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UBURYO BUBONEYE BWO GUSARURA, GUTUNGANYA,

GUHUNIKA NO KWINAZA IMBUTO ZIBITI

Inyigisho yegeranijwe na: Bizeye Barnab

PROGARAMU YUBUSHAKASHATSI KUMASHYAMBA NIBITI BIVANGWA NIMYAKA


RWANDA AGRICULTURE BOARD (RAB)

Huye, Gicurasi, 2017


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GUSARURA NO GUTUNGANYA IMBUTO ZIBITI

Itangiriro

Isarura ryimbuto ni umurimo mwiza kandi uhenze usaba ubwitonzi byumwihariko cyane cyane
mukuwutegura no kuwushyira mubikorwa kuko niwo ntandaro yubwiza cg ububi bwigiti
kizazikomokaho.

Uyumurimo utandukana bitewe:

ubwoko bwibiti;

akarere gasarurwamo cg igihe cyisarura;

uburyo buzakoreshwa.

1. Ibiranga imbuto nziza:

Kuba ifite ubushobozi bwo kubaho igihe gihagije;

Kuba ikomoka ku giti kitarwaye cyangwa gifite ubundi busembwa; kandi cyindobanure;

Kuba itarwaye kandi itagaragaramo udukoko cyangwa indi myanda;

Kuba ifite ubushobozi buhambaye bwo kumera;

Kuba ishobora kubikwa igihe kinini ntiyangirike;

Kuba ifite ubushobozi bwo guhangana nindwara.

Kuba itavangavanze.

2. Kugirango imbuto ibe nziza ibikesha iki?

Kuba yarasaruwe yeze neza

Kuba yareze kugiti cyindobanure

Kuba yarasuzumwe kandi ikemezwa nikigo kibifite mushingano zacyo. Mu Rwanda ni CGF
(Ikigega cyImbuto zAmashyamba).

Kuki bishoboka ko imbuto zitari nziza zikoreshwa ?

Kutita ku kamaro kimbuto zibereye,

Ubuke bwimbuto nziza,

Kutagira ahantu hateguriwe gutangimbuto nziza,

Amashyamba meza yarononekaye bitewe nuko ibiti byiza bitemwa, hagasigara ibiti bibi ari
nabyo bisarurwaho imbuto,
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Abasaruzi bimbuto cyimwe nabandi bakora mu mirimo yimbuto zibiti muri rusange ntibafite
ubumenyi buhagije

Kutagira ubufatanye bwiza hagati yibigo bya leta bitandukanye namashyirahamwe yikorera mu
buryo bwo kongera umusaruro wimbuto nziza no kuzikoresha

Kuba kugeza ubu nta gashimwe kagenerwa umuntu cyangwa ishyirahamwe ryaba ritanga imbuto nziza
zimbuto zibiti.

Ubwiza bwimbuto zibiti

Ubwiza bwimbuto bufatwa mu buryo butatu:

Ubwiza bugaragara (physical quality): ubwiza bwerekanwa nibimenyetso bigaragara nkubunini,


uko ziba zisa (color), igihe ziba zimaze (age), uko igishishwa kiba kimeze, kugaragaza indwara
cyangwa ukundi kononekara.

Ubwiza mu mikurire (physiological quality): ubwiza bwimbuto bujyanye nibimenyetso


byimikurire nkigikuriro (maturity) cyangwa kuba zishobora kuba zamera (germination ability).

Ubwiza bujyanye nimiterere kamere/nkomoko (genetic quality): ubwiza kamere imbuto zikomora
ku biti zisarurwaho.

Twibutse ko aho imbuto zibiti zishobora kuboneka (seed sources) ari:

Ku biti byihariye (seed trees)

Ku maparcelles yihariye yibiti byimbuto (seed stands)

Ku maparcelles ateye ukwayo yimbuto (seed/clonal orchards)

GUHITAMO IBITI BISARURWAHO IMBUTO/UMURAMA

Gutoranya ibiti byo gusaruraho imbuto

Gutoranya neza ibiti bigenewe kuzasarurwaho imbuto bifasha cyane guhorana umusaruro wimbuto
mwiza.

Ingingo zikurikira zishobora gufasha muriki gikorwa:


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Bishobotse ibiti byimbuto byatoranywa mu biti biteye ahantu haringaniye.

Ku hantu hatandukanye (hatareshya), itandukaniro ryaho biteye rigira uruhare mu mikurire yabyo.

Mu gihe cyo guhitamo, igiti kigereranywa na bigenzi byacyo. Ibyitabwaho: ubwiza no


kugororoka kwigihimba, uburebure no kuba kitarangwaho ibimenyetso byuburwayi.

Si byiza gutoranya igiti cyitaruye ku bindi biba bisangiye ubwoko kuva kuli 100m. Akenshi
mwene ibi biti biba byaravuye mu kwifumbira kwindabyo (selfing or self-pollination), ari nabyo
bitanga ibiti biba bitazakura neza kandi bitazihanganira indwara kimwe nibindi bizazane.

Umubare wibiti bitoranwa byo gusarurwaho

Kugirango tugumane imiterere kamere yigiti runaka, ni ngombwa ko imbuto zasarurwa ku biti
byinshi, nibura kuva kuri 30.

Ibyo biti byagombye kuba bitegeranye cyane, nibura bitandukanye kuri cm 50. Iyo byegeranye
munsi yiyi ntera, biba bishoboka ko byaba bivukana bityo imiterere kamere nkomoko ikaba ijya
gusa.

Imbuto zizava kuri ibyo biti byatoranijwe gusarurwaho imbuto byegeranye biba bifite
gutandukana guke (narrow genetic base).

Iyo bene ibi biti bitewe, bitanga ibiti bidafite ubwiza bushakwa, kudakura neza, kutihanganira
indwara nibindi

Akamaro ku bwiza bwibiti bibangikanye nibyatoranijwe gusarurwaho imbuto

Ubwiza bugaragara bwimbuto zibiti buba bwitaweho hakurikije ibimenyetso byigiti ngore
(mother tree).

Ibimenyetso bikomoka ku giti ngabo ntibiba byitaweho kuko kitaba kizwi.

Ibiti byo mu bwoko bumwe bizengurutse aho hafi igiti cyakuweho imbuto ari byo biba birimo
igiti ngabo kiba cyaratanze umusemburo.
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Kugirango umuntu yongere amahirwe yo gusarura imbuto nziza zizatanga ibiti bifite inkomoko nziza,
hakenewe ko ibiti byimbuto byatoranwa mwishyamba riba rikozwe nibiti bimeze neza. Kuko iyo igiti
cyimbuto kizengurutswe nibiti byerekana ubwiza, ibizagikomokaho nabyo bizaba bifite ubwiza.

Iyo igiti (ngore) gisaruweho imbuto gikikijwe nibiti byiza: ibizagikomokaho bishobora kuzerekana
ibimenyetso byubwiza nkomoko

Iyo igiti (ngore) cyasaruweho imbuto gikikijwe nibiti byiza nibibi: ibizagikomokaho bishobora kuzaba
byiza cyangwa bibi

Iyo igiti (ngore) cyasaruweho imbuto gikikijwe nibiti bibi byinshi: ibizagikomokaho bishobora
kuzerekana ibimenyetso byububi nkomoko

Ibyo kwitabwaho mu guhitamo ibiti bitanga imbuto

Ku biti byimbaho:

Uburebure buringaniye nubunini buhagije bwigihimba

Igihimba kigororotse

Amashami ateye neza, adafite ibishami binini cyangwa ibihimba bibiri


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Kuba nta ndwara igaragaraho

Kuba gikuze ku buryo cyatanga imbuto zihagije

Ku biti bigaburirwa amatungo cyangwa byaterwa ku mirwanyasuri:

Kuba birangwa no gukura vuba

Kuba bifite ibibabi byiza kandi byinshi

Kuba byihutira gushibuka (coppice)

Kuba nta ndwara zigaragaraho

Kuba gikuze ku buryo cyatanga imbuto zihagije

Ku biti byimbuto ziribwa:

Kuba gifite imikurire myiza

Kuba gifite imbuto nziza, nini kandi nyinshi

Amashami ateye neza kandi atereye hasi

Kuba nta ndwara zigaragaraho

Kuba gikuze ku buryo cyatangimbuto zihagije

3. Ibimenyetso byerekana imbuto zibiti zeze:

- Guhindura ibara,
- Iyo ugereranije izeze nizitarera usanga izeze ari nto kurusha izitarera,
- Imbuto zeze usanga kuzisaturisha urwara biruhije,
- Urubuto rweze akenshi ubona rushaka gusaduka cyane cyane ruhereye kumutwe.

4. Ibyitonderwa mu gusarura:

1. Imbuto nziza zisarurwa ku biti byindobanure gusa,

2. Si byiza gutema amashami yigiti ngo ubone imbuto bitakugoye.(Ese wayatema none ejo
wazatema ayahe?)
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3. Kirazira kuvanga amoko anyuranye mukintu kimwe.

4. Sibyiza gusarura kumashami yo hasi ngo kuko ataruhije.

. Uburyo bunyuranye bwo gusarura imbuto:

Gutoragura hasi izihanuye,

Kurira igiti bisanzwe cg ukoresheje urwego ugasoroma,

Kunyeganyeza igiti cg gukubita imbuto zikagwa ugatoragura,

Gusarura kugiti watemye.

5.1 Gutoragura imbuto zihanuye ubwazo

5.2 Kuzegeranya mbere yo kuziyora

5.3 Gusasa ikintu zikaza zigwaho

5.4 Gukubita imbuto zigahanuka


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5.5 Gusoroma kubiti bigufi

5.6 Gukurura amashami ukoresheje isando

5.7 Guhanura imbuto nurushanguruzo


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5.8 Kugonda amashami ukoresheje umugozi

5.9 Kurira igiti ukakizunguza

5.10 Kurira ukoresheje urwego

6. Imirimo ikorerwa imbuto zibiti nyuma yo gusarurwa:

Kuzitwara aho zitunganyirizwa

Gutonorwa cyangwa guhurwa

Kumishwa (urugero: kwanika kuzuba)

Gusukurwa (Kugosorwa, kuyungururwa cyangwa gutoranwa)

7. Ibyagufasha kwitwararika kutavangavanga imbuto:

- Buri bwoko bwimbuto butwarwa ukwabwo;

- Kwandika umwirondoro uhagije kuri buri bwoko butwarwa;


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- Kwirinda ikintu cyose cyatera ubwoko bunyuranye kwivanga mugihe cyo gupakira no
gupakurura.

8. Imirimo ikorerwa imbuto zibiti nyuma yo gusarurwa:

Kuzitwara aho zitunganyirizwa

Gutonorwa cyangwa guhurwa

Kumishwa (urugero: kwanika kuzuba)

Gusukurwa (Kugosorwa, kuyungururwa cyangwa gutoranwa)

8.1 Gutwara imbuto aho zitunganyirizwa

Umurama winturusu,sipure, karitirisi kimwe nizindi mbuto zinyanyagirika kuburyo bworoshye


zisarurirwa mu mifuka nibitebo zikajyanwa aho zumishirizwa.

Imbuto zigomba gutwarwa mugikoresho gifite ubushobozi bwo kuzirinda gutakara munzira zinyuzwamo
kandi kinazirinda kuba zakwandura indwara cyangwa indi myanda nudukoko mugihe zijyanwa
kwanikwa.

8.2. Ibigomba kwitabwaho:

Kuzirinda gufurika:

- Kwirinda kuzitwara umwanya munini zijya aho zumishirizwa;

- Kuzipakurura vuba cyane iyo zifite ubukonje;

- Kuzipakururira ahantu hadafunganye kandi hari umwuka mwiza;

Kuzirinda indwara:

- Kuzitwara mugikoresho gisukuye;

- Kuzipakururira ahantu hatari udukoko cyangwa ibimenyetso byindwara.

9. Kuzikura mu bishishwa

Bitewe nubwoko imbuto zishobora kuvanwa mugishishwa cyangwa umubiri uzifubika mbere yo
kwanikwa.

Ingero: Podocarpus usambarensis, Aberia caffra, Maesopsis eminii, Symphonia globulifera, nibindi.

Hari izigomba kubanza guca kukazuba kugirango ibizifubika bisaduke zibone gukunkumurwa
zisohoke.

Ingero: Eucalyptus ssp, Cypres, Callitris, nibindi.


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Hari izo hitabazwa icyuma cyangwa ikindi gikoresho cyo kuzitonora nkisekuru no kuzikubitira
mumufuka kugirango imbuto zisohoke.

Ingero: Acacia mearnsii, Acacia melanoxylon, Sesbania sesban, Jacaranda mimosaefolia, nibindi.

10. Gusukura imbuto

Nyuma yo kuzivana mubifubiko byazo imbuto zikenera gusukurwa:

- Hari izitoranwa nintoki,Urugero: Jacaranda sp; Callitris sp; Markhamia sp,

-Iziyungururwa cyangwa kugosorwa, Urugero: Eucalyptus sp; Casuarina sp; Alnus sp; Grevillea sp;
Cedrela sp,

-Hari nizicishwa mumazi hagatandukanywa izireremba nizibira mumazi, Urugero: Senna siamea;
Leucaena diversifolia; Acacia melanoxylon; Acacia mearnsii.

10.1 Impamvu zisukurwa:

- Gutandukanya izakomeretse nimbuto nziza;

- Gukuramo imbuto zingurukizi;

- Kuvanamo umwanda nibisigazwa byibifubika imbuto cyangwa umukungugu;

- Gukuramo imbuto zifite ubusembwa.

11. Kumisha imbuto zibiti

Imbuto zishobora kumishwa mbere cyangwa nyuma yo kuvanwa mubishishwa byazo, biterwa nubwoko
bwibiti zikomokaho.

Imbuto zigomba kwanikwa ahantu hisanzuye kandi hasukuye zikanakorakorwa kenshi kugirango zume
neza kandi zidasigana.

Imbuto zigomba kurindwa ubukonje ubwaribwo bwose mugihe cyo kumishwa.

11.1 Uburyo bunyuranye bwo kumisha imbuto

Uburyo bumenyerewe ni ukwanika ku zuba bimwe bisanzwe bya gihanga ari nabwo bwiza kugeza ubu,
ubundi buryo bukoreshwa ni ukumisha hakoreshejwe ingufu zibyazwa mumirasire yizuba, no gushyira
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imbuto mubyuma bitanga ubushyuhe bwinshi (Etuve). Uburyo bwose bukoreshejwe ntibugomba kurenza
400c zubushyuhe kuko aribwo bwinshi urubuto rushobora kwihanganira.

11.2 Imbuto zumishwa mu gihe kingana gite?

Biterwa nubwoko bwigiti imbuto zikomokaho. Bigaterwa nanone nikirere cyahantu namasaha zimara
kuzuba kumunsi. Gusa imbuto zigomba kuma zigasigarana amazi atarengeje igipimo cya 10% kugira ngo
zizabashe guhunikwa nta mpungenge ko zakwangirika mbere yigihe cyateganijwe.

Icyitonderwa: Muri icyo gihe cyose imbuto zimara zumishwa zigomba kudatandukana nurupapuro
rugaragara ho imyirondoro yazo.

Nyuma yo kumishwa no gukorerwa isuku ihagije imbuto zipfunyikwa mubikoresho byazigenewe


zikabikwa neza, cyangwa zigashyikirizwa abazikeneye.

GUHUNIKA IMBUTO

Ibiti bifite uruhare runini cyane mu mibereho yabaturage nibinyabuzima

Abantu bakenera umusaruro unyuranye ukomoka ku biti: inkwi, imbaho, imbuto ziribwa, imiti,
ubwatsi bwamatungo, kurwanya isuri no gutanga ifumbire, ...

Mu Rwanda, ubuso bwamashyamba bwiyongeraho 8% buri mwaka bivuye ku gikorwa cyo


gutera ibiti

Iterwa ryamashyamba rikenera imbuto zamoko yibiti atandukanye

Ibura ryazo rituma abantu bakoresha izibonetse izo arizo zose, nta kwita ku ngaruka yabyo

Guhunika imbuto bifasha kubona imbuto igihe ziba zikenewe gukoreshwa.

Iyo imbuto zidahunitse neza zipfa vuba cyane. Kugira ngo imbuto zihunikwe igihe
kirekire,zigomba guhunikwa neza.
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Hari ibibazo umuntu yagombye kujya yibaza mbere yuko ahunika imbuto :

- Kubere iki mpunika imbuto?

- Nigute natunganya imbuto mbere yo kuzihunika?

- Nahunika gute imbuto orthodox?

- Nahunika gute imbuto intermidiate?

- Nahunika gute imbuto recalcitrant?

- Nagabanya gute ubuhehere?

Kubera iki mpunika imbuto?

Imbuto zihunikwa ku mpamvu zitandukanye. Ariko impamvu zose ziganisha mukuzibika


kugirango zizakoreshwe mugihe kiri imbere.

Impamvu nyayo yo guhunika imbuto ni ukugirango zigumane ubushobozi bwo kumera kugera
igihe zizatererwa. Izindi mpamvu ni;

Kwiteganyiriza ku biti byera rimwe mu gihe kirekire cyangwa se hari igihe igiti gishobora kwera
imbuto nyinshi umwaka umwe ubundi kikera imbuto nkeya.

Kubungabunga ibiti bicika; Ariko hano bisaba ko imbuto zabikwa igihe kirekire hakoreshejwe
ibikoresho bihambaye nka za congelateur zifite ubukonje buri munsi ya (-5 kugera -30 c).

Gutegura igihe cyitera; Hari igihe usanga hari igihe kirekire hagati yigihe cyisarura n icyo gutera
,bikagusaba kuzihunika kugeza icyo gihe.

Kwitegura ikenerwa ryimbuto; Imbuto zishobora kudakenerwa igihe uzisaruye. Ugomba rero
kuzihunika kugira ngo igihe zizakenerwa uzabe uzifite.

Uburyo bwo guhunika

Imbuto zibiti zibikwa mu buryo bunyuranye:

Mu mashyamba yamaterano

CGF ifite amaparcelles yimbuto agera kuri 80 mu gihugu hose, amenshi ni akomoka hanze

Arboretum yi Ruhande igize ikigega kidakama cyimbuto zamoko anyuranye yibiti biterwa mu
Rwanda, ari ayo hanze nkinturusu cyangwa aya cyimeza

Mu mashyamba cyimeza

Hari amoko menshi abitswe mu mashyamba cyimeza yu Rwanda nka Nyungwe.

Ayo ni nkUmusave, Umuyove, Umukereko, Umutiti, Umushwati, Umunege, Umwungo...


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Imbuto zisaruye

Muri ubu buryo hari amoko abikwa mu buryo busanzwe nandi akenera kubikwa mu bukonje
(Chambre froide cyangwa Congelateur) bungana na 0-5C.

Uburyo bwoguhunika amoko atandukanye yimbuto

Ihunikwa ryimbuto rishobora kugabanywa mu byiciro bitatu ukurikije ubwoko nigihe


zahunikwa.

Ibi byiciro bikwereka uburyo ki ushobora guhunika amoko yimbuto atandukanye.

Imbuto zononekara vuba cyane (recalcitrant)

Zanikwa mu gicucu kugirango byibuze zigumane ubuhehere bugera kuri 20 40% kugirango
zibeho neza.

Zibikwa mu bushyuhe bugera kuri 12 15c. Mu bikoresho bisanzwe ntizibikika mu gihe


kirekire.

Nibyiza kuzitera zikimara gusarurwa. Ingero; Umwungo (polyscias fulva), Umwumba (Prunus
africana), Mwarobaini (Azadirachta indica)

Imbuto zononekara vuba (intermidiate)

Izi mbuto zanikwa mu gicucu cyangwa se ahantu hari umuyaga byibuze umunsi umwe kugera
kuri itatu.
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Zanikwa mugihe kidakabije cyane kugira ngo byibuze zisigarane ubuhehere bwa 15-19%.

Ingero; Alinusi (Alnus acuminata), Sederela (Cedrela serrata), Greveliya (Grevillea robusta),
Umusave (Markhamia platycalix)

Imbuto zitinda kwononekara (orthodox)

Zanikwa ku zuba risanzwe byibuze iminsi 2 kugeza ku buhehere bwa 5 8 %.

Zishobora na none kwanikwa hejuru yumuriro (Umwotsi niwo uzumisha), ariko ukirinda ko
zishyuha cyane zigapfa.

Ingero; Ibinyabisogwe hafi ya byose, Umuyove (Entandrophragma excelsum), Umufu


(Podocarpus falcatus), Umuhumuro (Maesopsis eminii)

N.B. Ushobora kurwanya udukoko twica imbuto ukoresheje amababi ya neem cyangwa se
ukazivanga nivu ryibiti bisanzwe mbere yo kuzihunika.

Buri gikoresho gihunitsemo imbuto kigomba kugira ibimenyetso bibiri. Kimwe imbere nikindi
gifatishijwe hanze biriho :Izina ryimbuto, igihe zasaruwiweho, umubare wibiti byasaruwe, aho
zasaruwe, ibiro nuwa zisaruye.

Nazibika igihe kingana iki?

Igihe imbuto zishobora kugumana ubushobozi bwo kumera buhagije gishobora gutandukana
bitewe nubwoko ndetse naho izo mbuto zasaruwe.

Igihe imbuto zishobora kugumana ubushobozi bwo kumera giterwa cyane cyane nuburyo
zihunitsemo.

Nabika gute imbuto orthodox?

Izi mbuto zihunikwa mu bikoresho bisukuye kandi bipfundikiye neza

Ibikoresho byuzuzwamo imbuto hanyuma bigapfundikirwa neza.

Iyo zumye neza zishobora kubikwa munzu bisanzwe. Zishobora kubikwa nanone igihe kirekire
ahantu hafutse "congelateur ifite ubukonje (0-5c) cyangwa se munsi ya (-20c)

Ubushobozi bwo kumera bushobora kongerwa ugabanyije ubehehere bwimbuto ukanagabanya


ubushyuhe bwaho zihunitse.

Hari itegeko ryitwa irya thumb rivuga ko imimerere yimbuto ishobora kwikuba kabiri igihe
ubuhehere bugabanyijwe kuri 1% munsi ya 14% -15% byubuhehere bwemewe muguhunika
imbuto neza.

Nukuvuka ko niba imbuto zagombaga guhunikwa imyaka 2 ku buhehere bwa 14% hanyuma
ukabugabanya kugaza 13%,ubwo izo mbuto zizabikwa imyaka 4.
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Iryo tegeko kandi rivuga ko imimerere yimbuto zihunitse ishobora kwikuba kabiri igihe
ugabanyije ubushyuhe kuri 5c.

Muri make imbuto orthodox zihunikwa ku buhehere bwa 5-8% no ku bushyuhe bwa 0-5c

Nabika gute imbuto intermidiate

Izi mbuto zishobora kwihanganira ubuhehere buri munsi ya (<12%), ariko ntizishobora
kwihanganira ubushyuhe buri munsi ya (5c).

Nyuma yuko ubuhehere bwizo mbuto bugabanywa, zigomba kubikwa mubikoresho bisukuye
kandi bipfundikiye neza mu minsi (4-6).

Nabika gute imbuto reculcitrant?

Zihunikwa zifite ubuhehere buri hejuru. Zishobora kubikwa mu gihe cycyumweru cyangwa
bibiri.

Kugira ngo zigumane ubuhehere bwazo, izi mbuto zishobora kuvangwa nibarizo

UMWIRONDORO WIMBUTO ZIBITI (DOCUMENTATION)

Ni byiza ko imbuto zibiti zisaruwe zigira umwirondoro uzimenyekanisha.

Kugira ngo ubone imbuto zindobanure hagomba kwifashishwa inzandiko zumwirondoro.

Iri somo riratwereka impamvu umwirondoro wimbuto ari ngombwa rikanatwereka niyo
myirondoro ubwayo.

Kubera iki umwirondoro wimbuto ukorwa?

Mu gukora umwirondoro, uba uhaye agatsiko kimbuto ibimenyetso bijyanye nubwoko, aho
zasaruwe,italiki zasaruwewo,nuburyo zasaruwe.

Nibyiza guha umubare ufite icyo usobanuye ku gatsiko kimbuto. Urugero calcalo-gisa-08-
1.(Calliandra calothyrsus zasaruwe gisasagara muri 2008, isarurwa ryambere).

Umwirondoro ufasha mugutegura isarura ryubutaha.

Umwirondoro ukoze neza ushobora gufasha mukumenya uburyo ki stock yawe imeze utiriwe
ujyamo cyangwa se ubifate mumutwe.

Ushobora no gufasha igihe habaye impinduka zabakozi.

N.B. Ugomba kubika imyirondoro yawe yimbuto neza ukanagira indi nkayo ibitse ahandi kugira
ngo habaye impanuka yumuriro cyangwa ubujura ushobore kuba wayibona ahandi.

Ni iyihe myirondoro ikoreshwa mu gutungaya imbuto?

1. Umwirondoro waho imbuto zasaruwe (seed source documentation):


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Amazina yubwoko bwimbuto

Kumenyekanisha neza aho imbuto zasaruwe (ubutumburuke, ubushyuhe, imvura, ubwoko


bwubutaka, etc.)

Kugaragaza neza aho imbuto zasaruwe :

- Ku biti byatoranijwe (seed trees)

- Ku maparcelles yihariye yibiti byimbuto (seed stands)

- Ku maparcelles ateye ukwayo yimbuto (seed/clonal orchards)

Umubare wibiti bisaruweho

Umwaka wbiti byaho wasaruye

2. Umwirondoro wo gusarura no gutunganya imbuto:

Amazina yubwoko bwimbuto (botanical and local names)

Igihe imbuto zasaruwemo

Aho imbuto zasaruwe (ubwoko bwinkomoko)

Umubare wibiti imbuto zasaruweho

Umwanya utandukanya ibiti byasaruweho

Ikigero (ibiro) byimbuto zasaruwe

Amazina yabasaruye

3. Umwirondoro wo guhunika imbuto:

Numero yagatsiko kimbuto

Amazina yubwoko bwimbuto

Ibiro bihunitswe

4. Umwirondoro wo kugemura imbuto:

Amazina yubwoko bwimbuto

Ibiro bikenewe

Ibiro bitanzwe

Numero yagatsiko kimbuto zitanzwe

Italiki zigemuweho
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Imimerere nisuku yazo

GUTUNGANYA IMBUTO MBERE YO KUZIBIBA

Impamvu

Imbuto zishobora kuba zamera ariko kubera kugira igihu gikomeye ntizimere cyangwa se
zikamera nkeya cyangwa bitinze.

Hari ni mbuto ziba zigeze mu gihe zitamera (dormance)

Gutunganya umwayi byihutisha imimerere yimboto kandi hakamera nyinshi

Uburyo bukoreshwa

Kwinika imbuto mu mazi ashyushye

Kwinika imbuto muri acide sulfurique

Kumena igihu cyurubuto

Gushishura ku gihu cyurubuto

Guhugutisha imbuto

1. Kwinika mu mazi ashyushye

Gushyushya amazi akatura (80oC)

Ubu buryo bukoreshwa cyane ku mbuto zibinyamisogwe: Caliyandara, Lesena, Mimosa


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Iyo umwayi umaze amasaha 24 mu mazi usanga igihu cyinuma cyatumbye, cyoroshye kuburyo
imbuto zidatinda kumera

2. Gukoresha acide sulfurique


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21

4. Guhugutisha imbuto

Gushishura ku gihu cyurubuto

Ubuhumbikiro
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Gutegura ubuhumbikiro

Guhinga bacoca amanonko manini kandi bakuramo ibyatsi bibi. Iyo ubutaka bugizwe nibumba
ryinshi, ni ngombwa kubworoshya hakoreshejwe umucanga nifumbire yimborera.

Kuringaniza ubutaka (hakoreshejwe rteau), kubuyungurura niba ari ngombwa kugirango


haboneke ubutaka buseye.

Guhumbika (Kwinaza cg gufumbira)

Kunyanyagiza imbuto mu mutabo (Broadcasting): butanga ingemwe nyinshi ku buso


butoya. Icyo gihe utugemwe dukura neza kuko tuba tigiye dutandukanye.

Ubu buryo bukoreshwa neza ku moko yimbuto atinda kumera, nko ku biti bigira amababi.

Urugero: Gereveliya, Cederela,....

Ibibi byubu buryo ni uko imirimo yisuku no kurinda indwara utugemwe biruhije.

Gutera ku mirongo: ubu buryo bworoshya imirimo yisuku, utugemwe tumerera mu turima
dutandukanye; ariko utugemwe ku buso buto tuba dukeya.

Ubu buryo ni bwiza gukoreshwa ku mbuto zimerera icyarimwe, cyane cyane nko ku biti bigira
amariragege.

Urugero: Umuzonobali.

Gutwikira umwayi

Nyuma yo kubiba imbuto ni ngombwa gitwikiriza imbuto agataka gake. Ubwo butaka bushobora
kongerwa iyo hashobora kuboneka ikibazo cyutugemwe tugwa hasi mu gihe cyo kumera.
Ubutaka bwo gutwikiriza bugomba kuba bworoshye, buseseka, kugirango butazakora urukoko mu
gihe na nyuma yo kuvomerera.

Nyuma yo kurenzaho agataka batsindagira gakeya bakoresheje urubaho kugirango bibuze imivu
mu gihe cyo kuvomerera.

Gusasira
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Bikorwa ako kanya nyuma yo kubiba no kurenzaho itaka. Isaso igumaho kugeza igihe utugemwe
twa mbere tuzamerera.

Mu gusasira hashobora gukoreshwa ibyatsi bidafite imbuto zamera kandi bitamera iyo birambitse
ku butaka.

Urugero: Ishinge, Vetiveri, ...

Akamaro ko gusasira

kubika ububobere bwubutaka,

kubuza ubutaka gutsuka,

gukora urukoko rwo hejuru

kwanama no kugenda kwimbuto mu gihe cyimvura cyangwa cyivomerera.

Kuvomerera

Kuvomerera bikorwa nimugoroba na mugitondo

Kuvomerera hakoreshejwe arrosoir

kuvomerera bituma hahoraho ububobere mu mutabo kugirango bufashe imbuto kumera.