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While a series of revolutionary gestures around 1910, largely connected with the

cubist and futurist of movements, were the main point of departure for the
development of modern architecture, there was also a number of particular
predisposing causes that helped to guide the mainstream of
development into the channels through which it flowed in the twenties.

Serangkaian gerakan revolusioner yang terjadi sekitar tahun 1910 sebagian

besar terhubung pada gerakan cubist dan futurist dimana gerakan tersebut
merupakan titik utama perkembangan dari arsitektur modern.

Ada juga sejumlah penyebab predisposisi tertentu yang membantu memandu arus utama
pembangunan ke saluran yang mengalir pada usia dua puluhan

These predisposing causes were all of ninetenth-century origin, and may be

loosely group under three head:

Firstly, the sense of architects rensposibility to the society in which he finds

himself, an idea of largely english extraction, from pugin,ruskin,and morris which
has summed of in organisation fou nded in 1907, the deutscher werkbund :

Secondly, the rationalist or structural approach to architecture, again of english

extraction, from willist, but elaborated in french by viollet-le-duc, and codified in
auguste choisys magisterial histoire at the very end of the century, though the
parallel tradition in germany has no major exponent after gottfried semper.

Thirdly, the tradition of academic instruction, world wide in distribution but owing
most of its energy and authority to the ecole de beaux arts in paris, from which
there emerged, just after the turn of the century, julien guadets compendious
summary of his course profesional lectures-though again no equialent work
appeared in germany ath the time.

The attitude of those who were to become the masters of modern architecture to
these traditions from the past was apt to be equivocal. The werkbund and its
member were the object of suspicion in some quarters, though most of the
younger architects accepted the moral imeratives bound up in it. The rationalist
attitude was held in high regard, yet effectively repudiated by most of them, and
the academic tradition was generally vilified, yet many of the ideas it embodied
were taken over by them.
Sikap orang-orang yang menjadi tuan arsitektur modern terhadap tradisi-tradisi ini dari
masa lalu cenderung tidak jelas. Werkbund dan anggotanya adalah objek kecurigaan di
beberapa tempat, meskipun sebagian besar arsitek muda menerima imeratif moral yang
terikat di dalamnya. Sikap rasionalis sangat dihormati, namun secara efektif ditolak oleh
sebagian besar dari mereka, dan tradisi akademis pada umumnya difitnah, namun
banyak gagasan yang dia wujudkan diambil alih oleh mereka.

The last circumtance makes the evaluation of guadets contribution to modern

theory difficult to assess. Those who rejected the academic discipline did so
because they felt it to be hostile to their conception of architecture, which they
held to be functional, scientific and divorced from stylistic considerations.

Kesulitan terakhir membuat penilaian kontribusi guadet terhadap teori modern sulit
untuk dinilai. Mereka yang menolak disiplin akademis melakukannya karena mereka
merasa memusuhi konsepsi arsitektur mereka, yang mereka anggap fungsional, ilmiah
dan cerai dari pertimbangan gaya.

Reyner Banhams book of 1960, Theory and Design in the First Machine Age,
like his essays and lectures around which much of the Groups thinking was
centred, was sympathetic to the insights of Futurism and praised the designs
of the Futurist architect Antonio SantElia while criticizing the better known
names of the Modern Movement. His book was the result of a doctoral
dissertation prepared for the Courtauld Institute during the previous decade
and working on it had produced several influential lectures, helped by his role
as an assistant editor of Architectural Review. In short, Theory and
Design may be said to have deconstructed the aesthetic of the
International Style long before Banhams student, Charles Jencks, published
his more famous book, The Language of Post-Modern Architecture, in 1977, in
which he announced the death of modern architecture with a photo of the
demolition in 1972 of the infamous Pruitt-Igoe housing estate in St. Louis

Semenjak adanya perkembangan arsitektur modern di sekitar tahun 1920

keahlian dalam crafting telah digantikan oleh hasil fabrikasi yang saat itu
diproduksi secara besar-besaran. Masyarakat lebih memilih penggunaan hasil
fabrikasi yang lebih murah dan mudah didapatkan. kemampuan craving yang
dimiliki masyarakat sebelumnya hanya dapat dinikmati oleh beberapa
kalangan hingga kemunculan

The lamps themselves the lights by which architects ought to operate are
straightforward enough: the lamp of sacrifice architecture should be an
offering to the deity; of truth it should offer honest workmanship and openly
display its materials, remain true to its medium; of power the building should
be thought of as a shape, a structure of masses; of beauty its ornamentation
(and it ought to be ornamented) should be from nature, rather than geometrical
or abstract; of life the building itself should be planned and constructed by
human hands, making the allowances and alterations for which contingency
calls, and stamping the finished work with their own mark; of memory
buildings, which inevitably embody the culture out of which the proceed, should
be constructed for the ages; and of obedience.