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April 8, 2000

Happened to
Average Printing 20,381,000
Published in 82 Languages

What Has
to Morals? 3-11
The 20th century
experienced a moral
breakdown. Is it
unique to our time?
What does it mean?

What Are Morals Like Today? 3

Are Morals Worse Than Before? 5

A Marsupial With What Does It All Mean? 9
a Spring in Its Step 16
Religious Intolerance Now Admitted 12
Taking a close look at
Australias kangaroo. A Tool for Teaching Human Rights 15

Crossword Puzzle 20

Managing a Killer 21

The Vasa From Disaster

Is It Proper to to Attraction 24
Worship Jesus? 26 Watching the World 28
What does the Bible
From Our Readers 30
say about this?
A Living Faith Amid Tragedy 31

A Day to Remember 32

2 Awake! April 8, 2000

What Are Morals
Like Today?
One morning in April 1999, the calm was shat
tered in the town of Littleton, near Denver, Col
orado, U.S.A. Two youths in black trench coats
entered the local high school and began shoot
ing at students and teachers. They also detonat
ed bombs. Twelve students and a teacher were
killed, and more than 20 were wounded. The
perpetrators ended the massacre by taking their
own lives. They were only 17 and 18 years old
and had a deep hatred for certain groups.

ADLY, the exam ple m entioned above is not an iso

S la te d in c id e n t. N e w sp a p e rs, ra d io , a n d te le v i
sion re p o rt sim ilar events th ro u g h o u t the world.
A ccording to the N atio n al C enter for Educatiori S ta
tistics, a b o u t 11,000 violent incidents involving w eap
ons in A m erican schools were rep o rted during 1997.
In H a m b u rg , G e rm a n y , re p o rts o f acts o f violence

Morals Defined
In these articles the word morals is used in
the sense of relating to principles of right
and wrong in human behavior. This includes
honesty, truthfulness, and high standards
of conduct in sexual and other matters.
increased by 10 p ercen t d uring 1997, and do p h iles w ho seek to lu re c h ild ren an d
44 p ercen t o f th e suspects were youths u n m in o rs in to ille g a l sex a c tiv itie s . C o n
der 21. cern a b o u t child p o rn o g rap h y o n th e In
C o rru p tio n am ong politicians and gov ternet has been increasing, according to a
e rn m e n t officials is c o m m o n . A re p o r t spokesm an in Sweden for Save th e C h il
by E u ro p e a n U n io n (E U ) co m m issio n dren. In N orw ay in 1997, this o rg an izatio n
er A n ita G ra d in in 1998 revealed th a t the received 1,883 tip s a b o u t child p o rn o g ra
c o s t o f c o r r u p tio n w ith in th e E U d u r phy Web sites on th e Internet. T h e next
ing 1997 was estim ated a t 1.4 billion dol year the n u m b er o f such tip s skyrocketed
lars. T his involved everything from having to alm ost 5,000. M uch o f the m aterial is
p a rk in g tickets dism issed to fra u d u le n t produced in c o u n tries w here governm ents
ly receiving ag ricultural o r o th e r E U sub or local a u th o rities ca n n o t co n tro l this de
sidies. Large-scale m oney laundering and spicable activity.
th e sm uggling o f w eapons and narcotics Was It Better in the Past?
had been allowed, and E U em ployees had M any people w ho are horrified by th e
been b rib ed by crim inal organizations to bad sta te o f m o ra ls in th e w o rld to d ay
keep silent. T h e e n tire E U C om m ission may th in k back longingly to th e co m m u n i
resigned in 1999. ty spirit o f th eir p a re n ts o r g ra n d p a re n ts
However, it is no t only th o se at the high day. P erhaps they have h eard th a t people
est levels o f society w ho cheat. A rep o rt lived a m u ch calm er life back th e n and
from the E U C om m ission regarding ille th a t honesty and o th er aspects o f m orali
gal w orkers revealed th a t u p to 16 percent ty were highly valued at all levels o f so
o f the E U s gross natio n al p ro d u ct co n ciety. O lder folks m ay have spoken a b o u t
sists o f incom e from businesses th a t are the tim e w hen hardw orking p eople helped
n o t registered and th a t do n o t pay taxes. In one another, fam ily ties w ere strong, and
R ussia illegal incom e is rep o rted to be up y o u th s felt secu re a n d assisted o n th e ir
to 50 percen t o f the total. F urtherm ore, in p a re n ts farm o r in th eir w orkshop.
the U nited States, the A ssociation o f C er T his leads to the questions: W ere p e o
tified F rau d E xam iners stated th a t A m eri ples m orals really b e tte r in th e past? O r is
can com panies lose well over 400 billion there sim ply a feeling o f nostalgia th a t dis
d o lla rs a n n u a lly b e c a u s e o f em ployees to rts o u r m em ory o f days gone by? Let us
stealing m oney o r p ro p erty from them . see how historians and o th e r social a n a
T he In te rn et has been used by m any p e lysts answer.
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Unless otherwise indicated, New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures With References is used.

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4 Awake! April 8, 2000

Are Morals Worse
Than Before?
F YOU were to ask historians, A re peo O f course, the in stitu tio n o f slavery exist
ples m orals today b e tte r o r w orse than ed, and it resulted in som e o f th e m ost seri
in the past? som e may answ er th a t it is ous crim es in h istory the kidnapping o f
difficult to com pare the m orals o f different hum ans in A frica by E u ro p ean traders and
tim e periods. They m ay feel th at every age the brutalizing o f these m illions o f slaves
has to be judged in its ow n context. in the lands to w hich they were taken.
C onsider, for exam ple, the developm ent Thus, if we look back over past ce n tu
o f v io le n t c rim e in E u ro p e sin c e th e ries, we will likely find th a t w hen viewed
16th century. M urders were no t th a t u n in historical perspective, som e conditions
usual 400 years ago. People often took the were b e tte r, w hereas o th ers were worse.
law into th eir ow n hands, and blood feuds N e v e rth e le s s , s o m e th in g v e ry d iffe r
were com m on. e n t and very se rio u s in d ee d , u n p re c e
N e v e rth e le ss, h is to ria n s A rn e Ja rric k dented happened during th e 20th ce n tu
and Jo h an S o d erb erg w rite in the b o o k ry and is still happening.
Manniskovardet och m akten (H um an D ig
The 20th Century A Turning Point
nity and Power) th a t the period betw een
1600 and 1850 w as c h a ra c te riz e d by a H isto ria n s Ja rric k a n d S o d e rb e rg o b
genuine civilizing o f social life in som e serve: In the 1930s the curve o f m urder
places. People had becom e b etter at tak and hom icide once again tu rn e d upw ard,
ing the needs o f others in to consideration and, sadly, since th en this tre n d has co n tin
they had becom e m ore em pathetic. O th ued for m ore th an h a lf a cen tu ry .
er historians note, for exam ple, th at theft According to m any com m entators, there
and crim es ag ain st p ro p e rty w ere m uch was a large-scale d eterioration o f m orals
less com m on in the 16th cen tu ry th an they during the 20th century. A n essay ab o u t
are today. O rganized gangs o f thieves were m oral philosophy says: O ne can clearly
rare, especially am ong th e ru ral p o p u la see th a t societys view o f sex and w hat is
tion. m orally acceptable has changed m uch in

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Awake! April 8, 2000 5

the past 30 to 40 yearsfrom society m ak But why is it th a t a p h ilo so p h y th a t was
ing clear w hat is m orally correct, by m eans form ulated in the 18th cen tu ry to o k m ore
o f strict rules, to a m ore free and individu th a n 200 years to catch on? T hese ideas
alist view. were not easily spread to th e public, says
T his m eans th a t sexual conduct and o th the ab ove-m entioned b o o k . T h e m ove
er aspects o f m orality are things th at m ost m ent tow ard secularization was slow.
individuals now feel they can decide for Even if th e tren d to ab an d o n tra d itio n al
them selves. To illu s tra te th is, th e essay m oral standards and C h ristian values did
cites statistics showing th a t in 1960 only proceed slowly for m ost o f the p a st 200
5.3 percen t o f all children in the U nited years, it ac ce lera te d sh a rp ly d u rin g th e
States were b o rn ou t o f wedlock. In 1990 20th century. T his has especially been th e
the figure was 28 percent. case in the p ast few decades. W hy is that?
In a lecture at the U niversity o f N otre Selfishness and Greed
D am e, U.S. S e n a to r Jo e L ie b erm a n d e A strong contributing factor is the rapid
scribed the m orals o f o u r tim e as a val technological and econom ic developm ent
ues v a c u u m ,. . . w here traditional ideas o f in society during the 20th century. A n a rti
right and w rong have been gradually w orn cle in the G erm an new sm agazine Die Zeit
away. According to Lieberm an, this phe stated th a t we live in a dynam ic epoch
nom enon has been brew ing for the better and not, as during form er centuries, in a
p a rt o f tw o generations. world characterized as being static. T he
Secularization article explained th a t this has led to a sys
W h a t do h istorians and o th er analysts tem o f m arket econom y, w hich is based
say is the reason for this rem arkable de on com petition and propelled by selfish
velopm ent during th e 20th century? One ness.
o f th e m o st im p o r ta n t changes in soci
ety d u rin g the p ast tw o centuries is sec
u larizatio n , observes the b o o k Mannisko-
vardet och m akten. S ecularization m eant
th a t p e o p le w ould b e afforded th e o p
p o rtu n ity to take th eir stand on different
view points on th eir own. T his i d e a . . . has
its origin am ong the 18th-century philos
o p h e rs o f th e E n lig h ten m en t, w ho were
th e first to . . . reject the Bible as the only
source o f tru th . T hus, religions, especial
ly those o f C hristendom , are not looked to
for m oral guidance as m uch as they were
in the past.

The n e w values tra n s m itte rs a re th e

television producers, th e m ovie moguls, th e
fashion a d v ertisers, th e g a n g s ta ra p p e rs . . .

This selfishness, the article continued, and th a t they low er the m oral threshold
could not be stopped by anything. In its am ong people in general, observes Kjell
wake grows the b ru tality th a t m arks ou r Ove N ilsson, associate professor o f ethics
daily life, as well as c o rru p tio n , w hich in and theological d irecto r at the C hristian
m any countries has reached right up to the C ouncil o f Sweden. O f course, this has a
governm ent. People th in k o f them selves devastating effect o n m orals in society as
and the m axim um gratification o f their de well as on the personal level.
The Media Culture
Sociologist R obert W uthnow , o f Prince
A n o th e r m ajo r fa c to r c o n trib u tin g to
ton U n iversity, fo u n d th ro u g h in-depth
polling th a t A m ericans today are m ore fo the rapid m oral decline in the latte r h a lf of
cused on m oney th an they were a gener the 20th century is th e m edia culture. T he
ation ago. A ccording to the study, m any new values tra n sm itte rs are the television
A m ericans fear the yearning for m oney has p ro d u ce rs, th e m ovie m o g u ls, th e fa sh
overpow ered o th er values like peoples re ion advertisers, the gangsta rappers, and a
spect for others, honesty at w ork and p a r host o f o th er players w ithin th e electronic
ticipation in th eir com m unities. m edia-cultural com plex, says S enator Lie-
G reed in society has fu rth e r increased berm an. T hese trend-setters exert an ex
because m any b u sin ess executives have trem ely pow erful hold on o u r culture and
g ra n te d th em se lv e s h uge w age in c re a s o u r children in p articular, and they often
es and lucrative retirem en t benefits while have had little o r no sense o f responsibility
urging th eir em ployees to be m oderate in for the harm ful values they are purveying.
th eir wage dem ands. T he problem w ith As an exam ple, L ieberm an cites a record
the p u rsu it o f profit am ong business lead m ade by a heavy-m etal band called C anni
ers is th a t th e ir a ttitu d e s are infectious bal C orpse. T he singers describe in detail
the rape o f a w om an at knife point. He and ple w ho are extrem ely self-centered, lack
a colleague m ade a plea to the record com em pathy, and are unable or unw illing to
pany to w ithdraw the record. But as Lie- u n d e rs ta n d th e c o n c e p t o f r ig h t a n d
berm an relates, it was to no avail. wrong. Even am ong children and youths
R esponsible p aren ts today are therefore who are seem ingly norm al, observers have
locked in a b itte r co m petition w ith the m e noticed a blunting o f m oral senses. We
dia c u ltu re as to w ho will influence and have been throw n back in to a m oral Stone
raise th eir children. But w hat a b o u t fam Age, claim s C h ristin a H off Som m ers, a
ilies w here th e parents are not conscien professor o f philosophy. She n o ted th a t
tious? In those cases, says L ieberm an, w hen her young students are faced w ith
the cu ltu re is unchallenged as the stan the question o f w hat is right and w hat is
dard setter, and the childs sense o f right wrong, m ost o f them react by becom ing
a n d w rong and his p rio ritie s in life are very insecure. T hen they reply th a t th ere is
shaped prim arily by w hat he learns from no such thing as right o r wrong. They be
the television, the m ovie screen and the lieve th a t each person m ust consider w hat
C D player. A nd m ore recently, the In ter is best for him self.
net can be added to this list. In recent tim es, m any o f h er students
have o b je c te d to th e p rin c ip le o f th e
Back to a Moral Stone Age unique dignity and value o f h u m an life.
How are the effects o f these negative in For exam ple, w hen asked w hat they w ould
fluences evident am ong young people? For do if faced w ith the choice betw een saving
one thing, in recent years m ore children the life o f th eir p e t or the life o f a fellow h u
and teenagers have com m itted cruel acts m an w hom they did n o t know, m any said
o f violence against o th er children as well th at they would choose the anim al.
as adults. T he problem is not th a t young people
A shocking case took place in Sweden are ignorant, distrustful, cruel, or treach
in 1998. Two boys, five and seven years erous, says Professor Som m ers. To p u t
o f age, choked a four-year-old playm ate to it bluntly, they are conceptually clueless.
death! M any asked the question: D o chil She claim s th a t m any young p eople today
dren not have a built-in restra in t th a t tells actually question w hether there is a right
th em to stop w hen they are going too far? or a wrong, and she feels th a t this a ttitu d e
A child psychiatrist m ade this telling com poses one o f the greatest th re a ts to society.
m ent: A restra in t against letting it go too The underm ining o f m orals in o u r tim e
far is som ething th a t has to be learned, is therefore a reality. M any fear th a t dire
she said. It could have to do w ith . . . w hat consequences could result. T he article in
role m odels children have and w hat they DieZeit referred to earlier says th a t the free
learn from the adults aro u n d them . m arket econom y o f today could gradually
A sim ilar phenom enon can be observed degenerate and m aybe som eday collapse
in v io len t c rim in als. A ccording to Sten as the socialistic system did recently.
Levander, a professor o f psychiatry in Swe W hat does all o f this really m ean? A nd
den, betw een 15 and 20 p ercent o f all pris w hat kind o f fu tu re do we have to look for
on inm ates today are psychopaths peo ward to?

8 Awake! April 8, 2000

What Does It All Mean?

F YOU were to analyze m oral standards clear description, or com posite sign, o f this
in recent years, you would see a clear unique tim e period.
trend. W ithout a doubt, m oral standards
Bad Traits in People
are being increasingly underm ined am ong a
N ote one o f the features o f this sign th at
growing num ber o f people. W hat is the real
is prom inent today: M en will have a form
significance o f this?
o f godly devotion b u t prove false to its
Does it m ean, as some individuals claim,
power. (2 Tim othy 3:2, 5) N o o th er period
that our entire civilization and all m ankind
in history has been characterized by such
are doom ed, nearing annihilation? O r are
pow erful and thorough secularization. G od
such changes ju st p a rt o f the norm al ebb
has been widely rejected as the only a u th o r
and flow o f history?
ity, and m ost people do not accept the Bible
The latte r is w h at m any people think. as the only source o f tru th . O f course, reli
They view the m oral breakdow n o f our time gions still exist, but m any have little influ
as just a trend, one o f m any th at have come ence. They are only a veneer.
and gone th ro u g h o u t history. They fully
The Bible m entions an o th e r feature o f
expect th at the pendulum will eventually
the sign: M en w ill be . . . w ith o u t self-
swing back and th at higher m oral standards
control, fierce, and because o f the increas
will return. Are they correct?
ing o f lawlessness the love o f the greater
The Last Days num ber will cool off. (2 Tim othy 3:2, 3;
Let us consider the facts in the light o f a M atthew 24:12) The G reek word translated
book th at for centuries was a widely accept fierce means, am ong other things, lack
ed authority on m oral issuesG ods Word, ing hum an sym pathy and feeling. Today
the Bible. It is very enlightening to com pare ever younger children are show ing th em
todays world w ith the prophetic descrip selves to be fierce and are com m itting in
tion th at the Bible gives o f the m ost decisive creasingly violent crimes.
era in hum an history. This is the tim e peri F u rth erm o re, fast-paced technical and
od it calls the last days or the conclu e c o n o m ic d e v e lo p m en ts, a n d th e g ree d
sion o f the system o f things. (2 Tim othy th e se have b ro u g h t w ith th e m , have
3:1; M atthew 24:3) As these expressions im caused m ore and m ore p e o p le to th ro w
ply, this period is to m ark the definite end aside old values. W ithout regard for others,
of an epoch and the beginning o f a new one. they use any available m eans, even dishon
G o d s W ord foretold th a t the last days est ones, to grab as m uch as they can to sat
would be m arked by critical tim es hard isfy their selfish desires. T he huge increase
to deal w ith. To help w atchful observers in gambling is an o th er evidence o f selfish
to identify the last days, the Bible gives a ness, and the crim e statistics o f the past few
num ber o f details th a t together provide a decades speak loudly and clearly about this.

Awake! April 8, 2000 9

A feature especially prevalent in our time World Events
is this one: M en will be . . . lovers o f plea Besides describing the breakdow n in hu
sures rath er th an lovers o f G od. (2 Timo m an values, the Bible also foretold th at the
thy 3:2, 4) One exam ple o f this is th at peo last days would be m arked by extraordinary
ple w ant sensual pleasure, bu t they do not upheavals th at would affect the hum an fam
w ant the responsibility o f living with one ily. It says, for example, th at nation will rise
m arriage p a rtn e r for a lifetime. The result against nation, and kingdom against king
has been a tidal wave o f wrecked family re dom; and there will be great earthquakes,
lations, unhappy and rootless children, sin and in one place after another pestilences
gle parents, and sexually transm itted dis and food shortages.Luke 21:10,11.
eases. Except for th e 20th century, th ere has
A nother aspect o f the sign is th at men been no period in history w hen so m any
w ill be lovers o f th em se lv e s, lovers o f p e o p le have b e e n in v o lv ed in so m an y
m oney. (2 Tim othy 3:2) According to the w orld-shaking c a ta stro p h e s d u rin g such
G e rm a n m ag a z in e Die Zeit, th e m o to r a lim ited span o f time. For instance, well
o f [to d a y s eco n o m ic] system is selfish over 100 m illion people were killed in wars
ness. M ore th an ever before, the pursuit o f during th at time, a figure m any tim es great
m oney is the m ost im p o rtan t thing in m any er than the num ber o f w ar casualties in sev
peoples lives. In this selfish pursuit, other eral previous centuries p u t together. T he
values are ignored. 20th century gave us two wars so different

R lg h th e a rte d peo p le w ill enjoy e te rn a l life

on a pa rad ise e a rth
from any others th at they were called world things will co n tin u e the way they always
wars. G lobal conflicts like these had never have are correct. Instead, the Bible clearly
occurred before. shows th at the present world society dom i
An Evil Driving Force nating the earth will be replaced by some
The Bible also reveals the existence o f thing com pletely new.
a pow erful, evil sp irit creatu re, the one A fter Jesus listed a nu m b er o f the fea
called Devil and Satan, whose purpose is tures o f the sign o f the last days, he said: In
to lure people away from true values and this way you also, when you see these things
pull them down into m oral corruption. It occurring, know th at the kingdom o f G od
says th at during the last days, he has come is near. (Luke 21:31) G o d s heavenly King
dow n to the e a rth , having g reat anger, dom was the m ain them e o f Jesus preach
knowing he has a sh o rt p erio d o f tim e. ing. (M atthew 6:9, 10) A nd G o d appointed
Revelation 12:9,12. him to be the King o f this Kingdom , which
The Devil is described in the Bible as the is a governm ent th a t will soon rule over all
ruler o f the au th o rity o f the air, the spir the earth. Luke 8:1; Revelation 11:15; 20:
it th at now operates in the sons o f disobe 1- 6 .
dience. (Ephesians 2:2) This implies that At the end o f the last days, G o d s heaven
the Devil exercises a pow erful influence on ly Kingdom in the hands o f C hrist is going
m any hum ans, usually w ithout their notic to elim inate all w ho are its enem iesthe
ing it, ju st as we som etim es may not notice Devil and those who su p p o rt him and re
an invisible po llu tan t in the air. place todays present m orally b an k ru p t so
For example, Satans influence is seen in ciety w ith a righteous new world. (Daniel
m any m odern m eans o f com m unication: 2:44) In this new world, righthearted peo
videos, movies, television, the Internet, ad ple will enjoy eternal life on an earth trans
vertising, books, m agazines, and newspa form ed into a paradise.Luke 23:43; 2 Pe
pers. M uch m ate ria l, especially th a t fo ter 3:13; Revelation 21:3,4.
cused on unsuspecting youths, is filled with Those who detest todays m oral break
extreme and repugnant trends, such as rac down and discern th at the com posite sign
ism, occultism , im m orality, and sadistic vio o f the last days is being fulfilled in current
lence. events can look forw ard to a m agnificent
M any sincere people have been struck by future. For this we th ank A lm ighty G od,
the sim ilarities betw een the description the who cares about us hum ans and who has a
Bible gives o f the last days and the actu glorious p urpose for his creation, the earth.
al circum stances in the world o f our day. Psalm 37:10,11,29; 1 Peter 5:6,7.
True, there have been som e events in his Jehovahs W itnesses invite you to learn
tory before the 20th century th at in lesser m ore a b o u t o u r loving C re a to r and th e
ways seemed to fit the Bibles description. prospect o f life in a m orally clean world,
But it is only during the 20th century, and which he holds o u t to all searching indi
now the 21st century, th a t all the elem ents vid u als. As th e B ible says, th is m ea n s
o f the sign can be observed. everlasting life, th eir taking in knowledge
The Coming New Epoch o f you, the only tru e G od, and o f the one
N either those w ho believe th at m ankind whom you sent forth, Jesus C hrist. John
will be destroyed nor those who claim th at 17:3.

Awake! April 8, 2000 11


ISH O PS R egret T errible C rim e s o f Q ueen

M ary, headlined B ritains Catholic Herald of

B order: 2 0 0 D e c o r a t i v e T i t l e - P a g e s /A le x a n d e r N e s b itt/D o v e r P u b lic a tio n s , In c.

D ecem ber 11, 1998. The Roman Catholic bish
ops o f England and Wales acknowledged that
1 in the name o f the Catholic religion terrible
wrongs were done, for example to Protestants
at the time o f the Reform ation in G reat Britain. W ho was
Queen Mary? W hat wrongs did she com m it th at prom pted
such an admission? And why did the bishops of England and
Wales choose this time to issue their statem ent?
M ary Tudor was born in Roman Catholic England in 1516.
The only surviving child of Catherine o f Aragon, first wife of
King Henry VIII, M ary was brought up as a devout C atho
lic by her m other. Her father wanted a male heir, but C ath
erine did not produce one. Since the pope refused to annul
his m arriage to Catherine, Henry took m atters into his own
hands, thus preparing the way for the Protestant Reform ation
in England. In 1533 he m arried Anne Boleyn, four m onths
before the A rchbishop of Canterbury, Thom as C ranm er, pro
nounced Henrys first m arriage invalid.
Queen M a ry From th e book A S h o r t H i s t o r y
o f t h e E n g l is h P e o p l e
The following year a defiant Henry severed L a tim e r an d R id ley w e re
all ties with Rome and was made supreme head burned a t th e s ta k e
From th e book F o x e s
of the Church o f England. M ary, now consid B o o k o f M a rty rs

ered illegitimate, never saw her m other again,

as Catherine was forced to spend her last years
Roman Catholic ser
isolated from public life.
mon warning against
Protestant Intolerance p e s tile n t P o p ery ,
Over the next 13 years, some who refused to idolatry, and su p er
acknowledge Henry as head of the church or stition, he was im
who still accepted the authority of the pope prisoned for a year,
were put to death. Henry died in 1547 and was and in February 1555
succeeded by nine-year-old Edward, his only le he was burned to death for heresy.
gitim ate son, by the th ird o f his six wives. Jo h n H o o p er, b ish o p o f G lo u c e ste r and
Edward and his advisers attem pted to make Worcester, was also labeled a heretic. He de
England P ro testan t. R om an C atholics were clared that it was lawful for the clergy to m ar
persecuted for practicing their religion, and ry and that divorce on the ground of adultery
churches were stripped of images and altars. was permissible. He also denied th at Christ was
Restrictions on printing and reading the Bi physically present in the Mass. H ooper was
ble in English were soon lifted, and church ser roasted alive, his agonizing death lasting nearly
vices incorporating Bible reading were to be in three quarters o f an hour. W hen it was 70-year-
English instead o f Latin. But in 1553, Edward old Protestant preacher H ugh Latim ers turn
died of tuberculosis when he was only 15. Mary for the flames, he encouraged Nicholas Ridley,
was considered the rightful successor and be fellow Reformer and fellow victim at the stake,
came queen o f England. with the words: Be o f good comfort, M aster
Ridley, and play the m an. We shall this day
Catholic Intolerance
light such a candle, by G o d s grace, in England,
At first, people welcomed 37-year-old Mary, as I trust shall never be p u t out.
but she soon becam e unpopular. Her subjects
Thom as Cranm er, the first Protestant A rch
had become used to Protestantism , and now bishop o f C anterbury under H enry and Ed
M ary determ ined to make the country Roman ward, was also condem ned as a heretic. A l
Catholic again. In a short time, all of Edwards though he recanted his Protestant beliefs, at
religious statutes were repealed. M ary sought the last m oment he m ade a public about-face,
the popes forgiveness on behalf of the nation. denounced the pope as C h rists enemy, and
Once again, England becam e Roman Catholic. thrust his right hand into the fire to be burned
Reconciliation with Rome, in turn, prom pt first, since it had been guilty o f signing the
ed a new wave of persecution against Protes recantations.
tants. They were likened to a m alignant boil While at least 800
that was to be cut out before it could affect the P ro te stan ts fled ab
entire body. M any who refused to accept the to safety, over the
teachings of the Roman Catholic Church were three years and nine
burned alive at the stake. m onths until M arys
Punishment of Heretics
The first to die during M arys reign was John C ran m er ensures
Rogers. He had com piled w hat is known as th a t his rig h t h an d
M atthew s Bible, which form ed the basis for burns first
From th e book T h e H i s t o r y
the King James Version. After preaching an anti- o f E n g l a n d ( \ / ol. 1)

Awake! April 8, 2000

d eath , at least 277 p erso n s were b u rn ed at her death, m any L ondoners held p a rties in
the stake in England. M any victims were ordi the streets. Instead o f rebuilding Rom an C a
nary people who had become totally confused tholicism, she had furthered the cause o f P rot
about w hat they should believe. Young peo estan tism by h er fan aticism . H er legacy is
ple had been brought up hearing the pope summ ed up in the name by which she is known
denounced and now were being punished for Bloody Mary.
speaking against him. Others had learned to Wrongly Motivated Conscience
read the Bible for themselves and had formed
Why did M ary order so many people burned
their own religious opinions.
to death? She had been taught th at heretics
The slow, agonizing death of men, women, were traitors to God, and she thought it her
and children who were burned at the stake ap duty to cut out their influence before they in
palled many. H istorian Carolly Erickson de fected the whole nation. She listened to her con
scribes a typical scene: All too often the wood science but ignored the rights of others whose
for the fire was green, or the rushes were too conscience led them in another direction.
soggy to burn quickly. The bags of gunpowder However, the Protestants were equally intol
tied to the victims to shorten their agony failed erant. Under Henry and Edward, people had
to ignite, or else maimed them w ithout killing also been burned for th eir religious beliefs.
them . The victims were not gagged, and so M arys Protestant successor, Elizabeth I, made
their screams and prayers were audible often the practice of Roman Catholicism a treason
until the very m om ent of death. able offense, and during her reign more than
A growing num ber of people began to doubt 180 English Roman Catholics were executed.
a religion that needed to burn people at the Over the next century, hundreds more died for
stake to enforce its teachings. A wave of sympa their religious opinions.
thy for the victims led ballad makers to com
pose songs about P ro te stan t m artyrs. John Why Apologize Now?
Foxe started com piling his Book o f Martyrs, December 10,1998, marked the 50th anniver
which was to become alm ost as influential to sary of the United N ations Universal Decla
the Protestant Reformers as the Bible. Many ration of Hum an Rights. Article 18 recogniz
who were Roman Catholics at the beginning of es the right to freedom of thought, conscience
M arys reign becam e Protestants by its close. and religion, including the freedom to change
ones religion and to teach and practice it. The
Marys Legacy Roman Catholic bishops of England and Wales
After becoming queen, M ary said that she chose the 50th anniversary as an appropriate
w ould m arry her cousin Philip, heir to the occasion for Catholics to examine their con
Spanish throne. He was a foreign king and an sciences in these m atters and to acknowledge

( ardent Rom an Catholic, the last thing many of

the English wanted. A Protestant uprising or
ganized in protest against the marriage failed,
the terrible wrongs comm itted, particularly
in the time of M ary Tudor.
Although acts of religious intolerance nearly
and 100 rebels were executed. Philip and Mary 450 years ago are now regretted, has anything
m arried on July 25, 1554, although Philip was really changed? People are no longer burned at
never crowned. However, their childless m ar the stake, but many so-called Christians con
riage was a source o f distress to Mary, who tinue to rape and slaughter those of other reli
wanted a Roman Catholic heir. gions. Such intolerance does not please God.
M arys health failed, and after a short rule Indeed, Jesus Christ, the one who perfectly re
of five years, she died at 42. She went to her flects G ods personality, declared: By this all
grave grief-stricken. Her husband had tired of will know that you are my disciples, if you have
her, and m ost o f her subjects hated her. At love among yourselves.John 13:35.
14 Awake! April 8, 2000
A Tool for Teaching
E V E N T E E N -Y E A R -O L D s tu d e n t exam ining body in Brussels, Belgium , th a t

S R ut Jim enez G ila, w ho lives in G ra

n a d a , S p a in , w as in v ite d by h e r
teacher to w rite an essay on hum an rights.
Several weeks after com pleting the assign
she had been chosen, along w ith several
o th er students from Spain, to represent her
country. She subsequently w rote th e fol
lowing letter to th e publishers o f Awake!
m ent, she was inform ed by the E uropean m agazine.

7 needed up-to-date information regarding hum an rights, and the A wake!

issue o f November 22,1998, WillThere Ever Be H um an Rights fo r All?, prov
exactly what I was looking for. To illustrate abuses o f hum an rights, I also
selected information from other Awake! articles on the fu tu re o f women and on
the Holocaust. [See issues o f April 8, 1998, and August 8, 1998.] During m y
research I realized that A wake! contained information that I could not fin d in
other magazines or reference works. The photographs also impressed me, and I
included some o f them in m y report.
Because o f m y prize-winning essay, I spent a week in Finland, where I
able to talk fu rth er about human rights and explain the value o f the A wake! in
highlighting important issues such as this one.
Many, m any thanks fo r always being the first to inform us about world
events. May Jehovah continue to bless you, so that millions
o f people can continue to benefit from this information.

u 'T 1 A C H day w hen I cam e hom e from Naturally, the joeys adopted family want
r H school, Joey, my pet kangaroo, would to m ake it feel at hom e quickly. So one
J be sitting there waiting for me at the of the first things they do is give it a pouch.
gate, John recalls. As soon as I opened They choose a location away from the ele
the gate, he would jum p up and embrace me mentsand at a comfortable distance from
with his forelimbs, and I would embrace him. the fireplaceand there they
Wed talk to each other in a language that
said, Its great to see you! Then Joey would
bound up the driveway a few yards like an ex
cited dog, hop back, and repeat the process
until we got to the house.
People living in the Australian bush are
legally perm itted to have pet kangaroos, as
Johns family did. Generally, these kanga
roos are orphans, having been rescued as ba
bies after their m others were killed, perhaps
when trying to cross a road. Even though it
was the name John gave his pet, joey is, in
fact, the common term for a baby kangaroo.

Then they put the joey into it with a bottle of Have you ever seen or heard o f a kanga
warm, specially prepared milk. In this way roo that lives in trees? Well, believe it or not,
many joeys are helped to survive. They soon kangaroos do have a monkey in the fam i
adapt to their new pouch, diving into it head lythe tree kangaroo. Found in the tropi
first, as if it were their m others. cal rain forests of New G uinea and north
How Do You Describe a Kangaroo?
eastern Australia, these shorter-legged, agile
animals, so at hom e in trees, can leap some
Animals that raise their young in a pouch,
30 feet from one branch or tree to anoth
or m arsupium , are called marsupials. Com
er. At night they descend to the forest floor,
prising som e 260 species, m arsu p ials in
where they feed mainly on herbs and grubs.
clude the kangaroo, koala, wombat, bandi
coot, and opossum , the only species native Fast, Graceful, Efficient
to N orth Am erica. U nderstandably, early W hen moving slowly, kangaroos seem un
explorers found these unusual animals, es gainly and awkward. T heir tail and short
pecially the kangaroo, difficult to describe forelim bs becom e a trip o d th a t su p p o rts
to people back home. The first to put the their weight as they lift their hind legs for
word kangaroo into w ritten English was ward. But they are graceful runners. W hen
British explorer C aptain James Cook. He lik bounding along at up to 30 miles an hour,
ened the anim al to a greyhound that jum ps they use their great tail to balance them
like a hare or a deer. W hen a live kangaroo selves. According to The World Book Encyclo
was later exhibited in London, it caused a pedia, they can reach a top speed o f over
sensation. 60 kilom eters [38 miles] an h o u r. In the
Kangaroos have big ears that swivel about case of a large kangaroo, a single hop at high
on a deerlike head. Their small but powerful speed may span from 30 to 44 feeta leap
forelimbs resemble hum an arms, especially that could alm ost pass for flying!
when the kangaroo stands erect. Kangaroos Kangaroos are not only fast but also ef
also have large, m uscular hips; a long, thick, ficient in their use o f energy. Professor Uwe
sinuous tail; and, o f course, huge feeta
characteristic th at has earned them the des
ignation M acropodidae, m eaning long
The s e c re t o f th e spring in its step
Some 55 species o f M acropodidae range is its long A ch illes tend ons
in size from th a t o f a m an dow n to th a t
of a rat. All M acropodidae have short fore
lim bs and long h in d lim bs for hopping.
Red kangaroos, gray kangaroos, and w al
laroos, or euros, are the largest. One male
red kangaroo m easured over seven feet from
his nose to the tip of his tail and weighed
170 pounds. Smaller species o f kangaroo are
called wallabies.

, ^ IMIk
Kangaroos are also expert swimmers. N ot
only do they use their powerful legs b u t they
get additional propulsion by swinging their
tail from side to side. W hen chased by dogs,
kangaroos have been know n to use th e ir
aquatic skills by bounding into a w ater hole
or a river. Any dog brave enough to go after
the kangaroo prom ptly gets shoved under
the water by the kangaroos m uscular fore
lim bs and five-fingered paws,
P roske, o f M o n ash U n iv e rsi each arm ed with sharp claws.
ty in M elbourne, Australia, says John, m entioned at the outset,
that a kangaroos oxygen consum p had two dogs th at were alm ost
tion is actually more energy efficient drowned by a wild buck kangaroo
at higher speeds than it is at lower when it took them on in a small res
speeds. Proske also calculated that ervoir on his familys property.
at 20 kilometres [12 miles] per hour
The Marvel of Marsupial Birth
or faster, th e energy used by the
hopping kangaroo was less than that Although adults are tough and
o f a four-legged placental m am mal ro b u st, kan g aro o s are e x tre m e
[a m am m al th at is born fully devel ly undeveloped and delicate at
oped, like a dog or a deer] o f simi
lar weight, running at the same
speed. Because o f the kanga
ro o s energy-efficient lo co m o
tion, it can travel long distances
w ithout tiring. But how does the
kangaroo manage to run so eco
The secret lies in its long Achilles
tendons. It is as th o u g h kan g a
roos are hopping on pairs of coiled
springs, says Proske. Like th o se
attached to a hum an calf muscle,
th e k a n g a ro o s A chilles ten d o n s
stre tc h on landing and com press
during takeoff. K an g aro o s h o p at
the same num ber of hops per second
(about two for a red kangaroo) over
a wide range of speeds. To go faster,
they simply lengthen each stride. An ex
ception is when a kangaroo is startled.
Then it may take off with a few small,
rapid hops for better acceleration.

birth. Resembling little m ore than a pink can be achieved under the same horm onal
worm m easuring a b o u t an inch long and conditions is an intriguing question.
weighing a fraction o f an ounce, they are Where to See Kangaroos
born hairless, blind, and deaf. Yet, thanks to
If you want to see kangaroos in their natu
its p rec o c io u sly d ev elo p ed fo relim b s ral setting, you m ust be prepared to leave the
equipped with claws and its sense of smell, cities and go out into the Australian bush,
the tiny worm crawls instinctively through or the outback. Foraging for grass and small
its m o th e rs fu r and u p in to h er p ouch. plants, kangaroos can be found individually
W hen inside the pouch, it latches onto one as well as in small groups or in larger groups
of four teats. The end o f the teat immedi called mobs, which are presided over by big
ately swells into a bulb inside the infants buck kangaroos called boom ers. Because
m outh, locking it firmly in place for sever kangaroos feed m ainly at night and rest in
al weeks. Considering its m others mode of the shade (where they are well camouflaged)
travel, a solid anchor is clearly an advantage! during the heat o f the day, a good time to
In fact, so good is this anchor that early ob see them is early in the m orning or at dusk.
servers assum ed th at the young grew from But in cooler weather, they may be active
the teat! throughout the day. W hatever the case, be
Eventually, of course, the joey will grow to sure to bring a telephoto lens and binoculars
the stage where it will leave the pouch, al wild kangaroos are very shy animals.
though only tem porarily at first. However, O f course, you can also see kangaroos at
after seven to ten m onths, when it is fully most zoos, wildlife sanctuaries, and nation
weaned, it will leave the pouch perm anently. al parks throughout Australia and in some
But lets go back in time to when the joey other countries as well. Regular exposure to
first anchored itself to a teat and see another hum ans has made these kangaroos less tim
marvel of kangaroo reproduction. id, and so you should be able to get some
good close-ups, perhaps even of a m other
A few days after the newborn latches onto
with a joey peeking out of her pouch. Larger
its m others teat, she again mates. The em
joeys always win a smile when they dive into
bryo resulting from this m ating develops
m others pouch, only to have th eir lanky
for about a week, but then it goes dorm ant
hind legs stick out awkwardly, making m oth
on hold, so to speakwhile its older sib er kangaroo resemble an overstuffed shop
ling continues to grow in the pouch. W hen ping bag. (Young kangaroos seem to be all
the older but still unweaned sibling leaves legs!) A handsom e buck may even grant you
the pouch, the embryo in the womb resumes an erect, stately pose. W ho knows? You may
growth. After a 30-day gestation, it also at even see a couple of big boom ers standing
taches itself to a teat, but not the one suckled as tall as their long, sinuous legs perm it and
by the older sibling. having a sparring m atchgenuine boxing
Therein lies another marvel o f kangaroo kangaroos!
biology. The m other gives her youngest joey But to many, the best sight is a big red or
one kind of m ilk and the older one a dif gray buck hopping at full speed. True, other
ferent kind. Com m enting on this, Scientific animals may be able to run faster or jum p
American says: The two milks secreted by higher, but with no other creature will you
the separate m am m ary glands are quite dif see such a rem arkable com bination o f grace,
ferent in volume and com position. How this power, and spring on ju st two mighty legs.

Awake! April 8, 2000 19

C R O S S W O 3 3 P U Z Z L E

Clues Across celebrate one of these in the 14. The proverb says that she is a
2. The northern limit of the Prom wilderness (Exodus 5:1) crown to her owner [2 words]
ised Land and the highest point 32. Having two cutting sides (Proverbs 12:4)
in the vicinity of Palestine (Isaiah 41:15) 15. A place in the southern part of
[2 words] (Joshua 12:1) Clues Down Naphtali (Joshua 19:33)
9. This quality, possessed by Jeho 1. A son of Japhlet of the tribe of 17. A family head of some of the
vah and desirable in humans, is Asher (1 Chronicles 7:33) sons of the servants of Solomon
not a sign of weakness (Psalm 3. Part of a specific fruit-bearing who returned from exile (Ezra 2:
18:35) tree, often used as a symbol of 55-57)
10. A people allied with Ethiopia, peace [2 words] (See Isaiah 17:6.) 20. An advanced stage of life
Put, and Lud (Ezekiel 30:5) 4. A fastener (See Isaiah 41:7.) (Hebrews 11:11)
11. One struck down 185,000 Assyri 5. A structure built on this founda 23. A town in Benjamin that was
ans in one night (2 Kings 19:35) tion will not pass the test of fire warned to pay attention to the
12. A chieftain of the tribe of (1 Corinthians 3:12,13) coming attack of the Assyrians
Simeon in King Hezekiahs day 6. Of the five Bible books that John (Isaiah 10:30)
(1 Chronicles 4:34) wrote, this one was written first 26. Hometown of Davids friend
16. After pouring costly perfumed 7. The fourth-listed son of Benja Barzillai (2 Samuel 19:31)
oil on Jesusfeet, Mary used this min (1 Chronicles 8:2) 27. The symbolic number of angels
to wipe them (John 12:3) 8. His sons were among the Nethi- that Satan has misled (Revela
18. It was at this that Zeeb, a prince nim who returned to Jerusalem tion 12:4)
of Midian, was killed (Judges with Zerubbabel (Ezra 2:45) 29. Formerly (1 Corinthians 13:11)
7:25) 13. Progress (2 Timothy 3:13) 31. An enemy (Psalm 89:43)
19. A Hebrew midwife who disre
garded Pharaohs command to Crossword Solutions Page 27
kill the baby boys (Exodus 1:15)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
21. Although at times acting wrong
ly during his 41-year reign, this
king of Judah is viewed as one
of the faithful kings (1 Kings 15: 9 10
22. A Jairite listed as a priest of
David (2 Samuel 20:26) wmm
23. A restoration prophecy said this 11 13 14
animal would eat straw just like
the bull (Isaiah 65:25) 15
24. From young to old, they sur 16 17 18 19 20
rounded Lots house, attempting
to rape his angelic guests (Gene 21 22
sis 19:4,5)
25. A beverage known from ancient 23 24 25 26
times (Isaiah 1:22)
27. In answer to Samuels prayer,
Jehovah used this to throw the 27 28
Philistines into confusion, so
that they were defeated 29
(1 Samuel 7:9,10)
28. Actuality (Hebrews 1:3) 30 31
30. Abraham was told that Eliezer
would not succeed him as this
(Genesis 15:4)
31. Moses asked Pharaoh to send the
Israelites away so that they could

20 Awake! April 8, 2000

By A w a k e ! correspondent in Canada

T STALKS the forest, ignoring the the beetles serve to recycle lodgepole

I young and attacking the aged. The pine forests th at reach m aturity. H u
slayer is tiny co m p ared w ith its m an intervention th ro u g h fire detec
prey. It moves quickly and is not sattio n and su p p re ssio n , how ever, has
isfied until ruination is complete. As contributed to the preservation o f large
the victim tries to force out the intrud areas of m ature and overm ature stands
er, a life-and-death struggle ensues. o f tim ber. W hile th is has p ro te c te d
Eventually the attacker wins. wildlife habitats and m igration corri
W ho is th is foe? T h e a tta c k e r is dors as well as forests used for recre
the tiny m ountain pine beetle, na- ational and industrial purposes, it has
t to western N orth America. Its also created the need to m anage the
fS fgprey is the majestic lodgepole pine, m ountain pine beetle. How, though,
com m on to the interior of the prov- are th ese tin y p e s ts fo u n d and
" f *nce f British Colum bia, Canada. tracked through vast areas o f wil
1 Approximately 35 percent o f the derness? W hat, if anything, can
be done to stem the tide o f devas
< forested land base in the province
tation left in their wake?
consists o f the lodgepole pine
a veritable breeding ground Detection and Tracking
fo r th e c y lin d ric a l m o u n ta in M anagem ent of the m oun
pine beetle, a mere one-eighth to tain pine beetle starts with
five-sixteenths inch in size. Ini- detection. An aerial inspec
tially it targets unhealthy, over tion of the vast forest is m ade
m ature stands o f pine. However, in search of trees th at have
as the beetle population increas turned red at the crown. Such
es, the attack extends to healthy trees indicate infestation and
adult trees. (See the box M oun are easy to spot amid a blan
tain Pine Beetle Life Cycle.) Re ket of green. The location o f
cent epidemics in British C olum an infestation as well as the
bia have resulted in the death of n u m b er o f red tre e s is iden
30 million pine trees in one year tified by the use o f a glob
alone. It is estim ated that enough al positioning system (GPS).
beetles can em erge from an in D ata is recorded and care
fested tree to kill two trees of the fully stored in a hand-held
same size the succeeding year. com puter. Later it is dow n
* it* The m ountain pine beetle is a loaded into office com puters
natural com ponent of the eco and overlaid on detailed for
system, and along with wildfires est cover m aps by m eans o f
A d u lt
pow erfu l geo g rap h ic in fo rm a
tion systems. Each infestation
is then assigned a num ber, r Mountain Pine
and a list is generated that
Beetle Life Cycle
gives the coordinates of
each area. This is vital In m id s u m m e r a n a d u lt f e m a le
for the ground survey b e e tle b o re s th ro u g h th e b a rk o f a lo d g e -
team , w hich is d is p o le p in e to th e s a p w o o d . A fte r m a tin g w ith
patched to verify in a m a le , she d e p o s its a b o u t 7 5 eggs. In th e p ro
festation levels. cess sh e a ls o tra n s m its a b lu e -s ta in in g fu n g u s in to
The real threat to th e s a p w o o d to p re v e n t p itc h flo w th a t c o u ld k ill th e
th e fo re st, th o u g h , b e e tle s . The eggs s u b s e q u e n tly h a tc h in to g ru b lik e
is not the trees that la rv a e th a t fe e d on th e p h lo e m (a c o m p le x tis s u e )
have turned red but o f th e tre e . W ith in w e e k s o f a b e e tle s s u c c e s s
th e green trees c u r fu l a tta c k , th e h o s t tre e is k ille d as a re s u lt o f
rently being attacked. a d is ru p tio n o f w a te r a n d n u trie n t flo w . Lar-
T h e se are g en erally k vae d e v e lo p o v e r th e w in te r a n d e m e rg e
identified by a tube o f in s u m m e r to fly a n d a tta c k n e w ^ "
p itc h s u rro u n d in g th e UW tre e s a n d re p e a t th e cycle.
hole w here th e b e e tle s W&iljlL ^A
have entered and by bits of
frass, or sawdust, at the base
o f the tree. All infested trees are
m ark ed w ith p lastic rib b o n s and
num bered with paint. Features of the
terrain and the num ber of attacked trees are
noted as well as any other inform ation need
could involve injecting pesticide into the in
ed to help responsible agencies decide what
fested tree or felling and burning it on site.
should be done to control the spread of the
The latter control m ethod, which is done
in late w inter or early spring before bee
Control Methods tles emerge, is very effective but also labor-
If an infested area is large enough to war intensive. Dale, an expert in detecting and
rant logging, another crew is sent in to map m anaging such infestations, describes for
the area. A logging plan is subm itted to the Awake! the routine of a typical workday.
M inistry of Forests for approval. The log T he first stage involves m an eu v erin g
ging com pany also becom es responsible for on single-lane roads that are also used by
reforesting the area and caring for the seed huge logging trucks carrying massive loads.
lings until they can be left to grow on their For safety reasons we use a two-way radio
own. This process not only allows utilization to m o n ito r road activity. W hen the road
of the trees but also serves to control the ends, we u n lo ad o u r snow m obiles and
spread of the infestation and generate new sleds and trek deeper into the forest. O ur
growth. GPS and com passes are carefully packed,
If logging is not feasible, however, single as well as chain saws, gas, oil, axes, radios,
tree treatm ent may be recommended. This snow shoes, and first-aid e q u ip m e n t. We
22 Awake! April 8, 2000
traverse swamps, logged areas, and old trails alm ost underfoot or a hapless squirrel scur
through the bush for several miles. W hen ries out of its burrow to run up a workers
our snow m achines will go no farther, we pant leg, creating a considerable am ount of
put on snowshoes, which allow us to walk, anxiety. O ther encounters, however, have
albeit with some difficulty, through snow as the potential to be deadlyone could be
deep as 50 inches in some places. chased by a resident grizzly or black bear.
The u n c e rtain terrain m akes carrying G enerally, th o u g h , dangers can be m ini
30 pounds o f gear som ew hat challenging. mized through awareness and training, and
O ur hearts pound from exertion. How glad workers can enjoy the wilderness environ
we are to find the site! But now the real m ent w ithout undue fear.
work begins. A trained and qualified worker Exciting advances are being m ade in the
drops the infested trees with the precision of use of technology to m anage earth s valu
a marksman. Thereafter, the crew moves in able resources. M any conscientious individ
and cuts the trees into m anageable lengths uals are endeavoring to protect and preserve
to be burned. The bark m ust be com plete our precious trees through managing such
ly burned to eradicate the larvae. W hen it things as the m ountain pine beetle. U nques
is time to stop for lunch, the tem perature tionably, there is m uch m ore to learn about
of minus 4 degrees Fahrenheit makes us ap our wonderful forests. We long for the time
preciate our fire. We bask in its w arm th and when we will be able to care for them in total
thaw out o u r frozen sandwiches. Then it is harm ony with their original design.
time to go back to work. All too soon, how
ever, the w inter sky begins to darken, re
minding us th at it is tim e to head home. IN OUR NEXT ISSUE
Working in the Wild A United World
The activities o f forest w orkers are de Will Europe Be the First Step?
manding. As these skilled individuals meet
the challenges, they also take pleasure in the Fathering Children
creation th at surrounds them. This includes Does It Make One a Man?
incredible scenery and m em orable wildlife Genetically Modified Food
encounters. Some encounters are harmless, Is It Safe for You?
as when a grouse noisily flies out of the snow
Awake! April 8, 2000 23

A UGUST 1 0 ,1 6 2 8 , w as a b e a u tifu l sum - of national pride, th e Vasa becam e synonym ous

/ \ m er day in S to ckholm , th e Sw edish w ith d isa ppointm ent and disgrace.
J L JL capital. People throng ed th e quays o f A court was sum m oned to find th e one re
th e h a rb o r as th e g randiose royal w a rsh ip Vasa, sponsible fo r th e h u m ilia ting catastrophe. But
a fte r th re e years o f co n stru ctio n , s e t o u t on her no one was charged, likely because th e te s ti
m aiden voyage to jo in th e S w edish navy. mony im plicated both th e king and th e second
The Vasa w as no o rd in a ry w arship . King highest com m ander in th e Sw edish navy, Vice
G ustavus II A d olph us Vasa w anted her to be Admiral Klas Fleming.
th e m ig h tie s t in th e w orld. Som e say th a t he The kings dem ands had m ade
ordered a second gun d e ck b u ilt a fte r he heard th e builders experim ent w ith de
th a t th e D anes w ere b u ild in g a sh ip w ith tw o signs unfam iliar to them . Thus, th e
gun decks. He w anted th e sh ip th a t carried his Vasa becam e badly proportioned.
fa m ily nam e to be in fe rio r to none. S om etim e before th e capsizing,
Her d e p a rtu re w as supposed to be a show y Adm iral Flem ing had arranged a T)
display o f his royal pow er and glory. She was stability test. Thirty men ran
arm ed w ith 6 4 guns and a dorne d w ith m ore abreast from one side o f th e ship
th a n 7 0 0 scu lp tu re s and o rn a m e n ts. Her to the other. A fter three runs the
price equaled m ore th a n 5 p e rce n t o f S w edens adm iral realized th a t if they contin
gross national product. This pow erful w ar m a ued, the ship would capsize right
chine and flo a tin g a rt exhibition w as probably then. So he halted th e te s t but did
th e m o st glorious sh ip b u ilt anyw here a t th a t not stop the m aiden voyage. W ith
tim e . No w o n d e r people w ere c h e e rin g her on such im portant personalities as th e
w ith prid e as she passed th e quays o f Stock king and th e adm iral im plicated, King Gustavus II
holm ! th e charges were dropped. A dolphus Vasa
In 1664-6 5, an ex-officer o f th e Foto: N a tio n a lm u s e u m ,
S to ck h o lm
Disaster and Humiliation Swedish army recovered m ost
However, th e Vasa had sailed less th a n a of th e Vasa's guns by m eans o f a sim ple div
m ile w hen a strong gust o f w ind m ade her heel ing bell. The Vasa was then gradually forgotten
over. W ater gushed in through th e open gun- as she sank deeper and deeper into th e mire
ports, and down she w ent. This was perhaps 1 0 0 feet below th e surface.
th e s h o rte st m aiden voyage in naval history!
The spectators were stunned. The glory o f Out of the Mire
th e Swedish Navy was brought down, not in In August 1 9 5 6 , an am ateur archaeologist,
battle or by a vio le n t storm on th e high seas, Anders Franzen, used a core sam pler to bring
but by a sim ple gust o f w ind in her own harbor. up a piece o f oak from th e bottom . For years he
The death o f about 5 0 people on board caused had been exam ining old docum ents and search
fu rth e r consternation. Instead o f being an object ing the seabed looking fo r th e Vasa. Now he
24 Awake! April 8, 2000
M a ln in g av d e t k a p s e js a n d e Vasa,
av k o n s tn a r Nils S to d b e rg

had found her. Through a delicate sal

vage operation, th e Vasa was lifted out
o f th e m ud and carefully carried under
w ater in one piece to a w aiting dock.
On April 2 4 ,1 9 6 1 , th e quays in
Stockholm w ere again filled w ith cheer
ing spectators. A fter 3 3 3 years at
th e bottom o f th e sea, th e Vasa m ade her
com ebackth is tim e as a to u ris t a ttra c
tion and a treasure fo r m arine archaeolo
gists. M ore th a n 2 5 ,0 0 0 a rtifa cts revealed
fa scinating details a bout th is 17th-century
w arship and also gave unique insig ht into con
tem porary s h ip b u ild in g and sculptured art.
Why were th e Vasa and her a rtifa c ts so w ell
preserved? Som e factors w ere th a t she was
new w hen she sank, th e m ud had a preserving
effect, and th e w ood-destroying sea w orm does
not thrive in w ater w ith low s a lt content.
The Vasa had som e 1 2 0 tons o f ballast.
Experts calculate th a t she needed m ore than
After more than tw ice th a t a m o u n t to m ake her stable, but she
3 0 0 years on th e did not have th e space. Also, such added w eight
seabe d, th e "Vasa"
is a w orld a ttra c tio n w ould have brought th e lower gunports closer to
G $ n p h \tillm o te s g a e ,n d e fra n
th e water. Her appearance was glorious, but her
V as'pm useet, S to ck h o lm poor balance m ade her destined fo r disaster.
Now, as th e o ld e st preserved, com plete, and
fully identified ship in th e w orld, she is safe in
side her own m useum . There 8 5 0 ,0 0 0 visitors
a year get a glim pse o f 17th-century royal
ostentation, frozen in tim e by th a t catastrophe
iir 6 2 8 . It is a rem inder o f th e folly o f those in
authority who, through ego and carelessness,
chose to ignore sound sh ip b u ild in g practices.
Awake! April 8, 2000 25

Is It Proper to
Worship Jesus?
hroughout the all the angels o f G od
T c e n tu rie s, m any in
C hristendom have w or
w orship him [Jesus]?
( KingJames Ver
shiped Jesus Christ as if can we understand this
he were Almighty God. scripture in the light o f
Jesus himself, however, w hat th e Bible says
d ire c te d a tte n tio n and about idolatry?
worship only to Jehovah Worship in the Bible
God. For example, when First, we have to under
prodded to do an act of stand w hat Paul m eant
worship to the Devil, Je here by worship. He used
sus said: It is Jehovah the Greek word
your G od you m ust wor ne'o. Ungers Bible Dictio
sh ip, and it is to him nary says that this word
alone you m ust render literally m eans to kiss
sacred service. (M a t the hand of someone in
thew 4:10) Later Jesus in token of reverence or to
stru c te d his disciples: do homage. An Exposito
Do not call anyone your ry Dictionary o f New Testa
father on earth, for one is your Father, the ment Words, by W E. Vine, says that this word
heavenly One.M atthew 23:9. denotes an act of reverence, whether paid to
To a Sam aritan woman, Jesus described m a n ... or to G od. In Bible times
the type of worship th at individuals must often included literally bowing down before
give to God. Their worship must be based on someone of high stature.
spirit and truth. Indeed, the Father is look Consider the parable Jesus gave of the slave
ing for suchlike ones to worship him. (John who was unable to repay a substantial sum of
4:23, 24) Yes, reverent adoration should be money to his master. A form of this Greek
expressed only to God. To render worship word appears in this parable, and in translat
to anyone or anything else would be a form ing it the King James Version says that the ser
of idolatry, which is condemned in both the vant therefore fell down, and worshipped [form
Hebrew and the Greek Scriptures.Exodus of pro-sky-ne'o] him [the king], saying, Lord,
20:4,5; G alatians 5:19,20. have patience with me, and I will pay thee all.
But, some may counter, does the Bible (Matthew 18:26; italics ours.) Was this man
not indicate that we must also worship Je committing an idolatrous act? N ot at all! He
sus? Did Paul not say at Hebrews 1:6: Let was merely expressing the kind of reverence

26 Awake! April 8, 2000

and respect due the king, his master and supe into a global paradise. U nder G ods direc
rior. tion, and as a result of the ransom sacrifice
Such acts of obeisance, or expressions of re of Jesus, he will rid the world of all sadness,
spect, were fairly comm on in the Orient of pain, and sorrow for the benefit of those who
Bible times. Jacob bowed down seven times submit to his righteous rule. Is he therefore
upon m eeting his brother, Esau. (Genesis not worthy of our honor, respect, and obe
33:3) Jo se p h s b ro th e rs p ro stra te d th em dience?Psalm 2:12; Isaiah 9:6; Luke 23:43;
selves, or did obeisance, before him in honor Revelation 21:3,4.
of his position at the Egyptian court. (Gene A God Exacting Exclusive Devotion
sis 42:6) In this light we can better understand The Bible clearly indicates, however, that
what happened when the astrologers found our worshipin the sense of religious rever
the young child Jesus, whom they recognized ence and devotionm ust be addressed solely
as the one born king of the Jews. As ren to God. Moses described him as a G od ex
dered in the King James Version, the account
acting exclusive devotion. And the Bible ex
tells us that they fell down, and worshipped horts us to worship the One who made the
[pro-sky-ne'o]him.M atthew 2:2,11. heaven and the earth and sea and fountains
Clearly, then, the word pro-sky-ne'o, ren of waters.Deuteronom y 4:24; Revelation
dered worship in some Bible translations, is 14:7.
not reserved exclusively for the type of ad Jesus ce rtain ly o ccu p ies a p iv o ta l role
oration due Jehovah God. It can also refer in true worship, one w orthy of honor and
to the respect and honor shown to another respect. (2 C o rin th ia n s 1:20, 21; 1 T im o
person. In an effort to avoid any misunder thy 2:5) He is the only way through which
standing, some Bible translations render the we are able to approach Jehovah God. (John
word pro-sky-ne'o at Hebrews 1:6 as pay him 14:6) Accordingly, true Christians do well to
homage {New Jerusalem Bible), honour him direct their worship only to Jehovah God, the
(The Complete Bible in Modern English), bow Almighty.
down before him ( TwentietCentury New Tes
tament), or do obeisance to him {New World
Jesus Is Worthy of Obeisance
Is Jesus worthy of such obeisance? Most
decidedly, yes! In his letter to the Hebrews,
the apostle Paul explains that as the heir of
all things, Jesus has sat down on the right
hand of the M ajesty in lofty places. (He
brews 1:2-4) Thus, in the name of Jesus every
knee should bend of those in heaven and
those on earth and those under the ground,
and every tongue should openly acknowledge
that Jesus Christ is Lord to the glory of God
the Father.Philippians 2:10,11.
Outstandingly, Christ will soon use this ex
alted position and the extensive executive
powers that go with it to transform this earth

Awake! April 8, 2000 27

Toddlers and TV and Mail newspaper. Klarreich Crop Theft

The American Academy of cautions that prolonged an In several German states,

Pediatrics recommends that ger is a very unhealthy emo farmers are complaining about
children under the age of two tion that can lead to strokes an increase in the theft of
not watch television, reports or heart attacks. He encourages crops, reports the Siegener Zei-
The Toronto Star. Research on employees to learn to accept tung. Thieves help themselves
early brain development shows frustrations and to sit down to cucumbers by the bucketful
that babies and toddlers need with their employers and calm and load minivans with piles
direct contact with parents and ly discuss how much work they of asparagus. In one case they
other caregivers. Watching TV can realistically do. On the oth stole 7,000 strawberry plants.
may interfere with interac er hand, Klarreich advises em Although some may steal food
tion that helps develop their ployers to be alert to employees because of their worsening
social, emotional and cognitive who seem to be burning out financial situation, others seem
skills. Not all experts agree, and to give them extra help, to view it as a hobby. Farm
however. The Canadian Pediat relieve them of some of their ers report seeing cars of all
ric Society, for example, says load, or suggest that they take a classes near the looted fields.
that watching quality program day off. Fields are often located far
ming with parental supervision from their owners residences,
for a maximum of 30 minutes a Singing Lifts the Heart and in these fields the thieves
day provides the child an op become even bolder. One con
portunity to be taught by a par sultant suggested that farmers
ent. Both organizations agree, cover their crops with manure
however, that young children to discourage the thieves.
should not have televisions or
computers in their bedrooms The Socially Active
and that TV should not be used May Live Longer
as a baby-sitter. Since TV view According to a new study
ing can affect the health of by Harvard University, elder
young people, it is suggested Scientists have found that ly people who participate in
that children be encouraged singing releases chemicals in social activities, such as going
to play outside, read books or the brain that make you feel re to church, restaurants, sports
work with puzzles or games. laxed and happy, reports the events, and movies, live an av
German newspaper Stuttgar- erage of two and a half years
Frustration at Work
ter Nachrichten. Researchers say longer than less social people.
Why do some people lose that singing gets the mole It has long been assumed that it
their temper or even become cules of emotion in the brain was the physical part of such
violent at work? According moving. Thus, singing is said activities that helped people,
to Toronto psychologist Sam not only to express emotions said Harvards Thomas Glass,
Klarreich, the reason may be but also to create them, states who led the study. However,
not just stress but a low tol the report. Music teachers note he added that this study pro
erance for frustration. He be that many people today feel vides perhaps the strongest
lieves that this condition de that singing is old-fashioned circumstantial evidence weve
velops in some employees who or that their voices are not very had to date that having a mean
feel that they are being asked good, and they therefore leave ingful purpose at the end of
to sell their souls at work and singing and music to the media. life lengthens life. Glass noted
then discover the payoff is not This research indicates, how that doing more, regardless of
proportionate to what they ever, that people benefit when the activity, extended life in al
have given, reports the Globe they themselves sing. most every case.

28 Awake! April 8, 2000

Worlds Oldest Shipwrecks Poverty A World Problem Throw out small fruits,
Oceanographers have discov The president of the World such as berries or grapes, that
ered the wrecks of two Phoeni Bank, James D. Wolfensohn, are moldy. Wash fruit only
cian vessels dating from about recently voiced concern about when you are ready to eat it, as
750 B.C.E., reports the French moisture promotes mold.
continuing world poverty. Wol
magazine Sciences et avenir. The fensohn noted that a third of Small moldy areas of large,
48- and 58-foot boats, lying off earths six billion people still hard fruits and vegetables, such
the coast of Israel at a depth of as apples, potatoes, cauliflow
about 1,600 feet, are the oldest live in extreme poverty, reports
Mexico Citys La Jornada news er, or onions, may be safely cut
ships ever found in the open out. Moldy soft fruits, such as
sea. The boats had set off from paper. He added that half of
earths inhabitants survive on peaches and melons, should be
the port of Tyre carrying earth discarded.
enware wine amphorae, prob less than two dollars a day; and
ably bound for Egypt or the one billion, on less than a dol Moldy hard cheese may be
North African city of Carthage. lar. Although he is proud of partially salvaged by cutting
As quoted in the Internation the progress made by the World away the outer part at least an
al Herald Tribune, the discover Bank in the fight against pov inch away from the mold. But
er of the ships, Robert Ballard, erty, Wolfensohn provided fig throw out moldy soft cheese
noted: The great depths that ures showing that the problem and yogurt, along with moldy
exist in the oceans, the absence is widespread and far from be bread, meat, leftovers, nuts,
of sunlight, the great pressures, peanut butter, syrups, and pre
ing overcome. He stated: We
seem to preserve history far serves.
must recognize that poverty is
more than we thought. The re a world problem.
searchers said that this discov Healthier Grilling
ery could help to open up a If in Doubt, Throw It Out Undercooking meat has al
whole new chapter in the re ways been a concern in food
search on this ancient maritime safety, but in recent years,
culture. overcookingespecially burn
First Choice to Relax
ing and charring meat, chick
en and fish on the backyard
In a recent study, 1,000 peo grillis being linked to a more
ple in 30 different countries long-term health threat, states
were asked which activity they Canadas National Post news
favor to minimize or release paper. When meat is cooked
stress. Worldwide, 56 percent at high temperatures, carcino
of those interviewed indicated Some molds, such as those genic compounds called heter
that music is their first choice, in blue cheese, are safe to eat. ocyclic amines (HCAs) are
reports Reuters news agency. But others can be dangerous, formed. The report suggests
In North America, 64 percent especially to people who are in that using a simple marinade
ranked music first, compared frail health, warns the UCBerke that includes an acidic com
with 46 percent in developed ley Wellness Letter. The molds ponent, such as lemon juice,
Asia. Overall, TV watching on bread and grain products
came in second, followed by orange juice or vinegar, may
are among the most toxic. Of make grilling safer. In repeated
taking a bath or a shower. ten the visible mold has root
When you think of musics trials, researchers at the Amer
like threads that penetrate the ican Institute for Cancer Re
cost and its availability via ra food. Moreover, the toxins pro
dio, TV, personal CD players, search found that the mari
the Internet and so many other duced by mold cannot be de nated foods had 92% to 99%
new channels, said Tom Miller, stroyed by cooking. The Well fewer HCAs than their non-
director of the study by Roper ness Letter recommends: marinated counterpartsand
Starch Worldwide, its not sur Refrigerate produce if pos it made no difference wheth
prising that more than half the sible, and use it before mold er they were marinated for 40
world listens to music to relax. grows. minutes or two days.

Awake! April 8, 2000 29


Role-Playing Games Recently my new com unlike the skewbald shown in our photo. Our
puter arrived. I intended to play just a few apologies for the oversight.
games but ended up playing for almost 16
hours nonstop! When I realized what had Genes I am 16 years old, and Im very in
happened, I immediately erased all the terested in molecular biology. The series
games in my computer. Later on, though, I Unraveling the Mystery of Your Genes
began to feel that maybe I had been a little (September 8, 1999) was an excellent bal
extreme. But that same week, your article ance between the simple and the com plicat
Young People Ask . . . Is There Any Danger ed. I read a book that explained the secrets
in Role-Playing Games? arrived. (Au of DNA in depth. To my great surprise,
gust 22, 1999) I realized what those games your article covered all that material but in
were doing to me. I thank Jehovah for open more understandable and accessible terms.
ing my eyes to this danger. S. R., France
L. H., Brazil
Thanks to the articles, I got a high mark on
Theres a card game that has been the rage my biology exam. Your description of nucleic
in Japan. M any o f the cards have Satanic acids and how they are related to hereditary
names, for example, Curtain of the Black characteristics was so simple and complete!
Devil. I got so caught up in the game that D.A.N., Brazil
my sp iritu ality was in shreds. In the end
my m other found my cards and threw them I am a prim ary school teacher, and I have
away. I still felt an attachm ent to the cards. always wondered how I could help my pu
But after reading this article, that attachm ent pils understand the composition of the hu
dried up. The article was very helpful to me. man body. I found the information in these
K. N., Japan articles to be simple enough for my pupils
to grasp, even though it involved a n u m
Bloodless Medicine I am 11 years old, and ber of difficult scientific terms. Awake! made
the article Are Blood Transfusions Really them very understandable.
Necessary? was special to me. (August 22, K. M., Lesotho
1999) My sister had two heart surgeries. My
parents asked that they be performed with Fear of Flying Thank you! On Monday I
out blood. I thought that she would die, but am taking my first airplane flight, and Im
its been three years, and shes doing fine! very apprehensive about it. I guess the main
C. S., United States reason is that I cannot comprehend how a
machine so massive can seemingly defy
Wrong Horse! I really enjoyed the article gravity. I was therefore delighted to see the
October FairEuropes Oldest Interna article W hat Does It Take to Keep Them
tional Horse Fair. (March 22, 1999) But I Flying? (September 8, 1999) To know that
was astonished to see that the photo of a the airlines take such care to make sure
skewbald cob was labeled piebald cob. that their planes are safeeven X-raying
S. R, South Africa them has helped me to be more relaxed
about flying. So despite my fears, I will keep
Ourreader knows her horses!According to the this article in hand and I will get on that
British Skewbald and Piebald Association, the plane!
piebald cob has only black and white markings T. T., United States

30 Awake! April 8, 2000

A LIVING FAITH . liucb**80'' -


EARLY 6 0 y e a rs a g o ,
N M in a Esch re c e iv e d a
p o stca rd fro m h e r h u s b a n d ,
. _------
B y * * # -
Peter. T he h a n d w ritte n m e s
s a g e w a s b r ie f a n d v a g u e . So**'
N e ve rth e le s s, s h e w a s h a p p y
r \ct>
and relieved to re ce ive it. M in
a s h u s b a n d w a s a p ris o n e r in
th e B u c h e n w a ld c o n c e n tra tio n
cam p, s e n t th e re by th e N azi
g o v e rn m e n t fo r b e in g o n e o f
Je h o va h s W itn e s s e s . T h e b a c k
o f th e p o s tc a rd b o re th e te rs e
s ta te m e n t: T h e p r is o n e r re
m a in s a s tu b b o rn B ib le S tu d e n t
[as J e h o v a h s W itn e s s e s w e re
th e n k n o w n ]. . . For th is re a s o n
only, th e p riv ile g e o f o th e rw is e M useum o f Jew ish H eritag e,
p e rm is s ib le c o rre s p o n d e n c e is in N ew York C ity
ta k e n fro m h im . T h is m e s s a g e
to ld M in a th a t P e te r w a s h o ld in g th e p re s e n t, in c lu d in g th e H olo
tru e to h is fa ith . ca u s t. W hy is th e M u s e u m o f Esch, one o f Jehovah's
Jew ish H e rita g e a fittin g p la ce to W itn esses, w as Im prisoned
The p o s tc a rd , n o w fra g ile a n d
d is p la y P e ter E schs le tte r? from 1 9 3 8 to 1 9 4 5 fo r refusing
ye llo w e d , is on lo a n to th e M u
to ren o u n ce his b e lie fs
s e u m o f Jew ish H e rita g e A Liv T h e m a n d a te o f th e m u
in g M e m o ria l to th e H o lo c a u s t, s e u m is to re p re s e n t Jew ish his
lo c a te d in B a tte ry P a rk , N e w to ry," e x p la in e d m u s e u m h is to ri s e u m c e le b ra te s su c h s p iritu a l
Y ork City. A lo n g w ith a p h o to an Dr. Jud N e w b o rn . J e h o v a h s re s is ta n c e . For th a t rea so n , th is
gra p h o f P e ter E sch, th e p o s t W itn e s s e s w e re p e rs e c u te d fo r in s titu tio n a ls o a c k n o w le d g e s
card s h a re s in te llin g a s m a ll w h o th e y w e re . T he W itn e s s e s a n d a d m ire s th e fa ith o f J e h o
p a r t o f a n e n o rm o u s h u m a n w e re p e rs e c u te d w h o lly fo r th e ir v a h s W itn e s s e s d u rin g th e N azi
tra g e d y th e H o lo c a u s td u rin g re lig io u s b e lie fs a n d b e c a u s e e ra .
w h ic h six m illio n Jew s p e ris h e d . th e y d id n o t b e lie ve in ra cism , in In its te m p o ra ry h o m e a t th e
The m u s e u m s co re e x h ib it c o n s w e a rin g a lle g ia n c e to an evil, M u s e u m o f Jew ish H e rita g e , a
ta in s m o re th a n 2 ,0 0 0 p h o to w o rld ly d ic ta to r. A nd th e y d id n t s im p le le tte r d e p ic ts th e s tru g
g ra p h s a n d 8 0 0 h is to ric a l a n d b e lie ve in fig h tin g his w ar. . . . gle o f o n e m a n w h o s e loyalty to
c u ltu r a l a r t if a c t s t h a t d e p ic t Jew s s tru g g le d to m a in ta in th e ir J e h o va h w a s p u t to th e te s t. Pe
th e e x p e rie n c e s o f th e Je w ish v a lu e s a n d th e ir fa ith a g a in s t te r Esch s u rv iv e d h is o rd e a l in
c o m m u n ity fro m th e 1 8 8 0 s to tre m e n d o u s o p p o s itio n . The m u th e N azi c a m p , h is fa ith in ta c t.
A Day to
HE evening before he died, Je
T sus instituted a memorial of
his death. It was a simple ceremo
ny. During it he told his disciples:
Keep doing this in remembrance
of me.Luke 22:19.
This year the anniversary o f this
event falls on Wednesday, April 19,
after sunset.
As a result, Jehovahs Witnesses
around the world will be gathered
on this special night to observe this
M emorial in the m anner Jesus re
quested. You are most warmly in
vited to join them as observers.
Please check with Jehovahs Wit
nesses locally for the exact time
and place of the meeting.