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Unit 54 assignment 1/*

File formats
Range of common formats: raster, vector, metafiles; file extensions
Raster graphics
Most images which you see on a computer screen or a TV screen, are
normally raster images. Pictures, which are found on the web, and photos,
which you may import from your digital camera, are raster graphics.
Raster graphics are grid of pixels these graphics are referred to as a
bitmap graphics. The larger to image is, the memory, which the image will
take up, an example of this, would be a 640 x 480 image, which requires
information to be stored for 307,200 pixels. Raster graphics need to store
as much information as possible, large bitmaps require larger file sizes.
JPEG and GIF are the most common compressed formats on the web. Most
raster graphics are scaled down with no loss of quality, although by
enlarging a bitmap image it will cause it to look blocky and pixelated for
this reason vector graphics are often used to create certain graphics for
example a company logo would be created in this file format these
would need to be scaled down to different sizes. A raster file is much
larger than a vector graphic image. A raster file is difficult to modify
without loss of information, although there is another software tool that
can covert a raster fie into a vector file. Some examples of raster images
are BMP, TIFF, GIF and JPEG.
Raster based animation frame, which includes raster images are made up
of individual pixels. These pixels each contain information, which is about
the colour and brightness of that particular spot which is included within
the image. This is very similar to the concept of pointillism in painting,
with the sum of the points making up the totality of the picture or frame.
Raster animation is used for depicting realistic representations of people,
animation or even places, other than the more stylized, anime-style
animation. Which you may get with vector graphics. Raster animation is
could also be used to be able to create animation for logos and banner
based which are on photos or drawings.
Vector graphics
Vector animation is a term, which is used to refer to an animation whose
art, or vectors rather than pixels control motion. Vector animation
sometimes allows cleaner, smoother animation as images are displayed
and/or resized by using mathematical values instead of stored pixel
values. One of the most popular used victor animation programs is
macromedias flash vector graphics are the geometrical primitives like
points, lines and curves and polygons. Vector graphics are not made up of
a grid of pixels; instead, these graphics are comprised of paths, which are
defined by a start and end to a point along with other points, curves and
angles along the way. A path may be a line, a square, a triangle or a curvy
shape like a circle. These paths may be used to create simple drawings or
complex drawings, these paths are used to define the characters of
specific typefaces. As vector, images are not made up of a specific
number of dots they may be scaled into a larger size and they would not
lose quality.

Metafiles
Metadata is one of the harder things, which relates to web pages, which
you will have to try to under-stand, it is data, which is about data
/different assets within a webpage or it may be some other form of media.
An example will be metadata is often saved within photo files. This data
gives information about what date the photo was taken and possibly at
what time etc. This data is saved within the main photo file as an added
extra, which is called metadata. Metadata within web pages is made up
within the HTML coding. It offers extra information about what data the
site is showing by using Meta tags etc. These are small tags or added
extra pieces of coding within a website, which enables search engines to
find out information about what is on the website very quickly. Search
engines such as google will be able to search through a websites coding
and look at Meta tags and metadata to see what information is included.
This is much quicker than the search engine having to look at the coding
as a whole and therefore sites tend to rank higher if they include
metadata.
File extensions
A GIF file format may support up to 8 bits per pixel for an image, allowing
an individual image to reference its own palette of up to 256 different
colour, which are chosen from the 24-bit RGB colour space. GIFs are used
to save simple animations and cannot hold audio or sound. They are
compatible with almost every program, although, this does not mean that
the animation will play on them and more that the programme will load
the first frame as a still image. Photoshop is commonly used to assemble
GIFs and animations, however, if it is not available there are multiple sites,
which are online, which are able to provide, free GIFs assembly if you
upload the frames. GIFs are able to be used in order to create short
animations, if GIFs contains too many frames they will slow down and
glitch, but if multiple GIFs are saved with a small number of frames but
still accumulatively create long animations are all uploaded to software
like Abode Premiere which the user will be able to have the option to
create as long as animation they desire using a GIF.

.FLA this is a file format which is used on flash; this format is used to add
animation, video and interactivity to access webpages. Flash is mostly
used for advertisement and games. They are compressed files, which are
viewable on the web using flash; this is also a file which youre able to edit
and covert into a .SWF for professional use. FLA is the file format, which is
used within Adobe Flask pro for authoring in and storing work, which is
still in progress or under development. FLA files are converted into SWF
format for the use for flash player before they can be put on to the
internet
SWF is a file extension, which is for a shockwave flash file format, which is
created by Macromedia and is now owned by Adobe. SWF stands for small
web format. SWF files are able to contain video, vector based animations,
and sound and these are designed for efficient delivery over the web

A JEPG, file allows is to 16.8 million colours and is a lossy compression file,
the more this file is compressed the more the quality is lost. The file is
better for photographs and other photorealistic graphics, which require
more colours. A jpeg format is also best suited for images, which require
smooth transitions between different colours like gradients and drop
shadows. Most people use JPED for web graphics that contain a multitude
of colours and gradations like photographic images.

A PSD is a Photoshop image file format, this file format is used on


Photoshop, and Photoshop is a graphic editing program, which is used to
create graphics using different tools and software to produce the graphic,
which you need. This file format are made up from layers, which are
combined together when saved. If you have created a graphics with a
multitude of layers and you want to save thee layers for any changes,
which you may intent to make in the future, then this is generally the best
to save the graphics in Photoshop format.
A TIFF is a tagged image format. This format is for storing grey-scale data.
it is a standard format which is used for scanned images and exporting
grey-scale and coloured images to other programs.

.
EPS this stands for encapsulated postscript, which is a graphic file
format. ESP files are mostly self-contained. Postscript documents which
are in images or drawings, which can be used with another postscript
document. This file format is used for graphics, images and text. They are
used so you are able to have an embedded preview, which may be used
on a bitmap. This is the most popular type of file format for a vector
graphic. EPS stands for encapsulated postscript format, which is based on
the postscript printing language. Most of the eps graphics which are
created and edited in a draw vector application like illustrator and when
you open up illustrator vector eps images in Photoshop, Photoshop will
convert it in to pixels.
EPS format is quickly becoming an outdated file format which is now being
replaced by PDF although adobe still continues to support EPS as a
graphic format which is for users who feel the need to import data into
page layout programs that are not stylised for PDF.

Portable bit map is a file format, which is used to support monochrome


bitmaps, (1 bit per pixel). The format can be used for lossless data, which
is transferred because many applications support this format. You are able
to even edit or create such files within a simple text editor.

DICOM, which stands for digital imaging and communications in


medicine, this file format is used to transfer and store the medicine
images, like ultrasounds and scans. DICOM files contain both image data
and headers, which store the information about who the patient is etc.
and will save the medicine image. You are able to open, edit and save
DICOM files in Photoshop extended.

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Applications
Vector based applications
A vector graphic editor is a computer program which allows users to
compose and edit vector graphics images interactively on a computer and
then save them in one of many popular vector graphics formats, like EPS,
PDF or VML, there is also many more which you are able to use.
Vector editors are sometimes contrasted with bitmap editors and the
capabilities complement each other. Vector editors are often better for the
page layout, logos, typography and sharp edged artistic. Bitmap editors
are more suitable for retouching, photo processing, photorealistic
illustration and illustrations which are drawn by hand with a pen tablet.
A number of vector graphics editors exist for various platforms. Potential
users of these editors will make a decision based on factors such as the
availability for the user's platform, the feature set, and the merits of the
user interface and the focus of the program. Some programs are more
suitable for artistic work while others are better for technical drawings.
Another important factor is the application's support of various vector and
bitmap image formats for import and export.
Vector based graphics are also web-based and free versions of vector
drawing applications. Most vector graphics software applications can also
be used to create Meta graphics.

Raster-based applications
A raster graphics editor is a computer program which allows users to
create and edit different images interactively on the computer screen and
then be able to save them in one of many bitmap or raster formats such
as JPEG, PNG, GIF and TIFF. A raster graphic editor supports a certain
repertoire of image editing operations. Depending on the program, the
capabilities may be extended by use software. An image viewer program
is usually preferred over a raster graphic editor for viewing images.
Adobe Photoshop was created in 1988, since then this software has
become the most popular way to edit raster graphics. This software can
edit and create raster images in multiple layers and supports marks, alpha
compositing and several colour models; this includes RGB, CMYK, spot
colour and many more. Photoshop has good support for graphics file
formats but it also uses its own file format PSD and PSB file formats which
these support all the aforementioned features. Photoshop files have
default file extension as .PSD, which stands for "Photoshop Document." A
PSD file stores an image with support for most imaging options available
in Photoshop. These include layers with masks, transparency, text, alpha
channels and spot colour, clipping paths and duotone settings. This is in
contrast to many other file formats (e.g., .JPG or .GIF) that restrict content
to provide streamlined, predictable functionality. A PSD file has a
maximum height and width of 30,000 pixels, and a length limit of 2
Gigabytes.
Within computer graphics, a raster graphics is an image, which is a dot of
matrix data structure, representing a generally rectangular grid of pixels
or points of colour, viewable via a monitor, paper or other display
medium. Raster images are stored in image files with varying formats.

Use in different media forms: print, moving image, interaction

Print
If I needed to create graphics for the band the pixels and it needed to be
published and sent out to print, there wouldnt be anything which needed
to change as I would make in comparison to how I will be creating my final
graphics for design. This is because when creating a logo, album cover
and A3 cover for the pixels I will be creating the three graphics in
Photoshop. Once I have created the graphics I will publish and export all
the three graphics as a PNG file format, this means that the images which
I have exported will not suffer from pixilation. I think that this file format
will be the best for print as I would be able to use the same graphics in
different advertisements and when I am using the images for print the
same poster or image will be printed in all different scales and sizes. An
example of this would be my A3 poster, I might use this poster on a
billboard on the side of building within a city or I might even uses it but as
a smaller size so that I can use it on a telephone box or on the side or
back of a bus. I could even make it even smaller and make it in to a A5 of
paper to hand out to give it people as a leaflet.
So exporting these graphics as a PNG for print would be the best choice as
a PNG file allows me to scale down and be able to resize the graphics from
being big to being small.

Moving images
If I was to use the three graphics as a moving image, like in a video or an
animation sequence, there is a couple of options which I would be able to
change when publishing/exporting all the graphics which I have created
for the pixels band. If the graphics which I may need to create and I need
to change these to a moving image in a video production and in video
editing software like adobe premiere and adobe after effects, then I would
publish and export the graphics as a PNG or JPEG.
If I wanted to use my graphics for moving images, I am able to also create
them to a GIF, a GIF file, which stands for a graphics interchange format,
is a short animated type of image file where I am able to include a number
of bitmap/raster type images, thee together form a short animation. GIF
animation files allows you to use a palette of up to 256 different colours
from the 24-bit RBG colour space, this is good for simple images like a
company logo. GIF image files are compressed using lossless compression
(lzw) which reduces the size of the GIF file without losing any of the visual
quality. The compression technique was created in 1985; this was 2 years
before the GIF file was then created in 1975.

Interactive
If I were to create and produce the chosen graphics for interactive
programs then there would be a couple of formats/options for the file
formats and the different methods, which I could publish/export my
graphic designs to be able to make them interactive, or for my graphics to
be used for interactive purposes. If I was to publish or export my graphics
for the band the pixels for somethings within the interactive media
industry such as a website advertisement then I will be
publishing/exporting my graphics designs as a JPG image file format or a
GIF image/Animation file format.
I would publish my graphic designs as a JPG file format, so if the advert
was just static with no other moving image or animation in the
advertisement. My graphic designs for either the pixels band, which would
also, be a JPG image file format because all website advertisements are
always the same size at the top, bottom, left or right side of the website
page. Since the entire website advertisement are the same size when
producing my graphics, which I would be producing my graphics at that
exact size so no rescaling or resizing will be needed.
JPEG which stands for joint photographic expert group, is one of the most
common types of image files, which I would come across, they normally
achieve a 10:1 compression, which is low loss compression, meaning that
when compressed the image, will lose some of the quality. JPEG image
files are the most common image file used for digital cameras and other
type of devices, which they can also capture image also. JPEG images are
normally the type of image file, which you would find on websites and
across the World Wide Web.
This images show how interactive a graphic could
be, for example within this graphic, they ask
questions and other types of methods, which would
allow they audience to be able to interactive with
the graphic. This then is classed as an interactive
graphic, which is what the company would want to
happen with the graphic, this would the get the
audience up and they would be more interested
within what they are trying the sell and to see if it is
something which they would want to see and what
it is they are trying to sell to the audience.