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TESNADO, CHRISTIAN JEDD D.

CE152P/A3
Cement is a hydraulic binder, a finely ground inorganic material which, when
mixed with water forms a paste which sets and hardens by means of
hydration reactions and processes which, after hardening, retains its strength
and stability even under water.

Cement Types (Portland cement)


Portland cement is classified into different types as per ASTM (American
Society for Testing and Materials) standards and requirements. ASTM C150,
which is the Standard Specification for Portland cement, recognizes about ten
types of this cement:
Type I and Type IA
This type of cement is used for general purposes where the
special properties specified for any other type are not required.
Type IA, however, is an air-entraining type cement.
Known for its fairly high C3S (tricalcium silicate) content, this
type of cement is used for good early strength development.
Type I/IA cement is used for general construction for most
buildings, bridges, pavements, precast units, etc.
Type II and Type IIA
This type of cement is also used for general use, mere especially
when moderately sulphate resistance or moderate heat of
hydration is required. Similar to Type IA, Type IIA is an air-
entraining type cement.
Known for its low C3A (tricalcium aluminate) content, no less
than 8%.
Type II/IIA cement is used for structures exposed to soil or water
containing sulphate ions.
Type II(MH) and Type II(MH)A
This type of cement is similar to that to Type II/IIA cement but is
added with a moderate heat of hydration characteristic
based on a requirement. Similar to Type IA and IIA, Type II(MH)A
is an air-entraining type cement.
Type III and Type IIIA
This type of cement is used when high early strength is
required. Similar to Type IA, IIA and II(MH)A, Type IIIA is an air-
entraining type cement.
Even though it appears to be chemically and physically similar
to Type I cement, Type III/IIIA is known for its slightly more C 3S
content and are ground finer. The resulting cement produces
higher early strength.
Because of its high early strength, Type III/IIIA cement is
applicable for rapid construction projects as well as cold weather
concreting.

Type IV
This type of cement is used when a low heat of hydration is
required, meaning slow reacting.
Known for its low content of C3S (about less than 50%) and C3A.
Type IV cement is used in massive structures such as dams
where the rate and amount of heat generated from hydration
must be minimized. It develops strength slower than other
cement types.
Type V
This type of cement has a high sulphate resistance.
Known for its very low C3A content (about less than 5%).
Type V cement is used for structures, particularly those near
oceans and soils, which are exposed to high levels of sulphate
ions.
Portland cement is commonly mixed with a type or different types of
blended cement to give it additional qualities favourable and desired by
buyers and builders. Blended hydraulic cements are produced by intimately
and uniformly blending two or more types of fine materials. ASTM C595,
which is the Standard Specification for Blended Hydraulic Cements,
recognizes two types of this cement:
Cement in the Philippines
The Philippines recognizes three cement makers/manufacturers as the
leading cement companies nationwide. These include:

Holcim (195-218 pesos/bag)


Lafarge (205-220 pesos/bag)
Cemex (195-220 pesos/bag)

Each company produces cement per ASTM standard with variations in quality,
properties, and affordability suitable for its clients and buyers.

Holcim products
Holcim Philippines manufactures and sells four different kinds of cement
depending on buyer specifications and demands. These include:

1. Holcim Excel
Primary application of Holcim Excel cement is for construction of
concrete floor slabs, columns, beams, walls and pavements.
Other applications include concrete hollow block production.
Benefits include
o Higher early strength = reduces construction time
o Higher yield = less cost per concrete hollow block: 5-10
more CHB
o Improved workability = eliminates unnecessary repair and
rework
o Improved chloride and sulphate resistance = durable and
longer-lasting structures

2. Holcim WallRight
Holcim WallRight is used for hollow block laying and filling,
plastering, and finishing. It has superior bond strength,
increased water retention, and smoother texture compared to
ordinary cement applied as a finish
Holcim WallRight is specially developed to have superior bond
strength and high workability. Other benefits include
o Superior bond strength makes plastering application
easier and faster
o Extendable mixture ~ 1:4 (cement: sand)
o Allows easy placement and better bonding for hollow
block laying
o Improves quality of surface finish compared to ordinary
cement

3. Holcim 4X
Supplied in bulk, Holcim 4X is mainly used for high-rise buildings
and vertical structures that require high-strength cement. It is
ideal for construction that requires optimized concrete mix
designs and fast construction cycles
Holcim 4X properties include
o Higher compressive strength
o Longer setting time
o Better Admix compatibility
o Lower cement temperature

4. Holcim Premium
Holcim Premium Bulk is an ASTM C 150 high performance
Portland cement specially formulated for general construction. It
has high workability and is compatible with commonly available
admixtures. A 5% coefficient of variation for compressive
strength is maintained to ensure product consistency.

Price of one bag (40 kg) of Holcim Portland cement:


PHP 195.00 to PHP 218.00

Lafarge products
Lafarge Philippines manufactures and sells five different kinds of cement
(excluding bulk orders) depending on buyer specifications and demands.
These include:

1. Lafarge Republic Portland Plus


Applicable for general construction: houses, buildings, roads,
bridges. Ideal for general concrete applications: foundations,
columns, walls, slabs, beams
Benefits include
o Higher compressive strength, minimized shrinkage and
cracking
o Improved durability (e.g. greater steel bar protection from
corrosion)
o Reduced segregation, minimized rock holes (ampaw)
o Ease of application and compaction
o Ease of pumping
2. Lafarge RapidSet
Applicable for concrete hollow block manufacturing, precast
manufacturing, pre-stressing and post-tensioning of slabs and
beams, and cast-in-place concrete structures requiring high
early day strength
Benefits include
o Greater productivity
o Reduced cement content to achieve the required concrete
strength
o Allows the creation of modified concrete properties as per
requirement of the concrete mix design

3. Lafarge WallMaster
Applicable for plastering (palitada), and laying and filling of
concrete hollow blocks, bricks and other types of masonry units
(asintada)
Benefits include
o Ultra-smooth finish
o Ease of use, faster works
o Minimizes cracking due to shrinkage

4. Lafarge Mindanao Pozzolan Premium


Applicable for home building and renovation, masonry works
(palitada, asintada), and structures immersed in water
Benefits include
o Less prone to (thermal) cracking
o Greater resistance against chemical attacks, superior
durability
o Reduces wastage and water addition, better finishing
o Ease of application and compaction

5. Lafarge Fortune
Applicable for general construction: houses, buildings, roads,
bridges. Ideal for general concrete applications: foundations,
columns, walls, slabs, beams.
Benefits include
o Higher compressive strength, exceeding ASTM standards
for OPC
o Greater resistance against chemical attacks
o Reduced segregation, minimized rock holes (ampaw)
o Ease of application and compaction
o Ease of pumping

Price of one bag (40 kg) of Lafarge Portland cement:


PHP 205.00 to PHP 220.00

Cemex products
Cemex Philippines manufactures and sells seven different kinds of cement
(excluding bulk orders) depending on buyer specifications and demands.
These include:

1. Rizal Portland Super


Rizal Portland Super is used for the following applications:
o All-purpose cement for general construction applications,
especially where structures are exposed to moderate
sulphate environments or to chloride attack; Roads,
pavements, bridges, foundations, columns and slabs; Pre-
cast and pre-fabricated concrete products such as pipes,
hollow blocks, pavers, floor and roof tiles; Tanks,
reservoirs, culverts, water pipes, and masonry units

Benefits include
o Higher ultimate strength
o Reduced permeability
o Reduced expansion and heat of hydration and improved
long-term durability
o Moderate sulphate-resistant type of cement

2. Rizal Masonry Cement


Rizal Masonry Cement is used for the following applications:
o Plastering (exterior and interior); CHB laying / core filling;
Tile adhesive / grouts and fabrication of decorative stone
and stucco; Other semi-structural masonry works
(driveways, sidewalks, fencing); Ground floor slab
concreting
Benefits include
o Savings both in labour costs and usage
o Higher workability compared to traditional cement
products
o Less plaster cracking
o Environment-friendly

3. APO Portland Premium


APO Portland Premium is used for the following applications:
o All-purpose cement for general construction applications,
especially where structures are exposed to moderate
sulphate environments or to chloride attack; Roads,
pavements, bridges, foundations, columns and slabs;
Precast and pre-fabricated concrete products such as
pipes, hollow blocks, pavers, floor and roof tiles; Tanks,
reservoirs, culverts, water pipes, and masonry units
Benefits include
o Higher ultimate strength
o Reduced permeability
o Reduced expansion and heat of hydration and improved
long-term durability
o Moderate sulphate-resistant type of cement

4. APO Masonry Cement


APO Masonry Cement is used for the following applications:
o Plastering (exterior and interior); CHB laying / core filling;
Tile adhesive / grouts and fabrication of decorative stone
and stucco; Other semi-structural masonry works
(driveways, sidewalks, fencing); Ground floor slab
concreting
Benefits include
o Savings both in labour costs and usage
o Higher workability compared to traditional cement
products
o Less plaster cracking
o Environment-friendly

5. Island Portland
A general-purpose Portland cement suitable for all uses where
special properties are not required. It can be used in:
o High strength concrete designs with a minimal cement
factor requirement (ready-mixed concrete);Projects with
tight completion schedules; Precast and pre-stressed
concrete; Infrastructure roads, dams, bridges, railway
structures; Mega-structures, high-rise buildings, and
condominiums; Tanks, reservoirs, culverts, water pipes,
and masonry units (mortars, renders, and screeds)
Benefits include
o Early strength achieved in less time
o Best in overall quality and consistency
o Proven compatibility with mineral and chemical
admixtures

6. Palitada King Masonry Cement


Palitada King is used for the following applications:
o Laying of concrete hollow blocks and all other types of
masonry units (e.g. bricks, stones, etc.); In-filling of
concrete hollow blocks; Plastering of external and internal
walls; Decorative finishes; Used as an ingredient for tile
grout, tile adhesive, and stucco
Benefits include
o Superior adhesion
o Enhanced workability and longer board life
o Increased water retention and less cracking
o Smoother and lighter colour

7. APO Portland
A general-purpose Portland cement suitable for all uses where
special properties are not required. It can be used in:
o High strength concrete designs at minimal cement factor
requirement (ready-mixed concrete); Projects with tight
completion schedules; Precast and pre-stressed concrete;
Infrastructure roads, dams, bridges, railway structures;
Mega-structures, high-rise buildings, and condominiums;
Tanks, reservoirs, culverts, water pipes, and masonry
units (mortars, renders, and screeds)
Benefits:
o Early strength achieved in less time
o Best in overall quality and consistency
o Proven compatibility with mineral and chemical
admixtures

Price of one bag (40 kg) of Cemex Portland cement:


PHP 195.00 to PHP 220.00

Prices of Other cement products sold in the Philippines

Eagle Cement Advance PHP 205.00 to PHP 220.00


Suggested Retail Price for common cement PHP 205.00 to PHP
220.00
Sahara Cement PHP 35.00 per kilo
Red Cement PHP 29.00 per kilo

The price of cement is congruous to that of typical products that also change
in price. Economic principles such as understanding the basic law of supply
and demand will affect the price of the product.
In addition, the pricing of cement varies on the following major factors:
region, time and climate. In some areas in the Philippines, the prices of a
cement bag is lower than that in urban regions. Also, time and climate play
important roles in pricing of goods. For cement, that is, when it is cold and
rainy, cement prices tend to elevate as this would cause cements of required
typesparticularly that for construction with sulphate interruptionto elevate
in price. This is due to the instability caused by buyers upon demand and
supply.
At this time, cement would still be negotiable for many buyers, builders,
contractors and more, and it is with this struggle in purchasing that would
compromise the integrity of the project or structure in question.

References:
Construction Materials and TestingCement hand-out
Engr Bernard Villaverde
HOLCIM cement products
http://www.holcim.com.ph/productadvisor/products/cement.html
LAFARGE cement products
http://www.lafarge.com.ph/wps/portal/ph/cement-products
CEMEX cement products
http://www.cemexphilippines.com/ProductsServices/CementType
s.aspx
Cement makers asked to explain price hike
http://www.philstar.com/business/2013/04/09/928414/cement-
makers-asked-explain-price-hike
Price data of various cement products of different companies provided
by the Constech Management Group Inc. (family business)