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May 14, 2017

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Nyul Fuzzy Segmentation

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Nyul Fuzzy Segmentation

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Image

Segmentation

Image

Segmentation

Outline

aszl

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ul aszl

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ul

Fuzzy systems Fuzzy systems

Fuzzy sets

Fuzzy Techniques for Image Segmentation Fuzzy sets

2 Fuzzy sets

Fuzzy image Fuzzy image

processing processing

Fuzzy Laszl

o G. Ny

ul Fuzzy 3 Fuzzy image processing

connectedness connectedness

Fuzzy thresholding

Department of Image Processing and Computer Graphics Fuzzy clustering

University of Szeged

4 Fuzzy connectedness

2008-07-12 Theory

Algorithm

Variants

Applications

Fuzzy Fuzzy

Techniques for Techniques for

Image

Segmentation

Dealing with imperfections Image

Segmentation

Fuzzy systems

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Outline Outline

Fuzzy systems

Aoccdrnig to a rscheearch at Cmabrigde Uinervtisy, it deosnt Fuzzy systems

Fuzzy sets

mttaer in waht oredr the ltteers in a wrod are, the olny Fuzzy sets

Fuzzy image iprmoetnt tihng is taht the frist and lsat ltteer be at the rghit Fuzzy image Fuzzy systems and models are capable of representing

processing processing

pclae. The rset can be a toatl mses and you can sitll raed it diverse, inexact, and inaccurate information

Fuzzy Fuzzy

connectedness wouthit porbelm. Tihs is bcuseae the huamn mnid deos not connectedness

Fuzzy logic provides a method to formalize reasoning when

raed ervey lteter by istlef, but the wrod as a wlohe.

According to a researcher (sic) at Cambridge University, it dealing with vague terms. Not every decision is either true

doesnt matter in what order the letters in a word are, the only or false. Fuzzy logic allows for membership functions, or

important thing is that the first and last letter be at the right degrees of truthfulness and falsehoods.

place. The rest can be a total mess and you can still read it

without problem. This is because the human mind does not

read every letter by itself but the word as a whole.

Fuzzy Fuzzy

Techniques for Techniques for

Image

Segmentation

Membership function examples Image

Segmentation

Application area for fuzzy systems

aszl

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Outline Outline

processing processing

Quality control

Fuzzy Fuzzy

connectedness connectedness Error diagnostics

Control theory

Pattern recognition

Fuzzy Fuzzy

Techniques for Techniques for

Image

Segmentation

Object characteristics in images Image

Segmentation

Fuzzy set

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Let X be the universal set.

Outline Outline

Fuzzy sets heterogeneity of intensity in the Fuzzy sets (

Fuzzy image

object region due to heterogeneity Fuzzy image 1 if x A

processing processing A (x) =

Fuzzy of object material and blurring Fuzzy

0 if x

6 A

connectedness connectedness

caused by the imaging device

For crisp sets A is called the characteristic function of A.

Hanging-togetherness

natural grouping of voxels A fuzzy subset A of X is

constituting an object a human

viewer readily sees in a display of A = {(x, A (x)) | x X }

the scene as a Gestalt in spite of

where A is the membership function of A in X

intensity heterogeneity

A : X [0, 1]

Fuzzy Fuzzy

Techniques for Techniques for

Image

Segmentation

Probability vs. Image

Segmentation

Probability vs.

aszl

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ul grade of membership aszl

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ul grade of membership

Outline Outline

Examples

Probablility

Fuzzy systems Fuzzy systems

Fuzzy sets

is concerned with occurence of events Fuzzy sets

processing processing

probability density functions

Fuzzy

connectedness

Fuzzy

connectedness

This car is between 10 and 15 years old (pure imprecision)

Compute the probability that an ill-known variable x of the

This car is very big (imprecision & vagueness)

universal set U falls in the well-known set A.

This car was probably made in Germany (uncertainty)

Fuzzy sets The image will probably become very dark (uncertainty &

deal with graduality of concepts vagueness)

represent vagueness

fuzzy membership functions

Compute for a well-known variable x of the universal set U to

what degree it is member of the ill-known set A.

Fuzzy Fuzzy

Techniques for Techniques for

Image

Segmentation

Fuzzy membership functions Image

Segmentation

Fuzzy set properties

aszl

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ul Height

height(A) = sup {A (x) | x X }

Outline Outline

Fuzzy sets Fuzzy sets height(A) = 1

Fuzzy image Fuzzy image

processing processing

Sub-normal fuzzy set

Fuzzy Fuzzy

connectedness connectedness

height(A) 6= 1

triangle trapezoid

Support

supp(A) = {x X | A (x) > 0}

Core

core(A) = {x X | A (x) = 1}

Cardinality

gaussian singleton X

kAk = A (x)

xX

Fuzzy Fuzzy

Techniques for Techniques for

Image

Segmentation

Operations on fuzzy sets Image

Segmentation

Fuzzy relation

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A fuzzy relation in X is

processing Union processing

connectedness connectedness

A B = {(x, AB (x)) | x X } AB = max(A , B )

with a membership function

Complement

: X X [0, 1]

A = {(x, A(x)) | x X } A = 1 A

for fuzzy sets.

Fuzzy Fuzzy

Techniques for Techniques for

Image

Segmentation

Properties of fuzzy relations Image

Segmentation

Fuzzy image processing

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Fuzzy image processing is the collection of all approaches that

Outline is reflexive if Outline

understand, represent and process the images, their segments

Fuzzy systems x X (x, x) = 1 Fuzzy systems

and features as fuzzy sets. The representation and processing

Fuzzy sets Fuzzy sets

Fuzzy image

is symmetric if Fuzzy image

depend on the selected fuzzy technique and on the problem to

processing processing be solved.

Fuzzy

Fuzzy x, y X (x, y ) = (y , x) thresholding (From: Tizhoosh, Fuzzy Image Processing, Springer, 1997)

connectedness Fuzzy clustering

Fuzzy

is transitive if connectedness ... a pictorial object is a fuzzy set which is specified by some

[ membership function defined on all picture points. From this

x, z X (x, z) = (x, y ) (y , z) point of view, each image point participates in many

y X

memberships. Some of this uncertainty is due to degradation,

is similitude if it is reflexive, symmetric, and transitive but some of it is inherent... In fuzzy set terminology, making

figure/ground distinctions is equivalent to transforming from

Note: this corresponds to the equivalence relation in hard sets. membership functions to characteristic functions.

(1970, J.M.B. Prewitt)

Fuzzy Fuzzy

Techniques for Techniques for

Image

Segmentation

Fuzzy image processing Image

Segmentation

Fuzzy thresholding

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Outline Outline

0 if f (x) < T1

g (x) if T1 f (x) < T2

Fuzzy systems Fuzzy systems

Fuzzy sets Fuzzy sets g (x) = 1 if T2 f (x) < T3

Fuzzy image Fuzzy image

g (x) if T3 f (x) < T4

processing processing

Fuzzy Fuzzy

thresholding thresholding

0 if T4 f (x)

Fuzzy clustering Fuzzy clustering

Fuzzy Fuzzy

connectedness connectedness

Fuzzy Fuzzy

Techniques for Techniques for

Image

Segmentation

Fuzzy thresholding Image

Segmentation

Fuzziness and threshold selection

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ul Example aszl

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ul

Outline Outline

processing processing

Fuzzy Fuzzy

thresholding thresholding

Fuzzy clustering Fuzzy clustering

Fuzzy Fuzzy

connectedness connectedness

original image Otsu fuzziness

Fuzzy Fuzzy

Techniques for Techniques for

Image

Segmentation

k-nearest neighbors (kNN) Image

Segmentation

k-means clustering

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Outline Outline

Training: Identify (label) two sets of voxels XO in object

Fuzzy sets Fuzzy sets The k-means algorithm iteratively optimizes an objective

region and XNO in background

Fuzzy image Fuzzy image function in order to detect its minima by starting from a

processing Labeling: For each voxel v in input scenes . . . processing

Fuzzy

thresholding

Fuzzy

thresholding

reasonable initialization.

Fuzzy clustering

Find its location P in feature space Fuzzy clustering

The objective function is

connectedness If a majority of those are from XO , then label v as object, connectedness

k X

n

otherwise as background X (j)

2

J= xi cj

j=1 i=1

Fuzzification: If m of the k nearest neighbor of v belongs

m

to object, then assign (v ) = k to v as membership

Fuzzy Fuzzy

Techniques for Techniques for

Image

Segmentation

k-means clustering Image

Segmentation

k-means clustering

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ul Algorithm aszl

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Outline Outline

1 Consider a set of n data points (feature vectors) to be

Fuzzy systems Fuzzy systems

clustered.

Fuzzy sets Fuzzy sets

Fuzzy image

2 Assume the number of clusters, or classes, k, is known. Fuzzy image

processing

Fuzzy

2 k < n. processing

Fuzzy

How to initialize?

thresholding thresholding

Fuzzy clustering 3 Randomly select k initial cluster center locations. Fuzzy clustering What objective function to use?

Fuzzy Fuzzy

connectedness 4 All data points are assigned to a partition, defined by the connectedness What distance to use?

nearest cluster center. Robustness?

5 The cluster centers are moved to the geometric centroid What if k is not known?

(center of mass) of the data points in their respective

partitions.

6 Repeat from (4) until the objective function is smaller

than a given tolerance, or the centers do not move to a

new point.

Fuzzy Fuzzy

Techniques for Techniques for

Image

Segmentation

Fuzzy c-means clustering Image

Segmentation

Fuzzy c-means clustering

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1 Consider a set of n data points to be clustered, xi .

Outline A partition of the observed set is represented by a c n Outline

2 Assume the number of clusters (classes) c, is known. 2 c < n.

Fuzzy systems matrix U = [uik ], where uik corresponds to the Fuzzy systems

3 Choose an appropriate level of cluster fuzziness, m R>1 .

Fuzzy sets

membership value of the k th element (of n), to the i th Fuzzy sets

4 Initialize the (n c) sized membership matrix U to random

Fuzzy image Fuzzy image Pc

processing cluster (of c clusters). processing values such that uij [0, 1] and j=1 uij = 1.

Fuzzy Fuzzy

Pn m

thresholding Each element may belong to more than one cluster but its thresholding (uij ) xi

Fuzzy clustering Fuzzy clustering 5 Calculate the cluster centers cj using cj = Pi=1 n m , for

Fuzzy

overall membership equals one. Fuzzy i=1 (uij )

connectedness connectedness j = 1 . . . c.

The objective function includes a parameter m controlling

(j)

Calculate the distance measures dij =
xi cj
, for all clusters

6

the degree of fuzziness.

j = 1 . . . c and data points i = 1 . . . n.

The objective function is

7 Update the fuzzy membership matrix U according to dij . If

2 1

c X

n
2 Pc dij m1

dij > 0 then uij = . If dij = 0 then the data

X
(j)

J= (uij )m
xi cj
k=1 dik

j=1 i=1 point xj coincides with the cluster center cj , and so full

membership can be set uij = 1.

8 Repeat from (5) until the change in U is less than a given

tolerance.

Fuzzy Fuzzy

Techniques for Techniques for

Image

Segmentation

Fuzzy c-means clustering Image

Segmentation

Basic idea of fuzzy connectedness

aszl

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Outline Outline

Fuzzy image

Computationally expensive Fuzzy image local hanging-togetherness

processing processing

Fuzzy Highly dependent on the initial choice of U (affinity) based on similarity

thresholding Fuzzy

Fuzzy clustering

If data-specific experimental values are not available, connectedness

Theory

in spatial location as well as

Fuzzy

connectedness m = 2 is the usual choice Algorithm

Variants

in intensity(-derived features)

Applications

inhomogeneity bias field while producing the fuzzy (connectedness)

partitioning

Fuzzy Fuzzy

Techniques for Techniques for

Image

Segmentation

Fuzzy digital space Image

Segmentation

Fuzzy spel affinity

aszl

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ul Fuzzy spel adjacency is a reflexive and symmetric fuzzy aszl

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Outline

relation in Z n and assigns a value to a pair of spels (c, d) Outline

Fuzzy spel affinity is a reflexive and symmetric fuzzy relation

Fuzzy systems based on how close they are spatially. Fuzzy systems

in Z n and assigns a value to a pair of spels (c, d) based on

how close they are spatially and intensity-based-property-wise

Fuzzy sets

Example Fuzzy sets

processing processing

Fuzzy Fuzzy

connectedness

1 connectedness (c, d) = h( (c, d), f (c), f (d), c, d)

Theory

if kc dk < a small distance Theory

Algorithm (c, d) = kc dk Algorithm

Variants

Applications

0 otherwise

Variants

Applications

Example

Fuzzy digital space (c, d) = (c, d) (w1 G1 (f (c) + f (d)) + w2 G2 (f (c) f (d)))

(Z n , ) !

Scene (over a fuzzy digital space) 1 (x mj )2

where Gj (x) = exp

2 j2

C = (C , f ) where C Z n and f : C [L, H]

Fuzzy Fuzzy

Techniques for Techniques for

Image

Segmentation

Paths between spels Image

Segmentation

Strength of connectedness

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Fuzzy systems Fuzzy systems membership (strength of connectedness) assigned to any

Fuzzy sets A path pcd in C from spel c C to spel d C is any sequence Fuzzy sets

path pcd Pcd is the smallest spel affinity along pcd

Fuzzy image

processing

hc1 , c2 , . . . , cm i of m 2 spels in C , where c1 = c and cm = d. Fuzzy image

processing

Fuzzy Fuzzy

N (pcd ) = min (cj , cj+1 )

j=1,...,m1

connectedness Let Pcd denote the set of all possible paths pcd from c to d. connectedness

Theory Theory

Algorithm Then the set of all possible paths in C is Algorithm

The fuzzy -connectedness in C (K ) is a fuzzy relation in C

Variants Variants

Applications Applications

[ and assigns a value to a pair of spels (c, d) that is the

PC = Pcd

maximum of the strengths of connectedness assigned to all

c,dC

possible paths from c to d (global hanging-togetherness).

pcd Pcd

Fuzzy Fuzzy

Techniques for Techniques for

Image

Segmentation

Fuzzy component Image

Segmentation

Fuzzy connected object

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ul Let [0, 1] be a given threshold aszl

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Outline Outline

Let K be the following binary (equivalence) relation in C The fuzzy object O (o) of C containing o is

Fuzzy systems Fuzzy systems

(

1 if (c, d) (c) if c O (o)

Fuzzy image

K (c, d) = Fuzzy image O (o) (c) =

processing

0 otherwise processing

0 otherwise

Fuzzy Fuzzy

connectedness connectedness

Theory Let O (o) be the equivalence class of K that contains o C Theory that is (

Algorithm Algorithm

Variants Variants (c) if c (o)

Applications Applications O (o) (c) =

Let (o) be defined over the fuzzy -connectedness K as 0 otherwise

(o) = {c C | K (o, c) } where assigns an objectness value to each spel perhaps based

on f (c) and K (o, c).

Practical computation of FC relies on the following equivalence

Fuzzy connected objects are robust to the selection of seeds.

O (o) = (o)

Fuzzy Fuzzy

Techniques for Techniques for

Image

Segmentation

Fuzzy connectedness as Image

Segmentation

Computing fuzzy connectedness

aszl

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ul a graph search problem aszl

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ul Dynamic programming

Outline Outline

Algorithm

Fuzzy systems Fuzzy systems

Input: C, o C ,

Fuzzy sets Fuzzy sets Output: A K-connectivity scene Co = (Co , fo ) of C

Fuzzy image Fuzzy image Auxiliary data: a queue Q of spels

processing processing

Fuzzy

Spels graph nodes Fuzzy begin

connectedness

Spel faces graph edges connectedness set all elements of Co to 0 except o which is set to 1

Theory Theory

Algorithm Algorithm

push all spels c Co such that (o, c) > 0 to Q

Variants Fuzzy spel-affinity relation edge costs Variants while Q 6= do

Applications Applications remove a spel c from Q

Fuzzy connectedness all-pairs shortest-path problem fval maxdCo [min(fo (d), (c, d))]

if fval > fo (c) then

Fuzzy connected objects connected components fo (c) fval

push all spels e such that (c, e) > 0 fval > fo (e) fval > fo (e) and (c, e) > fo (

endif

endwhile

end

Fuzzy Fuzzy

Techniques for Techniques for

Image

Segmentation

Computing fuzzy connectedness Image

Segmentation

Brain tissue segmentation

aszl

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ul Dijkstras-like aszl

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ul FSE

Outline

Algorithm Outline

Input: C, o C ,

Fuzzy systems Fuzzy systems

Output: A K-connectivity scene Co = (Co , fo ) of C

Fuzzy sets Auxiliary data: a priority queue Q of spels Fuzzy sets

processing processing

begin

Fuzzy set all elements of Co to 0 except o which is set to 1 Fuzzy

connectedness connectedness

push o to Q

Theory Theory

Algorithm while Q 6= do Algorithm

Variants remove a spel c from Q for which fo (c) is maximal Variants

Applications Applications

for each spel e such that (c, e) > 0 do

fval min(fo (c), (c, e))

if fval > fo (e) then

fo (e) fval

update e in Q (or push if not yet in)

endif

endfor

endwhile

end

Fuzzy Fuzzy

Techniques for Techniques for

Image

Segmentation

FC with threshold Image

Segmentation

FC with threshold

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ul MRI aszl

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ul CT and MRA

Outline Outline

processing processing

Fuzzy Fuzzy

connectedness connectedness

Theory Theory

Algorithm Algorithm

Variants Variants

Applications Applications

Fuzzy Fuzzy

Techniques for Techniques for

Image

Segmentation

Fuzzy connectedness variants Image

Segmentation

Scale-based affinity

aszl

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Outline Outline

Fuzzy sets

Multiple seeds per object Fuzzy sets

processing processing

connectedness connectedness

Theory Vectorial fuzzy affinity Theory homogeneity (local and global)

Algorithm Algorithm

Variants

Applications

Variants

Applications

object feature (expected intensity properties)

Absolute fuzzy connectedness object scale

Relative fuzzy connectedness

Iterative relative fuzzy connectedness

Fuzzy Fuzzy

Techniques for Techniques for

Image

Segmentation

Object scale Image

Segmentation

Computing object scale

aszl

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Algorithm

Outline

Object scale in C at any spel c C is the radius r (c) of the Outline Input: C, c C , W , [0, 1]

Fuzzy systems largest hyperball centered at c which lies entirely within the Fuzzy systems Output: r (c)

Fuzzy sets same object region Fuzzy sets

begin

Fuzzy image Fuzzy image

processing processing

k1

while FOk (c) do

Fuzzy Fuzzy k k +1

connectedness connectedness

Theory Theory

endwhile

Algorithm Algorithm r (c) k

Variants Variants

Applications Applications

end

X

The scale value can be simply and effectively estimated without Ws (|f (c) f (d)|)

explicit object segmentation dBk (c)

FOk (c) =

|Bk (c) Bk1 (c)|

Fuzzy Fuzzy

Techniques for Techniques for

Image

Segmentation

Relative fuzzy connectedness Image

Segmentation

Relative fuzzy connectedness

aszl

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ul Algorithm

Outline Outline

Let O1 , O2 , . . . , Om , a given set of objects (m 2),

Fuzzy sets Fuzzy sets S = {o1 , o2 . . . , om } a set of corresponding seeds, and let

Fuzzy image Fuzzy image b(oj ) = S \ {oj } denote the background seeds w.r.t. seed oj .

processing always at least two objects processing

connectedness automatic/adaptive thresholds connectedness S

Theory

on the object boundaries Theory 2 combine them into a single affinity = j j

Algorithm Algorithm

Variants

Applications objects (object seeds) compete

Variants

Applications

3 compute fuzzy connectedness using K

for spels and the one with 4 determine the fuzzy connected objects

stronger connectedness wins Oob (o) = {c C | o 0 b(o) K (o, c) > K (o 0 , c)}

(

(c) if c Oob (o)

Oob (c) =

0 otherwise

Fuzzy Fuzzy

Techniques for Techniques for

Image

Segmentation

kNN vs. VSRFC Image

Segmentation

Image segmentation using FC

aszl

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MR

Outline Outline

brain tissue, tumor, MS lesion segmentation

Fuzzy systems Fuzzy systems

MRA

Fuzzy sets Fuzzy sets

vessel segmentation and artery-vein separation

Fuzzy image Fuzzy image

processing processing CT bone segmentation

Fuzzy Fuzzy

connectedness connectedness

kinematics studies

Theory Theory measuring bone density

Algorithm Algorithm

Variants Variants stress-and-strain modeling

Applications Applications

CT soft tissue segmentation

cancer, cyst, polyp detection and quantification

stenosis and aneurism detection and quantification

Digitized mammography

detecting microcalcifications

Craniofacial 3D imaging

visualization and surgical planning

Fuzzy Fuzzy

Techniques for Techniques for

Image

Segmentation

Protocols for brain MRI Image

Segmentation

FC segmentation of brain tissues

aszl

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Outline Outline

1 Correct for RF field inhomogeneity

Fuzzy systems Fuzzy systems 2 Standardize MR image intensities

Fuzzy sets Fuzzy sets

3 Compute fuzzy affinity for GM, WM, CSF

Fuzzy image Fuzzy image

processing processing 4 Specify seeds and VOI (interaction)

Fuzzy Fuzzy

connectedness connectedness 5 Compute relative FC for GM, WM, CSF

Theory Theory

Algorithm Algorithm 6 Create brain intracranial mask

Variants Variants

Applications Applications

7 Correct brain mask (interaction)

8 Create masks for FC objects

10 Compute relative FC for GM, WM, CSF, LS

11 Verify the segmented lesions (interaction)

Fuzzy Fuzzy

Techniques for Techniques for

Image

Segmentation

Brain tissue segmentation Image

Segmentation

MS lesion quantification

aszl

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ul SPGR aszl

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ul FSE

Outline Outline

processing processing

Fuzzy Fuzzy

connectedness connectedness

Theory Theory

Algorithm Algorithm

Variants Variants

Applications Applications

Fuzzy Fuzzy

Techniques for Techniques for

Image

Segmentation

Brain tumor quantification Image

Segmentation

Skull object from CT

aszl

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Outline Outline

processing processing

Fuzzy Fuzzy

connectedness connectedness

Theory Theory

Algorithm Algorithm

Variants Variants

Applications Applications

Fuzzy Fuzzy

Techniques for Techniques for

Image

Segmentation

MRA slice and MIP rendering Image

Segmentation

MRA vessel segmentation and

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ul artery/vein separation

Outline Outline

processing processing

Fuzzy Fuzzy

connectedness connectedness

Theory Theory

Algorithm Algorithm

Variants Variants

Applications Applications

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