Sei sulla pagina 1di 79

The Bhagavad Gita

Introduction and
Chapter 1

Translated by
Michael Douglas Neely
Chapter 1/Verse 12 26

Table of Contents Chapter 1/Verse 13 28


Table of Contents 2 Chapter 1/Verse 14 29
Introduction 4 Chapter 1/Verse 15 31
The Translator and the Translation 4 Chapter 1/Verse 16 32
Chapter 1 Verses 6 Chapter 1/Verse 17 34
Chapter 1 Verse Detail 9 Chapter 1/Verse 18 35
Chapter 1/Verse 1 10 Chapter 1/Verse 19 36
Chapter 1/Verse 2 12 Chapter 1/Verse 20 38
Chapter 1/Verse 3 14 Chapter 1/Verse 21 39
Chapter 1/Verse 4 15 Chapter 1/Verse 22 40
Chapter 1/Verse 5 16 Chapter 1/Verse 23 41
Chapter 1/Verse 6 17 Chapter 1/Verse 24 43
Chapter 1/Verse 7 18 Chapter 1/Verse 25 44

Chapter 1/Verse 8 20 Chapter 1/Verse 26 45


Chapter 1/Verse 9 22 Chapter 1/Verse 27 46
Chapter 1/Verse 10 23 Chapter 1/Verse 28 48
Chapter 1/Verse 11 25 Chapter 1/Verse 29 50
Chapter 1/Verse 30 51

Chapter 1/Verse 31 53

Chapter 1/Verse 32 55

Chapter 1/Verse 33 56

Chapter 1/Verse 34 58

Chapter 1/Verse 35 59

Chapter 1/Verse 36 61

Chapter 1/Verse 37 62

Chapter 1/Verse 38 64

Chapter 1/Verse 39 65

Chapter 1/Verse 40 67

Chapter 1/Verse 41 69

Chapter 1/Verse 42 71

Chapter 1/Verse 43 73

Chapter 1/Verse 44 74

Chapter 1/Verse 45 75

Chapter 1/Verse 46 77

Chapter 1/Verse 47 78
this time period on my academia.edu
profile: https://independent.academia.edu/MichaelNeely
Introduction In mid-2007 I lost interest in studying Sanskrit and stopped
The Bhagavad Gita has been translated into English hundreds studying it. In 2014 my interest in Sanskrit was rekindled. I felt
of times since its first translation into English by Charles a calling to come back to it and started reviewing various
Wilkens in 1785. The translations range from poetic Sanskrit primers and textbooks.
interpretations inspired from various English translations to
highly academic ones. I chose to translate the Bhagavad Gita
from Sanskrit to English to improve my Sanskrit proficiency, In July 2015 I felt confident enough to start translating
for the love of the wisdom of the book, and because there are the Bhagavad Gita in order continue increasing my proficiency
many academic translations on the market and online to in the Sanskrit language while feeling the excitement of
reference. In particular, the Winthrop Sargeants and Laurie L. actually reading and comprehending the Sanskrit of
Pattons versions were constantly consulted during this the Bhagavad Gita and then translating the Sanskrit into
translation for clarification and comparison. English.

I am not a Sanskrit professor nor do I claim to be an expert in


The Translator and the the Sanskrit language. Various translations of the Bhagavad
Gita, Sanskrit primers and textbooks, and the Academic Room
Translation Sanskrit-English Dictionary app were consulted during this
translation. In particular, I relied heavily on the Sanskrit primer
I am a mostly self-taught Sanskrit enthusiast. I went to a Devavanipravesika by Robert and Sally Goldman, the Sanskrit
Sanskrit presentation at a yoga studio sometime in the late Reference Manual by William Bucknell, and the app just
1990s. That was my first exposure to any structured Sanskrit mentioned in making sure I understood the Sanskrit underlying
class. The studio arranged a second follow-up class, but no one the translation.
showed up, except me. I will take that as an omen. In 2003 I
took two Sanskrit workshops that emphasized learning the In my translations, I tried to be as literal as possible, not adding
Sanskrit alphabet and some noun declensions and verb anything to the translation that was not in the original Sanskrit
conjunctions. In 2005 I was able to find a Sanskrit mentor to text. For each verse translated, I show the Sanskrit devanagari
teach me Sanskrit until about mid-2006. From mid-2006 to text, the transliteration of the Sanskrit in English (IAST
mid-2007 I continued my Sanskrit studies and Sanskrit to format), and the English translation I created. After that, I
English translations. You can see my translation work during broke down each word of the Sanskrit text into its
pre-sandhi form and listed the various grammatical identifiers
of each word. I also explain why my translation is different
from other translations and provide other background
information essential to understanding the verses. Every
translation has it place in the world. My disagreement with a
translation is just an exercise in how it departs from the literal
translation.

Some Sanskritists may criticize this book given I am not a


credentialed Sanskritist in the guise that I made certain
grammar and translation errors. I am not immune to error, but I
am definitely confident that I provide a valuable Sanskrit and
Bhagavad Gita resource in this book. If one feels moved to
criticize my work, I would appreciate a detailed response in
regards to my error and not some off the cuff rebuke from on
high. I understand societys tendency to give the benefit of the
doubt to a credentialed person over a non-credentialed
enthusiast, but just be aware that credentialed and
uncredentialed people make errors all the same. This book is
filling a void that has not been provided by the credentialed
Sanskrit community that rarely engages the Sanskrit enthusiast
community in any public outreach minus the availability of
their print and online publications.
1:9. Many other heroes, all of them are well-armed and skillful
in battle, abandoning existence for my sake.
Chapter 1 Verses
his sufficient power of ours is protected by Bhma, but
1:10. T
1:1. Dhtarra said, On the field of dharma, on the field of that non-sufficient power of them is protected by Bhma.
Kuru, the followers of my sons and indeed the sons-of-Pu
are assembled desirous to fight. What did they do, Sajaya? 1:11. And at all the entrances [to an array of troops] in ones
respective place, indeed, all of you situated protect Bhma!
1:2. Sajaya said, Duryodhana having seen the arrayed forces
of the sons-of-Pu and having approached the preceptor, 1:12. His mighty grandfather, a Kuru descendant, creating joy
then the prince spoke these words. having cried out the roar of a lion, with intensities he blew the
conch shell.
1:3. O preceptor, see this great army of the sons-of-Pu
arrayed by the son of Drupada, your wise student! 1:13. Then, indeed, all at once, the conch shells, kettledrums,
cymbals, drums, and trumpets were intensely sounded. That
1:4. Here are the heroes, great archers equal to Bhma and was a tumultuous sound.
Arjuna in battle: Yuyudhna and Vira and Drupada, the great
chariot. 1:14. Then, in a great war-chariot yoked with white steeds
Mdhava and Pava stood and blew divine conch shells.
haketu, Cekitna, and the mighty Kirja. Purujit,
1:5. D
Kuntibhoja, and aibya, the man-bull. 1:15. Hkea [blew the great conch shell of] Pcajanya,
Dhanajaya [blew the great conch shell of] Devadatta, [and]
1:6. Valiant Yudhmanyu and the mighty Uttamauja. The Bhmakarm, the "wolf-bellied," blew Paura, the great conch
son-of-Subhadra and sons of Draupad, indeed, all of them are shell.
great warriors.
1:16. King Yudhihira, son of Kunt, [blew the great conch
1:7. But ours who are distinguished, know them! O best of the shell of] Anantavijaya and Nakula and Sahadeva [blew the
twice-born, the leaders of my army, I will tell those to you on great conch shells of] Sughoa and Maipupaka, respectively.
behalf of the named!
1:17. And King of the Kashs, the supreme archer, and
1:8. You and Bhma and Kara and Kpa, Samitijayas. ikhain, the great chariot; Dhadyumna and Vira, and son
Avatthm and Vikara and son of Somadatta, indeed, in that of Satyaka, the unconquered.
manner.
1:18. O' Lord of the Earth, Drupada and the sons of Draupad 1:27. Also, fathers-in-law, and verily, well-wishers of both
and the son of Subhadr, the mighty-armed, all together they armies. Him, the son of Kunt, having full knowledge of all
blew their own conch shells. them relatives standing in array.

1:19. That uproar caused the piercing of the hearts of the sons 1:28. Despondent, filled with extreme compassion, he said this,
of Dhtarra, and indeed, the tumult caused resonance in the O Krishna, seeing a kinsman wishing to commence fighting,...
earth and sky.
1:29. ...my limbs weary and my mouth dries up and the
1:20. Then son of Pu, ape-bannered, seeing the arrayed sons trembling in my body causes the standing on end of my hair.
of Dhrtarra lifted bow at the commencement of the clash of
weapons. 1:30. Gva slips from (my) hand and verily (my) skin is
afire and I am not able to stand and my mind seems to wander.
1:21. Then, O' Lord of the Earth, he (Arjuna) said these words
to Hkea (Krishna). O' Acyuta (Krishna), position my 1:31. And I see adverse omens, O Keava. And slaying a
war-chariot at the middle of both armies. kinsman in battle, I foresee no good fortune.

1:22. I gaze at all these (warriors) standing firm, eager to fight. 1:32. O Krishna, I don't want victory, nor sovereignty, nor
Whom will fight with me in this epic battle? pleasures. O Govinda, what use is royalty for us? What [use]
are pleasures or life?
1:23. I behold those wanting to fight assembled here in battle
who are desirous to please the evil-mind of the son of 1:33. Those arrayed abandoning these two, life and wealth, in
Dhtarra. battle for the sake of these, our coveted royalty, enjoyments,
and pleasures.
1:24. O descendant-of-Bharata, in that way, it was spoken by
Gukea. Hkea having positioned the great chariot in the 1:34. Teachers, fathers, sons, and also grandfathers, maternal
middle of both armies. uncles, fathers-in-law, grandsons, brothers-in-law, and
relatives, thus so.
1;25. In front of Bhma and Droa and all of these rulers of
the earth, O son of Prith said, "Behold these gathered Kurus!" 1:35. I do not wish to kill these, even [if I be] slain. O
Madhusdana, even for the reason of the rulership of the triple
1:26. Then son of Prith saw them standing there. Fathers, world. Indeed, how much less on account of the earth?
grandfathers, preceptors, maternal uncles, brothers, sons,
grandsons, as well as friends.
1:36. Killing the sons of Dhritarshtra, what is our delight? O 1:44. O Janrdana, we have heard repeatedly, "The abode is
Janrdana, perhaps having killed these armed aggressors, chaotic in the atmosphere of torment of the ruined family
indeed, sin would cling to us. dharmas of humans."

1:37. Therefore, we have no justifications to kill the sons of 1:45. Aha! Alas! We are determined to perform a great sin, that
Dhritarshtra, one's own kinsmen. O Mdhava, indeed, having which with greed for royal pleasures we are prepared to slay a
slain a man of one's own people, how can we be possessed of kinsman.
happiness?
1:46. In combat, if the armed sons of Dhritarshtra should kill
1:38. Even if from a mind corrupted with greed they do not see me unresisting and unarmed, that would be more suitable for
the flaw, the consequence of the corruption of the family, and me.
the sin in the treachery toward a friend.
1:47. Thus, Arjuna having spoken on the battlefield, he sat
1:39. How is it not known by us, to turn away from this sin by down in the chariot seat dropping the bow with an arrow, his
discerning the flaw, the consequence of the corruption of the mind agitated with grief.
family, O Janrdana?

1:40. In the corruption of the family, the perennial family


dharmas vanish. And in perished dharma, adharma overcomes
the whole family.

1:41. O Krishna, from the predominance of adharma, the


family women are corrupted. When the women are defiled, the
intermixing of the castes arises, O Vreya.

1:42. The intermixing of the family corruptors and family,


verily, causes an atmosphere of torment. Indeed, the ancestors
fall. Of these (ancestors), the ritual-offerings of rice-balls and
water are discontinued.

1:43. By these flaws of the family corrupters, who cause


intermixture of the castes, the perennial family dharmas and
caste dharmas are ruined.
The tone set in this first chapter is that both warring sides have
great warriors, teachers, and family members that are doing
Chapter 1 Verse Detail their duty within their role in society and risking their lives and
wealth. Their sacrifice and the hair-raising violence of battle
weigh heavy on the heart of Arjuna, the co-main subject in this
The Bhagavad Gita is a story set within one of the largest epics story and a royal warrior of the Pandava clan. He wanted to shy
ever written, the 18 chapter Mahabharata. The Bhagavad Gita away from his duty as a warrior due to the overwhelming grief
falls within the 6th chapter of the Mahabharata. In summary, he would feel from killing those dear to him for his ultimate
the Mahabharata is an epic about the political struggles gain of a kingdom. He further felt that this combat would bring
between the Kaurava and Pandava clans related to each other sin down on him and many others; therefore, he had no right to
by two brothers. The Bhagavad Gitas first verse sets the stage kill his adversarial kinmen. The line of reasoning goes on in
of a great war between the Kaurava and Pandava clans. that the sin incurred from this battle would ultimately throw the
Dhritarashtra is the first person mentioned in the text and the family units into an abode of chaos. Arjuna thus feels a
living nexus for all the political strife that leads up to the great cowardly path is the more honorable. His crisis of
battle setting at the beginning. The Kaurava and Pandava clans consciousness is summarized in the last verse of chapter one:
lived in the same kingdom, which was ruled by Pandu, the king Thus, Arjuna having spoken on the battlefield, he sat down in
of the Pandavas and Dhritarashtras brother. Dhritarashtra was the chariot seat dropping the bow with an arrow, his mind
a part of the Kaurava royalty and blind. Dhritarashtras agitated with grief. The stage set in the first chapter is
blindness initially would have disqualified him from ever centered around Arjunas grief and this is the first matter
serving as a king, but due to Pandus premature death and no addressed by Krishna in Chapter 2. In the next article, I will
other qualified successors, Dhritarashtra was made king until discuss Krishnas resolutions for grief in Arjunas crisis and in
Yudhishthira, Pandus eldest son, could assume the kingship. ours that we face at times in our lives.
Dhritarashtra ruled over the Kaurava and Pandava clans. This
is when all the hostility started between the clans, which comes
to a head at the opening chapter of the Gita. Samjaya is the
second person mentioned; he is the narrator of the battlefield
events for Dhritarashtra.
dhtarras (stem form: dhtarra) (masculine, nominative,
Chapter 1/Verse 1 singular) = Dhtarra (the blind king)


uvca (2nd class verb root: vac) (perfect, parasmaipada, 3rd
person, singular) = one said


dharmaketre (stem form: dharmaketra) (dharma + ketre)


- (tatpura compound, neuter, locative , singular) = on the field
of dharma
dhtarra uvca
kuruketre (stem form: kuruketra) (kuru + ketre) (tatpura
dharmaketre kuruketre samavet yuyutsava compound, neuter, locative, singular) = on the field of Kuru
(clan of Dhtarra)
mmak pavcaiva kimakurvata sajaya 1-1
samavets (verb root: i) (sam + ava + i) (past passive participle,
Dhtarra said, On the field of dharma, on the field of Kuru, masculine, nominative, plural) = they are assembled
the followers of my sons and indeed the sons-of-Pu are
assembled desirous to fight. What did they do, Sajaya? yuyutsavas (stem form: yudh) (nominal desiderative,
masculine, nominative, plural) = desirous to fight

mmaks (stem form: mmaka) (masculine, nominative, plural


with nominal derivatives) = followers of my sons

pavs (stem form: pava) (masculine, nominative, plural,


with a nominal derivative) = sons-of-Pu, political and
warring enemies of Dhtarra and the Kauravas

ca (conjunction) (indeclinable) = and

eva (adverb) (indeclinable) = indeed

kim (interrogative) (indeclinable) = what


akurvata (irregular verb root: k) (imperfect, tmanepada, 3rd This verse sets the scene of the Bhagavad Gita with
person, plural) = did they do Dhtarra, the blind king, asking Sajaya, preceptor of
Dhtarra and the narrator of Bhagavad Gita, to tell him what
sajaya (stem form: sajaya) (masculine, vocative, singular) = the two forces, desirous to fight, did.
O Sajaya (preceptor of Dhtarra and the narrator of
the Bhagavad Gita) On the field of dharma is cryptic. Dharma is a word with
many meanings and difficult to translate into English. In its
simplest of definitions, it can mean right action or ones
purpose in life. Is this verse stating the obvious that dharma is
being played out on this battlefield or is it on the field
of dharma a euphemism for the field of Pavs where the
Pavs are located on the battlefield and the field of Kuru
being where the Kuru army is located on the battlefield? It is
definitely ambiguous and that is why most translators tend to
leave words like dharma untranslated. Words like dharma are
rich soil for large commentaries. There are many opinions as to
what this section of the verse means.

One will find mmaka in the dictionary defined as mine,


but I think we should go a little deeper with the word to drawn
out a more proper definition. Mama is a 1st person, genitive,
singular pronoun meaning of me or mine. Two nominative
derivatives are added to this pronoun. One is the lengthening of
the initial vowel of the pronoun that indicates the derivative is
a genealogical descendant of the pronoun in this verse, so
mma means sons of mine. The ka suffix indicates
something is a follower of the derived noun, so in this case
mmaks means followers of my sons. This pronoun with
two nominal derivatives has a masculine, nominative, plural
case ending of as added to mmaka to make mmaks.
sajayas (stem form: sajaya) (masculine, nominative,
Chapter 1/Verse 2 singular) = Sajaya (preceptor of Dhtarra and the narrator
of the Bhagavad Gita)

uvca (2nd class verb root: vac) (perfect, parasmaipada, 3rd
person, singular) = one said

dv (verb root: d) (gerund) (indeclinable) = having seen


-

sajaya uvca tu (conjunction) (indeclinable) = and

dv tu pavnka vyha duryodhanastad pavnkam (stem form: pavnka) (pava + ankam)


tatpura compound, neuter, accusative, singular) = forces of
cryamupasagamya rj vacanamabravt 1-2 the sons-of-Pu

vyham (verb root: vyh) (past passive participle, neuter,


Sajaya said, Duryodhana having seen the arrayed forces of accusative, singular) = arrayed
the sons-of-Pu and having approached the preceptor, then
the prince spoke these words. duryodhanas (stem form: duryodhana) (masculine, nominative,
singular) = Duryodhana (eldest son of Dhtarra and main
antagonist toward the Pav clan)

tad (adverb) (indeclinable) = then

cryam (stem form: crya) (masculine, accusative, singular)


= preceptor

upasagamya (1st class verb root: gam ) (upa + sam + gamya)


(gerund) (indeclinable) = having approached

rj (stem form: rjan) (masculine, nominative, singular) =


prince
vacanam (stem form: vacana) (neuter, accusative, singular) = This verse is Sajayas reply to Dhtarras question in the
these words (a speech) previous verse. Sajayas initial narration is of Dhtarras
eldest son, Duryodhana, when Duryodhana is looking at the
abravt (irregular 1st class verb root: br) (imperfect, arrayed forces of the Pav forces and then turning to his
parasmaipada, 3rd person, singular) = spoke preceptor to say something to him, which is documented in the
next verses.

The Sanskrit word tu is usually translated as but, but but


is not the appropriate translation in this verses given there is no
contrary statements in this verse. And is a better translation
of tu, which most translators use. Secondly, in my translation
I am departing from the common translation choice of putting
and before the phrase ...spoke these words. in this verse. I
prefer to use the Sanskrit word for then where most
translators put the word for and. Note, most translators do
not even put the word then or any equivalent to the word
tad that is in the Sanskrit verse in the English translation of
this verse. I feel the placement of then before ...spoke these
words. gives balance and conclusion to the previous two
gerund clauses that take up the majority of this verse. My
translation in this matter gives the English translation a more
Sanskrit syntax feel to it. I put the Sanskrit word for and
between the two gerund clauses in this verse.

Rj in Sanskrit can be translated either as a king, a prince,


or a chief. Prince is the best translation here because
Duryodhana is connected with the word rj in this verse
and Duryodhana is a prince given he is the eldest son and
prince apparent to King Dhtarra.

Lastly, the Sanskrit word vacana can simply mean a word, a


speech, or a command, etc. All these possible English
translations for the word vacana are sloppy and unfit for this
verse. I followed the lead of many translators for this word by
using the phrase these words for the word vacana. Chapter 1/Verse 3

payait puputrmcrya mahat camm

vyh drupadaputrea tava iyea dhmat 1-3

O preceptor, see this great army of the sons-of-Pu arrayed


by the son of Drupada, your wise student!
paya (1st class verb root: pa) (imperative, parasmaipada, 2nd
person, singular) = see!
Chapter 1/Verse 4
etm (pronoun) (feminine, accusative, singular) = this


puputrmm (pu + putrm) (tatpura compound,
masculine, genitive, plural) = of the sons-of-Pu


-

crya (stem form: crya) (masculine, vocative, singular) = O atra r mahevs bhmrjunasam yudhi
preceptor
yuyudhno viraca drupadaca mahratha 1-4
mahatm (stem form: mahat) (feminine, accusative, singular) =
great
Here are the heroes, great archers equal to Bhma and Arjuna in
camm (stem form: cam) (feminine, accusative, singular) = battle: Yuyudhna and Vira and Drupada, the great chariot.
army

vyhm (verb root: vyh) (past passive participle, feminine,


accusative, singular) = arrayed

drupadaputrea (drupada + putrea) (tatpura compound,


instrumental, singular) = by the son of Drupada

tava (pronoun, 2nd person, genitive, singular) = your

iyea (stem form: iya) (masculine, instrumental, singular) =


by student

dhmat (stem form: dhmat) (masculine, instrumental,


singular) = by the wise
atra (adverb) (indeclinable) = here

rs (stem form: ra) (masculine, nominative, plural) = Chapter 1/Verse 5


heroes

mahevss (stem form: mahevsa) (mah + iu + ss)
(bahuvrih compound, masculine, nominative, plural) = great -
archers
dhaketucekitna kirjaca vryavn
bhmrjunasams (stem form: bhmrjunasama) (bhma +
rjuna + sams) (tatpura compound, masculine, nominative, purujitkuntibhojaca aibyaca narapugava 1-5
plural) = equal to Bhma and Arjuna

yudhi (stem form: yudh) (feminine, locative case, singular) = in Dhaketu, Cekitna, and the mighty Kirja. Purujit,
battle Kuntibhoja, and aibya, the man-bull.

yuyudhnas (stem form: yuyudhna) (masculine, nominative,


singular) = Yuyudhna

Viras (stem form: vira) (masculine, nominative, singular) =


Vira

ca (adverb) (indeclinable) = and

drupadas (stem form: drupada) (masculine, nominative,


singular) = Drupada

ca (indeclinable) = and

mahrathas (stem form: mahratha) (mah +rathas) (bahuvrih


compound, masculine, nominative, singular) = the great chariot
dhaketus (stem form: dhaketu) (masculine, nominative,
singular) = Dhaketu
Chapter 1/Verse 6
cekitnas (stem form: cekitna) (masculine, nominative,
singular) = Cekitna

kirjas (stem form: kirja) (masculine, nominative, -


singular) = Kirja
yudhmanyuca vikrnta uttamaujca vryavn
ca (conjunction) (indeclinable) = and
saubhadro draupadeyca sarva eva mahrath
vryavn (stem form: vryavat) (masculine, nominative,
singular) = mighty 1-6

purujit (stem form: purujit) (masculine, nominative, singular) =


Purujit Valiant Yudhmanyu and the mighty Uttamauja. The
son-of-Subhadra and sons of Draupad, indeed, all of them are
kuntibhojas (stem form: kuntibhoja) (masculine, nominative, great warriors.
singular) = Kuntibhoja

ca (conjunction) (indeclinable) = and

aibyas (stem form: aibya) (masculine, nominative, singular)


= aibya

ca (conjunction) (indeclinable) = and

narapugavas (stem form: narapugava) (nara + pugava)


(bahuvrih compound, masculine, nominative, singular) =
man-bull
yudhmanyus (stem form: yudhmanyu) (masculine,
nominative, singular) = Yudhmanyu
Chapter 1/Verse 7
ca (indeclinable) = and

vikrntas (stem form: vikrnta) (past passive participle,
masculine, nominative, singular)= valiant -

uttamaujas (stem form: uttamauja) (masculine, nominative, asmka tu vii ye tnnibodha dvijottama
singular) = Uttamauja
nyak mama sainyasya sajrtha tnbravmi te
ca (indeclinable) = and
1-7
vryavn (stem form: vryavat) (masculine, nominative,
singular) = mighty
But ours who are distinguished, know them! O best of the
saubhadras (stem form: saubhadra) (masculine, nominative, twice-born, the leaders of my army, I will tell those to you on
singular with nominal derivative) = son-of-Subhadra behalf of the named!

draupadeys (stem form: draupadeya) (masculine, nominative,


plural with nominal derivatives) = sons-of-Draupad

sarve (stem form: sarva) (adjective declined like a 3rd person


pronoun) (masculine, nominative, plural) = all them

eva (emphatic particle that emphasizes the preceding word)


(indeclinable) = indeed

mahraths (stem form: mahratha) (mah + raths) (bahuvrih


compound, masculine, nominative, plural) = great chariots
(meaning great warriors)
asmkam (pronoun, 1st person, genitive, plural) = ours bravmi (verb root: br) (indicative, parasmaipada, 1st person,
singular) = I tell
tu (conjuction) (indeclinable) = but
te (pronoun, 2nd person, dative, singular) = to you
viis (verb root: i) (vi + is) (past passive participle,
masculine, nominative, plural) = distinguished

ye (relative pronoun, masculine, nominative, plural) = who

tn (pronoun, 3rd person, masculine, accusative, plural) = those

nibodha (1st class verb root: budh) (vi + budh) (imperative,


parasmaipada, 2nd person, singular) = know!

dvijottama (stem form: dvijottama) (dvi + ja + uttama)


(tatpura compound, masculine, vocative, singular) = O best
of the twice-born

nyaks (stem form: nyaka) (masculine, nominative, plural) =


leaders

mama (pronoun, 1st person, genitive, singular) = my

sainyasya (stem form: sainya) (masculine/neuter, genitive,


singular) = of the army

sajrtham (stem form: sajrtha) (saj + artham)


(tatpura compound, neuter, accusative, singular) = on behalf
of the named

tn (pronoun, 3rd person, masculine, accusative, plural) = those


bhavn (stem form: bhavant) (honorific, masculine,
nominative, singular) = you
Chapter 1/Verse 8
bhmas (stem form: bhma) (masculine, nominative, singular)
= Bhma

- ca (conjunction) (indeclinable) = and

bhavnbhmaca karaca kpaca samitijaya karas (stem form: kara) (masculine, nominative, singular) =
Kara
avatthm vikaraca saumadattistathaiva ca 1-8
ca (indeclinable) = and

You and Bhma and Kara and Kpa, Samitijayas. kpas (stem form: kpa) (masculine, nominative, singular) =
Avatthm and Vikara and son of Somadatta, indeed, in that Kpa
manner.
ca (indeclinable) = and

samitijayas (stem form: samitijaya) (masculine,


nominative, singular) = Samitijaya

avatthm (stem form: avatthmn) (masculine, nominative,


singular) = Avatthm

vikaras (stem form: vikara) (masculine, nominative,


singular) = Vikara

ca (indeclinable) = and

Saumadattis (masculine, nominative, singular with nominal


derivatives) = son-of-Somadatta
tath (indeclinable) = in that manner One translation interprets "samitijayas" as a proper name, but
most other translations consider it an epithet of Kpa meaning
eva (indeclinable) = indeed (emphatic particle, emphasizes "victorious in battle". I side with the lone translation given the
preceding word) sandhi of the word does not make sense when one making the
word an epithet of Kpa.
ca (conjunction) (indeclinable) = and
anye (stem form: anya) (adjective declined like a 3rd person
pronoun) (masculine, nominative, plural) = others
Chapter 1/Verse 9
ca (indeclinable) = and

bahavas (stem form: bahu) (masculine, nominative, plural) =
- many

anye ca bahava r madarthe tyaktajvit rs (stem form: ra) (masculine, nominative, plural) =
heroes
nnastraprahara sarve yuddhavirad 1-9
madarthe (stem form: madartha) (mad + arthe) (tatpura
compound, masculine, locative, singular) = for the sake of me
Many other heroes, all of them are well-armed and skillful in
battle, abandoning existence for my sake. tyaktajvits (stem form: tyaktajvita) (tyakta + jvits)
(karmadhraya compound, transitive past passive participle,
masculine, nominative, plural) = existence abandoned

nnastrapraharas (stem form: nnastrapraharaa) (nn +


astra + praharas) (karmadhraya compound, masculine,
nominative, plural) = various assailing weapons (well-armed)

sarve (stem form: sarva) (adjective declined like a 3rd person


pronoun) (masculine, nominative, plural) = all of them

yuddhavirads (stem form: yuddhavirada) (yuddha +


virads) (tatpura compound, masculine, nominative,
plural) = skillful in battle
aparyptam (verbal root: p) (a + pari + pta) (past passive
participle, neuter, nominative, singular) = non-sufficient
Chapter 1/Verse 10
tat (pronoun, 3rd person, neuter, nominative, singular) = that

asmkam (pronoun, 1st person, genitive, plural) = ours

-
balam (stem form: bala) (neuter, nominative, singular) = power
aparypta tadasmka bala bhmbhirakitam
bhmbhirakitam (verb root: rak) (Bhma + abhi +
parypta tvidamete bala bhmbhirakitam rakitam) (tatpura compound, past passive participle, neuter,
nominative, singular) = protected by Bhma
1-10
paryptam (verbal root: p) (pari + pta) (past passive
participle, neuter, nominative, singular) = sufficient
This sufficient power of ours is protected by Bhma, but that
non-sufficient power of them is protected by Bhma. tu (conjunction) (indeclinable) = but

idam (demonstrative pronoun, neuter, nominative, singular) =


this

etem (demonstrative pronoun) = of them

balam (stem form: bala) (neuter, nominative, singular) = power

bhmbhirakitam (verb root: rak) (Bhma + abhirakitam)


(tatpura compound, past passive participle, neuter,
nominative, singular) = protected by Bhma
There is a lot of contention around this verse given the vulgate spots in the vulgate reading with the phrases they are
reading of this verse seems irrational. It is so irrational that associated with. Also remember, that word order is only
most translations depart from the vulgate reading and opt for an absolutely structured in compounds and not required anywhere
alternative reading that has been sanctioned by well respected else. With either the previous translators alternative reading of
commentators on this verse. All the trouble centers around the the verse or my translation, there is some word flip-flopping
words "aparyptam" and "paryptam" and their role as around, which is sanctioned in Sanskrit grammar. Context will
adjectives in this verse with each adjective modifying an always have the final say with ambiguous word order.
instance of the word "balam" in the verse. "Aparyptam"
means "non-sufficient" in its oldest form and "paryptam"
means "sufficient" in its oldest form. If one follows the
Sanskrit grammar rule that adjectives typically are closest to
the word that they modify, then this verse does not make sense
as almost all critical commentaries on this verse state. The
contention is that if the oldest definitions are used in this verse,
the verse would be as follows: "This non-sufficient power of
ours is protected by Bhma, but that sufficient power of them
is protected by Bhma." Please note, Bhma is the Kaurava
Commander in this battle and Bhma is the Pndava
Commander in this battle. The translators state that this verse
contradicts other epic passages because the Kaurava army is
bigger and thus more sufficient than the Pndava army, which
is smaller and thus less sufficient. The alternative reading
flip-flops the placement of the words "bhmbhirakitam" and
"bhmbhirakitam", so that the Kaurava power is more
sufficient than the Pndava power.

I can understand the previous translator's rationale in opting for


an alternative reading, but two points want me deviate from the
popular revision of the vulgate verse. One, is that adjectives
will usually be closest to the noun they modify, but not
absolutely. Two, I am struck by how the demonstrative
pronouns meaning "this" and "that" in the verse are in opposite
ayaneu (stem form: ayana) (neuter, locative, plural) = at the
entrances [to an array of troops]
Chapter 1/Verse 11
ca (conjunction) (indeclinable) = and

sarveu (stem form: sarva) (adjective declined like a 3rd person
-
pronoun) (neuter, locative, plural) = at all

ayaneu ca sarveu yathbhgamavasthit


yathbhgam (yath +bhgam) (accusative case with adverbial
usage) (masculine, accusative, singular) = in ones respective
bhmamevbhirakantu bhavanta sarva eva hi 1-11
place

avasthits (1st class verb root: sth) (ava + sthits) (transitive


And at all the entrances [to an array of troops] in ones past-passive participle, masculine, nominative, plural) =
respective place, indeed, all of you situated protect Bhma! situated

bhmam (stem form: bhma) (masculine, accusative, singular)


= Bhma

eva (indeclinable) = indeed (emphatic particle, emphasizes


preceding word)

abhirakantu (verb root: rak) (abhi + rakantu) (imperative


verb, 3rd person, plural) = protect!

bhavantas (stem form: bhavant) (pronoun, 2nd person,


honorific form, nominative, plural) = you

sarva (stem form: sarva) (adjective declined like a 3rd person


pronoun) (masculine/neuter, nominative, plural) = all
eva (emphatic particle that emphasizes the preceding word)
(indeclinable) = indeed
Chapter 1/Verse 12
hi (adverb) (indeclinable) = indeed

tasya sajanayanhara kuruvddha pitmaha

sihanda vinadyoccai akha dadhmau

pratpavn 1-12

His mighty grandfather, a Kuru descendant, creating joy having


cried out the roar of a lion, with intensities he blew the conch
shell.
tasya (pronoun, 3rd person, masculine, genitive, singular) = his pratpavn (stem form: pratpavant) (pra + tpavn)
(masculine, nominative, singular) = mighty
sajanayan (verb root: jan) (sam + janayan) (present active
causative participle, masculine, nominative, singular) = he
creating

haram (stem form: hara) (masculine, accusative, singular) =


joy

kuruvddhas (verb root: vdh) (kuru + vddhas) (karmadhraya


compound, past passive participle, masculine, nominative,
singular) = a Kuru descendant (referring to Bhma in this
verse)

pitmahas (stem form: pitmahas) (pit + mahas) (masculine,


nominative, singular) = grandfather

sihandam (stem form: sihanda) (siha + ndam)


(tatpura compound, masculine, accusative, singular) = roar
of a lion

vinadya (verb root: vinad) (vi + nadya) (gerund) (indeclinable)


= having cried out

uccais (stem form: ucca) (masculine/neuter, instrumental,


plural) = with intensities

akham (masculine/neuter, accusative, singular) = conch shell

dadhmau (verb root: dhm) (perfect, parasmaipada, 3rd


person, singular) = he blew
tatas (adverb) (indeclinable) = then
Chapter 1/Verse 13 akhs (stem form: akha) (masculine/neuter, nominative,
plural) = conch shells


ca (conjunction) (indeclinable) = and


-
bheryas (stem form: bheri) (feminine, nominative, plural) =
tata akhca bheryaca paavnakagomukh kettledrums

sahasaivbhyahanyanta sa abdastumulo'bhavat 1-13 ca (conjunction) (indeclinable) = and

paavnakagomukhs (stem form: paavnakagomukha)


Then, indeed, all at once, the conch shells, kettledrums, (paava + naka + gomukhs) (dvandva compound, masculine,
cymbals, drums, and trumpets were intensely sounded. That nominative, plural) = cymbals, drums, and trumpets
was a tumultuous sound.
sahas (adverb) (indeclinable) = all at once

eva (indeclinable) = indeed (emphatic particle, emphasizes


preceding word)

abhyahanyanta (2nd class verb root: han) (abhi + ahanyanta)


(imperfect, passive, 3rd person, plural) = they were intensely
sounded

sas (pronoun, 3rd person, masculine, nominative, singular) =


that

abdas (stem form: abda) (masculine, nominative, singular) =


sound
tumulas (stem form: tumula) (masculine, nominative, singular)
= tumultuous
abhavat (imperfect, parasmaipada, 3rd person, singular) = it Chapter 1/Verse 14
was

tata vetairhayairyukte mahati syandane sthitau

mdhava pavacaiva divyau akhau

pradadhmatu 1-14

Then, in a great war-chariot yoked with white steeds Mdhava


and Pava stood and blew divine conch shells.
tatas (adverb) (indeclinable) = then divyau (stem form: divya) (masculine, accusative, dual) = two
divine
vetais (stem form: veta) (masculine, instrumental, plural) =
with white akhau (stem form: akha) (masculine, nominative,
accusative, dual) = two conch shells
hayais (stem form: haya) (masculine, instrumental, plural) =
with steeds pradadhmatus (verb root: dhm) (pra + dadhmatus) (perfect,
parasmaipada, 3rd person, dual) = the two blew
yukte (7th class verb root: yuj) (past passive participle,
masculine, locative, singular) = yoked

mahati (stem form: mahat) (masculine, locative, singular) =


great

syandane (stem form: syandana) (masculine, locative, singular)


= war-chariot

sthitau (1st class verb root: sth) (past passive participle,


masculine, nominative, dual) = two stood

mdhavas (stem form: mdhava) (masculine, nominative,


singular) = Mdhava (epithet for Krishna)

pavas (stem form: pava) (masculine, nominative,


singular) = Pava (epithet for Arjuna)

ca (indeclinable) = and

eva (indeclinable) = (emphatic particle, emphasizes preceding


word)
pcajanyam (stem form: pcajanya) (masculine, accusative,
singular) = Pcajanya
Chapter 1/Verse 15
hkeas (stem form: hkea) (masculine, nominative,
singular) = Hkea (epithet of Krishna meaning
"bristling-haired")

-
devadattam (stem form: devadatta) (masculine, accusative,
pcajanya hkeo devadatta dhanajaya singular) = Devadatta

paura dadhmau mahakha bhmakarm dhanajayas (stem form: dhanajaya) (masculine, nominative,
singular) = Dhanajaya (epithet of Arjuna meaning "victor of
vkodara 1-15 wealth")

pauram (stem form: paura) (masculine, accusative,


Hkea [blew the great conch shell of] Pcajanya, singular) = Paura
Dhanajaya [blew the great conch shell of] Devadatta, [and]
Bhmakarm, the "wolf-bellied," blew Paura, the great conch dadhmau (verb root: dhm) (perfect, parasmaipada, 3rd
shell. person, singular) = he blew

mahakham (stem form: mahakha) (mah + akham)


(masculine, accusative, singular) = great conch shell

bhmakarm (stem form: bhmakarman) (bahuvrih compound,


masculine, nominative, singular) = Bhmakarm (stylized name
of Bhma in this verse meaning "terrible deed doer")

vkodaras (stem form: vkodara) (vka + udaras) (bahuvrih


compound, masculine, nominative, singular) = "wolf-bellied"
(epithet of Bhma)
This verse has many epithets that are given varied meanings in
other translations. The act of naming instruments is even
common in today's world with guitars named by famous Chapter 1/Verse 16
guitarists.

anantavijaya rj kuntputro yudhihira

nakula sahadevaca sughoamaipupakau 1-16

King Yudhihira, son of Kunt, [blew the great conch shell of]
Anantavijaya and Nakula and Sahadeva [blew the great conch
shells of] Sughoa and Maipupaka, respectively.
anantavijayam (stem form: anantavijaya) (masculine, This verse is connected to the previous verse, and thus many
accusative, singular) = Anantavijaya phrases of "blew the great conch shell of" are understood. Like
in other languages, this is done to avoid wordiness and
rj (stem form: rjan) (masculine, nominative, singular) = redundancy.
king

kuntputras (stem form: kuntputra) (kunt +putras) (tatpura


compound, nominative, singular) = son of Kunt (epithet of
King Yudhihira)

yudhihiras (stem form: yudhihira) (masculine, nominative,


singular) = Yudhihira

nakulas (stem form: nakula) (masculine, nominative, singular)


= Nakula

sahadevas (stem form: sahadeva) (masculine, nominative,


singular) = Sahadeva

ca (indeclinable) = and

sughoamaipupakau (masculine, accusative, dual) = Sughoa


and Maipupaka
kyas (stem form: kya) (masculine, nominative, singular) =
King of the Kashs
Chapter 1/Verse 17
ca (conjunction) (indeclinable) = and

paramevsas (stem form: paramevsa) (parama + iu + sas)
- (karmadhraya compound, masculine, nominative, singular) =
supreme archer
kyaca paramevsa ikha ca mahratha
dhadyumno viraca styakicparjita 1-17 ikha (stem form: ikhain) (masculine, nominative,
singular) = ikhain
And King of the Kashs, the supreme archer, and ikhain,
the great chariot; Dhadyumna and Vira, and son of ca (indeclinable) = and
Satyaka, the unconquered.
mahrathas (stem form: mahratha) (mah + rathas) (bahuvrih
compound, masculine, nominative, singular) = great chariot

dhadyumnas (stem form: dhadyumna) (masculine,


nominative, singular) = Dhadyumna

viras (stem form: vira) (masculine, nominative, singular) =


Vira

ca (conjunction) (indeclinable) = and

styakis (stem form: styaki) (masculine, nominative,


singular)= son of Satyaka (Yuyudhna)

ca (conjunction) (indeclinable) = and

aparjitas (stem form: aparjita) (masculine, nominative,


singular) = unconquered
This is a straightforward verse. It continues the narration of
various warriors. Translations differ on interpretations of Chapter 1/Verse 18
"kyas" and which epithets get assigned to what names, but
the overall message of the verse stays the same.

drupado draupadeyca sarvaa pthivpate

saubhadraca mahbhu akhndadhmu

pthakpthak 1-18

O' Lord of the Earth, Drupada and the sons of Draupad and
the son of Subhadr, the mighty-armed, all together they blew
their own conch shells.
drupadas (stem form: drupada) (masculine, nominative,
singular) = Drupada
Chapter 1/Verse 19
draupadeys (stem form: draupadeya) (masculine, nominative,
plural with nominal derivative) = sons of Draupad

ca (indeclinable) = and


-

sarvaas (adverb) (indeclinable) = all together sa ghoo dhrtarr hdayni vyadrayat

pthivpate (stem form: pthivpati) (pthiv + pate) (tatpura nabhaca pthiv caiva tumulo vyanundayan
compound, masculine, vocative, singular) = O' Lord of the
Earth (referring to Dhtarra) 1-19

saubhadras (stem form: saubhadra) (masculine, nominative, That uproar caused the piercing of the hearts of the sons of
singular with nominal derivative) = son of Subhadr Dhtarra, and indeed, the tumult caused resonance in the
earth and sky.
ca (indeclinable) = and

mahbhus (stem form: mahbhu) (mah + bhus) (bahuvrih


compound, masculine, nominative, singular) = mighty-armed
(epithet of son of Subhadr)

akhn (stem form: akha) (masculine, accusative, plural) =


conch shells

dadhmus (root verb: dhm) (perfect, parasmaipada, 3rd


person, plural) = they blew

pthakpthak (stem form: pthakpthak) (pthak + pthak)


(adverb) (indeclinable) = each their own (singly)
sas (pronoun, 3rd person, masculine, nominative, singular) = vyanundayan (verb root: nad) (vi + anu + ndayan) (causative,
that masculine, nominative, singular) = causing to resonate

ghoas (verb root: gho) (verbal noun, masculine, nominative,


singular) = uproar

dhrtarrm (stem form: dhrtarra) (masculine, genitive,


plural with nominal derivative) = of the sons of Dhtarra

hdayni (stem form: hdaya) (neuter, accusative, plural) =


hearts

vyadrayat (verb root: d) (vi + adrayat) (imperfect causative,


parasmaipada, intransitive, 3rd person, singular) = it caused to
pierce

nabhas (stem form: nabha) (neuter, nominative, singular)= sky

ca (conjunction) (indeclinable) = and

pthivm (stem form: pthiv) (feminine, accusative, singular) =


earth

ca (indeclinable) = and

eva (indeclinable) = indeed (emphatic particle, emphasizes


preceding word)

tumulas (stem form: tumula) (masculine, nominative, singular)


= tumult
atha (adverb) (indeclinable) = then
Chapter 1/Verse 20 vyavasthitn (verb root:sthit) (vi + ava + sthita) (past passive
participle, accusative, plural) = arrayed

dv (verbal root: d) (gerund) (indeclinable) = seeing
-
dhrtarrn (stem form: dhrtarra) (masculine, accusative,
atha vyavasthitndv dhrtarrnkapidhvaja plural with nominal derivative) = sons of Dhrtarra

pravtte astrasapte dhanurudyamya pava kapidhvajas (stem form: kapidhvaja) (kapi + dhvajas)
(bahuvrih compound, masculine, nominative, singular) =
1-20 ape-bannered (epithet of Arjuna, a central character in the
Bhagavad Gita)
Then son of Pu, ape-bannered, seeing the arrayed sons of
Dhrtarra lifted bow at the commencement of the clash of pravtte (stem form: pravtta) (masculine, locative, singular) =
weapons. at the commencement

astrasapte (stem form: astrasapta) (astra + sapte)


(tatpura compound, masculine, locative, singular) = clash of
weapons

dhanus (stem form: dhanu) (masculine, accusative, singular) =


bow

udyamya (gerund) (indeclinable) = lifting

pavas (stem form: pava) (masculine, nominative,


singular with nominal derivative) = son of Pu (epithet of
Arjuna, a central character in the Bhagavad Gita)
hkeam (stem form: hkea) (h + keam) (masculine,
accusative, singular) = Hkea (epithet of Krishna meaning
Chapter 1/Verse 21 "bristling hair")

tad (adverb) (indeclinable) = then


- vkyam (stem form: vkya) (neuter, accusative, singular) =
these words
hkea tad vkyamidamha mahpate
idam (pronoun, 3rd pronoun, neuter, accusative, singular) =
senayorubhayormadhye ratha sthpaya me'cyuta 1-21 this

Then, O' Lord of the Earth, he (Arjuna) said these words to ha (1st class verb root: ah) (perfect, parasmaipada, 3rd
Hkea (Krishna). O' Acyuta (Krishna), position my person, singular) = he said
war-chariot at the middle of both armies.
mahpate (stem form: mahpati) (mah + pate) (tatpura
compound, masculine, vocative, singular) = O' Lord of the
Earth (referring to Dhtarra)

senayos (stem form: sen) (feminine, genitive, dual) = of two


armies

ubhayos (stem form: ubh) (feminine, genitive, dual) = of both

madhye (stem form: madhya) (neuter, locative, dual) = at the


middle

ratham (stem form: ratha) (masculine, accusative, singular) =


war-chariot

sthpaya (1st class verb root: sth) (causative imperative,


parasmaipada, 2nd person, singular) = cause to position
me (pronoun, 1st person, genitive, singular) = my

acyuta (stem form: acyuta) (masculine, vocative, singular) = O' Chapter 1/Verse 22
Acyuta (epithet of Krishna meaning imperishable)

yvadetnnirike'ha yoddhukmnavasthitn

kairmay saha yoddhavyamasmin raasamudyame

1-22

I gaze at all these (warriors) standing firm, eager to fight.


Whom will fight with me in this epic battle?
yvat (adverb) (indeclinable) = all

etn (masculine, accusative, plural) = these Chapter 1/Verse 23


nirike (verb root: k) (nir + ike) (present indicative,
tmanepada, 1st person, singular) = I gaze

-
aham (pronoun, 1st person, nominative, singular) = I
yotsyamnnaveke'ha ya ete'tra samgat
yoddhukmn (stem form: yoddhukma) (masculine,
accusative, plural) = eager to fight dhrtarrasya durbuddheryuddhe priyacikrava 1-23

avasthitn (adjective modifying "etn") (masculine, accusative, I behold those wanting to fight assembled here in battle who
plural) = standing firm htarra.
are desirous to please the evil-mind of the son of D

kais (interrogative, masculine, instrumental, plural) = with


whom?

may (pronoun, 1st person, instrumental, singular) = with me

saha (adverb) (indeclinable) = with

yoddhavyam (verb root: yudh) (gerundive, neuter, nominative,


singular) = to fight

asmin (pronoun, masculine, locative, singular) = in this

raasamudyame (stem form: raasamudyame) (raa +


samudyame) (tatpura compound, masculine, locative,
singular) = in epic battle
yotsyamnn (verb root: yudh) (future participle, masculine,
accusative, plural) = wanting to fight

aveke (verb root: k) (ava + ke) (present tense, 1st person,


singular)= I behold

aham (pronoun, 1st person, nominative, singular) = I

ye (pronoun, 3rd person, masculine, nominative, plural) =


those who

ete (pronoun, 3rd person, masculine, nominative, plural) =


those

atra (adverb) (indeclinable) = here

samgats (verb root: gam) (sam + gats) (past passive


participle, masculine, nominative, plural) = assembled

dhrtarrasya (masculine, genitive, singular with nominal


derivative) = of the son of Dhrtarra

durbuddhes (stem form: durbuddhi) (bahuvrih compound,


masculine, genitive, singular) = of the evil mind

yuddhe (verb root: yud) (past passive participle, neuter,


locative, singular) = in battle

priyacikravas (stem form: priyacikru) (priya + cikravas)


(tatpura compound, masculine, nominative, plural) =
desirous to please
evam (adverb) (indeclinable) = in that way
Chapter 1/Verse 24 uktas (2nd class verb root: vac) (past passive participle,
masculine, nominative, singular) = it was spoken

hkeas (stem form: hkea) (h + keas) (masculine,
- nominative, singular) = Hkea (referring to Krisha)

evamukto hkeo gukeena bhrata gukeena (stem form: gukea) (masculine, instrumental,
singular) = by Gukea (referring to Arjuna)
senayorubhayormadhye sthpayitv rathottamam
bhrata (stem form: bhrata) (masculine, vocative, singular
1-24 with nominal derivative) = O descendant of Bharata (referring
htarra)
to D
O descendant-of-Bharata, in that way, it was spoken by
Gukea. Hkea having positioned the great chariot in the senayos (stem form: sen) (feminine, genitive, dual) = of two
middle of both armies. armies

ubhayos (stem form: ubh) (feminine, genitive, dual) = of both

madhye (stem form: madhya) (neuter, locative, dual) = at the


middle

sthpayitv (1st class verb root: sth)(causative gerund)


(indeclinable) = having positioned

rathottamam (stem form: rathottama) (ratha + uttamam)


(karmadhraya compound, masculine, accusative, singular) =
the great chariot
bhmadroapramukhatas
(stem form: bhmadroapramukhata)
Chapter 1/Verse 25 (bhma + droa + pramukhatas) (tatpura compound,
adverb) (indeclinable) = in front of Bhma and Droa


sarvem (masculine, genitive plural) = of all these
-
ca (conjunction) (indeclinable) = and
bhmadroapramukhata sarve ca mahkitm
mahkitm (verb root: ki) (mah + kitm) (tatpura
uvca prtha payaitnsamavetnkurniti 1-25 compound, masculine, genitive, plural) = of the rulers of the
earth
In front of Bhma and Droa and all of these rulers of the
earth, O son of Prith said, "Behold these gathered Kurus!" uvca (2nd class verb root: vac) (perfect, parasmaipada, 3rd
person, singular) = one said

prtha (stem form; prtha) (masculine, vocative, singular) = O


son of Pth (epithet of Arjuna)

paya (1st class verb root: pa) (imperative, 2nd person,


singular) = behold!

etn (masculine, accusative, plural)= these

samavetn (verb root: i) (sam + ava + itn) (past passive


participle, masculine, accusative, plural) = gathered

kurn (stem form: kuru) (masculine, accusative, plural) =


Kurus

iti (punctuation) (indeclinable) = (used to indicate a quotation)


tatra (adverb) (indeclinable) = there
Chapter 1/Verse 26 apayat (1st class verb root: pa) (imperfect, parasmaipada,
3rd person, singular) = he saw

sthitn (1st class verb root: sthit) (past passive participle,

- masculine, accusative, plural)= them standing

tatrpayatsthitnprtha pitnatha pitmahn prthas (stem form: prtha) (masculine, nominative, singular
with nominal derivative) = son of Prith (epithet of Arjuna)
crynmtulnbhrtnputrnpautrnsakhstath
pitn (stem form: pit) (masculine, accusative, plural) = fathers
1-26
atha (adverb) (indeclinable) = then
Then son of Prith saw them standing there. Fathers,
grandfathers, preceptors, maternal uncles, brothers, sons, pitmahn (stem form: pitmaha) (masculine, accusative,
grandsons, as well as friends. plural) = grandfathers

cryn (stem form: crya) (masculine, accusative, plural) =


preceptors

mtuln (stem form: mtula) (masculine, accusative, plural) =


maternal uncles

bhrtn (stem form: bhrt) (masculine, accusative, plural) =


brothers

putrn (stem form: putra) (masculine, accusative, plural) = sons

pautrn (stem form: pautra) (masculine, accusative, plural with


nominal derivative) = grandsons
sakhs (stem form: sakhi) (masculine, accusative, plural) =
friends
Chapter 1/Verse 27
tath (adverb) (indeclinable) = as well as

vaurnsuhdacaiva senayorubhayorapi

tnsamkya sa kaunteya sarvnbandhnavasthitn

1-27

Also, fathers-in-law, and verily, well-wishers of both armies.


Him, the son of Kunt, having full knowledge of all them
relatives standing in array.
vaurn (stem form: vaura) (masculine, accusative, plural) = bandhn (stem form: bandhu) (masculine, accusative, plural) =
fathers-in-law relatives

suhdas (stem form: suhda) (masculine, accusative, plural) = avasthitn (1st class verb root: sth) (ava + sthitn) (past
well-wishers passive participle, masculine, accusative, plural) = standing in
array
ca (indeclinable) = and

eva (indeclinable) = verily (emphatic particle, emphasizes


preceding word)

senayos (stem form: sen) (feminine, genitive, dual) = of two


armies

ubhayos (stem form: ubh) (feminine, genitive, dual) = of both

api (adverb) (indeclinable) = also

tn (pronoun, 3rd person, masculine, accusative, plural) = them

samkya (verb root: k) (sam + kya) (gerund) (indeclinable)


= having full knowledge

sas (pronoun, 3rd person, masculine, nominative, singular) =


him

kaunteyas (masculine, nominative, singular with nominal


derivative) = son of Kunt (epithet of Arjuna)

sarvn (stem form: sarva) (masculine, accusative, plural) = all


them
kpay (stem form: kp) (feminine, instrumental, singular) =
with compassion
Chapter 1/Verse 28
paray (stem form: par) (feminine, instrumental, singular) =
with extreme



- vias (verb root: vi) (past passive participle, masculine,
nominative, singular) = was filled
kpay parayvio vidannidamabravt

dvema svajana ka yuyutsu samupasthitam vidan (verb root: sad) (vi + dan) (present participle,
masculine, nominative, singular) = despondent
1-28
idam (neuter, accusative, singular) = this
Despondent, filled with extreme compassion, he said this, O
Krishna, seeing a kinsman wishing to commence fighting,...
abravt (irregular 1st class verb root: br) (imperfect,
parasmaipada, 3rd person, singular) = he said

dv (verb root: d) (gerund) (indeclinable) = having seen

imam (pronoun, masculine, accusative, singular) = this

svajanam (stem form: svajana) (masculine, accusative,


singular) = kinsman

ka (stem form: ka) (masculine, vocative, singular) = O


Krishna

yuyutsum (verb root: yudh) (desiderative adjective, masculine,


accusative, singular) = wishing to fight
samupasthitam (verb root: sth) (past passive participle, The first part of the verse is easy. Arjuna feels deep
masculine, accusative, singular) = commence compassion for both armies before him, but there are some
major grammar and manuscript issues in the latter part of the
verse with how previous translations interpret this verse to the
point that there are different versions of the original Sanskrit
script.

The latter part of the verse has three words:

"svajanam" meaning "a kinsman"

"yuyutsum" meaning "wishing to fight"

"samupasthitam" meaning "standing here before me"

These three words are all singular words and not plural words,
but most of the translations interpret these words as if they are
all plural to the point of changing the case endings of these
words to be plural case endings in the Sanskrit text. Older
Sanskrit manuscripts use the singular endings, but a recent
Sanskrit manuscript has the plural endings. I prefer to use the
older manuscripts and side with the singular case endings. I
also go against most other translations and create a singular
case ending interpretation for the latter part of this verse.
Overall, these disagreements in translation do not change the
story, but it is important to point it out.
sdanti (verb root: sad) (present indicative, parasmaipada, 3rd
person, plural) = they are weary
Chapter 1/Verse 29
mama (pronoun, 1st person, genitive, singular) = my


gtri (stem form: gtra) (neuter, nominative, plural) = limbs
-
mukham (stem form: mukha) (neuter, nominative, singular) =
sdanti mama gtri mukha ca pariuyati mouth

vepathuca arre me romaharaca jyate 1-29 ca (conjunction) (indeclinable) = and

...my limbs weary and my mouth dries up and the trembling in pariuyati (verb root: u) (pari + uyati) (present indicative,
my body causes the standing on end of my hair. parasmaipada, 3rd person, singular) = it dries up

vepathus (verb root: vip) (nominalized verb, masculine,


nominative, singular) = trembling

ca (conjunction) (indeclinable) = and

arre (stem form: arra) (masculine, locative, singular) = in


the body

me (pronoun, 1st person, genitive, singular) = my

romaharas (stem form: romahara) (roma + haras) (tatpura


compound, masculine, nominative, singular) = the standing on
end of hair

ca (conjunction) (indeclinable) = and


jyate (verb root: jan) (present tense, tmanepada, 3rd person,
singular) = it is born (causes)
Chapter 1/Verse 30

gva srasate hastttvakcaiva paridahyate

na ca aknomyavasthtu bhramatva ca me mana

1-30

Gva slips from (my) hand and verily (my) skin is afire and
I am not able to stand and my mind seems to wander.
gvam (stem form: gva) (neuter, nominative, singular) bhramati (present indicative, parasmaipada, 3rd person,
= Gva (the name of Arjuna's bow) singular) = it wanders

srasate (verb root: sras) (present indicative, tmanepada, iva (indeclinable) = seems to
3rd person, singular) = it slips
ca (conjunction) (indeclinable) = and
hastt (stem form: hasta) (masculine, ablative, singular) = from
hand me (pronoun, 1st person, genitive, singular) = my

tvac (stem form: tvac) (feminine, nominative, singular) = skin manas (stem form: manas) (neuter, nominative, singular) =
mind
ca (conjunction) (indeclinable) = and

eva (indeclinable) = verily (emphatic particle, emphasizes


preceding word)

paridahyate (verb root: dah) (pari + dahyate) (present


indicative, tmanepada, 3rd person, singular) = it completely
burns (is afire)

na (adverb) (indeclinable) = not

ca (conjunction) (indeclinable) = and

aknomi (verb root: ak) (present indicative, parasmaipada, 1st


person, singular) = I am able

avasthtum (1st class verb root: sth) (ava + sthtum)


(infinitive) (indeclinable) = to stand
One particular point that struck me is the part of the verse
detailing that Arjuna's "skin is afire". From my real life
experiences when I felt deep anxiety or elation, I felt more like Chapter 1/Verse 31
I got a mini-hot flash. I feel that the translators have avoided
using the word "hot flash" given it is typically used to describe
a symptom of menopause, a female condition. And "skin is
afire" is more poetic than the contemporary sounding "hot
-
flash".
nimittni ca paymi vipartni keava

na ca reyo'nupaymi hatv svajanamhave 1-31

And I see adverse omens, O Keava. And slaying a kinsman in


battle, I foresee no good fortune.
nimittni (stem form: nimitta) (neuter, nominative, plural) = have (verb root:hve) ( + have) (masculine, locative, singular)
omens = in battle
Once again, most translations interpret "svajanam" as a plural
ca (conjunction) (indeclinable) = and number direct object, but the case ending is in the singular
number. Overall then, most translations interpret the latter
paymi (1st class verb root: pa) (present indicative, 10th phrase as, "I can foresee no good in slaying my kinsmen." But
gana, parasmaipada, 1st person, singular) = I see the grammar does not support this interpretation. I believe
Arjuna is personalizing his anguish, but personalizing a killing
vipartni (stem form: viparta) (neuter, accusative, plural) = of a kinsman in battle by his hands. The grammar supports my
adverse interpretation.

keava (stem form: keava) (masculine, vocative, singular) =


O Keava (epithet of Krishna)

na (adverb) (indeclinable) = not

ca (conjunction) (indeclinable) = and

reyas (stem form: reyas) (neuter, accusative, singular) = good


fortune

anupaymi (1st class verb root: pa) (anu + paymi) (present


indicative, 10th gana, parasmaipada, 1st person, singular) = I
foresee

hatv (2nd class verb root: han) (gerund) (indeclinable) =


slaying

svajanam (stem form: svajana) (masculine, accusative,


singular) = a kinsman
na (negation particle) (indeclinable) = not
Chapter 1/Verse 32
kke (verb root: kk) (present indicative, 1st person,
singular) = I want


vijaya (stem form: vijaya) (masculine, accusative, singular) =
-
victory

na kke vijaya ka na ca rjya sukhni ca


ka (stem form: ka) (masculine, vocative, singular) =
O Krishna
ki no rjyena govinda ki bhogairjvitena v 1-32

na (negation particle) (indeclinable) = not


O Krishna, I don't want victory, nor sovereignty, nor pleasures.
O Govinda, what use is royalty for us? What [use] are
ca (conjunction) (indeclinable) = and
pleasures or life?

rjyam (stem form: rjya) (neuter, accusative, singular) =


sovereignty

sukhni (stem form: sukha) (neuter, accusative, plural) =


pleasures

ca (conjunction) (indeclinable) = and

kim (interrogative particle) = what?

nas (pronoun, 1st person, dative, plural) = for us


rjyena (stem form: rjya) (neuter, instrumental, singular) =
with royalty
Chapter 1/Verse 33
govinda (stem form: govinda) (masculine, vocative, singular) =


O Govinda

-
kim (interrogative particle) = what?

yemarthe kkita no rjya bhog sukhni ca


bhogais (stem form: bhoga) (masculine, instrumental, plural) =
with enjoyments
ta ime'vasthit yuddhe prstyaktv dhanni ca

jvitena (stem form: jvita) (neuter, instrumental, singular) =


1-33
with life

Those arrayed abandoning these two, life and wealth, in battle


v (conjunction) (indeclinable) = or
for the sake of these, our coveted royalty, enjoyments, and
pleasures.
yem (pronoun, masculine, genitive, plural) = of these yuddhe (stem form: yuddha) (neuter, locative, singular) = in
battle
arthe (stem form: artha) (masculine, locative, singular) = for
the sake prn (stem form: pra) (masculine, accusative, plural) = life

kkitam (verb root: kk) (past passive participle, neuter, tyaktv (1st class verb root: tyaj) (gerund) (indeclinable) =
nominative, singular) = the coveted abandoning

nas (pronoun, 1st person, genitive, plural) = our dhanni (stem form: dhana) (neuter, accusative, plural) =
wealth
rjyam (stem form: rjya) (neuter, nominative, singular) =
royalty ca (conjunction) (indeclinable) = and

bhogs (stem form: bhoga) (masculine, nominative, plural) =


enjoyments

sukhni (stem form: sukha) (neuter, nominative, plural) =


pleasures

ca (conjunction) (indeclinable) = and

te (pronoun, 3rd person, masculine, nominative, plural) = those

ime (neuter, accusative, dual) = these two

avasthits (1st class verb root: sth) (past passive participle,


masculine, nominative, plural) = arrayed
crys (stem form: crya) (masculine, nominative, plural) =
teachers
Chapter 1/Verse 34
pitaras (stem form: pit) (masculine, nominative, plurals) =

fathers

-
putrs (stem form: putra) (masculine, nominative, plural) =
sons
cry pitara putrstathaiva ca pitmah
tath (adverb) (indeclinable) = and also
mtul vaur pautr yl sabandhinastath 1-34

eva (indeclinable) = (emphatic particle, emphasizes preceding


Teachers, fathers, sons, and also grandfathers, maternal uncles,
word)
fathers-in-law, grandsons, brothers-in-law, and relatives, thus
so.
ca (conjunction) (indeclinable) = and

pitmahs (stem form: pitmaha) (masculine, nominative,


plural) = grandfathers

mtuls (stem form: mtula) (masculine, nominative, plural) =


maternal uncles

vaurs (stem form: vaura) (masculine, nominative, plural)


= fathers-in-law
pautrs (stem form: pautra) (masculine, nominative, plural) =
grandsons
Chapter 1/Verse 35
yls (stem form: yla) (masculine, nominative, plural) =



brothers-in-law

-

sabandhinas (stem form: sabandhin) (masculine,
nominative, plural) = relatives
etnna hantumicchmi ghnato'pi madhusdana
tath (adverb) (indeclinable) = thus so
api trailokyarjyasya heto ki nu mahkte 1-35

I do not wish to kill these, even [if I be] slain. O Madhusdana,


even for the reason of the rulership of the triple world. Indeed,
how much less on account of the earth?
etn (pronoun, 3rd person, masculine, accusative, plural) =
these kim (interrogative) (indeclinable) = how?

na (negation particle) (indeclinable) = not nu (adverb) (indeclinable) = (a particle having an interrogative


force and implying some doubt or uncertainty)
hantum (2nd class verb root: han) (infinitive) (indeclinable) =
to kill mahkte (stem form: mahkte) (mah + kte) (masculine,
locative, singular) = for the sake of the earth
icchmi (verb root: i) (present indicative, 1st person, singular)
= I wish

ghnatas (2nd class verb root: han) (present participle,


masculine, accusative, singular) = slain

api (adverb) (indeclinable) = even

madhusdana (stem form: madhusdana) (masculine, vocative,


singular) = O Madhusdana (epithet of Krishna)

api (adverb) (indeclinable) = even

trailokyarjyasya (stem form: trailokyarjya) (trai + lokya +


rjyasya) (tatpura compound, neuter, genitive, singular) = of
the rulership of the triple world

hetos (stem form: hetu) (masculine, genitive, singular) = for the


reason
nihatya (2nd class verb root: han) (gerund) (indeclinable) =
killing
Chapter 1/Verse 36
dhrtarrn (stem form: dhrtarra) (masculine, accusative,

plural with nominal derivative) = sons of Dhritarshtra

-
nas (pronoun, 1st person, genitive, plural) = our

nihatya dhrtarrnna k prti syjjanrdana


k (interrogative) (feminine, nominative, singular) = what?

ppamevrayedasmnhatvaitntatyina 1-36
prtis (stem form: prti) (feminine, nominative, singular) =
delight
Killing the sons of Dhritarshtra, what is our delight? O
Janrdana, perhaps having killed these armed aggressors,
syt (verb root: as) (optative, 3rd person, singular) = perhaps
indeed, sin would cling to us.

janrdana (stem form: janrdana) (masculine, vocative,


singular) = O Janrdana (epithet for Krishna)

ppam (stem form: ppa) (neuter, nominative, singular) = sin

eva (emphatic particle that emphasizes the preceding word)


(indeclinable) = indeed

rayet (1st class verb root: ri) ( + rayet) (optative, 3rd


person, singular) = would cling

asmn (pronoun, 1st person, accusative, plural) = us


hatv (2nd class verb root: han) (gerund) (indeclinable) =
Chapter 1/Verse 37
having killed


etn (pronoun, 3rd person, masculine, accusative, plural) =
these
-

tatyinas (verb root: tan) ( + tatyinas) (masculine,


accusative, plural) = whose-bows-are-strung (armed tasmnnrh vaya hantu
aggressors)
dhrtarrnsvabndhavn

svajana hi katha hatv sukhina syma mdhava

1-37

Therefore, we have no justifications to kill the sons of


Dhritarshtra, one's own kinsmen. O Mdhava, indeed, having
slain a man of one's own people, how can we be possessed of
happiness?
tasmt (pronoun, 3rd person, masculine/neuter, ablative, hatv (2nd class verb root: han) (gerund) (indeclinable) =
singular) = therefore having slain

na (negation particle) (indeclinable) = not sukhinas (stem form: sukhin) (masculine, nominative, plural) =
possessed of happiness
arhs (verb root: arh) (masculine, nominative, plural) =
justifications syma (verb root: as) (optative, 1st person, plural) = we could
be
vayam (pronoun, 1st person, nominative, plural) = we
mdhava (stem form: mdhava) (masculine, vocative, singular)
hantum (2nd class verb root: han) (infinitive) (indeclinable) = = O Mdhava (epithet of Krishna)
to kill

dhrtarrn (stem form: dhrtarra) (masculine, accusative,


plural) = sons of Dhritarshtra

svabndhavn (stem form: svabndhava) (masculine,


accusative, plural) = one's own kinsmen

svajanam (stem form: svajana) (masculine, accusative,


singular) = a man of one's own people

hi (adverb) (indeclinable) = indeed

katham (interrogative) (indeclinable) = how?


yadi (conjunction) (indeclinable) = if
Chapter 1/Verse 38
api (adverb) (indeclinable) = even


ete (pronoun, 3rd person, masculine, nominative, plural) = they

-
na (negation particle) (indeclinable) = not

yadyapyete na payanti lobhopahatacetasa payanti (1st class verb root: pa) (present indicative,
parasmaipada, 3rd person, plural) = they see
kulakayakta doa mitradrohe ca ptakam
lobhopahatacetasas (lobha + upahata + cetasas) (tatpura
1-38 compound, neuter, ablative, singular) = from a mind corrupted
with greed
Even if from a mind corrupted with greed they do not see the
flaw, the consequence of the corruption of the family, and the
kulakayaktam (stem form: kulakayakta) (kula + kaya +
sin in the treachery toward a friend.
ktam) (tatpura compound, masculine, accusative, singular)
= the consequence of the corruption of the family

doam (stem form: doa) (masculine, accusative, singular) = a


flaw

mitradrohe (stem form: mitradroha) (mitra + drohe) (tatpura


compound, masculine, locative, singular) = in the treachery
toward friend
ca (conjunction) (indeclinable) = and
Chapter 1/Verse 39
ptakam (verb root: pat) (nominalized verb, neuter, accusative,
singular) = a sin

katha na jeyamasmbhi ppdasmnnivartitum

kulakayakta doa prapayadbhirjanrdana

1-39

How is it not known by us, to turn away from this sin by


discerning the flaw, the consequence of the corruption of the
family, O Janrdana?
katha (adverb) (interrogative) = how? janrdana (masculine, vocative, singular) = O Janrdana
(epithet of Krishna)
na (negation particle) (indeclinable) = not

jeyam (9th class verb root: ja) (gerundive) = to be known

asmbhis (masculine, instrumental, plural) = by us

ppt (neuter, ablative, singular) = from sin

asmt (neuter, ablative, singular) = from this

nivartitum (verb root: vt) (ni + vartitum) (infinitive) = to turn


away

kulakayaktam (stem form: kulakayakta) (kula + kaya +


ktam) (tatpura compound, masculine, accusative, singular)
= the consequence of the corruption of the family

doam (stem form: doa) (masculine, accusative, singular) =


the flaw

prapayadbhir (1st class verb root: pa) (pra + payadbhir)


(present participle, masculine, instrumental, plural) = by
discerning
kulakaye (verb root: ki) (kula + kaye) (tatpura compound,
masculine, locative, singular) = in the corruption of the family
Chapter 1/Verse 40
praayanti (4th class verb root: na) (pra + ayanti) (present

indicative, parasmaipada, 3rd person, plural) = they vanish


-
kuladharms (stem form: kuladharma) (kula + dharms)
(karmadhraya compound, masculine, nominative, plural) =
kulakaye praayanti kuladharm santan
family dharmas

dharme nae kula ktsnamadharmo'bhibhavatyuta 1-40


santans (stem form: santana) (masculine, nominative,
plural) = perennial
In the corruption of the family, the perennial family dharmas
vanish. And in perished dharma, adharma overcomes the
dharme (stem form: dharma) (masculine, locative, singular) =
whole family.
in dharma

nae (4th class verb root: na) (past passive participle,


masculine, locative, singular) = perished

kulam (stem form: kula) (neuter, accusative, singular) = family

ktsnam (stem form: ktsna) (neuter, accusative, singular) = the


whole

adharmas (stem form: adharma) (masculine, nominative,


singular) = adharma
abhibhavati (verb root: bh) (abhi + bhavati) (present Most translations interpret "kaya" (in the previous verse and
indicative, parasmaipada, 3rd person, singular) = it overcomes this verse) as "destruction", but I feel this is a bit extreme and
goes over-the-top because the "family is not destroyed".
uta (conjunction) (indeclinable) = and "Corruption" or "decay" is a better word because how could a
"flaw" exist as stated in a previous verse if "the family was
destroyed". I like to think of it like a watch. If a watch was
"corrupted" it would not tell time properly and that would be a
flaw in the watch. If the watch was destroyed, even a flaw
could not be evident in the watch because the watch would be
smashed and broken, and not just flawed. A flaw is a minor
problem that can lead to bigger problems.
adharmbhibhavt (stem form: adharmbhibhava) (adharma +
abhibhavt) (tatpura compound, masculine, ablative,
Chapter 1/Verse 41
singular) = from the predominance of adharma


ka (stem form: ka) (masculine, vocative, singular) =
O Krishna
-

praduyanti (verb root: du) (pra + duyanti) (present


adharmbhibhavtka praduyanti kulastriya indicative, parasmaipada, 3rd person, plural) = they are
corrupted
stru dusu vreya jyate varasakara 1-41
kulastriyas (stem form: kulastr) (kula + striyas)
O Krishna, from the predominance of adharma, the family (karmadhraya compound, feminine, nominative, plural) =
women are corrupted. When the women are defiled, the family women
intermixing of the castes arises, O Vreya.
stru (stem form: str) (feminine, locative absolute, plural) =
when the women

dusu (stem form: du) (past passive participle, feminine,


locative absolute, plural) = when the defiled

vreya (stem form: vreya) (masculine, vocative, singular)


= O Vreya (epithet of Krishna)

jyate (verb root: jan) (present indicative, tmanepada, 3rd


person, singular) = arises
varasakaras (verb root: k) (vara + sakaras) (tatpura This verse gives deep insight into the culture at the original
compound, nominalized verb, masculine, nominative, singular) writing of the Bhagavad Gita that permeates to this day in
= intermixing of the castes modern India. Other cultures around the world hold similar
values. This verse can easily get people riled up with protests
of racism and social inequality while "armchair critiquing" a
culture with a typical lack of historical and cultural knowledge.
I feel the best way to understand this verse is to refer to
perennial stories of cultures like Romeo and Juliet or West Side
Story where social classes of people intermix. At the end of the
day it is all about seeking rapport and harmony within a social
structure.
sakaras (verb root: k) (sa + karas) (nominalized verb,
masculine, nominative, singular) = intermixing
Chapter 1/Verse 42
narakya (stem form: naraka) (masculine, dative, singular) =

causes an atmosphere of torment

-
eva (indeclinable) = verily (emphatic particle, emphasizes
preceding word)
sakaro narakyaiva kulaghnn kulasya ca
kulaghnnm (stem form: kulaghna) (kula + ghnnm)
patanti pitaro hye luptapiodakakriy 1-42 (karmadhraya compound, masculine, genitive, plural) = of
the family corruptors
The intermixing of the family corruptors and family, verily,
causes an atmosphere of torment. Indeed, the ancestors fall. Of kulasya (stem form: kula) (neuter, genitive, singular) = of the
these (ancestors), the ritual-offerings of rice-balls and water are family
discontinued.
ca (conjunction) (indeclinable) = and

patanti (verb root: pat) (present indicative, parasmaipada, 3rd


person, plural) = they fall

pitaras (stem form: pit) (masculine, nominative, plural) =


ancestors

hi (interjection) (indeclinable) = indeed

em (pronoun, masculine, genitive, plural) = of these


luptapiodakakriys (stem form: luptapiodakakriya) (lupta Once again, this verse being connected with the last verse can
+ pia + udaka + kriys) (tatpura compound, masculine, get people riled up for this verse speaks of the consequences of
nominative, plural) = ritual-offerings of water and rice-balls are the intermixing of the family with different castes of people
discontinued and the people who instigate that situation.

"Narakya" can be translated to "to hell". But I feel it is more


like that an atmosphere of torment will arise in the family
causing problems with the ancestors and the stoppage of family
rituals and traditions that keep the atmosphere of the family
harmonious.
doais (stem form: doa) (masculine, instrumental, plural) = by
flaws
Chapter 1/Verse 43
etais (masculine, instrumental, plural) = by these

kulaghnnm (stem form: kulaghna) (kula + ghnnm)


-
(karmadhraya compound, masculine, genitive, plural) = of
the family corruptors
doairetai kulaghnn varasakarakrakai
varasakarakrakais (stem form: varasakarakraka) (vara
utsdyante jtidharm kuladharmca vat + sakara + krakais) (tatpura compound, instrumental,
plural) = by those who cause intermixture of the castes
1-43
utsdyante (present indicative, passive causative, tmanepada,
By these flaws of the family corrupters, who cause intermixture 3rd person, plural) = they are ruined
of the castes, the perennial family dharmas and caste dharmas
are ruined. jtidharms (stem form: jtidharma) (jti + dharms)
(karmadhraya compound, masculine, nominative, plural) =
the caste dharmas

kuladharms (stem form: kuladharma) (kula + dharms)


(karmadhraya compound, masculine, nominative, plural) =
the family dharmas

ca (conjunction) (indeclinable) = and


vats (stem form: vata) (masculine, nominative, plural) =
perennial
Chapter 1/Verse 44

utsannakuladharm manuy janrdana

narake'niyata vso bhavattyanuuruma 1-44

O Janrdana, we have heard repeatedly, "The abode is chaotic


in the atmosphere of torment of the ruined family dharmas of
humans."
utsannakuladharmm (verb root: sad) (utsanna + kula +
dharmm) (karmadhraya compound, masculine, genitive,
Chapter 1/Verse 45
plural) = of the ruined family dharmas


manuym (stem form: manuya) (masculine, genitive,
plural) = of humans

-
janrdana (stem form: janrdana) (masculine, vocative,
aho bata mahatppa kartu vyavasit vayam
singular) = O Janrdana (epithet for Krishna)

yadrjyasukhalobhena hantu svajanamudyat


narake (stem form: naraka) (masculine, locative, singular) = in
an atmosphere of torment
1-45

aniyatam (stem form: aniyata) (masculine, accusative, singular)


Aha! Alas! We are determined to perform a great sin, that
= chaotic
which with greed for royal pleasures we are prepared to slay a
kinsman.
vsas (verb root: vas) (derivative noun, masculine, nominative,
singular) = abode

bhavati (verb root: bh) (present indicative, 3rd person,


singular) = it is

iti (punctuation) (indeclinable) = (quotation mark)

anuuruma (verb root: ru) (anu + uruma) (perfect,


parasmaipada, 1st person, plural) = we have heard repeatedly
aho (interjection) (indeclinable) = aha!
udyats (verb root: yam) (past passive participle, masculine,
bata (interjection) (indeclinable) = alas! nominative, plural) = prepared

mahatppam (stem form: mahatppa) (mahat + ppam)


(karmadhraya compound, masculine, accusative, singular) =
great sin

kartum (verb root: k) (infinitive) (indeclinable) = to perform

vyavasits (verb root: so) (vi + ava + sits) (past passive


participle, masculine, nominative, plural) = determined

vayam (pronoun, 1st person, nominative, plural) = we

yad (pronoun, 3rd person, neuter, accusative, singular) = that


which

rjyasukhalobhena (rjya + sukha + lobhena) (tatpura


compound, masculine, instrumental, singular) = with greed for
royal pleasures

hantum (2nd class verb root: han) (infinitive) (indeclinable) =


to slay

svajanam (stem form: svajana) (masculine, accusative,


singular) = kinsman
yadi (conjunction) (indeclinable) = if
Chapter 1/Verse 46
mm (pronoun, 1st person, accusative, singular) = me


apratkram (verb root: k) (nominalized verb, masculine,
accusative, singular) = unresisting
-

aastram (stem form: aastra) (neuter, accusative, singular) =


yadi mmapratkramaastra astrapaya unarmed

dhrtarr rae hanyustanme kematara bhavet 1-46 astrapayas (stem form: astrapi) (astra + payas)
(tatpura compound, masculine, nominative, plural) = hand
In combat, if the armed sons of Dhritarshtra should kill me with a weapon (armed)
unresisting and unarmed, that would be more suitable for me.
dhrtarrs (stem form: dhrtarra) (masculine, nominative,
plural with nominal derivative) = sons of Dhritarshtra

rae (stem form: raa) (masculine, locative, singular) = in


combat

hanyus (2nd class verb root: han) (optative, 3rd person, plural)
= should kill

tat (correlative pronoun, 3rd person, neuter, nominative,


singular) = that

me (pronoun, 1st person, dative, singular) = for me


kemataram (comparative) = more suitable

Chapter 1/Verse 47
bhavet (verb root: bh) (optative, 3rd person, singular) = would
be

evamuktvrjuna sakhye rathopastha upviat

visjya saara cpa okasavignamnasa 1-47

Thus, Arjuna having spoken on the battlefield, he sat down in


the chariot seat dropping the bow with an arrow, his mind
agitated with grief.
evam (adverb) (indeclinable) = thus okasavignamnasas (stem form: okasavignamnas) (oka
+ savigna + mnasas) (karmadhraya compound, masculine,
uktv (2nd class verb root: vac) (gerund) (indeclinable) = genitive, singular) = his mind agitated with grief
having spoken

arjunas (stem form: arjuna) (masculine, nominative, singular) =


Arjuna

sakhye (stem form: sakhya) (neuter, locative, singular) =


on the battlefield

rathopasthe (stem form: rathopastha) (ratha + upasthe)


(karmadhraya compound, masculine, locative, singular) = in
the chariot seat

upviat (verb root: vi) (upa + + viat) (imperfect, 6th class,


parasmaipada, 3rd person, singular) = he sat down

visjya (verb root: srj) (vi + sjya) (gerund) (indeclinable) =


dropping

saaram (stem form: saara) (sa + aram) (neuter, accusative,


singular) = with an arrow

cpam (stem form: cpa) (neuter, accusative, singular) = bow