Sei sulla pagina 1di 2

To Design Fuzzy Model Based PID Controller For Level Process

Ashwini More, Maithilee Kulkarni, Pradeep Laghule, Aniket Digrase, Siddhesh Dani 1

Abstract— Water level control is highly important in indus- trial applications such as boilers in nuclear plants. The fuzzy logic controller is based on Mamdani type Fuzzy Inference System. The fuzzy controller has two inputs, error in level and rate of change of error and one output, valve position. The fuzzzy controller is implemented in MATLAB and then simulated in simulink to test the behaviour of the system when inputs change. The response of the fuzzy controller is then compared with a conventional PID controller. The results are shown sequentially and the effectiveness of the controller is illustrated.

I. INTRODUCTION

In many industrial processes, control of liquid level is required. It was reported that about 25 percent of emer- gency shutdowns in the nuclear power plant are caused by poor control of the steam generator water level. Such shutdowns greatly decrease the plant availability and must

be minimized. Water level control system is a very complex system, because of the nonlinearities and uncertainties of

a system. Currently, constant gain PI controllers are used

in nuclear organizations for boiler water level control at

high power operations. However, at low power operations, PI controllers can not maintain water level properly. A need for performance improvement in existing water level regulators

is therefore needed.

A. Types Of Fuzzy Logic Systems

There are two major types of control rules in fuzzy control:

1) Mamdani System This method is widely accepted for capturing expert knowledge. It allows us to describe the expertise in more intuitive, more human-like manner. How- ever, Mamdani-type FIS entails a substantial computational burden. 2) Takagi-Sugeno: This method is computationally effi- cient and works well with optimization and adaptive tech- niques, which makes it very attractive in control problems, particularly for dynamic non-linear systems. These adap- tive techniques can be used to customize the membership functions so that fuzzy system best models the data. The most fundamental difference between Mamdani-type FIS and Sugeno-type FIS is the way the crisp output is generated from the fuzzy inputs. While Mamdani-type FIS uses the technique of defuzzification of a fuzzy output, Sugeno-type FIS uses weighted average to compute the crisp output.

Laghule, Aniket Digrase,

Siddhesh Dani are students of the department of Instrumentation and

Control, College of Engineering, Pune - 411 005, Maharashtra, India

ashu.more1823@gmail.com

1 Ashwini More, Maithilee Kulkarni, Pradeep

II. PID CONTROLLER TUNING

Ziegler-Nichols formulas for specifying the controllers are based on plant step responses. The rst method is applied to plants with step responses of the form displayed in Figure This type of response is typical of a rst order system with transportation delay, such as that induced by uid ow from a tank along a pipe line. It is also typical of a plant made up of a series of rst order systems. The response is characterized by two parameters, L the delay time and T the time constant. These are found by drawing a tangent to the step response at its point of inection and noting its intersections with the time axis and the steady state value. The plant model is therefore:

G(s)=

ke

Ls

Ts+1

(1)

where, k = 0.2075,L = 5,T = 81.9 Therefore the plant is

G(s)= 0.2075e 5s

81.9s + 1

(2)

Ziegler and Nichols derived the following control tuning parameters for PID controller:

K(p)= (1, 2)(T )

(3)

L

1

(2)(T )

1

(0.5)(T )

K(i)=

K(d)=

(4)

(5)

Substituting the parameters of the model in the given

50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 100 200 300 400 500
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900

Fig. 1.

Zeigler-Nichols method 1

equations to find the tuning parameters of PID controller, we get following results Kp = 19.65; Ki = 0.10; Kd =0.40.

III. DESIGNING OF FUZZY LOGIC CONTROLLER

A. The FIS Editor

We have defined two Inputs for the Fuzzy Controller. One is Level of the liquid in the Tank denoted as level and the other one is rate of change of liquid in the Tank denoted as rate. Both these Inputs are applied to the Rule Editor. According to the Rules written in the Rule Editor the controller takes the action and governs the opening of the Valve which is the Output of the controller and is denoted by valve.

B. The Rule Editor

Constructing rules using the graphical Rule Editor in- terface is fairly self-evident. Based on the descriptions of the input and output variables defined with the FIS Editor, the Rule Editor allows to construct the rule statements automatically, by clicking on and selecting one item in each input variable box, one item in each output box, and one connection item.Choosing none as one of the variable qualities will exclude that variable from a given rule. 1) Rule 1: If (level is okay) then(valve is nochange) 2) Rule 2: If (level is low) then(valve is openfast) 3) Rule 3: If (level is high) then(valve is closefast) 4) Rule 4: If (level is okay) then(valve is nochange) 5) Rule 5: If (level is okay) and(rate is positive)then(valve is closeslow) 6) Rule 6: If (level is okay) and(rate is nega- tive)then(valve is openslow) 7) Rule 7: If (level is okay) and(rate is zero)then(valve is nochange) 8) Rule 8: If (level is low) and(rate is zero)then(valve is openfast) 9) Rule 9: If (level is high) and(rate is zero)then(valve is closefast)

C. Comparison

Shows the comparison of fuzzy and PID controller tran-

sient response for desired level. We can use fuzzy controller for rapid control (coarse adjustment) and then use PID

The result of

controller for accurate control (fine

the simulation shows that as far as no balance and complex mathematical models, such a fuzzy control is similar to the human way of thinking. And it is suitable for coarse control at the beginning of the operation to rapidly control. And in order to get better control accuracy, PID control program used as a fine tune. On the other hand, the fuzzy and PID control program presented has a wide practical value because of the fuzzy control program does not rely on the mathematical model. It can be tried with a fuzzy controller which generates the rule base based on the PID scheme. An optimized FLC by tuning the fuzzy parameters may be employed to get the better accuracy.

IV. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION

Overall the projects feasibility lies in the simplicity of its implementation. The advantages of a fuzzy based controller over a PID controller are derived from results. Better control

50 100 150 200 250 300 350 100 200 300 400 500 600 700
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
100
200
300
400
500
600
700

Fig. 2.

Simulink Block Model

performance, robustness and overall stability can be expected from the fuzzy controller. Fuzzy controllers have better stability, small overshoot, and fast response. From the results the following parameters can be observed. Hence, fuzzy logic controller is introduced for controlling fluid levels. 1) Even though, the PID controller produces the response with lower delay time and rise time compared with fuzzy logic controller, but it offers very high settling time due to the oscillatory behavior in transient period. It has severe oscillations with a very high peak overshoot of 162) The proposed Fuzzy logic controller can effectively eliminate these dangerous oscillations and provides smooth operation in transient period. Hence, it is concluded that the PID controller could not be used for the control of non-linear processes like fluid levels. So, the proposed fuzzy logic based controller design can be a preferable choice for this.

A. Future Scope

As a future scope of this work the FLC can be imple- mented in a microcontroller with additional set of rules for more accurate control and can be used in various applications in industry and household. The controller can also be tested with periodically varying liquid level tracking applications.

REFERENCES

[1] www.ni.com(technical support,Examples). [2] www.google.com(SCCT Development Team). [3] Fuzzy logic with Engineering Applications-Timothy J.ROSS