathas.; to fall to a person's (gen,) lot or
are, Prab.; to come into existence, originate, arise,
BhP.: CiTsusfdhqyaft (iai^asisAiJhat) or sddha-
y&ti, to shnw the knowledge or skill (of any one,
the former, 'with reference to sacred things,' the
latter, 'to secular things'), Pat, on Pan, vi, 1, 49
{sadh% to accomplish, effect, MW,: Desid, sishit-
sati, Gr,; Int. 3tshidhyaU 9 sesheddki, ib,
3. Eidttha, mfn. accomplished, fulfilled, effected,
gained, acquired, MBh.; Ragh.; one who haj at-
tained his object, successful, BhP.; one who bas
attained the highest object, thoroughly skilled or
versed in (dit,orcomp.), MBb.; R.&c.; perfected,
become perfect,beatified, endowed with supernatural
faculties (see a. siddhi), ib.; sacred, holy, divine,
illustrious,W.; hit (isa mark), Kathas,; prepared,
cooked, dressed (as food), Mn.; MBL&c,; healed,
cured, Paftcat.; valid (si a rule in grammar, see <i-
j); admitted to be Irue or right, established, settled,
proved, Pat.; Mn.; Samkhyak.; Sarvad.; rculting
from, W,; adjudicated, decided, terminated (as a
lawsuit), W,; paid, liquidated, settled (as a debt),
ib,; ready for payment (as money), Hit.; well-known,
notorious, celebrated {fraeidd/ia), AivSr,; R.
ice.-, effective, powerful, miraculous, supernatural.
Gin.; Rajat.; VcL; subdued, brought into subjec-
tion (by magical powers), subject or obedient to
(gen.), Paflcat.; KathSs.; peculiar, shsgular,Ma1atTm.;
invariable, unalterable, Pat.; m, a Siddha or semi-
divine being of great purity and perfection and said
to possess the eight supematu ral Faculties (see 3, sid-
dhi; accord, to some, the Siddha* Inhabit, together
with the Munis dec, the Bhuvar-loka or atmo-
sphere between tbe earth and heaven; accord, to VP,
eighty-eight thousind of them occupy the regions of
the sky north of the tun and south of the seven
fLishis; they are regarded as immortal, but only as
living to the end of a XaJp-a [q.v,]; in the later
mythology they are sometimes confused with the
Sadhyas tq- -] or take their place), AsvGf.j M Bh. &c. i
any inspired sage or prophet or seer (e, g. VyBsa, Ka-
pila &c),ib.; any holy personage or great saint (esp,
one who has attained to one of the states of beafi-
Ludc, ct sdlckya , M Bh,; Kiv, &c; any great adept
2 . Slddbit f(ft> r
P-1"5> col, i) accom-
plishment, performance, fulfilment, complete attain-
ment (of any object), success, MBh,; Kav. & c ; the
hitting of a mirk (loc.], Kam.; healing (of a dis-
ease), cure by (comp,), Yajft.; coming into force^
validity, ib.; settlement, payment, liquidation (ofa
debt), Mn. viii, 4 7 ; establishment, substantiation,
settlement, demonstration, proof, indisputable con-
clusion, result, issue, RPrat.;Up.;Sarvad,; decision,
adjudication, determination (ofa lawsuit), W , ; so-
lution of a problem, ib.; preparation, cooking,
maturing, maturity, ib.; readiness, W.; prosperity,
personal success, fortune, good luck, advantage, Mn.;
MBh. &c.; supreme felicity, bliss, beatitude, com-
plete sanotification (by penance & c ) ,finalemanci-
pation, perfection, L.; vanishing, making one's self
invisible, W . ; a magical shoe (supposed to convey
the wearer wherever he likes), ib.; the acquisition
of supernatural powers by magical means or the sup
faculty so acquired (the eight usually enumerated are

given in the following Sloki, animd Jagkima*

j>r3ptift f r d k d m y a m m a h t m d tathd \ isitvam
ca v a i i t v a m ca t a t h d k d m & v a s a y i t d ; sometimes
26 are added, e.g. d i t r a - l r a v a n a , tarvajna>tva t

agni-stambha&cS) S\m\$\y*k.\Tattvas.;
t Sarvad.;
any unusual skill or faculty or capability (often
in comp.), Paflcaf.; Kathas.; skill in general, dex-
terity, art, Car.; efficacy, efficiency, Kiv.; Pineal.;
understanding, intellect, W , ; becoming clear or in-
telligible (as sounds or words), BhP.; (in rbct.) the
pointing out in the same person of various good
qualities (not usually united), Sah. % (prob.) 1 work
of -ti, Rajat. iii, 381; a kind of medicinal root ( -
y i d d h i or V y i d d h i ) , L . ; ( a particSruti,
SamgTt.; a partic Yoga (cither the t6th or 19th),
Cot.; Success or Perfection personified, MBh,;

Sakha, mfn, (said to be fr. 5. su # 3, M a and

to mean originally 'having a good axle-hole;* pos-
sibly a Prakrit form of su-stha, q.v.; ct.duhkfia)
running swiftly or easily (onl> applied to cars or
chariots, superl. s r i k h d - t a r r i a ) , easy, R V . ; pleasant
(rarely with this meaning in Veda), agreeable,gentle,
mild(comp.-/flfif),VS.&c&c.; comfortable, happy,
prosperous {~-suhifi),R.; virtuous, pio'is, M W . ;
m,N. of a man,g. Sivadi; (scil, detttqa)* kind of
military array, Kam,; (i), f. (in phil) the effort to
win future beatitude, piety, virtue, Tattvas.; (in
music) a partic. MOrchanS,Sarngit; of the cjtyof
Vrnria VP,j of one ofthe o 5aktis of Siva, L.;
t (/i*n\
n, ease, easiness, comfort, prosperity, pleasure, hap pi -
ncsi (in m, personified as a child of Dharma and Sid-
dhi, MirkP,), joy, delight in (loc,; s u k h a t f t ^/kr t

*jT!Jf i u k s h m a , mf(&)n. (prob. connected

withjir/, p. 1341, eoht) minute, small^ne, thin, nar-
row, short,feeble,trifling, insignificant,, unimportant
(with ar/Jia, m. 'a trifling matter* ) Yajfi.; MBh.&c,;

acute, subtle, keen (understanding or mental opera-

tion ; <ztn ind,), KajhUp.; R,&c,; nice, exact* pre-

cise, Col.; subtle, atomic, intangible, Up.; Sltpkhyak.;

MBh.&e.; m, a partic. figure of rhetoric ('the subtle
expression of an intended act'), Cat.; (with Saivas)
one who has attained % certain grad< of emancipa-
tion, Heat.; a mystical N, of the sound f, Up*; N,
of Siva, MBh,; ofa Dinars ib,; Hariv ,; m. 01 n,
an atom, intangible matter, Sfirnkhyak,; Sarvad,;
MBb, &c.; the subtle all-pervading spirit, Supreme
Soul, L . ; the Kataka or clearing-nut plant, L . ;
k t i t a k a or A a i f a v a , L . ; ( a ) , f. sand, L . ; small
cardamoms, L . ; N . of two plants (yMfjfetf or
M a r u m ) , L , ; of one of the 9 Saktis of Vishnu, L.j
( a m \ n. the cavity or socket of a tooth, Vishn.;
woven silk, L . ; marrow, L,; theVedanta philosophy,

S n r y a , m, the sun or its deity (in the Veda the

name SQrya is generally distinguished from Savltji
[q.v,], and denotes the most concrete ofthe solargods,

h 14 tnW t d p a k r t t m a ^ U u set about, under-

taken, Cat.
9<tWT t^a-i/Aram, P . - k r a m a t i (rarely
- k r a r t t a t i ) . A . - k r a m a t e , to go near, approach,
come to, RV, viii, 1 , 4 ; ai, a; S i , 7; MBh,; R . \
Megh.; to rush upon, attack (only P. by K S. on
^"'" i> h 39 & 4a), MBh. xiii; to approach with
any object, have recourse to, set about, undertake,
begin (with ace., dat. or inf. only A . by Pan, i, 3,
3ocV4i),Laiy.; MBh.; Ragh.&c; to treat, attend
on (ai a physician), MBh.; Snfr. &c.
TJptt-krfcntrl, mfn. one who undertakes, a be-
ginner, Vop.
Upawfcr&ma, or, m. the act of going or coming
near, approach, MBh.; R.; setting about, under-
taking, commencement, beginning, Lajv.; KatySr,;
B h P . ; Slh.; Sarvad. dec; enterprise, planning ori-
ginal conception, plan, Ragh.; Rajat.; Paftcat. Sec.;
anything leading to a result; a means, expedient,
stratagem, exploit, MBh.; Yajft.-, Malav. See.;
remedy, medicine, Suir.; attendance (on a patient),
treatment, practice or application of medicine, phy-
sicking,Suir.6cc.; the rim of a wheel. Heat; a par-
ticular ceremony preparatory to reading the Vedas,
W.; frying thefidelitySec. of a counsellor or friend,
ib.; heroism, courage, L. p a r & k n m i , m., N . of
a work.
Uim-fcramana, mf(f)n. approaching ; comply-
ing with, granting, Kathas,; ( a m ) , n. attendance
(on a patient), treatment, Suir. &c.
TJp*-Jrramanlyn, mfn. to be approached or gone
to; to be undertaken or commenced, L . ; to be
treated (asapatienO, Suir. &c.; { u p a t r a m a n i y a ) ,
mfn. treating of attendance (on a patient),
Upa-kTssmita-vjss, mfn, to be undertaken or
commenced, R.
1. Upn-kravnayat, mfn. to be attended or treated
(as a pinent), Suir.; Viler. & t
3. TJpa-fcramja, ind. p. having approached;
having undertaken or commenced dec.
Tjpa^krSntsv, mfn. approached, MBh.; under-
taken, commenced, begun, MBh.; Malav. Acc;
treated, attended on, cured. Das.; Susr. & c ; pre-
viously mentioned, MW,
Upa-a-rfimyn, mfn. T. u f a - k r a m y a above.
S a u m u a a y a , mfn. causing gladness or cneer-
fulness of mind* BhP,; m. N . of a son of Yajfia-
blhu, ib.; n. satisfaction of mind, gladness, cheer-
fulness. Sub.; Ragh.; Kathls.; right understanding.
Sit., Sch.; an offering offlowersplaced inthe hands
ofthe priest at a Siaddha, BhP.; N.of a Variha In
Plakiha-dripa (ruled by Saumanasya), BhP. T*t,
mfn. cheerful, glad, Ragh.

BtMiibbA,, m. (ifc. f. a ) i post, pillar, column,

stem (ai ofa tree; also improperly applied toan arm),
K GfSrS.-, MBh. & c ; support, propping,
strengthening, Bhartr.; inflation, pretentiousness,
arrogance, MBh.; R. & c ; fixedness, sufmeis, rigid-
ity, torpor, paralysis,itupefaction, MBh.; K l v . & c ;
becoming hard or solid, Rajal.; stoppage, obstruc-
tion, suppression (also the magical arresting of any
feeliug or force, as of hunger, thint, or of the forces
of water, fire & c as taught in the Tantras), Kav.;
Susr.; Pancar.;llingup, stuffing, R.; N.of a partic.
Adhylya, PaL on Pin. v, a, 60, Virtt. 1 ; ofa Riihi
&C, VP. (cf. g. kutlftdi and l a u n a k & i - . - U n ,
mfn. (prob.) causing obstruction, hindering, imped-
in? Cm un\a-s:'\ a, O . Causing stiffness, paralviine.

siyai, cl. I. P . styeyali, to be collected

into a heap or mass, Dhatup. xiii, 14; to spread
about, ib.; to sound, ib.; cl. 1. A . stydyate (pr. p.
stydna, q.v.; ind. p. -itydya; see r r i - s & { y a i ) to

stiffen, grow dense, increase, Uttarar.; Mr:r.

!3tij&, f, (prob.) stOl or stagnant water, R V . '
Sty&ziA, mfn. grown dense, coagulated. Sutr.;
Sah.; stiffened, become rigid. Car.; soft, bfand, unc-
tuous, smooth ( - s t u ' ^ d A d ) , L . ; thick, bulky, gross,
W.; sounding, MW.; n. (only L.) density, thick-
ness, gnossness, massiveness; unctuousness \ nectar;
Idleness, sloth, apathy; echo, sound.

B tin. (or JA{Aa) mf{d~)n,

t (only ifc) standing, stay-
ing, abiding, being situated in, existing or being in
or on or among {sec agttt-,gar/}/)a-, jala-, nara-
k a - rdjya-stha
t Arc); occupied with, engaged in,
devoted to, performing, practising ($ee dhynna-,
r savatta-stJta & c ) ; a place, ground
gth&n1n,mfn, having a place, occupying a (high)
position, Cat.; having fixedness,abiding, permanent,
W . ; being iu the right place, appropriate* AsvSr.;
(in gram.) that which should be hi the place or is to
be supplied, F i n . i , 4,105 ; in, the original form or

ftthitl, f. standing upright orfirmly,not falling,

KavySd,; standing, staying, remaining, abiding,
stay, residence, sojourn in or on or at (toe. or comp.;
sthifim * J k r i or vi~*/i. dka or * / g r a h or
*/bhaj, *to make a stay/ ' take up one** abode'),
Kav.; K at his, & c ; staying or remaining or being
in any state or condition (see r a j y f r s t h ) * , continu-
ance in being, maintenance of lite, continued exist-
ence(the and of the three states of alt created things,
the tst being utpatti t 'coming into existence,' and
the grd l a y a , * dissolution permanence, duration,
SretUp,; R.; Kalid.j BhP.; Sarvad.; duration of
life, MlrkP,; (in astron.) duration of an eclipse,
Sifryas.; continued existence in any place, MBh.;
Sih,; that which cominaally exists, the world, earth,
BhP.', any situation or state or position or abode,
Kav.; Palkcat,; Kaths's.; station, high position,
tank, Mn,; Vsjn.; Bhag.&e,; maintenance, susten-
ance, M ibttmKttled rule,fixeddeciaon, ordinance,
decree, axiom, maxim, SEr. &c, cVc.; maintenance
of discipline, establishment nf good order (in a state
Sec,), Ragh.; continuance or steadfastness iu the
path of duty, viriuoas conduct, steadiness, rectitude,
propriety, MBh.; R.; Ragh.; constancy,persever-
ance, Bhag.; Sarvad,; devotinn OT addiction to, in-
tent nets on (loc.), MBh.; R.; firm persaaston or
opinion,conviction, Yijfi.; Ksm,; settled practice,
institution, custom, usage, Kathis.; RSjat.; settled
boundary or bounds (esp. of morality, e.g. t t h i t i m
* J b k i d , ' \ Q transgress the boundsofm *), term,limit,
R.j Kalid,; Bhatt,; standing still, stopping, halting
( t f h i t i m a-*Jcar, 'to remain standing'), Ragh.;
Rajat.; Suir,; standing* pi ace, halting-place, stand
or place orfixedabode, SBr.; Mn,; Raj at. j resist-
ance to motion, Inertia (in phil.);fixedness,im-
mobility, stability, Ragh,; BhP,; depositing, laying
down, Rajat.; Kathis,; form, shape, MlrkP.;
manner of acting, procedure, behaviour, conduct,
Mn.; Sis.; Hit.; occurrence, MBh.; regard or con-
sideration for (loc.), Pificat. v. I.; (in Vedic gram.)
the standing of a word by itself (i.e. without the
Sthiri,rnf(a)n,firm,hard, solid, compact, strong,
RV, &c. & c ; filed, immovable, motionless, still,
calm, SBr.; MBh.&c.; firm, not wavering or totter-
ing, steady, R,; VarBrS.; unfluctuating, durable,
lasting, permanent, changeless, RV, &c, &c.; stern,
relentless, hardhearted, Kum.; constant, steadfast,
resolute, persevering (manas or kridayam sihiratn
V k r i , Mo steel one's heart, take courage,' R.;
Kathas,); kept secret, Vet.; faithful, trustworthy,
Vajii.; M B h . & c ; firmly resolved to (inf,), MBh,;
settled, ascertained, ni-Jonbted, sure, certain, Mn.;
M B h . & c ; m. a partic. spell recited over weapons,
R,; a kind of metre, VarBrS.; N. of Siva, MBh.;
of one of Skanda's attendants, ib,; N, of a partic
astrol, Voga, MW.; of certain -zodiacal signs (viz.
Taurus, Leo, Scorpio, Aquarius; so called because
any work done under these signs is supposed to be
lasting), ib. (L-also *a tree; Grislea Tonientosa ;
a mountain ; a bull; a god ; the planet Saturn; final
emancipation*); (*i),f.a strong-minded woman, MW,;
the eanh, U ; Desmodium Gangetknm, L . ; Sal-
malia Malabarica,L.; Aa&j/f, L.; N.of the sound
j j Up.; ( a m ) , n. steadfastness, stubbornness, resist-
ance (acc with ava^i/tatt^JXo loosen the resist-
ance of [gen.] ;' A . 'to relai one's own resistance,
yield;' with &'/tatt A . *to offer resistance'), RV.

B t t t l A m l a ^ . { ( t . * J s & u = S / * a and originally


identical with shiira) large, thick, stout, massive,

bulky, big, huge, AV. Sec, Sec; coarse, gross, rongh
(also fig.-t'not detailed or precisely defined;' cf.
/aMd-jM*), Mn.; MBh. & c ; dense, dull, stolid,
doltish, stupid, ignorant (cf.comp.), MBh.; FaEicat.;
(in phil.) gross, tangible, material (opp. Xosiikshma,
'subtle*; ; m.Artocarpuslntegri-
foUa,U; N.of one of Siva's attendants, U ; m. n.,
fyardkarc&U; (d), f, Scindapsus Officinalis, L . ;
Cucumis Utilissimus, Us large cardamoms, U ; n.
'(he gross body (tthut<%-% Up.; MBh. Sec;
*ourmilSc,curds,L.; U ; a heap,quantity,

5tha,irya, n.firmness,hardness, solidity, Y l j a . ;

MGh. Sec.;fixedness,stability, immobility, Prab.;
BhP.; Sarvad,; calmness, uanquillity,Fancad.; con-
tinnauce, permanence, Kav.; Kathas.: steadfastness,
constancy, perseverance, patience, MBh.; R. etc.;
firm attachment to, constant delight in (loc.), Kiv. j
Smaya., m,(ifc t o ) smiling at anything, wonder,
surprise, astonishment, MBh.; Bhartf. (v,h); arro-
gance, conceit, pride in or at (comp,), Ragh,; Dai,;
BhP.; Pride (personified as the son of Dharma aud
Pushti), BhP. ~ d n & , n, an ostentatious donation,

S m j i t t , f, remembrance, reminiscence, thinking

of or upon (loc, or comp.), calling to mind {smritim

api te n a yantf, 'they are not even thought of*),
memory, T A r . ; ChUp.; MBh. &c.; memory as one
of the Vyabhiclri-bhlvas (q.v,),>t>atai,; Memory
(personified either as the daughter of Daksha and
wife of Arigirasor at the daughter of Dharma and
Medhl), Haiiv,; Pur.; the whole body of sacred
tradition or what is remembered by human teachers
(in contradistinction to irtttiot what is directly heard
nr revealed to the Rishis; in its widest acceptation
this use of the term Snifiti includes the 6 Vediftgas,
the Sutras both i r a t t t d and g r t ' A y a , the law-books
of Manu &e. [see next] ;the hihlsas [e. g, the Maha-
bhlratt and Rlmavaiia],the FurSnas and the Niti-
ilstras; / / / ' a c c o r d . t o such and such a tradi-
tional precept or legal text*), IW. 14^ 145; the
whole body of codes of law ai handed down mcmo-
riter or by tradition (esp. the codes of Mann, Yljtia-
valkya and the 16 succeeding inspired lawgivers, viz*
A tri, Vishnu, Hlrita, Uianas or^nkra, Anginas, Yama,
Apastamba, Sarpvarta, KatySyana, U[ihas-pati f

Parliara, Vyasa, Sarikha, Likhtta, Daksha and Gau-

tama ; all these lawgivers being held to be inspired
and to have based their precepts on the Veda ; cf,
IW. 203), GrirS.; Mm; Yaji). &c. j symbolical N .
for the number iS (fr. the lo" lawgivers above); a
kind of metre, L . ; N, of the letter fr Up.; desire,

V r j j t fySt, ind. (3. ag. Pot. of V i > as) i t

may be, perhaps, perchance (esp. used in Jaina wks.
and occurring in 7 formulas, T!Z 1. sydJasti, * per-
haps it is [under certain circumstances}; * a. sydn
ttdsti, * perh it is not, &c, ;* 3. sydd a i t i ca n & s t i
ca, 'perh it is and is not [under < ? f ] t 4*
avaktavyak, * perh it Is not expressible in words;
d. syadatii cdvaktavya^, 'perhaps it is and is not
expressible in words;' 6. sydrt ndsti cdvaktavyafy,
perhaps it is not and is and is not expressible 111
words Y 7. sydd asti ca ndsti tdvaktavyak),
*sT i * svd, mf(iS)n, o w n , one's o w n . my o w n ,
thy own, his own, her own, our own, their own &C.
(referringto all three persons accord to context,often
ibc,, but generally declinable like the pronominal
s<xrva> e.g. svasmai, dat. svasmdt, abl. [optionally
in abl, loc., sing., nom. pi., e.g. t a t n s h a d dsydd
asrijat, 'he created hurt from his own mouth/ Mn,
i, 94 and always like H v a when used substantively
[see below]; sometimes used loosely for * my,' *thy/
'his/ *our [e.g. r a j a bhrdtaram svfi-grtAam
prtskaydm-dsa,* the king sent hi* brother to his (i.e.
the brother**) house']; in the oblique cases it is used
as a reflexive pronoun at m a n , e.g. m a m dUska-
y a t i i 'he denies himself;* svam mndan/i,*ihty
blame themselves'), RV. Sec. &e,; m, one's self, the
Ego, the human soul, W.; N. of Vishnu, MBh.; a
man of one's own people or tribe, a kinsman, relative,
relation, friend (svd$, 'one's own relations/ * one's
own people*), AV, Sec, Sec.; (<f), f, a woman of one's
own caste, MBh.; { a m ) , n , (ifc. f.), one** self, the
Ego (e^g. svattt ca B r a h m a ca, *the Ego and Brah-
man*); oue's own goods, property, wealth, riches (in
this sense said to be also m.), RV. See. & c ; the
second astrological mansion, VarBrS.; (in alg.) plus
or the affirmative quantity, W, f Cf. Gk. ?, Sr, c$6t j
Lat, st, Sottas, s u u s ; Goth. s i & ; G t i m . sttA &c.]
(N, B. in the following comp. oaivn stands ioratu's

Svapaa, m. (once in R., u., ifc. f . d ; foT sihapna

see p. lata, col. I ) sleep, sleeping, RV. &c. & c ;
sleepiness, drowsiness, Caurap.; sleeping too much,
sloth, indolence, Mn. ix, 13 ; xii, 3 3 ; dreaming, a
dream (acc. with V-drii, Mo see a vision, dream/
R V.&c. Sec. kalpa, mfn. dream-like, R . - U m a ,

mm r u p a , n. (ife. f. a ) o own form or shape, the f or 0

sh o f (gen. or comp,; with or without i a b d a s y a or

ta&da'Sva+r ,
*z word itself or*in its own form*
[opp. to its synonyms orrarieties]; with n d m n d m
* namesthemselves ), MBh.; Pascal.; BhP, &c.;own
condition, pecuhaiity, character, nature {en J or ibc.,
'by nature,' 'in reality, * by itself), RPrat.; Nris-
Up.; Mil. (Sec; peculiar ahn.W.; kind, sori,ib,;
a partic, relation (in phil., see under sambaudha),
MW.; occurrence, event, Campak.; Uttamac;
StahSs.; mfn. having o own peculiar form or cha-
racter, M W , ; having a like natnre or ehar, similar,
like, Sfimkbyak. (w.r, for ta-r); pleasing, hand-
some (for Jrj-r), L . ; wise, learned, L . ; m, R of
a Daitya, MBh.; of a son offlu-nanda,MatkP.; of
a pupil ofCaitanya.W.; m.orn. N.of a place, Cat-;
(ii), f. N . of a place, MW,; -gata, mfn. endnwed
with oown form or nature, having a Tike character,
W.; -tits,ind. h i o own fottn, BhP.; according to
oown f, analogously, similarly* identically, MW.;
by nature, in reality, by itself, MarkP.; \^to go-
datta-prayagafc, N.of wk.); f.(or -tva, n.) the
a 4 4
slate ofo own form or nature { /qyS, literally/ in
reality ), M Bh.; BhP.; Sak.,Sch.; Sah.; the hav-
ing a natural form, identity of form or nature. W . ;
tier o-wit control. 2, B v & O n y l t y a , m. reciting or re-
peating or rehearsing to o self, repetition or recita-
tion ofthe Veda in a low voice to o>self, SBr.&e.
Sec; repeating the V aloud (acc. with caus. of v't,
J r u * to canse the V to be repeated alond '), Mn.

iii, 233 ; recitation or perusal of any sacred texts,

W.; the Veda, L . ; a day on which sacred recitation i<
resumed after its suspension, M W . ; N. of wk.; mrn.
studying the V(-Arma, perhaps w.r. for sv&dhyd-
y i ~ F \ Divyiv. j -dhyik, mfn. one who repeats 01
recites the V, A past.; ~ b r a h m a n a n. N, of ch, in

MBh.; Harjv.; m. a repeater or student of the V*
W.; "ydydrthin, ni. one who seeks a maintenance
fnr himself during hi s studentship, Mn.xi, I , J . Svfi.-
d h y R y a , Nom. P.ydyati, to study, recite, read tc
(ace.),Divyav.; SaddhP- S T & d h y a y a j i a , m , N . o l

a man ; pi, his family. Cat, Svidhyayaniia, f. a

certain portion ofa sacred work or sacred teats which
have to be repeated or studied, Divyiv. S v & d h y S -
y l n , mfn. rcpeatingor reciting the Veda, MBh.; (cf.
nitya-sv ); m. one who recites or repeats any sacred
texts to himself, (esp.) a repeater of the VedaW.; a
tradesman, shopkeeper, dealer, L. S v i l d h y S y i n i -
k l , f. svddhydyanikd, Divy&v. 8rdnsui4A, m.
delight in one s self. Cat.; -tandrikd, f. N.of wk.;
' p u r n a m. N . of an author. Cat. Bv&,

m. o own nersonal exnenenee rtrrthurvalinn. Cat.;

"*tlf ie^ svamin, m. (fr. r. sva + m i n ) art
owner, proprietor, master, lord or owner of (gen.,
loc.,otcomp.) Mn.; MBh.&c.; achief, commander

[of an army), Vikr.; Subh.; a husband, lover (du.

'husband and wife'), A past; Mm; MBh. & c ; a
king, prince (in dram, used as a form of address
ievd); a spiritual preceptor, learned Brahman or
Pandit (used as a title at the end of names, esp. of
natives ofthe Carnatk); the image or temple ofa
god (often ifc.; s S r T d h a r a - , vishnu -siP &c.); N .
;>f Skatfda, Yajft. i, *<)3; of Vishnu, L; of Siva, L.;
[>f Garu^a,L_; of the Muni Vaityapna, L; ofthe
T rth Aihat of the past UtsarpipT, 1*.; of various
mthors (also with m i i r a and i & s t r i n ; sometimes
bridged from names ending in svdfitin, e.g. for
kshtra* and tabara-sv2min) C*\,~
t 9 ( i n s ) , C, sec
I* hart, cl, 2. P . (Dhahip. xxiv, 2)
^ h a n t i ( 3, du. hatd^ 3. pi, ghnantt; rare ty
A , d/V, a. pi. g h n a U ; and cl, i+hanat Ved. also t

J i g h t i a t e i t i ; Pot.hanyat, Br. also hdnita^ghiutat

Impv.jdJtt, T A r . h a n d h i ; impf. if.iiW, Ved, and
ep, also ahattat, a h a t t a n , a g h n a n t a ; \ > > j a g h n a t t

g h n a m & n a , MBh.; ^(.jqg/idna,jdghtti^, Br.and

ep. l i z a m g k m f n f r C t S i f y . j a g k d M a t , RV.; p./w-
ghnhfds,Ved,alsojaghanv&si%Qt,ahdntt t JairoBr.
[cf. y'ttirfA]: fut. MBh.; hansyatu ik;
hanishydit, fe AV, &<.; inf. h d n t u m ^ Ved. also

h & n i a v t f t & ' v a i f t o h ; ind, p. Ved. also*/*/,

/ndj'<i, -Aatya ;~Iuxnyat M Bh.; - g h a t a m , Br.&e.),
, to strike, beat (also a dram), poand, hammer (acc.),
strike &c, upon (loc,), RV. &c. & c ; to smile, slay,
hit, kill, mar, destroy, ib.; to put to death, eatise to
! be executed, M11.; Hit.; to strike off, Kathis,^ to
ward off, avert, MBh,; to hurt, wound (the heart),
i R . ; to hurl (a dart) upon (gen.), RV.; (in astron.)
to touch, come into contact, VarBrS*; to obstruct,
hinder, Rajat.; to repress, give up, abandon (anger,
! sorrow flee), K i v . ; BhP.; (?)to go, move, Naigh.
; ii, t 4 ; Pass, h a n y d t e (ep, a)so/s; aor. a v a d h i or

t, S5au>, n. the act of abandoning, relinquishing,

giving npj escaping, getting rid of, Gaut.; Samk.;
Sarvad.; want, lack, Kap,; cessation, ib,; Bh*nr,(?J.)
I. hiss (orig, Doaid. of \ f h a n ) cl. t

i . 7. P. (Dhatup. xxix, 19; I . I K L V , 33)

kipsali, hindsti (Ved. and ep. alto A , h i u s a U ,
hif/s/e; a. sg. Ai'ffJi for hinassi, MBh. iii, 13269;
y L j i A ? & s a *sitnd, j i A i & s i f t , AV.; aor.
t ahiusit,
hittsit, RV. & c ; fui. hirjsi/d, Gr.; htzjsishyatl,
U Br. dec,; inf. h i $ s i l u m [Ved. also
r Ai/tsi(o^] t

ib.; ind.p. J t i n r i t o a , AV.; Br.; -hiQsytt, MBh.),

lo injure, harm, wound, kill, destroy, RV. &c. ic
Pits, hissyafe (aor. a^rffjj), lobe injured or killed,
RV. (in d'hiQJyamdna) & c : Cans, or cL 10. P.
(Dhatup. 11 ativ, 13) Junsayaii(aor. ajihi$sat),\o
injure, harm, kill, slay, MBh.: Desid. jlhinsishatit

to wish to injure dec,, SBr.; Intern;, j t h i n . i y a t e 9

j t h i & s t i , Gr.
a. Kins, mfn. injuring, striking (see sifhtQs).
Hiiisa, mfn, injuring, injurious, mischievous,
hostile, R V , ; ( d ) , f., sec b c W
HiriBftka., mfn. ~ prec., Yajfi.; MBh. &c.; m,
(only L.) a noxious animal, beast of prey; an enemy;
a Brahman skilled in the magical lexuof the Athar-
va-veda (ct k i n i d - k u r n t a r f ) ,
ninaana,, m, in enemy, L . ; n. the act of hurt-
ing, injuring, killing, slaying, Mn,; MBh, 5cc.
H[nsamya, mfn. to be hurt or injured, MBh.;
to be killed (as cattle), Kull. on Mn. F , 41.
H i ^ i E , f. injury, harm (to life or property), hurt,
mischief, wrong (said to be of three kinds, 1. mental,
as bearing malice.; 3verbal, as 'abusive language;
4 1

3. personal, as 'acts of violence'), Mn.; Yajfi.;MBh.

dec; Injury or Mischief personified fas the wife of
AdhamiaandiughteroFl^bhaandNishkriti), Pur,;

Hridajsv, n. (ifc f. d) the heart (or region of the

heart as the scat of feelinc* and sensations; kyidayt
* / h r i to take to heart ), soul, mind (as the seat

of mental operations; eaalft-hridaya, * fickle-

minded RV. &c. dec.; the heart or interior of the
body, RV.; AV.; TBr.; MBh.; the heart or centre
or core or essence or best or Nearest or most secret
part of anything, AV. Sec. Sec.; true or divine know-
ledge, MW.; the Veda, ib.; science, ib.; (with/Vo-
j d p a i e h ) ^ , o i 7 Siman, IndSt.; m. a partic.Sunday,
BhavP,; (d), f, N . of a mare, Hariv.; mfn. going to
the heart, BhagP. (fr. h r i d + aya Sch.) - Tramps,
K t t t i , m.* impulse /motive, cause, cause of, reason
for (loc,, rarely dat, or gen*; he/uftd hetoh,
t hefavt,
hetau, 'for a cause or reason/ * by reason of/ ' on
account of* [with gen, or comp,, eg. mama hctoh
or ntad-dhctoh, * on account of me *]; kam Actum or
kohetuk, * wherefore?* 'why?* Pan. ii,3,33, Pat.;
yato httoh, * because;' anena hetund oi i t i hctoh,
for this reason;' mrttyu~hctave, * in order to kill;*
hetur a l a u k i k a h , * a supernatural cause;* ifc.httu
a bo "'having as a cause or motive/ 'caused or ef-
fected or actuated or attracted or impelled by / e, g.
k a r m a - h e t U f 'caused by the acts [ofa former exist-
ence]/ Mn. i, 49; mazta-hetu,' attracted by [the
smell of] flesh,' MBh. x, 496; karma-phata-hctu,
'impelledby [theexpectation of] the consequences
of any act/ BhP, li,47; 49)* * eVc.eVc.; a logical
reason or deduction or argument, the reason for an
inference (esp. applied to the second member or
Avayava of thefive-meroberedsyllogism, see nyd-
y a ) , Nyflyad.; I W . 6 l ; logic (in general, sec httit-
vtdya)\ (in gram.) the agent of the causal verb,
Fan. i, 4, 55 &c.; (with Buddhists) primary cause
(as opp. t o f r a i y a y a , q.v.), Sarvad.; (with Pasu-
patas) that which causes the bondage of the soul,
i.e. the external world and the senses, ib.; a means
{hcUibhiht ifc. *by means o f ) , MBh.; mode,
manner (hetubhih, ifc * according to *), ib.; Suir.;
Yajfi,; price, cost, Rajat, v, 71; condition, MBh.;
(in r h e t . ) k d v y a - U H g a (q.vO, Bhar.; Kpr.; Sah.
tS, f., -tva, n. the state of being a hefu, causa-
tion,causativeness,existencc of cause or motive, Kav.;
Kathls.; Sarvad.; (-tmy&Aandana, n . N . of wk.

c o J t 0
l. H7a, mfn. (for a. see p. 1397, '* )
gone & c , MW.
HI 3. ha cl. 3. P . (Dhitup. X X V , 8)
t jdhati
(rarely cl. i . j a h a f i } 3. du. jahjtah, Impv.
j ^ f t j [or jahdhiy Pin. vi, 4,117I; JaATt&f, AV.;

ytf/5<r, Br.; aor. tf&tf, ib. & c ; ahd&U, Gr.; 3. sg.

ahds, RV,; <Mor/, AV.; AdstsAfa, ib.; fut. ArtAF,
Gr,; Adsyatitt AV. &c.; jaAisAyafi,
t MBh. &c.;
inf. Ad/um, ib.; ind, p. ArrW fq,v.], RV. &c,j Ai/p/,

(with ior T r a m , deham, prdndn, d$utt

t pvxtam
Sec* to die'), RV. &c,&c; to discharge, emit, ib,;
to put away, take off, remove, lay aside, give op, re-
nounce, resign, avoid, shun, abstain or refrain from,
Mn.; MBh. dec; to disregard, neglect, ib.; to lose,
be deprived of, R.; Kam.; to getridof, escape from,
Up.; MBh. dec; to cause to emit (with SardAam,
* to cause to break w i n d V o p . i Pas*. Atydtt or
Aiyalt (ep, also Atyafi; aor, ahdyi), to be left or
abandoned or deserted &c.; to be left behind, fall
short of (abl,), RV, dec Sec*, to be excluded from
or bereft of (abl. or instr.; w i t h p r d n a i ^ * to die*),

KafhUp.; M n . ; MBb. & c ; to be overtaken by

(instr.), MBh,; 10 be deficient or wanting, suffer loss
or Injury, fail (also in a lawsuit), decrease, wane, de-
cline, come to an end, ChUp.; Mn.; MBh. dice; to
weigh less (at the ordeal ofthe balance), Yajn., Sen.;
to be given up or avoided, Bhartj. (v.I.); to be sub-
tracted, VarBrS. ; to become detached from (with abl.
or instr.), fall out (as hair), BhP.: Caus. kdpayaii
(m,c also /*, aor. ajtAapat; -jTAipaA, RV.), to
cause to leave or abandon dec; to omit, neglect, Ma,;
MBh. dec; to fall short of, be wanting In (acc),
MBh.; give up (asun, 'life*), Hariv.; to
lose { k d l a m f time '),Klm.; to abandon ( f r a / $ j H d i r tt
a thesis'), Jatakam.: Dcsid. jiAdsaii, to wish to
leave or abandon, Daf.; BhP.; HParifc.; to wish to
reject or disdain, Prab.; to wish to escape, Sarvad.;
Intern. JeAtyate, jdA5fi jdAe(i
t t Gr.

2. Hay a, mfn. (tor r. and 3. see p. 1296 and 1304)

to be left or quitted or abandoned or rejected or avoided
(Wtuz, n,), Kiv,; Kathas. Sec \ to be subtracted, L .
TEH*? h l & d {cf. * / h r a d ) c l . i , A . ( D h a t u p .

W V ii, J6) htedate (perhipi orig. to mike 1

a cry of joy ' \ to be glad or rcfresHed, rejoice, Nir.;

MBh,; tosoand, <hou.t (forjoy), ib.; Caus. tildda-
yati^te^atov.ajihiaa'at; t?ui.aMda'ayisA&/a Dit.' l l

Uli u ), toretresh, gladden,exhilarate, deljgh^TAr.;

MBh.; R.3rc. [Cf.Gk Wx l * X f*'iO!d
A a 5 o 0 J u

Germ. ; Eixg.^(W.]
HLatU, Uanxi*, blssciil. tfee f r a - h P
Hilda, m . refreshment, pleasure, gladnes, joy,
delight, R . i VarBrS. &cv, N.of a son of Hiranta*
kaiipu { = and v.l. for k r d d a ) , VP.