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Introduction to computer

In this lesson we present an overview of the basic design of a

computer system: how the different parts of a computer system are
organized and various operations performed to perform a specific task. You
would have observed that instructions have to be fed into the computer in a
systematic order to perform a specific task. Computer components are
divided into two major categories, namely, hardware and software. In this
lesson we will discuss about hardware, i.e., the machine itself and its
connected devices such as monitor, keyboard, mouse etc., as well as
software that makes use of hardware for performing various functions.

o explain basic organization of computer system
o explain different types of input and output devices
o History of computer
o define Software and its classification
o distinguish between system software and application software
o describe computer language and its classification

Computer is a device that transforms data into meaningful
information. Data can be anything like marks obtained by you in
various subjects. It can also be name, age, sex, weight, height, etc. of
all the students in a class. Computer can also be defined in terms of
functions it can perform. A computer can i) accept data, ii) store
data, iii) process data as desired, and iv) retrieve the stored data as
and when required and v) print the result in desired format.

Analog computer: analog computers handle or process information

which is of a physical nature. As for example ,temp. Pressure etc.
these are based on the measuring of analog or equilent physical

Digital computers: digital computers process information which is

essentially in a binary or two-state form, namely zero and one. When
talking about computers, we mostly refer to the digital type of
electronic machines.

Digital computers fall into ranges called microcomputers,

minicomputers, mainframes and super computer.

Hybrid computers : theres are mix up of analog and digital

computers in hybrid computers.

History of Computer
Ever since the man thought of counting, he developed the concept of communications. His
initial approach to accounting and data computations and their recording was with help of
sticks, pebbles or lines on walls of caves. Then he moved towards counting using ten fingers
of his hands, which probably is the basis of present decimal system

The earliest computing device, which was used by Egyptians as early as 450 B.C., is
ABACUS. The Chinese version of ABACUS was a bead on wires counting frame, which is
still much is use in south east Asia, China and Japan.

The first desktop calculator machine, which is capable to perform various arithmetic
operations, was developed as early as 1642, which was pioneered by French scientist
BLAISE PASCAL (1623-1662). This calculating machine mainly consisted of gears and
wheels for calculations and this machine could perform only two basic operations i.e.
addition and subtraction.

A German mathematician GOTTFRIED LEIBNITZ worked on improving this machine i.e.

Pascal's calculator for performing four basic arithmetic operations (+,-,x,/).

Charles Babbage designed the early computer called difference engine in the year 1822.
Which could produce reliable tables. He improved this machine and came out with a new
idea of Analytical Engine in 1833, which could perform the basic arithmetic functions, which
is intended to be completely automatic. This machine used punch cards as input output
devices for basic input and output. He is called as "FATHER OF COMPUTERS".

In 1920, LEONARDO TORES demonstrated a digital calculating machine in Paris.

The concept of punched cards which was used by BABBAGE as I/O media, was developed
further by HARMAN HOLLERITH in the year 1889. He is the founder of present IBM
(International Business Machine) company.

As the demand for punched cards machine increased, there was inadequacy of these machine
for scientific computations and this demand led to the development of electro mechanical
calculators known as MARK-1, which was the first automatic general purpose digital
computer which was able to do three additions per second, for multiplication it took about
four seconds and about if took Aiken eleven seconds for division. This machine was designed
by Prof. HOWARD AIKEN of Hardward University. This was in 1944.

The first electronic computer, ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator And Calculator) was
designed in 1946. It has capability to perform about 5,000 calculations per second. This was a
huge computer which occupied about 1,500 sq.ft and weighed about 50 tons.

After ENIAC the next development was an electronic computer which was based on JOHN
VON NEUMANN'S concept of stored program named as EDVAC (Electronic Discrete
Variable Automatic Computer) and this was in 1949.

Almost simultaneously with EDVAC of U.S.A, the EDSAC (Electronic Delay Automatic
Calculator) was developed by British scientists. This machine was capable to do
mathematical operations which are executed in matter of a few micro seconds.


Then came in 1951 the commercial version of stored program computer UNIVAC (Universal
Automatic Computer), which was first digital computer.

Generation Of Computer

The first generation of computer were those computers which use Vacuum
Tubes or Valves technology. Almost all the early computer like ENIAC,
EDVAC, EDSAC etc. were made a reality only by the invention of vacuum
tube, which is a fragile glass device that can control and amplify electronic
signals. In this computer they are using 18,000

vacuum tubes, 70,000 resisters, 10,000 capacitors and 60,000 switches. It

took 150 kilo watt electric power and it produce large amount of heat. They
were bulky and required large space. They had small primitive memories
and no auxiliary storage.


With the development of transistors and their use in circuits, magnetic core
for memory storage, the vacuum tubes of first generation are replaced by
transistors to arrive at second generation of computers. The size of
transistors is much smaller when compared to vacuum tubes.

They consumed less power generated less heat and are faster and reliable.
William B Shickley, John Burdeen and Walter H Brattain are the scientists
develop the transistors. They are working bell telephone, U.S.A. They got
noble prize. The major advantage use of transistors was that the size of
computer has come down as well as the power consumption. Even the cost
of transistors is less in comparison with the cost of vacuum tubes, the cost
of computer reduced drastically, they were more reliable then first
generation computers. FORTRAN, Cobol, snowbal, algol etc. like high level
languages are developed in this generation. In this generation they are using
magnetic tapes for storing.


With the development of silicon chips. The third generation of computers

came into existence. These computers used compact integrated circuits
(IC's) of silicon chips in place of transistors. Each of these IC's consisted of
large number of chips in very small packages. With these IC's coming into
picture the size of computers, cost, heat generation and power consumption
decreased to a great extent, speed and reliability increased as compared to
previous generations. These machines used IC's with LSI (Large Scale



The computers belonging to these generation used Integrated Circuits with

VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration). These computers have high processing
powers, low maintenance, high reliability and very low power consumption.
These computer reduces the cost as well as the size of the computer.


These computers use optic fiber technology to handle Artificial Intelligence,

expert systems, robotics etc. These computers have very high processing
speeds and are more reliable.

Digital Computer system


Out put
Input unit Control


The block diagram of computer is shown in fig

The computer performs basically five major operations of functions

irrespective of their size and make.

1) it accepts data or instructions by way of input

2) it stores data

3) it can process data as required by the user.

4) It gives result in the form of output.

5) It controls all operation inside a computer . we discuss below

each of these operations.

1. Input:


This is the process of entering the data and programs into the computer

2. Control unit:
The process of input, output, processing and storage is performed under
the supervision of a unit called control unit. It decides when to start
receiving data, when to stop it, where to store data, etc. it takes care of step-
by- step processing of all operations in side the computer.

3. Memory unit: computer is used to store data and instructions.

4. Arithmetic logic unit (ALU): The major operations performed by
the ALU are addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, logic and

5. Output: This is the process of producing result from the data for getting
useful information.

The ALU and the cu of a computer system are jointly known as the central
processing unit . You may call CPU as the brain of any computer system.

Characteristics Of Computer

Arithmetic and Logic Operations

A computer can perform arithmetical and logical operations. In arithmetic operations, it performs
the addition, subtraction, multiplication and division on the numeric data. In logical operation it
compares the numerical data as well as alphabetical data.

In addition to being very fast, computer is also very accurate device. it gives accurate output
result provided that the correct input data and set of instructions are given to the computer. It
means that output is totally depended on the given instructions and input data. If input data is in-
correct then the resulting output will be in-correct. In computer terminology it is known as
garbage-in garbage-out.

The electronic components in modern computer have very low failure rate. The modern computer
can perform very complicated calculations without creating any problem and produces consistent
(reliable) results. In general, computers are very reliable. Many personal computers have never
needed a service call. Communications are also very reliable and generally available whenever

A computer has internal storage (memory) as well as external or secondary storage. In secondary
storage, a large amount of data and programs (set of instructions) can be stored for future use.
The stored data and programs are available any time for processing. Similarly information
downloaded from the internet can be saved on the storage media.

Retrieving data and programs

The data and program stored on the storage media can be retrieved very quickly for further
processing. It is also very important feature of a computer.


Versatile means flexible. Modern computer can perform different kind of tasks one by one of
simultaneously. It is the most important feature of computer. At one moment your are playing
game on computer, the next moment you are composing and sending emails etc. In colleges and
universities computers are use to deliver lectures to the students. The talent of computer is
dependent on the software.

A computer can continually work for hours without creating any error. It does not get tired while
working after hours of work it performs the operations with the same accuracy as well as speed as
the first one.

Basic application of Computer

Word Processing:
Word Processing software automatically corrects spelling and grammar mistakes. If the
content of a document repeats you dont have to type it each time. You can use the copy and
paste features. You can printout documents and make several copies. It is easier to read a
word-processed document than a handwritten one. You can add images to your document.

It is a network of almost all the computers in the world. You can browse through
much more information than you could do in a library. That is because computers can store
enormous amounts of information. You also have very fast and convenient access to
information. Through E-Mail you can communicate with a person sitting thousands of miles
away in seconds. There is chat software that enables one to chat with another person on a
real-time basis. Video conferencing tools are becoming readily available to the common man.

Digital video or audio composition:

Audio or video composition and editing have been made much easier by computers. It no
longer costs thousands of dollars of equipment to compose music or make a film.
Graphics engineers can use computers to generate short or full-length films or even to create
three-dimensional models. Anybody owning a computer can now enter the field of media
production. Special effects in science fiction and action movies are created using computers.

Desktop publishing:
With desktop publishing, you can create page layouts for entire books on your personal

Computers in Medicine:
You can diagnose diseases. You can learn the cures. Software is used in magnetic resonance
imaging to examine the internal organs of the human body. Software is used for performing
surgery. Computers are used to store patient data.

All financial transactions are done by computer software. They provide security, speed and
One can book air tickets or railway tickets and make hotel reservations online. It reduced the
time wastage and travel time for everyone.

Software is widely used here. Also all mobile phones have software embedded in them for
maintaining customer details and also sending message, audio and video through the mobile
software. Now a day's internet is available in the mobile phone itself.

Instead of a book it is easier to learn from E-learning software. It not only contains text also
contain image and animation so it is very easy to understand everything.

Computers in Business:
Shops and supermarkets use software, which calculate the bills. Taxes can be calculated and
paid online. Accounting is done using computers. One can predict future trends of business
using artificial intelligence software. Software is used in major stock markets. One can do
trading online. There are fully automated factories running on software.

ATM machines:
The computer software authenticates the user and dispenses cash.

Software is used for making umpiring decisions. There are simulation software using which a
sportsperson can practice his skills. Computers are also to identify flaws in technique.

Weather analysis:
Supercomputers are used to analyze and predict weather.

Components Of Computer System

Computer system is made up of a number of components. These are
1. Input devices
2. Memory unit
3. Central processing unit
4. Output Devices

Central Processing Unit (CPU)

The central processing unit (CPU) is where the actual processing takes place. This is where
the calculations are performed and logical functions are carried out. The CPU retrieves its
data and instructions from the main memory, processes the data according to the instructions
and then stores the results back into the main memory or sends the processed information to
the output subsystem. There are broadly three parts of Central Processing Unit. Control Unit
controls all the operations in computer. All the arithmetic and logic operations are performed
in Arithmetic and logic unit (ALU). A set of registers is used for temporarily storing data or
instructions in CPU. It is to be noted that the central processor is controlled by the
instructions it gets from main memory. The CPU retrieves and executes these instructions one
by one until it completes a given task. Each instruction tells the CPU what to do (add, divide,
move, and compare) and also tells it where to find the data to be processed. CPU, memory all
other components are connected through buses on Motherboard and are housed in a cabinet
or system unit. The bus interconnects the different parts of the Computer so that information
can move from one part of the Computer to another. In effects, the bus is a "highway'' over
which electrical signals can travel. For example when the CPU retrieves an instruction from


the main memory the electrical pulses representing that instructions are carried over the bus
that connects the CPU and main memory. There are three different types of Buses used in
Computer. These are Address bus, Data Bus and Control Bus.

Input Device
Keyboard, Mouse and VDU
To solve a problem it is necessary to give data and instructions to the Computer. This can be
done through input device. The keyboard is an example of an input device that accepts data
and translates it into electronic signals. Both program (instructions) and data can be keyed in
through it.

Mouse is a pointing device which can be moved on a smooth surface to simulate the
movement of cursor that is desired on the display screen. Mouse could be optical; offering
quite and reliable operation, or mechanical which is cheaper. User can move the mouse; stop
it at a point where the pointer is to be located and, with the help of buttons, and make
selection of choices.
One need to see which key is pressed, and makes changes in case of any mistakes. Whatever
one has keyed in gets displayed on the screen of the monitor also known as video display unit
(VDU). It is also used to show the Information produced by the computer. Most display
screens of a monitor work under the same principle as a television, using a cathode ray tube
(CRT). There are many ways to classify monitors. The most basic are in terms of colour, its
screen size and the resolution.

Graphical Input Devices or Pointing device

Data can be fed into a Computer through input devices. Input devices accept data in its
original format and translate the data into electronic signals the Computer can process.

Pointing Devices
While working with display based packages, we are mostly pointing to some area in the
display to select an option and move across on the screen to select subsequent options. For
such cases pointing devices are very useful. There are several pointing devices, some of them
are light pen, track balls and joysticks.

Light Pen
A light pen is a light-sensitive pen-like device used by pointing it at the display surface. A
user brings the light pen to the desired point on the screen and presses a button, causing it to
identify the current location. It is used to select options from a menu or to draw images.

Scanners facilitate capturing of the information (an image, text document, a drawing or a
photograph) and storing them in graphic format for displaying back on the graphical screen.
Scanner illuminates the page that is to be scanned so that optical image transforms into digital
format for stored in computer. The graphic image scanned can now be seen and processed
directly by the computer. Scanners come in handheld, feed-in and flat bed types and for
scanning black and white only or colour.

Source Data Input Device


We can also collect data directly from different sources rather than typing with the help of
different devices. This is called source data automation. Most recent trends for data input are
towards source data automation. The equipment used for source data automation captures
data as a by product of a business activity thereby completely eliminating manual input of
data. Some examples are:

1.Magnetic Ink Character Recognition (MICR): These devices are

generally used by the banking industry to read the account numbers on cheques directly and
do the necessary processing.

2.Optical Mark Recognition (OMR): These devices can sense marks on computer readable
papers. Academic and testing institutions to grade aptitude tests where candidates mark the
correct alternatives on a special sheet of paper use this kind of device. The optical mark
recognition devices then directly read these answers sheets and the information sent to a
computer for processing. The entrance tests and some of the assignments are being marked
by OMR.

3.BCR( Bar Code Reader) These scans a set of vertical bars of different widths for specific
data and are used to read tags and merchandise in stores, medical records, library books, etc.
These are available as hand held devices.
OCR(Optical Character Reader)
Digital Camera , Video Camera

1.5 Output Devices

Output devices return processed data that is information, back to user.
Some of the commonly used output devices are:

1. Monitor(visual Display unit)

2. Printers

3. plotters

4. Speakers

1.6.1 Monitor
Out of all output devices, monitor is perhaps the most important
output device because people interact with this device most
intensively than others. Computer information is displayed, visually
with a video adapter card and monitor. Information processed within
the CPU, that needs to be visually displayed, is sent to video adapter.
The video adapter converts information from the format used, in the
same manner as a television displays information sent to it by a cable

Two basic types of monitor are used with microcomputers, which are
as follows:


1. CRT

2. LCD

Cathode ray tube (CRT):

CRT or cathode ray tube monitor is the typical monitor monitor that you
see on a desktop computer. It looks a lot like a television screen, and works
the same way. This type uses a large vacuum tube, called cathode ray tube

Liquid Crystal Display (LCD):

This type of monitors is also known as flat panel monitor. Most of these
employ liquid crystal display (LCDs) to render images. These days LCD
monitor are very popular.

LED(Light Emitting Diode)

TFT (Thin Film Transistor)

1.6.2 Printer
After a document is created on the computer, it can be sent to a printer for
a hard copy (printout). Some printers offer special features such as colored
and large page formats. Some of the most commonly used printers are:

1. Laser Printer

2. Ink Jet Printer

3. Dot Matrix Printer

4. Line Printer

Laser Printer:
A printer produces high quality print that one normally finds in publishing.
It is extremely fast and quiet. Moreover, the operation of a laser printer is
easy with automatic paper loading and no smudging or messing up of ink
ribbons. The fastest laser printer can print up to 200 pages per minute in
monochrome (black and white) and up to 100 pages per minute in color.

Ink- Jet printer:

An ink-jet printer creates an image directly on paper by spraying ink
through as many as 64 tiny nozzles. Although the images it produces is not
generally quite as sharp as the output of laser printer, the quality of ink-jet
images is still high.

In general, ink-jet printer offers an excellent middle ground between dot

matrix and laser printer. Like laser printer, an ink-jet printer is quite and
convenient, but not particularly fast.

Dot matrix Printer:

The dot matrix printer was very popular at one point of time. It is a very
versatile and inexpensive output device. In dot matrix printer the print head
physically hits the paper through the ribbon and produces text ( or images)
by combinations of dots; hence the name dot matrix printer. Its speed is
measured in characters per second( CPS). Although it is less expensive, it is
louder, slower and produces lower print quality.

Line Printer:
A line printer is generally used with large computer systems to produce text
based data processing reports. Line printers are high- speed printers with
speeds ranging anywhere from 100 to about 3800 lines per minutes. In the
past, print quality on line printers was not high. Developers in technology
are improving the print quality on line printers. These are in the cost range
of lacs of rupees.

1.6.3 Plotters
A plotter is a special kind of output device that, like a printer, produces
images on paper, but does so in a different way. Plotters are designed to
produce large drawing or images, such as construction plans for building or
blueprints for mechanical objects. A plotter can be connected to the port
normally used by a printer.

Plotters usually come in two designs:

1. Flat Bed: Plotters of small size to be kept on table with restriction of
paper size.

2. Drum: These plotters are of big size using rolls of paper of unlimited

1.6.4 Speaker
Speakers are another type of output device, which allow you to listen to
voice like music and conversation with people.

Computer Memory
There are different types of memories, which are used in computer. Primary memory has
other names as Main memory or Random Access Memory (RAM), CPU uses it to store or
retrieve data and instructions for processing. Secondary Memory or Auxiliary memory is
used to store the data and instructions permanently. Hard disk and (floppy disk are the
example of secondary memory. Compact Disk Read Only Memory (CD ROM) is also used to
store the data permanently but St requires CD writer to store data into it. Cache memory is
used to enhance the performance of Computer system.

Main Memory


Data and instructions are required to be stored in main memory from where it can be
retrieved by central processing unit for processing results. Main memory serves as a
temporary storage area for data and instructions. It is made up of a large number of cells, with
each cell capable of storing one bit. The cells may be organized as a set of addressable words,
each word storing a sequence of bits. The time to store and retrieve a word is independent of
the address of the word. This organization is also called RAM or Random Access Memory.
The main memory is very fast. Its storage capacity is in megabytes. Nowadays most of the
Computers have minimum of 128 Mbytes of RAM. All the modern computers are now built
with semiconductor main memory because of its fast access time, low cost, small physical
size and low power consumption. RAM is further classified as either dynamic RAM (DRAM)
or static RAM (SRAM) The larger capacity chips are normally constructed as dynamic RAM
because the dynamic RAM requires less number of transistors than the static RAM and hence
can be packed more densely on a single chip. Thus dynamic RAM can achieve higher storage
density. DRAM is implemented using capacitors which tend to loose their charge with time
and need periodic refreshing. So, it needs extra control circuitry. This refreshing process
slows down memory access speed slightly. SRAM, on the other hand, does not need any such
refreshing circuitry. Thus a SRAM is faster than a DRAM. DRAM is cheaper than SRAM
and consumes less power than SRAM.

Secondary Memory
The programs & data that are required to be used again & again are kept in auxiliary or
secondary memory. Floppy disk, Hard disk are the examples of it. The present day capacity
of Hard disk is 300 Giga bytes. Because of its relatively slow speed auxiliary storage is used
for storing programs and data not immediately needed by the Computer. The programs and
data are then copied into faster main memory when the Computer is ready to process them.
Secondary storage devices are online to the processor. They accept data or program
instructions from the processor, retain them, and then write them back to the processor as
needed to complete processing tasks. Examples of Secondary memory are floppy disk, hard
disk, magnetic tapes, charge-coupled devices, magnetic bubble memories, optical memories

Floppy Disk
Floppy disks are removable, direct access storage media inserted into disk drives. Floppy
disks are flat, circular pieces of Mylar plastic that rotate within a jacket. These are also called
flexible disks, floppies, Diskettes or simply disks. Data and instructions are stored as forms of
bits and bytes using the ASCII or EBCDIC data coding schemes. They are stored as
electromagnetic charges on a disk surface. The two most common disks are 5 1/4-inch (5.25")
and 3 1/2-inch (3.5") in their diameter. More efficient size, high storage capacity and sturdier
design of a 3.5"-disk make microcomputers now use the 3.5" disks more.

Hard Disk
The disk described so far is the type of disks which can be removed from the disk drive and
carried from place to place. Some disks however, are built into the computer or a special disk
drive. These are fixed disks. They are used in just the same way as removable disks, but tend
to be used for storing programs or data which have to be permanently available. Hard disks
can store anywhere from 20 MB to more than 40GB. Hard disks are also from 10 to 100
times faster than floppy disk.

Magnetic Tapes
Magnetic tapes are mounted on reels or a cartridge or a cassette of tape to store large volumes
or backup data. These are cheaper and since these are removable from the drive, they provide
unlimited storage capacity. Since the recording is like that in a tape recorder used in audio

systems, information retrieval will be only sequential and not random as in the case of a disk.
These are not suitable for online retrieval of data, since sequential searching will take long
time. These are convenient for archival storage for backup.

The CD-ROM (Compact Disk Read Only Memory) is a direct extension of audio CD. CD-
ROM players are more rugged and have error correction facility. This ensures proper data
transfer from CD-ROM to the RAM of the computer. CD-ROM is written using a CD writer.
Information is retrieved from a CD-ROM using a low power laser, which ingenerate in an on
optical disk drive unit. In CD-ROMs the information is stored evenly across the disk in
segments of the same size. Therefore, in CD-ROMs data stored on a track increases as we go
towards outer surface of disk. Thus, the CD-ROMs are rotated at variable speeds for the
reading process.
DVD ROM: A Digital Versatile Disc - Read Only Memory, or DVD-ROM, is a media
storage disk that closely resembles a CD or compact disc. The major difference is that the
DVD is formatted to hold far more data. A CD commonly has a capacity of 650 megabytes,
while the smallest capacity DVD can store about seven times more data, or 4.38 gigabytes

There are various kinds of DVDs, but the DVD-ROM refers to a read-only disc, or a disc that
cannot be written over. A DVD movie bought from the local video store is a good example.
Blank DVDs with designations like "DVD-R" and "DVD+R" are formatted, recordable
DVDs. The R and +R refer to competing format standards, but both will record movies,
audio, or other data.

The disc encodes data in the form of a spiraling trail of pits and lands separated by
nanometers. The trail starts at the center of the DVD, and winds around times until it reaches
the outer edge. In the case of a double layer disk, the trail continues on a second layer of
material. If the disc is also double-sided, the trail of pits and lands extends to side two.

Cache Memory

CPU speed is quite high as compared to the access time of main memory. In many situations,
the performance of the processor suffers because of the low speed of the main memory. This
problem is solved by placing small fast memory called cache memory between the processor
and the main memory whose access time is close to the processing speed of the CPU. Cache
memory is faster than the main memory.

Concept of Hardware and Software

In this section we shall distinguish between hardware and software used in a Computer.
There are different types of software and there are several generations.
The electronic circuits and mechanical components of a Computer such as hard disk, printers,
central processing unit, keyboard, mouse, motherboard and other peripheral devices, which
ere tangible in nature, or which can be felt, touched are known as hardware.
Programs namely the list of instructions to be executed by Computer is known as the
software of the Computer. There are different: types of software depending on the
requirement of user or Computers. Software fails into two general categories:
a) System Software
b) Application Software


Application software
Refers to the programs, which allow the Computer to carry out specific tasks related to the
users such as payroll processing, inventory control, or word processing. Application software
may be supplied by the Computer manufacture or software vendors, or may be written by

Application software is a set of programs, which are written to perform

specific tasks for example: An application packages for managing library
known as library information system is used to manage information of
library such as: keeping book details, account holder details, book issue
details, book return details. Another application package for managing
students roll no. name, parents, address, class, section, section, processing
of examination results etc. Application software can be broadly classified
into two types:

(a) Generalized packages

(b) Customized packages

System software

Controls and coordinates Computer operations, and unifies all of the Computer components
into a functional and smooth running system. System software also provides the Computer
users with a means of gaining access to the system and its resources. The task of translating
instructions into machine code is done by a special set of software called the Compiler.
Operating system prepares the computer for use and also controls the different
devices attached to the computer. Operating system & Compilers are the example of system
a. Operating System
b. Translator

Operating System

When you switch on the computer the programs stored in ROM are executed
which activates different units of your computer and makes it ready for you
to work on it. This set of programs can be called system software.

System software are sets of programs, responsible for running for running
the computer , controlling various operations of computer systems and
management of computer resources. Operating Systems (OS) falls under
this category.

An operating system is a system software that provides an interface for a

user to communicate with the computer, manages hardware devices (disk
drives, keyboard, monitor, etc), manages and maintains disk file systems
and supports application programs. Some popular Operating systems are
UNIX, windows and Linux.

Although operating system provides all the features users need to use and
maintain their systems, inevitably, they still do not meet everyones

expectations. This has led to another type of system software called

Utilities. These are programs that bridge the gap between the functionally of
an OS and the needs of users. Utility programs are a broad category of
software of software such as compress(zip) /uncompress(unzip) files
software, antivirus software, split and join files software, etc.



As you know that high level language is machine independent and assembly
language though it is machine dependent yet and assembly language though
it is machine dependent yet mnemonics that are being used to represent
instructions are not directly understandable by machine. Hence to make the
machine understand the instructions provided by both the languages,
compiler and assembler are required to convert these instructions into
machine language.

The software (set of programs) that reads a program written in high level
lang. and translates it into an equivalent program in machine language is
called as Compiler.

The program written by the programmer in high level language is called

source program and the program generated by the compiler after translation
is called as object program.

Source Program
(Higher Level Object Program
compiler (Machine Language)

The software(set of programs) that reads a program written in assembly

language and translates it into an equivalent program in machine language
is called as Assembler.

Source Program
(Higher Level Assembler Object Program
Language) (Machine Language)

Interpreter :

In computer science, an interpreter is a computer program that executes, i.e. performs,

instructions written in a programming language. An interpreter generally uses one of
the following strategies for program execution:

1. parse the source code and perform its behavior directly

2. translate source code into some efficient intermediate representation and
immediately execute this

3. explicitly execute stored precompiled code[1] made by a compiler which is part of

the interpreter system

Concept of Computing, Data and Information Data:

Data is a collection of facts, such as values or measurements. It can be numbers, words,
measurements, observations or even just descriptions of things in simple words data is a raw
fact example (28, 52, 65, Kumar, Vijay, Raj)

Representing Data in the Computer:

Basic component of Computer like CPU, RAM etc are transistors. These are made of a
number of Integrated circuits (ICs), which contain transistors. These transistors set like a two-
way switch which can be either on or off. These transistors have just two operating states;
either on or off. When a transistor is switched on, it is said to represent the value 1.
Conversely, when the transistor is switched off, it is said to represent the value 0. The values
0 and 1 are the only two digits with which Computer works.Thus all data to be stored and
processed in Computers are transformed or represented as sequence of two symbols, one
symbol to represent each state. The digits 0 and 1 are represented inside the computer as
electrical voltages. The electrical voltages have just two states, or levels, referred to as high
and low. Usually the Low voltage represents a value of 0, while the high voltage represents a
value of 1.

Bits and Bytes

The term Bit is an acronym for Binary digit. The bit is the smallest piece of information that
the Computer can work with. The values 0 and 1 are called Bits. Bits are grouped together to
form a larger chunk of information called a Byte. A byte consists of eight bits that the
Computer stores and processes as a single entry. A byte represents one character of data
(either a letter of the alphabet, decimal digit, or symbol). The Computer can store individual
bytes in its memory and later retrieve them.

Representing Data in Computer

1 Byte - 8 Bits
1 Kilobyte - 1024 Bytes
1 Megabyte - 1024 Kilobytes
1 Gigabyte - 1024 Terabyte

Applications of IECT
IECT or Information, Electronics and Communication Technology is used in various sectors.
IECT can be used to generate quality manpower. Example of some of the sectors is given

e -governance
e Governance is one of the applications of IECT. With the help of e Governance various
Government Services can be delivered to people, Information can be transmitted. Network of
several stand alone systems can be created or any system can be added as a member of this
group. Here transmission of information can be taken place between Government and Citizen
also Government and Business. Also all the transactions taken place in back office and in
entire network are available to process simultaneously. IECT Technology can be used to
improve capabilities, transparency and interaction of people. It will also help the smooth

working in Government Sector, also it will increase reliability. Awareness and Capabilities of
people can be increased. It will result in improvement in peoples benefit and nations
economic development.

Now a day, people use multimedia in various sectors like business, education, research,
entertainment etc. Therefore we can define multimedia as follows it is an interface used to
present information in various formats like characters, numbers, symbols, audio, video,
graphic and animation. While using IECT Applications we can define multimedia in some
different way. Here we can define multimedia as a combination of more than one media.
These media are various software and hardware which are used for communication. Here
computers and used to provide interface to users which help to find or search particular
information, transmit the information. It will also help to work in simple way and play
various games. Multimedia is used to improve the lifestyle in various sectors. Also
multimedia can be used to develop applications which can be shared by various people
simultaneously. e.g. various Encyclopedias, Directories, Dictionaries, e books , newspaper

1 Introduction to GUI based operating system

In the previous chapter you learnt about basic concepts of computer. We will now discuss
various user friendly features of windows operating system. Microsoft has produced a
number of Operating Systems. Windows 95/98/ME, Windows NT, Windows 2000
Professional / Advance server, Windows XP, Windows Vista are some of them. The
Operating System which we have selected as reference is Windows XP Professional and we
will focus our studies on it.

In this chapter you will be learn about
1. Define Operating System
2. List various features of Windows Operating System,
3. Familiarize yourself with the Windows XP Interface,
4. Use Windows Operating System in managing files and folders,
5. Explain how multiple Windows work,
6. Work on Windows accessories like Notepad, Paint

Basics of Operating System

An operating system plays an important role in the use of Computer. It prepares a bare
machine for use by the user. In other words an operating system works as an interface
between Compute and user. The operating system enables the user to effectively use the
system resources and access several other programs. Windows operating system offers a new
graphic based interface to the users and they can use mouse to perform a number of
operations. It is also possible to work on multiple windows at a time.

Single user Operating system : operating system which allows only one user to work on a
computer at a time is know as single user operating system. Example include dos, windows
Multi-user Operating system : multi-user operating system allows a number of users to
work together on a single computer. Each user will be provided a terminal connected to a
single computer. Example include linux, unix, windows xp etc.

Single tasking operating system: operating system which can execute only a single
job/program at a time is known as single tasking operating system. E.g. ms dos.
Multitasking operating system: multitasking operating system support execution of more
than one job at a time. Most of todays operating system such as windows 2000 ,os/2,unix

Operating System
An operating system is a set of system programs, which provides a number of facilities to the
user for easy use of the Computer. An operating system,
1. Controls and coordinates the operation of a Computer
2. Easy interaction between user and Computer
3. Starts the Computer automatically when power is turned on
4. Controls input and output
5. Controls program execution
6. Manages use of main memory
7. Manages and manipulates files

Basics of popular Operating System (LINUX, WINDOWS)

Linux is an operating system that was initially created as a hobby by a young student, Linus
Torvalds, in 1991. In 1994 the first version of Linux Kernel was released on Internet. At the
end of 2004, 50 % Linux has been adopted worldwide primarily as a server platform. From
2007 various well known computer manufactures have started delivering some of the models
they are manufacturing with Linux preloaded. Linux is a example of Open Source Code
Operating System. It is having nearby all the features present in Unix Operating System.
Linux also supports TCP/IP protocol, and we can access Local Area Network and Internet.
Linux is generally provided with two types of Graphical User Interface one is KDE and other
is Gnome. Other interfaces are also available. Command interpreter is also available. The
programs developed for Windows do not run on Linux and similarly programs developed for
Linux do not run on Windows. In Windows we can start and use windows by skipping the
username, password field but in Linux we cannot start the work without entering the
username and password in the operating system. The Plug and Play feature available in
Windows Operating System is very helpful for installing new hardware but most of the
hardware manufactures do not write programs for their hardware in Linux, therefore most of
the devices does not detect in Linux and not available for use.
Today Linux is used in nearby every field as Government and Private Offices, Education,
Various Trainings, Homes, Businesses and other. Linux was primarily written for 386
microcomputers but presently it is used on various types of computers ranging from Micro to
Super. Linux can also be embedded on microchips and therefore it is used in embedded type
of electronic devices as mobile and other. Presently companies as IBM, HP etc and
developing Linux.

Windows XP
Yet another improved version of Windows, called Windows-XP was released in the year
2001. It is 32-bit operating system that is quite popular on personal computers and laptops. It
is quite stable product and is being continuously used till date. Many variations of Windows
XP are there. They are named as Windows XP Professional, Windows XP Home, Windows
XP Media center Editing and Windows-XP Embedded. The Microsoft has created 64-bit
version of Windows-XP to run on them. Some of the existing features of Windows XP are
given below:
1. Built on the Windows-NT Engine: It is built on the field proven code of Windows- NT
and Windows 2000, which are 32-bit operating systems and support fully protected memory

model. Due to this feature, Windows XP is quite stable and provides secure working
2. Enhanced Device Driver Verification: When you install a new service on the system,
Window, XP tests its driver rigorously. If the driver passes the test, its stability is ensured.
This feature makes sure that system remains stable in most of the odd situations.
3. Windows File Protection Mechanism: This feature protects core system files from being
overwritten by the installation applications. If a file is over written, Windows file
protection" feature will restore the correct version of the file.
4. Primitive Multitasking Architecture: Due to this feature, multi-tasking mechanism has
been improved in Windows-XP. It now ensures better response and better stability.
5. Scalable Memory and Processor Support: Due to this feature, memory up to 4GB and
two symmetric microprocessors can be supported in the system.
6. Improvised Protection Mechanism: Protection mechanisms have been improved at
encryption and decryption level and at communication and transportation level also. Thus XP
protects the information from hackers to a large extent.
7. Smart Card Support: Smart card capabilities have been included in the operating system.
It builds faster and easier working environment.
8. Firewall Enhancements: To reduce the network risk and build tight security zone, lot of
firewall features have been included within the operating system.
9. Fresh Visual Design: Although the working environment in Windows XP is quite similar
to that of its elder brothers, Windows-9x, but it has a free look.
10. Rich Digital Media Support: Windows-XP provides rich digital media support. Its
digital media player version 9 is quite powerful and provides facilities for,
View rich media information.
Receive best possible audio/video quality.
Tune to at least 3,000 internet radio stations.
Create custom CDs that are very fast.
View DVD movies.
11. Integrated CD burring support: Utilities for writing on CD-R and CD-RW have been
incorporated in Windows Explorer of Windows-XP. Now the user need not buy third party
software for it.
12. Dual view: In Windows-XP, a single computer desktop can be displayed on two
13. Enhanced Customization Features: Rich customization facilities have been
incorporated in Windows-XP. Using these utilities, users and administrators can configure,
customize and troubleshoot numerous Windows-XP functions.

Windows-2000 operating system came as replacement of Windows-NT. It is basically GUI
based network operating system. It has been designed for uniprocessor and symmetric multi-
processors based computers. It is 32-bit operating system. Its working in it environment looks
like its elder brothers, Windows-NT, Windows 9x etc. As the name indicates, it was released
in the year 2000. Its four versions are:
1. Windows-2000 Professional.
2. Windows-2000 Server standard edition.
3. Windows-2000 Advanced server edition.
4. Windows-2000 Data center server.

Windows 7

Windows 7 is a latest OS from Microsoft, it is a series of operating systems produced by

Microsoft for use on personal computers, including home and business desktops, laptops, net
books, tablet PCs, and media center PCs.
It have more additional feature than Windows XP .It have a following future

User Interface
In Windows, Graphical User Interface is used to give commands to computer instead of using
text based commands. In DOS, text based user interface is provided to inter the commands. It
is essential to remember all the commands while using this operating system.
In the Graphical User Interface, various Windows and their contents like Minus, Icons, Radio
Button, Check Boxes etc are included. To perform various tasks mouse and other pointing
devices are used. Microsoft Windows, Macintosh, Linux etc are popular examples of
Graphical User interface based Operating Systems.

Changing System Date and Time

In Windows XP and Vista right click on the clock in your task bar and click on Adjust
Date/Time. Ignore the time for now. Instead, click on the Time Zone tab (or in Windows
Vista, click on the Change time zone. Button to get a somewhat similar dialog) Make sure
that your time zone is set correctly, selecting from the dropdown list. Also make sure that
automatically adjust clock for daylight saving changes is checked. Make sure that
automatically synchronize with an Internet time server is checked. The default time server is
typically which should be sufficient.

Changing Display Properties

Win XP offers variety of options that enable you to change the way the graphical user
Interface or desktop behaves. Double Click Display icon in Control Panel. Following screen

To Change the background screen

You can change the background screen of the window with the help of options available in
the background tab of display properties. Select the wallpaper and the display option from it
and click on OK.
To change the screen saver
With the help of screen saver tab one can set the desired screen saver, set the timing;
assign a password for the screen saver to protect your files. To change the settings of the
screen saver you can use the settings options.
To change windows appearance style
One can change all the windows default settings with the help of appearance tab. Choosing a
proper scheme places a representation of that scheme in appearances box. One can also
define his own scheme and all it to the existing list

To change the desktop effects:

Effects option present in Appearance tab is meant to set the icons for system objects on your
desktop. Effects also include some window display attributes.

To add or remove a windows component

You can open the Add / Remove Programs Properties dialog box at the Windows Setup tab
by clicking Start, pointing to Settings, click Control Panel, double clicking Add / Remove
programs, and then clicking on the Add / Remove Windows Components tab.

Adding and Removing Printers

Double click Printers Icon in Control Panel or click on Start, pointing to settings, click

Printers. Following screen appears. It is used to add, remove and change settings for printers.

File and Directory Management

With the click of mouse button user can create, delete, rename a file or folder. Folders
can be shared so that these are used by others. Moving a file is simple drag and drop
operation of mouse in Windows Explorer. For the text processing requirements of the users
Notepad and Word Pad are given. Utilities like Games and multimedia can be used to
entertain the users. System performance can be increased with system tools.
In Windows Explorer or my computer, one can see both hierarchy of folders on the
computers and all the files and folders in each selected folder. This is especially useful for
copying and moving files.

2 Basics of Microsoft Word

MS Word 2003 including Advanced features

Minimize button
Tool bar

Maximize/Restore button
Menu bar
Application control
menu Close button

Text area Scroll bar

Status bar

Word processor is a software package is a software package that helps you to enter text and
manipulation words and phrases. You can changed a typed letter, document and report easily
and store them for further use. You can print these documents on a printer as and when
desired. Thus, documents create on a word processor can be made accurate, giving better
look, and prepared and printed in very short time.

Using Ms-Word you can do the following:-

You can use a word processor for printing letters, preparing mailing lists, creating
documents and reports.
Ms- Word offers different views and you can work in any view while editing
You can do character formatting, paragraph formatting and document formatting.
The Words proofing tool helps you to find and correct spelling mistakes.

You can add page numbers or change margins.

Ms-Word enables you to create tables and charts in a document.
You can emphasize the selected words by printing them in boldface, italic or in bold
Ms-Word provides you a mail merge facility that takes names, addresses and pertinent
facts about recipients and merges the information into a form or letter or other such
basic document.
You can print a document.

Almost, all word processor share some characteristics with their predecessor which is the
typewriter. You have a page onto which you type characters. You have a ruler that tells you
where you are as you type across the page. You have tab stops and margin setting.

Latest version of Word for window shares the typewriter similarities like the earlier word
processor, but it also adds new numerous new features. Once you understand these additional
features, they enable you to utilize the power built into word 2003.

A word can processor allows you to function more effectively and efficiently with minimum

The Menu Bar

Menu baris positioned below the Title bar. It contains options like

Format etc.

Each of these menu bar items has drop-down menus. A drop-down menu comprises a list of
options which drops down when you click on the menu bar item. The options can be
activated by pressing together the Alt key and the underlined character in the option name
(often called hot keys). For example, the user can press Alt and f keys together to invoke the
File menu. etc.


Microsoft Word Shortcut key

Key Board Shortcut Function
F12 Display the Save As dialog box.
ESC Cancel an action.
CTRL+Z Undo an action.
CTRL+Y Redo or repeat an action.
CTRL+B Make letters bold.
CTRL+I Make letters italic.
CTRL+U Make letters underline.
CTRL+SHFT+< Decrease font size one value.
CTRL+SHFT+> Increase font size one value.
CTRL+[ Decrease font size 1 point.
CTRL+] Increase font size 1 point.
CTRL+SPACEBAR Remove paragraph or character formatting.
CTRL+C Copy the selected text or object.
CTRL+X Cut the selected text or object.
CTRL+V Paste text or an object.
CTRL+ALT+V Paste special
CTRL+SHFT+V Paste formatting only
CTRL+SHFT+G Open the Word Count dialog box.
CTRL+N Create a new document
CTRL+O Open a document.
CTRL+W Close a document.
CTRL+S Save a document.
CTRL+F Find text, formatting, and special items.
CTRL+H Replace text, specific formatting, and special
CTRL+G Go to a page, bookmark, footnote, table,
comment, graphic, or other location.
ALT+CTRL+P Switch to Print Layout view.
ALT+CTRL+O Switch to Outline view.
ALT+CTRL+N Switch to Draft view.
CTRL+P Print a document.
ALT+CTRL+M Insert a comment.
CTRL+SHFT+E Turn change tracking on or off.
ALT+SHFT+C Close the Reviewing Pane if it is open.


HOME Go to beginning of document.

END Go to end of document.
CTRL+K Insert a hyperlink.
BACKSPACE Delete one character to the left.
CTRL+BACKSPACE Delete one word to the left.
DELETE Delete one character to the right.
CTRL+DELETE Delete one word to the right.
CTRL+A Extend a selection to include the entire document.
END To the end of a line
HOME To the beginning of a line
PAGE UP Up one screen (scrolling)
PAGE DOWN Down one screen (scrolling)
CTRL+PAGE DOWN To the top of the next page
CTRL+PAGE UP To the top of the previous page
CTRL+END To the end of a document
CTRL+HOME To the beginning of a document
SHFT+TAB To the previous cell in a row
ALT+HOME To the first cell in a row
ALT+END To the last cell in a row
ALT+PAGE UP To the first cell in a column
ALT+PAGE DOWN To the last cell in a column
UP ARROW To the previous row
DOWN ARROW To the next row
CTRL+SHFT+F Open the Font dialog box to change the font.
SHFT+F3 Change the case of letters.
CTRL+SHFT+A Format all letters as capitals.
CTRL+SHFT+W Underline words but not spaces.
CTRL+SHFT+D Double-underline text.
CTRL+SHFT+H Apply hidden text formatting.
CTRL+SHFT+K Format letters as small capitals.
CTRL+EQUAL SIGN Apply subscript formatting (automatic spacing).
CTRL+SHFT+PLUS SIGN Apply superscript formatting (automatic spacing).
CTRL+SPACEBAR Remove manual character formatting.
CTRL+SHFT+Q Change the selection to the Symbol font.


CTRL+SHFT+* Display nonprinting characters.

CTRL+SHFT+C Copy formats.
CTRL+SHFT+V Paste formats.
CTRL+1 Single-space lines.
CTRL+2 Double-space lines.
CTRL+5 Set 1.5-line spacing.
Add or remove one line space preceding a
CTRL+0 (zero)
Switch a paragraph between centered and left-
Switch a paragraph between justified and left-
Switch a paragraph between right-aligned and left-
CTRL+L Left align a paragraph.
CTRL+M Indent a paragraph from the left.
CTRL+SHFT+M Remove a paragraph indent from the left.
CTRL+T Create a hanging indent.
CTRL+SHFT+T Reduce a hanging indent.
CTRL+Q Remove paragraph formatting.
ALT+CTRL+1 Apply the Heading 1 style.
ALT+CTRL+2 Apply the Heading 2 style.
ALT+CTRL+3 Apply the Heading 3 style.


3 Basics of Microsoft Excel


Title bar Formula bar

Name box Menu bar button

Application control Maximize/Restore button

Active cell
Close button

Tab Scrolling Button

Sheet tab Horizontal Vertical

Status bar Scroll bar

electronic spreadsheet application accepts data value and relationships between the data
values in tabular format consisting of rows and columns. It allows user to perform calculation
on these values. It also manipulates data in a desired format. The first spreadsheet available
for the PC was VisiCalc which was best seller. Visi Calc was followed by lotus 1-2-3 finally,
the larges selling spreadsheet program in Microsoft Excel

Element of spread Sheet:

1. Work Book a workbook is a collection of many worksheets. In a single workbook, you

can store information in organized manners. By default, a workbook opens with three
worksheet and it can contain a maximum of 255 worksheet.
2. Worksheet a worksheet is a sheet made up of rows and columns. It is used for planning a
project or financial documents of an organization. Worksheet refers to the actual
document you create by using the spreadsheet program.
3. Chart sheet chart sheet is separate sheet in a workbook that contain only graph or chart. It
is useful when you want to see a chart or tabular data separated from other type of data.
4. Row a row is horizontal block of cells that runs through the entire width of the worksheet.
The row is numbered from top to bottom along the left edge of the worksheet. The first
row is numbered 1 the second 2, and so on. There can be a maximum of 65536 row in a
Excel worksheet
5. Column A column is a vertical block of cells that runs through the entire worksheet. A
worksheet contains 256 columns labeled A through IV. The first column is A, the second
is B and so on until you reach Z. then comes columns AA through IV. The last (or right
most) column of the worksheet IV is the 256 th column.
6. Cell: A Cell is the Intersection of a row and column. Fro example, the uppermost cell is
A1 (Column A row 1). Cell E6 is the intersection of column E, row 6. when you select a
cell by clicking it with the mouse, or moving it using the keyboard it becomes the active


7. Formula it is an order of values, names, cell reference, function and operators in a cell
that together give a new values. A formula always begins with =(equal ) sign
8. Functions are predefined formulas that perform complex calculation by using a specific
value in a particular order to give a result.

Application of spreadsheet
Spreadsheet is mainly used to solve complex calculation easily. They can be also used for
graphical representation of large volume of data with the help of graphs. So, spreadsheet is
used in the following application.

Budgeting and forecast ions

Scientific research
Financial accounting
Income tax and Sales tax application
Annual Report
Determine the break-even points inn sales
Portfolio analysis
Sales and purchase applications or we can say used in business application
Statistical analysis of database
Job estimation and cost sheets

1.2 Screen Elements

The following are elements of the Microsoft Excel environment:

Menu bar: displays the names of the drop-down menus; contains the
minimize, maximize, and close
Buttons for the document.
Toolbars: provide shortcuts to menu commands (Standard and
Formatting toolbars shown by default).
Cell Number Box: displays the address of the active cell.
Formula Bar: displays the contents of the active cell.
Worksheet Tabs: show the worksheet or chart names; new files have
three worksheet tabs by default.
Scroll Bars: navigates to different areas of the active worksheet;
located on the right and bottom of the worksheet.
Worksheet Tab Scroll Buttons: scrolls the display of sheet tabs one
at a time or to display the first and last grouping of sheet tabs.

Worksheet size 65,536 rows by 256 columns
Column width 255 characters
Row height 409 points
Page breaks 1000 horizontal and vertical
Length of cell contents 32,767 characters. Only 1,024 display in a cell; all 32,767 display in
(text) the formula bar.
Sheets in a workbook Limited by available memory (default is 3 sheets)

Colors in a workbook 56
Cell styles in a
Hyperlinks in a
66,530 hyperlinks
Changing cells in a
Zoom range 10 percent to 400 percent
Undo levels 16
Fields in a data form 32
1,048,576 rows and 16,384 columns. In excel 2007-2013
17,179,869,184 cells
Microsoft Excel Shortcut Key
Action Excel shortcut
Applies or removes bold formatting CTRL+2
Applies or removes bold formatting CTRL+B
Applies or removes italic formatting CTRL+3
Applies or removes italic formatting CTRL+I
Applies or removes underlining CTRL+4
Applies or removes underlining CTRL+V
Applies the Currency format with two decimal places CTRL+$
Applies the Date format with the day, month, and year CTRL+#
Applies the Exponential number format with two decimal places CTRL+^
Applies the General number format CTRL+~
Applies the outline border to the selected cells CTRL+&
Applies the Percentage format with no decimal places CTRL+%
Applies the Time format with the hour and minute, and AM or PM CTRL+@
Calculates all worksheets in all open workbooks, regardless of whether
they have changed since the last calculation
Calculates all worksheets in all open workbooks F9
Calculates the active worksheet SHIFT+F9
Closes and reopens the current task pane CTRL+F1
Closes the selected workbook window CTRL+F4
Closes the selected workbook window CTRL+X
Copies the selected cells CTRL+C
Copies the value from the cell above the active cell into the cell or the
Formula Bar"
Creates a chart of the data in the current range ALT+F1
Creates a chart of the data in the current range F11
Cuts the selected cells CTRL+Y
Displays or hides the outline symbols CTRL+8


Displays or hides the Standard toolbar CTRL+7

Displays the Create List dialog box. Creates a new, blank file CTRL+L, CTRL+N
Displays the Delete dialog box to delete the selected cells CTRL+-
Displays the Find and Replace dialog box CTRL+H
Displays the Format Cells dialog box CTRL+1
Displays the Go To dialog box CTRL+G
Displays the Go To dialog box F5
Displays the Help task pane F1
Displays the Insert dialog box to insert blank cells CTRL++
Displays the Insert Function dialog box SHIFT+F3
Displays the Microsoft Office Clipboard CTRL+C
Displays the Open dialog box to open or find a file CTRL+O
Displays the Print dialog box CTRL+R
Displays the Save As dialog box F12
Displays the shortcut menu for a selected item SHIFT+F10
Displays the Spelling dialog box to check spelling in the active
worksheet or selected range
Edits a cell comment SHIFT+F2
Enters the current date CTRL+;
Enters the current time CTRL+:
Hides the selected columns CTRL+0
Hides the selected rows CTRL+9
Including cells not marked as needing to be calculated CTRL+F9
Inserts a new worksheet ALT+SHIFT+F1
Inserts a new worksheet SHIFT+F11
Maximizes or restores the selected workbook window CTRL+F10
Minimizes a workbook window to an icon F10
Pastes a defined name into a formula F3
Removes the outline border from the selected cells CTRL+_
Repeats the last command or action, if possible CTRL+Z
Repeats the last command or action, if possible F4
Restores the window size of the selected workbook window CTRL+F5
Saves the active file with its current file name and location CTRL+S
Selects all cells that contain comments CTRL+SHIFT+O
Selects the current region CTRL+A
Selects the entire worksheet
(two times)
Undo command CTRL+U


Microsoft Excel Functions

2 6 6 7 8 5 3. TEXT FUNCTION
3 4 8 6 2 4 4. DATE & TIME FUNCTION
4 3 5 7 8 6 5. LOGICAL FUNCTION
5 5 3 6 8 3

Statistical Functions Function Returns Syntax Example Result
1 Max Maximum value in data set =max(cell range) =max(a1:d1) 6
2 Min Minimum value in data set =min(cell range) =min(a1:d1) 3
3 Average Average of arguments =avg(cell range) =average(a1:d1) 4.5
5 Count Counts how many arguments are =count(cell range) =count(a1:d5) 20
present in the list of arguments


Mathematical Functions Function Returns Syntax Example Result
1 Sum Total of arguments =sum(cell range) =sum(a1:d1) 18
=sum (number1, number2,)
2 Product Product of numbers =product (cell range) =product(c5:d5) 48
3 Quotient Integer portion of division =quotient(numerator, denominator) =quotient(45,5) 9
4 Factorial Factorial of number =fact(number) =fact(5) 120
5 Square root Positive square root of a number =sqrt(number) =sqrt(16) 4
6 Round Number rounded to a specified =round(number, num_digit) =round(56.789,2) 56.79
number of digits
7 Modules Remainder of a number from =mod(number, divisor) =mod(21,2) 1
8 Absolute value Absolute value of a number =abs(number) =abs(-76) 76
9 Integer Number rounded to the nearest =int(number) =int(34.57) 34
10 Percentage Percentage of obtain marks =(obt. marks*100)/total marks =(315*100)/600 52.5
11 Subtract Subtract number =(number-number) =(12-6) 6
12 Even convert the nearest even number =even(number) =even(45.7) 46
13 Odd Convert the nearest odd number =odd(number) =odd(46) 47
14 Power Power of number =power(number, power) =power(4,3) 64
15 Roman Roman number of given =roman(number) =roman(6) VI
16 Median Medium number between two =median(number1,number2) =median(12,6) 9


Date & Time Function Returns Syntax Example Result
1 Now Current date & time =now() =now() 04/08/2011,
2 Today Current date =today() =today() 04/08/2011
3 Date value Specified date(Numeric value of date) =date value(date_text) =datevalue(08/02/2 40757
4 Day A value from 1 to 31 corresponding to =day(serial number) =day(40757) 2
the day given by the serial number.
5 Month A value from 1 to 12 corresponding to =month(serial number) =month(40757) 8
the month given by the serial number.
6 Year The year corresponding to the serial =year(serial number) =year(40757) 2011
7 Week day A value from 1 to 7 corresponding to =weekday(serial number) =weekday(40757) 3
the weekday given by the serial
8 Time value Specified time(Numeric value of time) =timevalue(time_text) =timevalue(02:58:3 0.124016
9 Hour A value from 0 to 23 corresponding to =hour(serial number) =hour(0.124016) 2
the hour given by the serial number
10 Minute A value corresponding to the minute =minute(serial number) =minute(0.124016) 58
given by the serial number
11 Second A value from 0 to 59 corresponding to =second(serial number) =second(0.124016) 35
the second given by the serial number
12 Days 360 Number of days between start and end =days360(start date,end =days360(05/02/19 7290
date date) 91, 08/02/2011)


Text Functions Function Returns Syntax Example Result
1 Upper Text in capital letters =upper(text) =upper(ctech) CTECH
2 Lower Text in small letters =lower(text) =lower(CTECH) Cetch
3 Length The number of character =len(text) =len(computer) 8
(including spaces) in text
4 Left Leftmost n characters from text =left(num,[num_chars]) =left(computer, 4) Comp
5 Right Rightmost n characters from a =right(num,[num_chars]) =right(computer, 4) Uter
6 Concatenate Join several text items into one = concatenate(text,[text], ) =concatenate(ctech,compu Ctechcompu
text item ters) ters
7 Repeat Text repeat specified no. of =rept(text, number_times) =rept(ctech,2) Ctechctech
8 Trim Text minus excess spaces =trim(text) =trim(ctech computers) Ctech

Logical Functions Function Returns Syntax Example Result
1 If Returns a specified value =if(logical_test,[value_if_tru =if(d1>7, A, if(d1>5,B)) A
depending on the out come of the e], [value_if_false])
2 And True if any argument is true =and (logical 1, [logical 2], =and(13>14,14<13) False
3 Or True if any argument is true =or (logical 1, [logical 2], =or(13>14,13<14) True
4 Not Returns true if its argument is =not(logical) =Not(13>14) True

4 Communication and Computer

A transfer of information between two things and respond by receiver
Data communication: a transfer of encoded information from one place to another
place or required place to another place or required place through optical or electrical
or electrical transmission system, called data communication network.
Basic requirement of communication: These are the following:
a. Source/sender: it generates message or information which transfer to another
place through electrical or optical or transmission.
b. Medium: it is path, through which message move from one place to another
place. Sink by this, messages are accepted.

Methods of Transmission
Today asynchronous transmission and synchronous transmission are used in the
transmission of data.
Asynchronous transmission: In this method, information is sent byte by byte. Before a
byte of information is sent, a bit to alert the receiver. After sometime, byte of
information is sent to receiver. So, it is a slow process.
Synchronous Transmission: it is very fast process to transit the data. if transmission
starts, then block, containing data are sent continuously. It is used to transport large
amount of information.
Modes of transmission: Three basic modes of transmission.
a. Simplex Transmission: it is a one way transmission of data and used for
displaying information reaches the receives but receives can not any alteration
or send information back to the sender e.g. radio transmission.
b. Half duplex Transmission: Data can transmit on both direction but can not
transmit in both direction at the same time e.g. walkie talkies. In this type,
communication from one side has to be cut to start it form the other side.
c. Full duplex transmission: it occurs in both directions at the same time e.g.
telephone, computers.

A modem is a device that converts digital signals into analog signals so that
computers can communicate with each other over telephone lines or cable lines. It
connects a computer system to the internet using telephone or cables lines.
Modem stands for modulator and demodulator: modulation is the process of
converting digital signals of computer to analog signals (like in telephone) and
demodulation is the process of converting analog signals to digital signals. Modems
provide the primary link between the ISP and your computer. Modems of different
speed are available in the market. Cable modems and ADSL modems are used where
faster access is required. The speed of a modem is measured in kilobits per second or
kbps or mega bits per second or mbps.
There are two types of modems:
Internal modem
External modem


Internal modem
The internal modem remains inside the computer and is the form of a card. Most
computers these days come with such built-in modems. But internal modems are
slower than external modems and are cheaper. Since it is a part of the circuit board, it
remains and is not portable.

External modem
The external modem is small, box-shaped device that is connected to the computer
from outside. It is peripheral and is connected to the computer using some wires.
External modems are slightly more expensive than internal modems but are definitely
faster. Like any other device, it is portable and can be connected on to different

Features of a modem
Transmission speed: A number of bits can be transmitted per second (bps). The first
modem transmitted data at 300 bps. Now, 1200 bps to 2400 bps data can be
transmitted through modem.
Data compression: Data compression facility present in the modern modems. It is
done by the use of mathematical algorithms. An original file of size 1000 bits can be
reduced to 300 bits. But all types of file can not be reduced. Modems have capabilities
of both analyze and compressed the data. Compressed file has to be uncompressed at
the receiving end.
Error correction: it telephone line uses to receive data then conversation can damage
computer data. Modems use error-corrections protocol to remove the transmission

Network connecting devices

There are many organization have their network where people can communicate with
each other. People of an organizations network may want to connect with the people
in the other organization network. Following devices solve this problem.
Repeaters: Hardware devices which boost the strength of signal on a communication
channel are called repeaters. Signal becomes weak after a some distance uses of
repeater amplifier increase the strength of signal and retransmit the signal to receivers.
Bridges: it connects two network of the similar topology. A bridge connects two
networks together in such manner that users of the both network appear as a single
Routers: it is a device that connects networks of the same or different types. It is
responsible for selecting the best possible route for communication. It is a device
through which data transfer at high speed.
Gate way: it is both hardware and software systems which act as interfaces between
networks and have different MAC protocols. It is used to connect a LAN to WAN.

Check the source and destination address of each packet.
Creates a routing table.
Forwards packets.
Note: a routing table stores the addresses and all the other information necessary to
route from one network to another.


If the destination address is not in list in routing table, the bridge forwards the packets
to all segments.
Multiple bridges can be used to combine several small networks into one large
network. A bridge can be installed internally or externally. Bridges are faster than
routers because routers perform complex functions on each packet.
The following are the differences between bridges and routers :
The bridges only recognize the address of network cards in its own segment.
Routers recognize network addresses.
A bridge can only recognize one path between networks. A route can search
among multiple active paths and determine the best path.
The router only works with routable protocols.

Analog connectivity
Analog transmission refers to telephone lines used with modems, these can be:
Dial-up lines used for infrequent data transmissions.
Dedicated lines used for frequent and continuous data transmission. This
method provides a ready communication link.

Digital connectivity
Digital lines provides faster and a more secure transmission as compared to the
telephone lines. Digital transmission does not require the use of moderns. Following
are the different forms of digital lines :
DDS(digital data service)
Switched 56
Dds sends data through devices called a channel service unit/data service unit
(CSU/DSU) this device convertss digital signals into a form that is part of the
synchronous communications. T 1 and T3 use point-to-point transmission that can
transmit voice, data and video signals. T1 offer high data speeds and is the most
widely used types of digital line. T3 is the highest capacity leased line service
Switched 56 is digital dial-up service that requires a CSU/DSU to be installed with
each computer on the network.

Packet switching networks

Packet switching is a fast and efficient way to transmit data over wide areas. With
packet- switching, data is divided into packets of small size and a destination address
is attached to each packet. This way each packet can be sent separately over the
network. Packets are transmitted along the best route available between the source
and the destination.

Sending data across a WAN

If the technologies discussed above for data transmission are inadequate, the network
administrator can consider using any of the advanced WAN technologies. Some of
these technologies:
X.25 packet switching


Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)

WAN covers long distances and use satellites and microwave communication. E.g.
television, telephone companies have been used satellites.

Computer communication using telephone lines

The main communication medium between the client and the server machine is the
telephone line. The normal telephone or cable connection can be used to connect to
the internet. But today the high speed broadband lines or ISDN lines are very popular.
Wi-fi, satellite and 3 G technologies on cell phones are gaining popularity with urban
Todays telephone network can not come in the working order without the use of
computer technologies. Where as computers use digital technology and telephones
use analog technology. Digital signal consist of pulses of electrical energy and
represent Os and Is. Whereas analog signal is a continuously changing signal. Analog
are typically of lower quality than digital signals. If telephone lines are used for
computer communication then there should be some way to convert digital signals
into analog signals and analog to digital with help of modem.

Communication channels
We can connect two or more workstations by using cables. The connecting cables are
the communication channels between the different workstations. There are two main
types of cables used as a communication channel. These are : wired communication
(twisted pair cable, co axial cable, Ethernet cable, optical fiber cable, etc) and wireless
communication (microwave, radio wave, satellite,infrared,bluetooth,wifi,etc)

Twisted pair cable

The most common form of wiring in data communication applications is the twisted
pair cable. The twisted pair cable is a transmission medium consisting of two insulted
wires arranged in a regular spiral pattern. Twisted pair cable is a type of cabling that
is used for telephone communication and most modern Ethernet network. This
characteristic helps to lower the cables susceptibility to noise from neighboring
cables or external sources. It supports 10 to 1000 mbps speed.
Problems can occur due to differences in the electrical characteristic between the
pairs. The main advantages of this medium are it is capable of carrying a signal over
long distances without the use of repeaters. It is perfectly an adequate medium for
low-speed (up to 10 mbps) applications where the distance between nodes is small.
Twisted pair cable is a good alterative to ca axial cable if the length of the run is of up
to 600 meters can be used without any in-line repeaters.

Co axial cable
Co axial cable consists of a hallow outer cylindrical conductor that surrounds a single
inner wire made of two conducting elements. One of these elements, located in the
center of the cable, is a copper conductor, surrounding the copper conductor is a layer
of flexible insulation. Over this insulating materials is a woven copper braid or
metallic foil that facts acts both as the second wire in the circuit and as a shield for the
inner conductor. This second layer, or shield, can help reduce the amount of outside
interference. Covering this shield is the cable jacket. It is widely used for television


The data transmission char. Of ca axial are considerably better than those of twisted
pair. It has lower attenuation than twisted pair which less need for repeaters. Co axial
cable supports 10 to 100 mbps and is relatively inexpensive.

Optical fiber cable

Optical fiber is long, thin strands of very pure glass about the diameter of a human
hair, they are arranged in bundles called optical cables and used to transmit light
signals over long distances. A single optical fiber contains following parts:
Core: Thin glass centre of the fiber where the light travels.
Cladding: outer optical material surrounding the core that reflects the light
back in the core.
Buffer coating: plastic coating that protects the fiber from damage and
moisture. Hundreds or thousands of these optical fibers are arranged in
bundles in optical cables. This means that they can carry more data.
Fiber optic cables have a much grater bandwidth than metal cables. This
means that they can carry more data.
The main disadvantage of fiber optics is that the cables are expensive to install.

Ethernet cable
One of the most common types of network is ETHERNET. Originally, Ethernet
cables were co axial (similar to cable TV wires), but now twisted-pair cables ( similar
to telephone wires) are more common. Ethernet cables connect network devices such
as modems, routers and adapters. They transmit data using the internet protocol.
Ethernet cable can be used to directly connect networks. Ethernet cables are
commonly used for temporarily networking two devices through Ethernet. These can
either be single computers or they can be network. Ethernet cables are commonly
used for temporarily networking two devices in the absence of a network router,
switch or hub.

Wireless networking
Wireless networkings utilize radio waves and /or microwaves to maintain
communication channels between computers. Wireless networking is a more modern
alternative to wired networking that relies on copper and/ or fiber optic between
network devices.
A wireless network offers advantages and disadvantages compared to a wired
network. Advantages of wireless include mobility and elimination of unsightly cables.
Disadvantages of wireless include the potential for radio interference due to weather,
other wireless devices, or obstructions like walls. Popular wireless local area
networking (WLAN) products conform to the IEEE 802.11 WI-FI standards.
Some common applicant of wireless local area networking includes the following:
Accessing the internet using a cellular phone.
Establishing a home or business internet connection over satellite.
Beaming data between two hands held computing devices.
Using a wireless keyboard and mouse for the PC .
Wireless Communication
Wireless communication uses radio frequencies (RF) or infrared (IR)
waves to


transmit data between devices on a LAN. For wireless LANs, a key

component is the wireless hub, or access point, used for signal
Hubs, switches and bridges
Lets now look at the various components that are used in a LAN and
in a WAN.
In the old days the LAN comprised mostly of devices called hubs or a
concentrator in other words.
A hub or a concentrator was a way of concentrating network
connections in a single point. We said that hubs ran at 10Mbps and
essentially if you put 10 machines into a wire that was running a
10Mbps you would see that every machine could probably only
transmit at 1Mbps even if they were transmitting at their maximum.
This statement is not strictly true of course, because Ethernet is
CSMA/CD, so there would be a back-off process and two machines
would communicate with one another, ultimately using up their
10Mbps standard. Hubs were shared, they were slow, they were not
optimal, primarily because you had
a certain number of devices that you plugged in and the performance
of Ethernet would degrade to such an extent that it was preferable not
to even work on the network. That was in the bad old days!
Hubs then gave way to switches, the difference between a hub and a
switch is that it when workstations started communicating with one
another, they would essentially form a direct connection and even
though other devices were connected these two workstations would
talk directly to one another.
They would create a virtual connection between the two devices that
communicating with each other.
Once the conversation was complete that connection would be broken
and then if a machine wanted to talk with a different workstation it
would again create a virtual connection. So you can see that at
different times, different workstations could communicate with one
another without interfering with each others traffic, because theres a
virtual connection being established.
Wireless Network
To receive the signals from the access point, a PC or laptop must
install a wireless adapter card (wireless NIC). Wireless signals are
electromagnetic waves that can travel through the vacuum of outer
space and through a medium such as air.
Therefore, no physical medium is necessary for wireless signals,
making them a very versatile way to build a network. Wireless signals
use portions of the RF spectrum to transmit voice, video, and data.
Wireless frequencies range from 3 kilohertz (kHz) to 300 gigahertz
(GHz). The data-transmission rates range from 9 kilobits per second
(kbps) to as high as 54 Mbps.


The primary difference between electromagnetic waves is their

frequency. Low frequency electromagnetic waves have a long
wavelength (the distance from one peak to the next on the sine wave),
while high-frequency electromagnetic waves have a short wavelength.
Some common applications of wireless data communication include
the following:
Accessing the Internet using a cellular phone
Establishing a home or business Internet connection over
Beaming data between two hand-held computing devices
Using a wireless keyboard and mouse for the PC
Another common application of wireless data communication is the
wireless LAN (WLAN), which is built in accordance with Institute of
Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.11 standards. WLANs
typically use radio waves (for example, 902 megahertz [MHz]),
microwaves (for example, 2.4 GHz).
All components that can connect into a wireless medium in a network
are referred to as stations. All stations are equipped with wireless
network interface cards (WNICs). Stations fall into one of two
categories: Wireless Clients and Access Points.
Access Points (APs)
Access Points are base stations for the wireless network. They
transmit and receive radio frequencies for wireless enabled devices to
communicate with.
Wireless Clients
Wireless clients can be mobile devices such as laptops, personal
digital assistants (PDAs), IP phones or fixed devices such as desktops
and workstations that are equipped with a wireless network interface
Basic Service Set
The Basic Service Set (BSS) is a set of all stations that can
communicate with each other. There are two types of BSS:
Independent BSS and Infrastructure BSS. Every BSS has an id called
the BSSID; it is the MAC address of the access point servicing the
Independent Basic Service Set
Independent BSS are an ad-hoc network that contain no Access
Points. Since they do not use Access Points they can not connect to
any other basic service sets.
Infrastructure Basic Service Set
An Infrastructure BSS can communicate with other stations not in the
same basic service set by communicating to each other through
Access Points.
Extended Service Set
An Extended Service Set (ESS) is a set of connected BSS. Access
Points in an


extended service set are connected by a distribution system. Each ESS

has an ID called the SSID which is a 32 byte (maximum) character
string. Example: linksys (the default SSID for Linksys routers).
Distribution System
A distribution system connects Access Points in an extended service
set. A
distribution system is usually a wired LAN but can be a wireless LAN.
Peer-to-Peer or ad-hoc Wireless LAN
This type of network allows wireless devices to directly communicate
with each other. Wireless devices within range of each other can
discover and communicate directly without involving central access
points. This method is typically used by two computers so that they
can connect to each other to form a network.
If you have a strength meter for the signal coming from all the other
ad-hoc devices the meter will not read the strength accurately, and
can be misleading, because it is registering the strength of the
strongest signal, such as the closest computer.

Access Point or Infrastructure Wireless LAN

Method of Communication
A Wireless LAN is a local area network that uses radio frequencies to
communicate between wireless enabled devices. The transmission
frequency of a Wireless LAN depends on the protocol being used and
the channel.
IEEE 802.11 (Wi-Fi)
In 1990, the IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers)
formed a group to develop a standard for wireless equipment. On June
26, 1997, a standard was finally developed called 802.11
IEEE 802.15 (Bluetooth)
Bluetooth provides a way to exchange information between wireless
devices such as personal digital assistants (PDAs), mobile phones,
laptops, computers, printers and digital cameras via a secure, low-
cost, globally available short-range radio frequency band.


For long distance communication, microwave radio transmission is widely used as an
alterative to co axial cable. The receiver for microwave signals are usually disc-
shaped antennas a few yards across, and are often seen installed in business locations
or near private homes.
It is used to wideband communications system and is quite common in the telephone
system. Television transmission also utilized microwave transmission, because
microwave transmission is above the 1 giga hertz frequency band and provides the
capacity for video transmission.
The main advantage of the microwave transmission is that building tow towers is
cheaper than laying cable or fiber, low maintenance cost, low management cost, etc
the disadvantage is that signals from antenna may split up and transmitted in different
way to different antenna which leads to reduce signal strength.

Radio wave
Radio waves transmit music, conversations, pictures and data invisibly through the
air, often over millions of miles it happens every day in thousands of different ways!
Even through radio waves are invisible and completely undetectable to humans. For
example, a cell phone, a baby monitor, a cordless phone, AM FM radio broadcasts,
etc use radio broadcast to communicate.
When you turn on a radio you hear sounds because the transmitter at the radio station
has converted the sound waves into electromagnetic waves, which are then encoded
onto an electromagnetic wave in the radio frequency wave in the radio frequency
range. Your radio waves the radio waves, decodes this information, and uses a
speaker to change it back into a sound wave.

The use of satellites in communication system is very much a fact of every life, as it is
evidenced by the many homes or cable TV operations that are equipped with antennas
or used for reception of satellite television. Satellites are an essential part of
telecommunication system worldwide, carrying a large amount of data and telephone
traffic in addition to TV signals.

Infrared communication
Infrared (IR) is a type of light that is not visible to the human eye. Infrared light lies
between the electromagnetic spectrum. Infrared light has a range of wavelengths, just
like visible light was wavelength that range from red light to violet. Near infrared
is closer in wavelength to visible light and far infrared is closer to microwave
region of the electromagnetic spectrum.

Bluetooth is a specification for the use of low-power communications to wirelessly
link phones, computers and other network devices over short distances.
The most common use of Bluetooth on cell phones is to enable communication
between phones and wireless headsets/earpieces.
Bluetooth technology was designed primarily to support simple wireless networking
of personal consumer devices and peripherals, including cell phones, PDAs and
wireless headsets wireless signals transmitted with Bluetooth cover short distances,


typically up to 30 feet (10 meters). Bluetooth devices generally communicate at less

than 1 mbps.

Wi- Fi
Wi-fi stands for wireless fidelity. Wi-fi is the industry name for wireless LAN
(WLAN) communication technology. wi fi is the most popular wireless
communication protocol for local area network. Private home and business network,
and public hotspots, use wi fi to network computers and other wireless devices to each
other and the internet. Bluetooth is another wireless protocol commonly used in
cellular phones and computer peripheral for short range network communication.

Computers and other devices connect to a wi fi network via a wireless access point(or
wireless router on home network). Most wifi wireless access points to supports up to
255 connected devices. Access points and routers support a small number (usually 1
to 4) of wired Ethernet and the rest via wireless connections.

Requirements for communication

Source/sender: it is the producers and transmitter of data. Terminal
microcomputer, microcomputer, mainframe are often recognized as source.
Medium: it is the way by which the data is transferred. Medium can be wired
or wireless, it depends on the method used to carry information.
Sink: it is the acceptor of the data.

Character codes of data communication ASCII

ASCII: it was developed by American national standards institute (ANSI). It uses 7
bit code (128 characters) and one parity 1 for error checking on individual character. 8
bit version or 256 char for graphics & foreign languages application. It is widely used
in transfer of data.
EBCDII: it was developed by IBM and its character code 8 bit code (256 char). It is
mainly developed for dial processing. If party is implemented then 9th bit will be
BINARY CODED DECIMAL (BCD) : if code is 5 bit and developed from the
telegraph. It is used for international telex network. It transfers 150 bits per second.
PRIMARY COMMINICATION MODEL: it consists of mainly 3 compounds:
SENDER OF SOURCE: it is electronic device and send Inf in the form signals to we
receiver. It includes computer, mobile telephone etc.
DCD (DATA COMMUNICATION DEVICE): it receives the data while from the
sender. It converts the receiving data into an analog signal which can be transmitted
over communication chamber.
COMMUNICATION MEDIA: it transfers the information, from one place to another
and it required carrier which are of two types:
(1) Unguided communication medium: it is a wire less medium and includes radio
waves, microwaves and satellites communication.
(2) Guided communication media: signals transfer unearth here & it consist of co-
axial cable, twisted pair cable, fiber optical cables.

Generally it includes computer with modem which receive signals and
converts into the understandable form.



known as interest protocol. It breaks up the data to be sent into
packets. It is responsible for routing the packets to a destination ip
X-25 : it develops interface for common data network
X-12 : it transfer the important papers or data b/w the companies.
HYPER TEXT TRANSFER PROTOCOL: it sends or receive files
from different location.

Osi reference model:

It was recombined by standard international organization. It is based on seven distinct
layers with a separate protocol. Each layer performs a specific function:
PHYSICAL LAYER: it is concerned with the transmission of, as it indres
parameters such signal voltage swing and a bit duration.
Data link layer: it is responsible for establishing an error free communication
path b/w computers over the physical channel.
Network layer: it is maintain and terminating connections. It also sets up a
logical path b/w source and destination computers.
Transport layer: it provides reliable transparent transfer to data b/w end points,
provide end to end error recovery and flow control.
Session layer: it maintains and terminates a session b/w two and users.
Presenting layer: it provides services for the application layer to interrupt the
entry, data exchange, display and control of structural data.
Application layer: it is used as an user oriented layer and it includes file
transfer, remote files access and database management.

Components of computer networks

It is not sufficient to just connect the computers together with wires in some way for
sending and receiving data through a computer network. There are many software and
hardware computer.
Which have to be employed in order for them to communicate with each other?
Network operating system: NOS consists of a family of programs that they provide
us ability to shares the files, blinders and other devices across the networks. All these
files and devices available on network called network resources or simply resources.
Computer shares their called clients.
Network peripherals: it is a new category of products, and includes printers and
modems with there are network connections. It does not directly attach to the
computer because it having the internal specialized processor devices to run
networking server software. If it were locally attached then app. Prog. Running as the
client. Computer and LAN use a network printer or modem.
Network interface (LAN adapter): as we know that low powered digital signals.
Are not powerful enough to travel long distances, inside the computers. so, theres a
dence called a LAN across a network cable. It also acts as a gatekeeper to control
access to the shared network cable.
Network cabling: it is the modern that can sends messages in the form of electrical
pulses over copper cables of different kinds. Over fiber optic cable using pulses of
light, or through the air using radio or light waves. In fact, all these things can be
combined in one network to meet specific needs or to take advantages of what is


already installed. Modern network labeling installation uses a coire loop to isolate
cable problems and improve reliability.

Merit of data communication networks

To collect data from one place and transfer/transmit to another place.
To develop more efficiency.
To improve the business.
To provide message switching services by which sender may to talk to 6 the
another person.
It gives offer to inter change of data among users.
Users have the power of computers.
To the data entry and collection
To the switching the message.
To the information restrictively.
Transfer of data to another place within a very short time.
To the interactive network.

6. Computer Network
The dynamic world needs fast communication channels to move data frequently form
one place to another. So, data transmission over distances has becomes essential. To
move data quickly from one place to another, the concept of networking has been
introduced. In the networking, the computer in the different parts or world is
connected to each other to share data with each other. A computer network is
composed of multiple computers connected together for the purpose of
communicating with each other and sharing of data and resources.
A personal computer which is not connected to any other computer is known as a
stand alone machine. When personal computers have been networked it is known as a
networked environment.

A network is an interconnected collection of autonomous computers. Two computers
are said to be interconnected if they are capable of exchanging information. The term
autonomous means that no computer on the network can start , stop or control
another. So, a network allows computer users to share computer equipment and
programs, messages and the information available at one site.
a network of computers that are interconnected for the purpose of data
communication and sharing of resources.

Need for networking

Networking is necessary for the following reasons:
To share computer files: Network provides a very effective method to share
the files with different users. For exam. In an organization one file is to be
shared by the different department, we place this file on network system. Now
the entire department can use this file.


To share computer peripheral: some computer devices are very expensive for
exam. Laser printer, large hard disks are quite costly. Network enables us to
share these costly devices.
To improve communication speed and accuracy: it is possible that the mail
from one place to another could take several days. We can send the messages
speedily through networking.
To reduce cost of data transfer: computer is a cheaper way to transfer the data.
So, with the help of the computer, we can reduce the cost of data transfer.

Elementary terminology of network

Before going into the details of networking let us take a look on some basic
terminology of networks.
Nodes (workstations): the different terminals which are attached to the
network and share the resources of the network are called nodes. When we
attach a computer to the network, it becomes the workstations of a network.
Server: we designate a particular node, which is at a well-known and a fixed
address, to provide a service to network as a whole. The node providing the
service is known as the server.
Network interface unit: the interpreter, which helps in the communication
between server and different nodes, is called network interface unit. The
network interface unit is a device that is attached to server and all the
workstations to maintain the connection between them. Each network interface
unit has as unique node address.

Components of a computer network

The main components essential for the successful operation of a computer network
can be divided into two types. These are: hardware components, and software
Hard components:
Computer systems(called servers or clients)
Shared resources, like printers, scanner etc.and
Physical media that connects them.
The various computers on a network are either named as servers or client. Different
computers that access shared resources on the network are called clients. Servers are
the computers that receive requests from users and make the shared resources
available to them.

Software components
The software components required to run a computer network are of two types. These
are: protocol, and network software.
The protocol specifies the rules, produres and conventions for communication and
data transfer over the network. An example of protocol is TCP/TP stands for
transmission control protocol and IP for internet protocol.
Network software is the software that performs various network related functions
such data routing and error detection etc.


Client-server and peer to peer network

On the basis of the components discussed above, network can be classified into two
Client-server network:
Network that have a dedicated sever are called client server network. A dedicated
server is a computer that is not used as a client or workstation but functions only as a
server. All the communication from the clients is routed through the server which
handles it on their behalf and makes the shared resources available to them.
Managing uses access and file and printer resources.
Making data on the serves available to clients.
Managing electronics messaging between network users.
Handling flow of data and e-mail messages.
Advantages of clients-server networks:
Strong central security.
Ability of servers to pool available hardware and software, lowering overall
Easy manageability of large number of computers.
Easily maintainable sercurity, since a single password allows access to all
shared resources on the network.
Peer to peer networks:
Peer to peer networks do not have any dedicated servers. In this type of network, each
computer functions as a client as well as a server. Such networks are easy to get up
and maintain. They are also less expensive. Accordingly, they are well suited for
small organizations. Peer to peer network are also called workgroups.

Internet addressing domain name system (DNS)

Domain name system (DNS) is a distributed database for translating computer names
like http:// IE into a numeric IP address like and
vice versa domain name systems.
A domain name is the way to identify and locate computers connected to the internet.
no two organization can have the same domain name. a domain name always contains
two or more components separated by period, called dots.
Infect, it is very simple to draw a parallel example of this addressing scheme. There is
millions of telephone in the world yet each phone has been assigned a different
number. For each phone number, the combination of country code, are code and
phone number is unique. Similarly, each computer on the internet is identified by its
unique IP address. The computer or server on the internet is also known as a host ,
and its IPs address, is called the host address.

Numeric computer IP address

I p address are in format, where each xxx is a number from 0 to
255.ip addresses identify the host computers, so that packets of information
reach the correct computer. You may have to type I p addresses when you
configure your computer for connection to the internet. The I p address has the
following char. In common:
IP address are unique.
No two machines can have the same IP number.
IP addresses are also global and standardized.


All machines connected to the internet agree to use the same scheme for
establishing an address.

Types of network
LAN and WAN are the original categories of area network, while the others have
gradually emerged over many years of technology evolution.
Note that these network types are a separate concept from network topologies such as
bus, ring and star.
Introduction to LAN

A LAN (Local Are Network) - the computers are on the same site and
linked by cables.
A MAN (Metropolitan Area Network) Metropolitan Area Networks
or MANs are large computer networks usually spanning a campus or a
city. They typically use wireless infrastructure or optical fiber
connections to link their sites.
A metropolitan area network (MAN) is a network that interconnects
users with computer resources in a geographic area or region larger
than that covered by even a large local area network (LAN) but smaller
than the area covered by A wide area network (WAN) The term is
applied to the interconnection of networks in a city into a single larger
network (which may then also offer efficient connection to a wide area
network). It is also used to mean the enterconnection of several local
area network by bridging them with backbone lines. The latter usage
is also sometimes referred to as a campus network.

A WAN (Wide Area Network)- The computers are on different sites

and linked by telephone links. A computer may need to use a modem
to link to the telephone system.

Wide Area Networks, or WAN are very large networks of computers.

These networks span large geographical areas. Generally covering a
couple miles, sometimes connecting computers thousands of miles
apart. A WAN can also be a collection of LANs, briging together many
smaller network into one large network. A WAN can constitute a very
large corporate or government network, spanning the country or even
the world. In fact, the internet is the largest and most common WAN
in existence today.

Personal area network (PAN)

This type of network usually includes a computer. A cell phone and/or a handheld
computing device such as PDA .these days, we often see people transferring images
from their mobile phones to the computer, or transferring music files from their
computer to their computer to their cell phones. People also use such a network to
transfer files including e-mail and calendar appointments. Personal area networks can
be constructed with or without cables, that is, wirelessly.


Network topology
A network topology is how computers, printers and other devices are connected in a
particular arrangement. It describes the layout of wires, devices and routing paths. It
defines the arrangement patterns in which the terminals or nodes are connected with
each other.
Although you may feel that it is easier to start connecting wires and setup the
network, you will find it easier to keep your network organized and you to understand
the different types of topology and usage, especially when you wish to increase the
size of your network.

Classification of network topologies

There are three basic classifications of network topologies:
Physical topologies
Signal topologies
Logical topologies

Physical topology
This specifies the mapping of the nodes of a network, the laying of wires and
connection between the nodes and cabling system.
Point to point
Bus topology
Star topology
Ring topology
Mesh topology
Point to point: the simplest topology which exhibits a permanent connects between
two end points. The simplest example of this kind to topology is the telephone, where
two subscribers are connected from one end to the other. Another example is the
person speaking over microphone in a public address system.
When you were kids, you would have played with the two tin-cans connecting them
with a thread and using it as a phone, or would have connected two match boxes with
a thread and used it as a phone. This is the perfect example of point to point topology.

Communication channels
All networks needs to be linked to each other. Media or channels refer to the wires,
cables or and other means by which data travels from the source to destination.
The most commonly used media are:
Twisted pair wire.
Coaxial cable
Fiber optic cable
Wireless links

Twisted pair wire

Twisted pair wire normally consists of stands for copper wire, insulated with plastic
sheet and then twisted around each other.
This is the most commonly used media. It is easy to instal, has low weight and is
flexible. The main disadvantages of twisted pair wire are that it is not capable or
carrying data over long distances.


Coaxial cable
Coaxial cable consists of a solid wire core surround by a wire mesh with an insulator
in between. It is commonly used in the cable TV networks.
A coaxial cable can be carry more than twisted pair wire and is less susceptional to
interference. It is more expensive as compared to twisted pair wire.

Fiber optic cable

A fiber optic cable is a thin strand of glass that transmit pulsating beams of light.
The major advantages of fiber optic cables are their complete immunity to noise. The
disadvantages are that they are very fragile, so they need to be handled very carefully.

Wireless links
Wireless communication relies on radio signals for transmitting data. These days
wireless communication is becoming increasingly popular and is completing with
twisted pair, coaxial and fiber optic cables.

7. History of Internet
In the late 60s, united states of Americas defense established ARPANET (advanced
research project agency networks) whose main interests was to develop some
technology which can connect computers at the different locations for better
communication during the wartime. Initially they connected four computers one in
California and three in Utah. Later they allowed universities and research organization
to use this network due to which the network started growing and today it is present in
its modern shape called internet.

Requirements for internet

Internet is not owned by a single or organization. Anyone can become the part of this
largest network of the world and can share the available information. You need
following things to connect to internet.
A computer system with an internet browsing software like Microsoft internet
explorer things to connect to internet.
A telephone line that can be used for sending or receiving the data.
A modem (modulator-demodulator) to connect telephone line with the
computer. It converts digital data of your computer into signals that that can be
transmitted over the phone line and at the receiving end back to digital form.
An internet service provider (ISP) , a company that offers you connectivity to
internet. When you send or receive the information on the internet, if first
reaches the ISP in India various I s p are bsnl, mtnl, bharti InfoTech ltd. Hcl
infinet ltd. Reliance common. Infrastructure Ltd. idea etc.

How does internet work

In internet, most computers are not connected directly to the internet. Rather they are
connected to smaller network, which in turn are connected through gateways to the
internet backbone.
Working of internet:
At the source computer, the messages of the file/document to be sent to another
computer are firstly divided into very small parts called packets. A packet generally
contain unto 1500 char. Each packet is given a number serial wise e.g. 1, 2, 3...all


these packets are then sent to the address of destination computer. The destination
computer receives the packets in random manner.(it may receive packet 10 before 1
arrives). If a packet is garbled or lost , it is demanded again. The packets are
reassembled in the order of their number and the original message/file/document is
obtained. A gateway is a device that connects dissimilar networks. A backbone is
central interconnecting structure that connects one or more networks the
communication protocol used by internet is TCP/IP the TCP (transmission control
protocol) part responsible for dividing the file/messages into packets on the source

How big is the internet

As per companies that measure internet usage, just over a billion people websites on
the internet in 2008. Of these, about 500 million use the internet at least once week.
Another measure is number of websites. There are thought to be some 155 million
websites on the internet, but this number increases wildly form month to month as
new websites keep getting created.

Who governs the internet

Internet is not governed by any particular body. It is coordinated (not governed) by
many volunteer organization. There is not single authoritative organization. Various
volunteer organizations are responsible for different types of activities as listed below:
The internet architecture board (IAB) is responsible for approving standards
and allocating resources.
The internet engineering task force is responsible for discussing and
investigating the operational and technical problems of internet.
The inter NIC is responsible for providing registration services to internet

Ways to connect to internet

Through dial-up connection:
A dial up connection is a temporary connection, set up between your computer and
isp server. An internet service provider is a company that provides access to the
internet. A dial up connection is established using a modem, which uses the telephone
line to dial up the number of ISP server.
Through broadband connection:
The term broadband is short for broad bandwidth. Bandwidth refers to the amount of
data that a signal or circuit can carry. Broadband internet connections are faster than
dial up connections. Broadband connection speeds are measured in mbps, which
stands for megabits per second.
Most residential broadband internet connections provide connection speeds varying
form 256 kbps to 8 mbps. Dial up uses regular phone lines to connect, where as
broadband uses a variety of other means. Broadband service is available in three main

Through wireless connection

Wifi: wifi refers to wireless fidelity, which lets you connect to the internet without a
direct line from your p c to the ISP. for wifi to work, you need :
A broadband internet connection.


A wireless router, which relays your internet connection from the wall (I s p)
to the p c.
A laptop or desktop with a wireless internet card or external wireless adopter.
Wifi hotspots:
A hotspot is a venue that offers. The public can use a laptop, wifi phone, or other
suitable portable device to access the internet through a wifi hotspot. Hot spot are
public locations
(Such as liberary, hotels, airports and local blockbuster and restaurant etc.) With free
or free-based wireless internet access.
Wimax is a wireless digital communications system. Wimax can provide broadband
wireless access (BMA) up to 30miles for fixed stations, and 310 miles for mobile
stations. In contrast, the wifi wireless local area network standard is limited in most
cases to only 100300 feet (30100).
Accessing Internet
Proper access to the Internet depends on two things, namely, the
users interface connection and the installed browser. Different
network provide different kinds of services and connections. The type
of connection chosen by the user will depend on the purpose for which
the user intends to use the Internet.
Advantages of the Internet
The Internet is Ac Ocean of information accessible to people across the
world, but the way it can be put to use on various platforms is
different. The Internet is simultaneously as medium.
The Internet serves as a communication channel for anybody dealing
with product marketing corporate communication as Market.
The Internet is a vast virtual market place where you can advertise
and even order products from the market.

WWW-World Wide Web and Web Browsers

The Internet application that is currently drawing the most attention
is the World Wide Web (WWW). WWW is a series of serves that are
interconnected through hypertext. Hypertext is a method of presenting
information in which certain text is highlighted that, when selected,
displays more information on the particular topic.
These highlighted items are called hyperlinks and allow the users to
navigate from one document to another that may be located on
different servers. The user can use the browser software like Internet
Explorer, Mosaic or Netscape Navigator to navigate the web. A browser
is software that helps the user to navigate the WWW. Web is a graphic
medium with most Web pages having some amount of images.
The term home page commonly refers to the index page of any
organization or
Information source. The home page can have links that take the user
to further levels of information within the same topic, or there can be
links to other home pages.

Common Terminologies Some of the most commonly-used

terminologies related to www are:


Browser is client software that allows the user to display and

interact with a hypertext document.
Web serveris a place where pages reside. It is a program that
responds to requests from Web browsers to retrieve resources. It
is also used to refer to the computer that runs the server
programs. Some popular Web servers available are Internet
Information Server (IIS) from Microsoft, Fast Track from
Netscape and Intra Netware from Novell.
Home pageis the first hypertext document displayed when the
user follows a link to the Web server.
Hypertext Markup Language (HTML)is the encoding scheme
used to create a Web document.
Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)is a protocol used on the
Web to
Transfer hypertext documents. A protocol is a set of rules that
the computers use to communicate logically.
Uniform Resource Locator (URL)is a Web addressing scheme
that spells out the exact location of an Internet resource. When
the user clicks on a link, the browser reads the link to the
document. The information about the link is provided to the
browser by the URL. Any link from one document to another is
always implemented by using a URL. A URL contains
information about the location of the document. A URL may
point to another HTML document or an image. Certain
conventions have to be followed while writing a URL. A typical
URL would be as follows:
o Popular terms & Transfer Protocol ( IP Internet
protocol , IIS Internet Information Server, TCP
Transmission Control Protocol, ISP Internet Service
Provider, http, Hyper text transfer protocol )
Element of Internet :
Email 1970
Mailing List 1981
FTP 1973
News group 1979
www 1992

Web Browsers

The browser is the program which is necessary for surfing the

Following are some examples of web browsers. Internet Explorer 6 is
the dominating browser, XP is the most popular operating system, and
most users are using a display with 800x600 pixels or more, with a
color depth of at least 65K colors.

Internet Explorer
Internet Explorer (IE) by Microsoft is the most popular Internet
browser today. Internet Explorer Internet Explorer (IE) by


Microsoft is the most popular Internet browser today. IE was

introduced in 1995 and passed Netscape in popularity in 1998.

Netscape was the first commercial Internet browser. It was
introduced in 1994. Netscape has gradually lost its popularity
to Internet Explorer.

The Mozilla Project has grown from the ashes of Netscape.
Browsers based on Mozilla code is the second largest browser
family on the Internet today, representing about 20% of the
Internet community.

Firefox is a new browser from Mozilla. The browser is very
promising and expected to gain a high market share.

Opera is a Norwegian Internet browser. It is known to be fast
and small, standards compliant, and available for many
number of small devices like mobile phones and hand-held

7. Internet Email

Email is a method of sending messages, voice, video and graphics over digital
commutation link such as the internet anywhere in the world at very cost effective
rate. Technically, server application that provides a routed, stored message service
between any two e-mail accounts. Because all modern computers can be connected to
the internet, users can send e-mail over the internet to any location that has telephone
or wireless digital service.
Email Networks and Server
Advantage of E-mail
1. No use of Stationary
2. Inexpensive
3. Fast
4. Immediate feedback

Basics of E-mail
If you have several mail accounts with different Internet service providers (ISPs), you
can use them all from one window. The Internet Connection Wizard helps you
connect to one or more mail servers. Mail server is a Computer that maintains all the
emails of the users of an organization. All the mails are received and sent through this
server. You will need the following information from your Internet Service Provider
(ISP) or local area network (LAN) administrator. To add a mail account, you need


your account name and password, and the names of an incoming and an outgoing
mail server. If your ISP used an IMAP mail server for incoming mail, you can read,
store and organize you messages in folders on the server without downloading the
messages to your computer. The way, you view messages from any computer that can
connect to that server. You can save names and addresses in your address book either
by importing them from other programs, typing them in, adding them form e-mail
messages you receive, or searching 113 popular Internet directory services (white
pages). The Address Book supports Light weight Directory Service Access Protocol
(LDAP) for accessing Internet directory services. Insert essential information (such as
your phone number) into outgoing messages as part of your personal signature, or add
stationery patterns and backgrounds to make your messages more attractive.
What is an Electronic Mail
E-mail (electronic mail) is the exchange of computer stored messages by
telecommunications. E-mail messages are usually encoded in ASCII text. However,
you can also send non-text files, such as graphic images and sound files, as
attachments sent in binary streams. I-mail was one of the first uses of the Internet and
is still the most popular use. A large percentage of the total traffic over the Internet is
e-mail. E-mail can also be exchanged between online service users and in networks
other than the Internet, both public and private. E-mail can be distributed to lists of
people as well as to individuals. It has three main parts
1. Header
2. Message body
3. Signature
Header : An email header has following parts
a) To : Which contains the addresses of recipients
b) CC : The Carbon Copy, addresses of additional recipients whom a copy of email is
to be sent
c) BCC (Blind Carbon Copy) in this option the recipients does not know the name of
the other recipients
d) Subject : Subject of Email
Message Body: This is the place where the actual text of the email is written.
Signature: It uniquely identifies the sender. The details that can be part of it are Name,
Phone-Fax No. and Address etc of the sender.
7.2.2 Email Addressing:
A Computer on Internet can be addressed using an IP address and can also be located
using Domain Name Service (DNS). The IP address consists of address of the
Network and Address of the computer within the Network. An Internet address
(sometimes called a URL or Uniform Resource Locator) typically starts with a
protocol name (A protocol is a set of rules and standards that enable computers to
exchange information), followed by the name of the organization that maintains the
site; the suffix identifies the kind of organization it is. For example, the address http: / provides the following information.
http: Web Server uses http: protocol
www This place is on world wide web
doeacc Web server is located at doeacc
.edu This is an educational organization
Generally, commercial site addresses end with .com, and government site addresses
end with .gov, site address of non profit organization end with .org. this naming
convention is followed in USA. In other countries, name of the country in two letters
is also mentioned. For example, . In this address .in refers to


India. For England it is .uk for Singapore it is .sg etc., Type of organization .ac refers
to academic institutions. Email address of a user on the Internet is similar to above
internet addresses except the protocol name is replaced by the user name.
Mail to:Username@Organisationname.OrganizationType. Geography
For example is email address,
where sjasola is the name of a user. A mail server maintains all the email addresses of
Email Protocol
Simple mail transfer protocol (SMTP):
The TCP/IP protocol that specifies how computers exchange electronic mail. It work
with post office protocol, and is one of the reasons that Internet E-mail functions so
Post office Protocol version 3 (POP3)
It is a simple protocol used for opening the remote e-mail boxes. Post office Protocol
version 3 (POP3) provides mechanisms for storing messages sent to each user and
received by smtp in a receptacle called a mail box. A POP3 server stores massage for
each user until the user connects to download and read then using a POP3 client such
as Microsoft outlook 2000, Microsoft outlook express, or Microsoft mail and news.
IMAP-4 (Internet Mail Access protocol ) An IMAP Working Group formed in the
IETF in the early 1990s took over responsibility for the IMAP2bis design. The IMAP
WG decided to rename IMAP2bis to IMAP4 to avoid confusion with a competing
IMAP3 proposal from another group that never got off the ground.[citation needed] The
expansion of the IMAP acronym also changed to the Internet Message Access
Protocol. The latest version, IMAP4, allows an email client to manipulate email
messages stored on a server in the same way as a client using local folders. This
ability allows multiple clients for a single user to see the same mailbox status. For
example, if a user moves a message from the user's INBOX to some other folder using
one client, when later accessing the mailbox from another client the message appears
in the folder to which it was moved.
Instant Messaging providers
AOL Instant Messenger (AIM) became the IM leader. In the past few years, though,
a number of services have cut into AIM's audience. Windows Live Messenger
(formerly MSN Messenger) and Yahoo! Messenger, in particular, have become
widely used around the globe. Google recently introduced its IM system, Google
Talk. Proprietary multi protocol applications like Trillian and Pidgin, which allow
users to IM on several services at once, are also rapidly gaining in popularity.

E-mail is a type client/

Internet Service Started Description

Email(Electronic mail) 1970 Email is the most common service of the internet.
It can be used on old PCs also.

Mail Lists 1981 Mailing lists are a group based messaging service.
Once subscribed, you would receive mailing list
messages via a standard e-mail account. There are
currency over 90000 internet mailing lists.


FTP (file transfer protocol) 1973 An internet service designed for transferring files
among computers. Files are available for
downloading on the Internet using
Newsgroups(Usenet) 1979 Usenet is a public messaging and bulletin board
system. It comprises of more than34000 individual
forums, and each one pertains to a specific topic.

World wide web( 1992 This service features user- friendly publishing and
web,www,w3) multimedia documents and files. Web pages are
created using HTML, JavaScript, and java.

What is an Internet Address?

Every computer that is part of the Internet has its own unique address. To connect
your computer to another, you connect to the Internet, and then enter the address of
the computer you want to reach. This address is a long string of numbers. Since
people find easier to remember that numbers, in 1984 the numbers were identified
with a name. The name has different parts. Take for e.g.:, here 'www'
stand for World Wide Web. ABC is the name of organization whose computer you
want to reach and. Com is an extension. Different extension exists, which are codes
for the country of origin or type of organization.

Some such Extensions are given below:-

Sr.No. Extension Type of organization

1. .edu Educational Facility
2. .com Commercial Organization
3. .gov Non-Military Government Body
4. .mil Military Concern
5. .org Other Organization
6. .ne: Network Resource
7. .ac Academic Institution
8. .au Australia
9. .in India
10. .uk England
List of Abbreviations
A/D - Analog-to-Digital
ABC - Atanasoff-Berry Computer
ACL - Access Control List
AI - Artificial Intelligence
ALGOL - ALGOrithmic Language
ALU - Arithmetic Logic Unit
AM - Amplitude Modulation
AMD - Advanced Micro Devices
ANSI - American National Standard Institute


APL - A Programming Language

ARPANET - Advanced Research Project Agency Network
ASCII - American Standard Code for Information Interchange
ATM - Automatic Teller Machine / Asynchronous Transfer
BARC - Bhabha Atomic Research Center
BASIC - Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code
BCD - Binary Coded Decimal
B-ISDN - Broad band ISDN
BNA - Burroughs Network Architecture
BPI - Bytes per Inch
BSD - Berkeley Software Division
BSNL - Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited
CAD - Computer-Aided Design
CAE - Computer-Aided Engineering
CAM - Computer-Aided Manufacturing
CASE - Computer-Aided Software Engineering
CD - Compact Disk
C-DAC - Centre for Development of Advanced Computing
CDC - Control Data Corporation
CD-R - CD-Recordable
CD-ROM - Compact Disk-Read Only Memory
CD-RW - CD Read/Write
CISC - Complex Instruction Set Computer
CL - Command Language
CLI - Common Language Infrastructure
CLR - Common Language Runtime
COBOL - Common Business Oriented Language
CODASYL - Conference On Data Systems Language
CPPM - Content Protection for Prerecorded Media
CPS - Characters Per Second
CPU - Central Processing Unit
CRT - Cathode-Ray Tube
CSCW - Computer Supported Cooperative Working
D/A - Digital-to-Analog
DAT - Digital Audio Tape
DBMS - Database Management System
DDL - Data Definition Language
DDS - Digital Data Storage
DEC - Digital Equipment Corporation
DML - Data Manipulation Language
DNA - Digital Network Architecture
DPI - Dots per Inch
DRDO - Defense Research and Development Organization
DSN - Distributed Systems Network
DTS - Digital Theater System
DVD - Digital Video/Vrsatele Disk

EBCDIC - Extended Binary-Coded Decimal Interchange Code
ECMA - European Computer Manufacturers Association
EDSAC - Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator
EDVAC - Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer
EPROM - Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory
EEPROM - Electrically EPROM
EFM - Eight-to-Fourteen Modulation
ENIAC - Electronic Numerical Integrator And Calculator
EPG - Electronic Programming Guide
EPIC - Explicitly Parallel Instruction Computing
ERNET - Education and Research NET work
FAT - File Allocation Table
FCC open internet order- The Federal Communications Commission Open Internet
FDM - Frequency-Division Multiplexing
FEP - Front-End Processor
FM - Frequency Modulation
FMS - File Management System
FORTRAN - FORmula TRANslation
FSK - Frequency Shift Keying
FTP - File Transfer Protocol
GB - Giga Bytes
GHz - Giga Hertz
GIGO - Garbage-In-Garbage-Out
GIS - Gnu Not UNIX
GPL - General Public License
GUI - Graphical User Interface
HP - Hewlett Packard
HTML - Hyper Text Markup Language
HTTP - Hyper Text Transport Protocol
Hz - Hertz
I/O - Input and Output
IE1 - Internet Explorer 1
IBG - Inter-Block Gap
IBM - International Business Machines
IC - Integrated Circuit
IDN - Integrated Digital Networks
IIX - The Indonesia Internet Exchange
IGF - The Internet Governance Forum
IEEE - Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
INSAT - Indian National Satellite
IP - Internet Protocol
IRG - Inter-Record Gap
ISAM - Indexed Sequential Access Method


ISDN - Integrated Services Digital Network

ISO - International Standards Organization
ISP - Internet Service Provider
J2EE - Java 2 Enterprise Edition
J2SE - Java 2 Standard Edition
JCL - Job Control Language
JPEG - Joint Photographic Experts Group
JRE - Java Runtime Engine
JSP - Java Server Pages
KB - Kilo Bytes
LAN - Local Area Network
LCD - Liquid Crystal Display
LED - Light-Emitting Diode
LISP - List Processing
LPM - Lines per Minute
LSD - Least Significant Digit
LSI - Large Scale Integration
MAN - Metropolitan Area Network
MAR - Memory Address Register
MB - Mega Bytes
MBR - Memory Buffer Register
MFT - Multiprogramming with Fixed Tasks
MHz - Mega Hertz
MICR - Magnetic-Ink Character Recognition
MIDI - Musical Instrument Digital Interface
MIME - Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions
MMC - Multimedia Card
MODEM - Modulator/DEModulator
MPEG - Moving Pictures Expert Group
MSD - Most Significant Digit
MS-DOS - Microsoft Disk Operating System
MSI - Medium Scale Integration
MTNL - Mahan agar Telephone Nigam Limited
MVT - Multiprogramming with Variable Tasks
NIC - Network Interface Card
NICNET - National Informatics Center Network
NOS - Network Operating System
NTSC - National Television standards Committee
OCR - Optical Character Recognition
OMR - Optical Mark Reader
OOP - Object-oriented Programming
OS - Operating System
OSI - Open System Interconnection


OSS - Open Source Software

PAL - Phase Alternation Line
PC - Personal Computer
PCB - Process Control Block
PDA - Personal Digital Assistant
PDF - Portable Document Format
PDL - Program Design Language
PDP - Programmed Data Processor
PIM - Personal Information Manager
PL/1 - Programming Language One
PM - Phase Modulation
POS - Point Of Sale
POTS - Plain Old Telephone Service
PPM - Page per Minute
PRIMENET - Prime Computer NET work
PROM - Programmable Read Only Memory
PSTN - Public Switched Telephone Network
PVC - Poly vinyl Chloride
QBE - Query by Example
QIC - Quarter Inch Cartridge
QoS - Quality of Service
RAID - Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks
RAM - Random Access Memory
RGB - Red, Green and Blue
RICS - Reduced Instruction Set Computer
ROM - Read Only Memory
RPG - Report Program Generator
SD - Secure Digital
SDK - Software Development Kit
SEQUEL - Structured English QUEry Language
SGML - Standard Generalized Markup Language
SIMM - Single In Line Memory Module
SNA - System Network Architecture
SNOBOL - String Oriented Symbolic Language
SSI - Small Scale Integration
TB - Tera Bytes
TCP - Transport Control Protocol
TCP/IP - Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
TDM - Time Division Multiplexing
UDP - User Datagram Protocol
UDT - User Data Type
ULSI - Ultra Large Scale Integration
UNIVAC - Universal Automatic computer


UPC - Universal Product Code

URL - Uniform Resource Locator
USB - Universal Serial Bus
UTF - Unicode Transformation Format
UTP - Unshielded Twisted Pair
UVEPROM - Ultra Violet EPROM
VAN - Value Edit Network
VBScript - Visual Basic Scripting
ViOS - Visual Internet Operating System
VCR - Video Cassette Recorder
VDT - Video Display Terminal
VLSI - Very Large Scale Integrated
VoIP - Voice Over Internet Protocol
VSAT - Very Small Aperture Terminals
VSNL - Videsh Sanchar Nigam Limited
WAN - Wide Area Network
WAP - Wireless Application Protocol
WCN - The World Chess Network
WiMAX - Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access
WLAN - Wireless Local Area Network
WLL - Wireless Local Loop
WMA - Window Media Audio
WORM - Write Once Read Many
WWW - Word Wide Web
WYSIWYG - What You See Is What You Get
X.400 - Electronic Mail Protocol
X.500 - Directory Server Protocol
XHTML - extensible Hyper Text Markup Language
XML - extensible Markup Language

Important Extensions

Sr.No. Extension Application

1. .doc Ms. Word
2. .xls Ms. Excel 2003
3. .ppt Ms. Power Point 2003
4. .cdr Corel Draw
5. .psd Photoshop
6. .txt Notepad
7. .pdf Acrobat Reader
8. .jpg Paint Brush
9. .rtf WordPad
10. .bmp Windows bitmap


11. .pps PowerPoint Show

12. .gif GIF (Graphics Interchange Format) Image
13. .mdb Microsoft Access
14. .htm Hypertext Markup Language (HTML)
15. .flv Flash video
16. .eml E-mail message
17. .bat Batch file
18. .sql Structured Query Language
19. .wma Windows Media Audio
20. .avi Audio Video Interleave
21. .jpg JPEG Image
22. .mp3 MP3 Audio File

Sr.No. As default file name Application

1. Document 1 Ms. Word
2. Book 1 Ms. Excel
3. Presentation 1 Ms. Power Point
4. Document WordPad
5. Untitled Paint Brush
6. Untitled Notepad


5 Basics Of Microsoft Power Point

PowerPoint is the largest selling presentation graphics software packages that are
designed by Microsoft Corporation of USA. Since its introduction in 1987,
PowerPoint has set new standards for the working of presentation graphics.
Power Point helps you bringing ideas and information that you want to convey to your
audience with no difficulty.
With power point you can:-
Quickly create paper for Over Head Projector (OHP), 35mm slide, or on
screen presentations.
Supplement your presentations with speakers notes.
Use material you have created in other application packages such as Microsoft
Word and Microsoft Excel.

Uses of PowerPoint

You can make presentation in the form of slides, handouts or speakers notes.

Slides are individual pages of a presentation. It may contain text, graphs, clipart,
etc. you can even print slides for overhead projector transparencies.

Handouts consist of printed versions of your slides-two, three, or six slides per page.

A Power Point presentation consists of slides

Slides contain formatted text in outline form. You can also add pictures, clipart, charts, sound,
and video. Templates can be used for slide background designs and formatting. Slides are
dynamic, using animation effects and transitions to create movement.

PowerPoint is a visual medium so show ideas with graphics instead of text. Use handouts for
any complex written material.

Creating a New Presentation:

If it isnt already displayed, turn on the New Presentation Task Pane from the View Menu.
The task pane has a pull down selection menu at the upper right. Select New Presentation. If
you start a new presentation, you can select a preformatted design, or a blank design. The
AutoContent Wizard creates generic formats students can adapt for their classroom

New Slides:

From Insert menu select New Slide, or use the new slide icon on the formatting toolbar, or
press Control M. The Slide Layout Pane opens. Select a layout. Layouts can be changed in
existing slides. Select the slide and open the Slide Layout Pane. Select a layout and click OK

Slide Layouts:


Layouts control the format of the slide. The three layout types are Text for text; Content
can be used for all graphics; and Other is for a single type of graphic.

Auto Layout
After you have opened a new presentation, PowerPoint displays the New Slide dialog
box containing several Auto Layouts. Auto Layouts provide a pre-determined layout
for each specific type of slide, such as bulleted lists, graphs, and/or images. Click on
each thumbnail image and a description will be printed in the message box. Highlight
the layout you want and click OK.

Microsoft Power Point Shortcut Key

Action PowerPoint shortcut

Close Ctrl-W
Close Ctrl-F4
Copy Ctrl-C
Find Ctrl-F
Italics Ctrl-I
Menu bar F10
New slide Ctrl-M
Next window Ctrl-F6
Paste Ctrl-V
Print Ctrl-P
Repeat Find Shift-F4
Repeat/Redo Ctrl-Y
Replace Ctrl-H
Slide Show: Begin F5
Slide Show: Black screen show/hide B
Slide Show: End Esc
Slide Show: Erase annotations E
Slide Show: Go to next hidden slide H
Slide Show: Hide pointer and button always Ctrl-L
Slide Show: Hide pointer and button
Slide Show: Mouse pointer to arrow Ctrl-A
Slide Show: Mouse pointer to pen Ctrl-P
Slide Show: Next slide N
Slide Show: Previous slide P
Slide Show: Set new timings while rehearsing T
Slide Show: Stop/restart automatic slide show S
Slide Show: Use mouse-click to advance M


Slide Show: Use original timings O
Slide Show: White screen show/hide W
Spelling and Grammar check F7
Switch to the next presentation window Ctrl-F6
Switch to the next tab in a dialog box Ctrl-Tab / Ctrl-Page Down
Switch to the previous presentation window Ctrl-Shift-F6
Switch to the previous tab in a dialog box Ctrl-Shift-Tab / Ctrl-Page Up
Turn character formatting on or of Num /

1. If a computer on the network shares resources for others to use, it is called
A) Server B) Mainframe
C) Client D) None of the above
2. A.. is a pre-designed format of text and color scheme.
A) Template B) Slide
C) Presentation D) None of the above
3. Which of the following is considered a broad band communication channel?
A) Coaxial cable B) fibre optics cable
C) Microwave circuits D) All of the above
4. Which of the following is not a transmission medium?
A) modem B) Coaxial cables
C) telephone lines D) microwave systems
5. A) In order to play and hear sound on a computer one needs?
A) Sound card and speaker B) Microphone
C) Both (a) and (b) D) None of the above
6. Which of the following is not a CPU trade name?
A) Intel B) Dell
C) AMD D) Cyrix
7. The file extension of MS-Word document in Office 2000 is ..
A) .docx B) .txt
C) .doc D) .pdf
8. is a protocol used by e-mail clients to download e-mails to your computer.
9. a plotter is
A) An input device to produce good B) An output device to produce good quality
quality graphics graphics
C) A fast output device using camera D) None of these
10. Which of the rule mentioned below for range names is incorrect
A) Names cannot be the same as a cell B) In a range name you are allowed to
reference use spaces or commas.
C) Range names can be directly used D) The only separators allowed are


in formulas. underscore characters and/ or periods between

11. A mouse, trackball, and joystick are examples of ..
A) Pointing devices B) pen input devices
B) Data collection devices C) multimedia devices
12. The Save As dialog box can be used
A) for saving the file for the first time to B) file by some alternative name
C) to save file in a format other than word D) All of the above
13. The mouse usually appears as an arrow
A) Cursor B) Pointer
C) Intersection Line D) None of above
14. The output
A) pixels B) resolution
C) width D) height
15. FDDI is the abbreviation of
A) Fiber Distributed Data Interface B) Fiber Data Distributed Interface
C) Fiber Dual Distributed Interface D) Fiber Disk Data Interface
16. Which of the following is required to communicate between two computers ?
A) communications software B) protocol
C) communications hardware D) all of the above
17. Which of the following is correct about WAN ?
A) It is a communication network B) It is a communication network
covering large geographic area. covering a limited geographic area.
C) In such a network, three participants are D) Both (a) and (c).
separated by large distance.
18. Which type of network uses telephone lines ?
C) PAN D) Wireless
19. PROM in computer language stands for
A) Programmable Read Only Memory B) Pulse Read Only Memory
C) Packet Read Only Memory D) Paralled Read Only Memory
20. The .. effects are used to apply movement to the images and objects in slides.
A) Transition B) Animation
C) Both (a) and (b) C) None of the above
21. You can activate the Drawing toolbar with this option :
A) FormatToolbarsDrawing B) ViewToolbarsDrawing
C) ToolsDrawing Toolbar D) Edit ToolbarsDrawing
22. Topology in computer language is the
A) organization in a computer network B) speed of computer network
C) capacity of computer network D) volume flow in a computer network
23. Which is not common feature of software application?
A) Menus B) Windows
C) Help D) Search
24. OFF-line operation is the operation of devices without the control of
A) Memory computer question bank B) CPU
C) ALU D) Control Unit
25. In Microsoft Word to cut something the following shortcut is used


A) Ctrl + C B) Ctrl + X
C) Ctrl + V D) None of these
26. Which of the following is an advantange to using fiber optics data transmission?
A) resistance to data theft B) fast data transmission rate
C) low noise level D) all of the above
27 Dot-matrix, Deskjet, Inkjet and Laser are all types of which computer peripherals
A) Keyboards B) Software
C) Monitors D) Printers
28. Using Microsoft Words Find and Replace feature you can
A) replace both text and formatting B) replace text of a document only
C) replace formatting only D) replace documents name with a new name
29. The performs mapping of sever names and their respective IT addresses
A) Routers B) Message Servers
30. To select the desire slides in the presentation. You have to press:
A) Shift B) Ctrl+ Shift
C) Ctrl D) Alt
31. The DOS commands to retrieves the properties of a file is
32. Mark the most appropriate statement.
A) Mailmerge can be used to print the B) Mailmerge can be used to print the form
form letters letters and mailing labels
C) Mailmerge can be used to print the D) All of the above
33. The functions ROUND (1343.45,-2) returns
A) 1343 B) -1343
C) 1300 D) -1300
34. Which software would you use to teach students in Computer classes?
A) Spreadsheet B) Database
C) Word processing D) PowerPoint
35. Using MS-Power Point which layout will you use to dsplay hierarchies of employees in your
A) Chart B) Table
C) 2 Column Text D) Organisation Chart
36. To create a Para Break in MS-WORD, which key is used?
A) Enter B) Esc
C) Tab D) Shift
37. What type of software is LINUX?
A) Compiler B) Operating System
C) Utility Software D) Application Software
38. The background screen and main area of Windows where you can open and manage files
and programs is known as
A) background B) desktop
C) wall paper D) none of the above
39. One MB is equal to
A) 500 GB B) 1024 Byte
C) 1000 KB D) 1024 KB


40. Airline reservation system is a typical example of

A) Batch processing B) On-lone processing
C) Real time processing D) None of the above
41. An area of memory or disk that is assigned to store e-mail messages sent by other users
A) Post-email B) Postbox
C) Emailbox D) Mailbox
42. Operating System is the most common type of .. software.
A) Management B) Application
C) System D) Communication
43. The term often used in starting a computer especially one that loads its operating system
from disk is
A) Data compression B) Bookstrap
C) File transfer protocol D) Ghopher
44. The slowest memory is
A) Hard Disk B) DVD ROMs
C) Cache Memory D) Static RAM
45. Which of the following statement is wrong
A) Windows XP is an operating system B) Linux is owned and sold by Microsoft
C) Photoshop is a graphical design tool by D) Linux is free and open source software
46. The IC chip used in computers is made of
A) Chromium B) Iron Oxide
C) Silica D) Silicon
47. A communication port is used to?
A) Communicate with hard disks B) Download files
D) Communicate with other computer D) None of the above
48. is used to create a set of documents, such as forms, letters, or labels
A) Data source B) Main document
C) Mail Merge D) Merging document
49. You can check spelling and grammatical mistakes by the . option
A) Auto SpellCheck B) Grammar and Auto SpellCheck
C) Spelling and Grammar D) Spellcheck
50. A Browser is
A) a special folder on the Windows B) a line that delineates the edge of a
desktop used to keep documents up to date program window
when shared between computer
C) a software program used for viewing D) a window that is currently open
Web pages on the Internet

51. You can also create a nested list in your document.

A. True B. False
52. Microcomputer is a CPU on a chip
A. True B. False
53. To be computer literate, you must be able to write computer programs.
A. True B. False
54. A microsecond is 1000 times longer than a nanosecond.
A. True B. False


55. The transmission of data from a microcomputer to a mainframe computer is called uploading.
A. True B. False
56. he rate which you can learn more about computer is accelerate once you gain a basic
understanding of computers.
A. True B. False
57. Most computer-related errors are the result of improperly prepared data.
A. True B. False
58. The drawing objects and pictures are two basic types of graphics.
A. True B. False
59. Instructions given in a program do not define any actions for the computer.
A. True B. False
60. All data processing systems must provide for the input, processing, and output of data.
A. True B. False
61. Computers are programmable calculators.
A. True B. False
62. Internet is a single, very large network.
A. True B. False
63. You can be a computer literate even though you are not a programmer.
A. True B. False
64. From an e-mail address, one can find out the domain name, where this e-mail address is
A. True B. False
65. Business person should understand data processing to communicate will with computer
personnel and for using computers
A. True B. False
66. Microcomputer systems may be used in homes as well as offices
A. True B. False
67. The Internet is a collection of files.
A. True B. False
68. Computers are fast machines but inaccurate.
A. True B. False
69. The words that are wrongly types by you are marked with a yellow wavy line.
A. True B. False
70. Operating Systems (OS) control and coordinate the functions inside the computer whereas
device drivers help the OS to control external devices.
A. True B. False
71. The more computer systems are becoming easy-to-use with their agronomical designs and
user friendly software.
A. True B. False
72. E-mail can be used to send broadcast messages, but only within your own company.
A. True B. False
73. A computers CD-ROM drive can read data disks, but it cannot play audio CDs.
A. True B. False
74. The first successful GUI appeared on the Macintosh computer in 1984.
A. True B. False
75. A utility program can be used to improve the function of an operating system in come way.
A. True B. False
76. During the formatting process, a disks surface is divided into sectors, which are then further


divided into rings, called tracks.

A. True B. False
77. Minicomputer work faster than Microcomputer.
A. True B. False
78. Bold, italics and bold italics are available for all fonts.
A. True B. False
79. All sections in a documents necessarily use the same margins.
A. True B. False
80. You can add dates to worksheets. But spreadsheets cannot use dates in calculations.
A. True B. False
81. A web browser is also referred to as a web client.
A. True B. False
82. FTP servers store files that you can transfer to or from your computer if you have an FTP
A. True B. False
83. Internet Explorer stores the web pages you visit in the Internet list folder on the hard disk.
A. True B. False
84. In a spreadsheet. Ordinary text is called a label.
A. True B. False
85. Collecting the data and concerting it into information is called procession.
A. True B. False
86. Presentation programs let you create notes for each slide, which are visible only to you.
A. True B. False
87. The domain name with an extension .com describes a company or commercial organization.
A. True B. False
88. Refresh button returns to home page.
A. True B. False
89. The word bit is contraction of the word binary digits.
A. True B. False
90. The primary function of I/O peripherals is to facilitate computer-to-computer data
A. True B. False
91. The file protection ring is an important part of the label checking operation to protect tap
A. True B. False
92. Cookies store information about the web pages in your favorites list.
A. True B. False
93. The standard toolbar has buttons for the most common tasks you perform in PowerPoint,
such as saving, printing, or spell checking a presentation.
A. True B. False
94. A new directory can be created by RD command.
A. True B. False
95. The stop button interrupts downloading the web page.
A. True B. False
96. Microsoft office word is an application program.
A. True B. False
97. In Excel, it is not possible to select two non adjacent ranges at a time.
A. True B. False


98. BIOS program is stored on the RAM.

A. True B. False
99. The shortcut menu changes with the context.
A. True B. False
100. To store a printable character two byte is used.
A. True B. False

1. Terminators are used in . topology.
A) Bus B) Star
C) Ring D) Mesh
2. The smallest unit of storage is
A) Bit B) Byte
C) Kilobyte D) Megabyte
3. The largest unit of storage is
A) Terabyte B) Petabyte
C) eXabyte D) Zettabyte
4. Microprocessor was invented in
A) 1970 B) 1971
C) 1972 D) 1973
5. You can select all the slides in the presentation by pressing the following key:
A) Ctrl+Shift B) Alt+Ctrl
C) Ctrl D) Shift
6. The memory which is programmed at the time it is manufactured is
7. The computer consists of
A) I/O devices B) Memory
C) CPU D) All the above
8. Offline device is
A) A direct access storage device B) A device which the connected to CPU
C) A device which is not connected to CPU D) A device which is not connected to CPU
9. LILO is used for
A) Creation of book diskette B) Managing Linux network
C) Multiboot D) Linux configuration
10. How many scroll bars can be visible on the text area if your document is over 100%
A) Two B) one
C) Three D) Four
11. What does the disk drive of a computer do?
A) Rotate the disk B) Read the disk
C) Load a program from the disk into the D) Both (b) and (c)
12.Impact printer operates like a
A) Typewriter B) Laser
C) Pen D) None of the above
13. A Laser printer uses
A) Raster scan B) Camera lens


C) Heat sensitive paper D) None of the above

14. An application can be opened through shortcut on desktop by
A) Double clicking on its shortcut B) Right clicking and choosing open option

C) Selecting the icon and pressing Enter D) All of the above

15. Which windows program do you use to manage folders and files?
A) Accessories B) Control Panel
C) Explorer D) Office
16. Windows Explorer is a file management programs that you can use to:
A) View and change the folder/file structures B) View and change the contents of your
of your disks folder and files.
C) Move, copy, rename create and delete D) All of the above
folder and files.
17. Which connector STP uses?
A) BNC B) RJ-11
C) RJ-45 D) RJ-69
18. The .. provides access to all active application by maintaining a row of open
application title boxes.
A) Title bar B) Task bar
C) Start menu D) None of the above
19. A client program used to access the Internet services and resources available through the
World Wide Web.
A) ISP B) Web browsers
C) Web Servers D) None of the above
20. Which of the following is the default view that allows you to see one slide at a time and edit
A) Slide Sorter B) Normal
C) Outline D) Notes
21. Lowest unit of speed is
A) Millisecond B) Micro second
C) Mano second D) Pico second
22. What is the max cable length of STP?
A) 100 ft B) 200 ft
C) 100 m D) 200 m
23. The entire worksheet in Excel cab be selected by
A) Ctrl + Spacebar B) Ctrl + Shift + Spacebar
C) Shift + Spacebar D) All of the above
24. Bluetooth is a type of radio wave information transmission system that is good for about
A) 30 ft B) 30 Yards
C) 30 Km D) 300 Km
25. Print server uses .. which is a buffer that holds data before it is send to the printer.
A) Queue B) Spool
C) Node D0 None of the above
26. The modem does not
A) Produce sound similar to those you hear on B) collect signals from low speed terminals
the touch tone telephone and transmit them over a single
C) linemodulate electrical digital signals into D) demodulate an analog signals into digital


an analog signals signals.

27. Main memory is
A) Volatile B) Non-volatile
C) Volatile and non-volatile D) None of the above
28. . transparency is a primary advantage of both bridging and switching
A) Upper layer protocol B) Lower layer protocol
C) Encryption D) None of the above
29. is the IP address is the B class
A) B)
C) D)
30. allows LAN users to share computer programs and data.
A) Communication server B) Print server
C) File server D) None of the above
31. A .. is a network that connects computers and devices in a limited geographical
area, such as a home, school computer laboratory, or office building
A) Local area network B) Wide area network
C) Metropolitan area D) All of the above
32. .wave and .mid are type of that can be added to PowerPoint presentation.
A) sound files B) picture files
C) image files D) None of these
33. Which of the following should you do to bring a bullet back to previous level?
A) Press the tab key B) Press the Shift key
C) Press the enter key D) Press the shift + tab keys
34. The handouts, speaker notes, and outlines of a slide are the components that are used for
A) General B) Reference
C) Both (a) and (b) D) None of the above
35. .. layer decides which physical pathway the data should take.
A) Application B) Network
C) Physical D) Transport layer
36. Using a (n) . , messages can be created, sent, received, forwarded, stored,
printed, and deleted.
A) telnet program B) e-mail program
C) FTP program D) Both B and C
37. Base Station and MSC are related to ..
A) Cellular radio B) ISO-OSI model
C) ARPANET structure D) None of the above
38. ISO stands for
A) International Standard Organization B) International Student Organization
C) Integrated Services Organization D) None of the above
39. will first ask you if you are sure you want to empty the contents of the
A) Paste B) Cut
C) Delete D) Copy
40. What will allow you to select entire document?
A) Select B) Locate
C) Select all D) None of the above
41. A .. is an electronic page in presentation.


A) Page B) Slide
C) E-Slide D) None of the above
42. Undo is similar to
A) Ctrl + X B) Ctrl + C
C) Ctrl + Z D) None of the above
43. A network that provides a constant bandwidth for the complete duration of a message transfer
is a:
A) packet switched network B) cell switched network
C) circuit switched network D) None of the above
44. ISDN is an example of .. network.
A) Packet switched B) Circuit switched
C) Message switched D) None of the above
45. Following is a type of Slide animation
A) Flash once B) Typewriter
C) Fly From top D) All of the above
46. The . Effects are special types of effects that allows you to specify how you to
navigate from one slide to the other
A) Special effects B) Animation
C) Transition D) All of the above
47. Which of the following characters is allowed in a Windows file name or folder?
A) : B) ?
C) - D) >
48. In a Slide master footer area appears at
A) Left of the page B) Center of the page
C) Top of the page D) Bottom of the page
49. In topology, if a computers network cable is broken, whole network goes
A) Ring B) Bus
C) Mesh D) Tree
50. . fonts have finishing strokes.
A) Times New Roman B) Sans serif
C) Courier D) Tohama
51. We cannot change the contents of RAM
A. True B. False
52. Change case command is used to change the capitalization of a sentence.
A. True B. False
53. The Landscape orientation prints the text length wise.
A. True B. False
54. A Local Area Network (LAN is a network that contains servers across the word.
A. True B. False
55. Tim Berner-Lee is the father of the WWW.
A. True B. False
56. The advantage of ethernet cable has less power consumption.
A. True B. False
57. Shortcut menus cannot create a link to that program.
A. True B. False
58. The contents of a Window can be scrolled by clicking the scroll bar.
A. True B. False


59. When a folder is copied to another place, the subfolders in the folder also get copied.
A. True B. False
60. We can recolour a Clip Art object.
A. True B. False
61. A keyboard has approximately 101 to 105 keys.
A. True B. False
62. The Enter key is present at the top of the keyboard.
A. True B. False
63. While creating Data source, field name can have as many as 40 characters.
A. True B. False
64. You cannot create a new folder on the desktop.
A. True B. False
65. Laser printer is the low quality printer.
A. True B. False
66. Hard disk can store more information than floppy disk.
A. True B. False
67. A folder is a set of files and folders.
A. True B. False
68. MSI stands for medium scale intelligent circuit.
A. True B. False
69. Repeater is circuits board or card that is installed in a computer so that it can be connected to
A. True B. False
70. A chart is the best way to compare and show the relationship between two data items.
A. True B. False
71. PROM is used as a primary storage device.
A. True B. False
72. Both, Now( ) and Today( ) can be used to display the current time.
A. True B. False
73. VDU is also an input device.
A. True B. False
74. Read-made formulas are known as Functions.
A. True B. False
75. Computer memory also works as an output device.
A. True B. False
76. When integrating Word and Excel, Word is usually the server.
A. True B. False
77. The number of rows in a worksheet is 36500.
A. True B. False
78. Word supports to add bold formatting to the text.
A. True B. False
79. There are total 12 function keys.
A. True B. False
80. jpg is an extension of an audio file.
A. True B. False
81. Folder is also called directory.
A. True B. False
82. You can also open the Chart Wizard by clicking the chart icon on the Standard toolbar.


A. True B. False
83. You can provide the chart title in the Data Range section.
A. True B. False
84. Slide show refers to a design theme that helps in defining the formatting and layout of all the
elements used for creating a slide.
A. True B. False
85. Hyperlinks cannot be associated with pictures.
A. True B. False
86. The main memory is categorized as ROM and RAM.
A. True B. False
87. Ctrl + H is used to get help on topics related to PowerPoint.
A. True B. False
88. PowerPoint is a part of Windows Operating system.
A. True B. False
89. FSK is a technique that can be considered as a frequency modulated binary PCM.
A. True B. False
90. Doughnut charts can represent multiples series of data.
A. True B. False
91. Up Arrow, Down Arrow, Right arrow, Left arrow key is used to move to the first cell in the
A. True B. False
92. Text area is not a chart component.
A. True B. False
93. A firewall in not useful for preventing unauthorized users from accessing internal networks.
A. True B. False
94. When you insert an Excel file into a Word document, the data are placed as an embedded
A. True B. False
95. CPU is the heart of any computer system,
A. True B. False
96. Registers are high speed memory.
A. True B. False
97. A smart card contains a small processor that holds certain information.
A. True B. False
98. MS-Windows is an open source, GNU license operating system,
A. True B. False
99. In MS-Word, multiple columns cannot be viewed in the page layout view.
A. True B. False
100. Even and Odd pages in MS-WORD can have different footers.
A. True B. False

1. MIPS stands for
A) Millions of Instruction Per Second B) Multiple Instructions Per Second
C) Multiple Information Per Second D) None of above
2. Computers speed in measured in
A) Minute B) Decond


C) Clock cycld D) None of above

3. Which of the following memories must be refreshed many times per second?
A) Static RAM B) Dynamic RAM
4. Which of the following devices can be used to directly input printed text?
C) MICR D) None of the above
5. A light pen
A) Is a pointing device B) Is an optical scanner.
C) Uses magnetic ink D) None of the above
6. An input device that uses switch contacts placed under a plastic pad which may be inscribed
with symbols is known as:
A) Punched card B) Touch pad
C) Punched paper tape D) None of the above
7. When sharing data in Office, the .. document is the document in which the data was
first entered.
A) Source B) Destination
C) Original D) Primary
8. Which option enables automatic updates in destination documents?
A) Embedding B) Objects
C) Links D) Relationships
9. Which is true when you insert an excel worksheet into a word document?
A) Word is the destination document B) Excel is the destination document
C) The document is the source document D) The document is the source document
10. Pictures or drawings, typically displayed on a VDU to allow users to select program options
is called
A) Graphics B) HIPO charts
C) Icons D) None of the above
11. Which command is used to establish a link between a source document and a destination
A) Tools, Link, Documents B) Tools, Link
C) Edit, link D) Edit, Paste Special
12. For large networks, . Topology is used.
A) Bus B) Star
C) Ring D) None of the above
13. A monitor looks like a TV set but it does not
A) Receiver TV signals B) Give a clear picture
C) Display graphics D) None of the above
14. Which of the following function will return a value of 8?
A) ROUNDUP (8.4999,0) B) ROUNDDOWN (8.4999,0)
C) ROUND (8.4999,0) D) Both (b) and (c)
15. What would you use for immediate. Real-time communication with a friend?
A) Instant Messaging B) E-Mail
C) Usenet D) Blog
16. Which of the following a search engine continuously sends out that start on a homepage of a
server and pursue all links stepwise?
A) spiders B) packets
C) cookies D) None of the above


17. Which one of the following can be entered as a number in a cell?

A) 1,300.00 B) (5000.00)
C) 1.1e+2 D) All of the above
18. While typing in a word field manually, what must you press to insert the codes braces?
A) Ctrl + F6 B) Ctrl + F9
C) Alt + F11 D) Shift + F12
19. The disadvantage of dynamic RAM over static RAM is:
A) Higher power consumption B) Variable speed
C) Higher bit density D) None of the above
20. Software instructions intended to satisfy a users specific processing needs are
A) System software B) Microcomputer
C) Documentation D) Application software
21. In Computer terminology, information means
A) Raw B) Data
C) Data in more useful or intelligible form D) Alphanumeric data program
22. CPU reads the information from secondary memory
A) Directly B) First, information is t5ansferred to main
memory and from there, the CPU reads
C) Through registers D) None of these
23. Which of the following is correct?
A) =AVERAGE (4,5,6,7) B) =AVERAGE (A1, B1,C1)
C) =AVERANGE (A1:A9, B1:B9 D) = All of the above
24. A plotter is
A) An input device to produce good quality B) An output device to produce drawings and
graphics graphics
C) A fast out0put device using camera lenses D)
25. Which of the following is a part of the Central Processing Unit
A) Keyboard B) Printer
C) Tape D) Arithmetic Logic Unit
26. What is the max data capacity of STP?
A) 10 mbps B) 100 mbps
C) 1000 mbps D) 10000 mbps
27. Supercomputers are primarily useful for
A) Input-output intensive processing B) Mathematical intensive scientific
C) Data retrieval operations D) None of these
28. You will probably use Borders in Word where
A) you wish to add emphasis to particular B) you wish to draw lines above and below or
paragraphs to left and right of paragraphs you
C) wish to surround the paragraphs with D) All of the above
different styles of boxes
29. Before creating a master document \, you must switch to
A) Normal view B) Outline view
C) Web Layout view D) Print Layout view
30. The length of a files name under Win 95/98/XP
A) is limited to 11 characters B) is limited to 255 characters
C) is not limited in length D) Can contain only one space


31. Using Borders in Excel you

A) can add lines above, below or to either side B) can add a single line or multiple lines, along
of a cell one side of a cell or around it
C) Both a and b above are correct D) None of the above
32. The portion of LAN management software restricts access, records user activities
and audit data etc.
A) Configuration management B) Security management
C) Performance management D) None of the above
33. After a table has been created, which of the following operations cannot be performed?
A) Insert rows in a table B) Delete and insert columns
C) Split the table into two tables D) None of the above
34. The Magnifier button is available on the
A) Print Preview toolbar B) Standard toolbar
C) Formatting toolbar D) None of the above
35. Most Web-enabled devices follows a standard known as
A) Five Wire B) Bluetooth
C) TCP/IP D) Wi-Fi
36. A relatively new technology that allows wireless connectivity is called
A) Bluetooth B) Blacktooth
C) Blueband D) Broadband
37. Which of the following can be used to navigate documents?
A) Frames B) hyperlinks
C) Web toolbar D) all of the above
38. In the print dialog box of Word, you can select
A) All page in a range B) Odd pages
C) Even pages D) Any of the above
39. A standalone program that has been modified to work on a LAN by inlcuding concurrency
controls such as file and record locking is an example of ..
A) LAN intrinsic software B) LAN aware software
C) Groupware D) LAN ignorant software
40. A credit card-sized expansion board that is inserted into portable computers that connects the
modem to the telephone wall jack is the ..
A) Internal modem B) External modem
C) PC Card modem D) Wireless modem
41. A modem that is contained within the system unit is called a(n) modem.
A) external B) Internal
C) Wireless D) Wi-Fi
42. The ability to combine name and addresses with a standard document is called..
A) document formatting B) database management
C) mail merge D) form letters
43. In Word Drop caps applied to
A) Characters B) sentences
C) Words D) None of the above
44. A Word file can be save as a Web page which is a document that consist of one or more
A) That can be read by a Web browser such B) Saved in HTML format
as the Internet Explorer
C) Which helps distribute information over D) All of the above
the Internet

45. Single spacing in MS-Word document causes point line spacing?

A) 10 B) 12
C) 14 D) 16
46. X.25 is an example of . Network
A) Circuit switched B) Packet switched
C) Message switched D) None of the above
47. The purpose of the MOVE command is to
A) move one or more files to the location you B) rename directories
C) Both C) None of the above
48. A system unit of a personal computer typically contains all of the following except:
A) Microprocessor B) Disk controller
C) Serial interface D) Modem
49. S/MIME in Internet technology stands for?
A) Secure Multipurpose Internet Mail B) Secure Multimedia Internet Mail Extension.
C) Simple Multimedia Internet Mail D) Simple Multimedia Internet Mail Extension.
50. The online non-commercial interaction between local and central government and the
commercial business sector, rather than private individuals is part of model.
A) Government-to-Citizen or Government-to- B) Government-to-Business (G2B)
Consumer (G2C)
C) Government-to-Government )G2G) D) Government-to-Employees(G2E)
51. The FTP protocol is used to transfer, access and manage files.
A. True B. False
52. VDU stands for Very Dull Unit.
A. True B. False
53. Bandwidth allows multiple users to transmit over the same wireless channel using spread
A. True B. False
54. Netscape Messenger is the e-mail client packaged with Netscape Communicator 4.0.
A. True B. False
55. MIB is used in SMTP.
A. True B. False
56. CD-ROM stores larger volume of information as compared to Floppy disk and Hard disk.
A. True B. False
57. The protocol used to transfer HTML pages is called Hyperlink.
A. True B. False
58. ARP is an Internet protocol used to map an IP address to a MAC address.
A. True B. False
59. 3-D charts have a category (X) axis a value (y) axis and a third (Z) axis.
A. True B. False
60. FTP servers store files that you can transfer to or from your computer if you have an FTP
A. True B. False
61. Styles can be used to generate a table of contents quickly in Word.
A. True B. False
62. In Excel, standard width of a column is 18.43.
A. True B. False

63. In Excel, pressing Ctrl + Spacebar select the entire row.

A. True B. False
64. Fetching of an instructions for execution is done by the control unit.
A. True B. False
65. IP address is given to every computer for its unique identification.
A. True B. False
66. STP allows you to upload and download files over the Internet.
A. True B. False
67. The favorites feature of Internet Explorer allows you to save the URLS of Web pages you
visit frequently.
A. True B. False
68. The e-mail component of Internet Explorer is called MSN Messenger.
A. True B. False
69. You can search for a file in Windows even if you know only part of the file name.
A. True B. False
70. HTML files are text files only.
A. True B. False
71. A set of rules is known as protocol.
A. True B. False
72. The act of exploring Web is known as surfing.
A. True B. False
73. A search tool is a specialized web site that helpf you find web pages containing desired
A. True B. False
74. A Web is a program that your computer runs to communicate with Web servers on the
A. True B. False
75. Mail services are available to network users through the application layer.
A. True B. False
76. ADP works on transport layer of OSI reference model.
A. True B. False
77. POP3 protocol is used by outlook express to fetch mails from the mail server.
A. True B. False
78. E-mail can be used to send broadcast messages, but only within your own company.
A. True B. False
79. Telephone network is a multi-cast network.
A. True B. False
80. Chat rooms are actual rooms where chat session takes place.
A. True B. False
81. Hypertext enables you to read and navigate text and visual information in a nonlinear way
base on what you want to know text.
A. True B. False
82. You can have a different header and footer on each sheet of a workbook.
A. True B. False
83. Transmission control protocol is a communication-oriented protocol in the internet and works
with the underlying protocol IP.
A. True B. False
84. IP is a company that provides an Internet connection.


A. True B. False
85. A set of rules is known as protocol.
A. True B. False
86. The data to be drawn as a chart cannot be selected after the chart wizard is started.
A. True B. False
87. Hypertext enables you to read and navigate text and visual information in a nonlinear way
base on what you want to know next.
A. True B. False
88. A smart terminal has in-built processing capability.
A. True B. False
89. An on-line text-based communication between internet users is called as chat.
A. True B. False
90. The Internet is based on IP datagram.
A. True B. False
91. Dial-up connection is always better than leased line.
A. True B. False
92. The remote controls of TVs, VCRs and Stereo use Radio waves.
A. True B. False
93. ATM is based on cell switching.
A. True B. False
94. You cannot use different page-numbering styles in different section of your document.
A. True B. False
95. In Word, a new column inserted in a table retains the format of the column next to which it is
A. True B. False
96. Graphics cannot be placed in headers and footers in MS-Word.
A. True B. False
97. Microcomputer is called micro because it consists of micro-processor.
A. True B. False
98. It is always possible to shrink a document to one page.
A. True B. False
99. At a time you can open a many Word Documents as your Taskbar can display.
A. True B. False
100. Usenet and Internet is the same thing.
A. True B. False

51. You can enlarge the sheet up to 500% while printing.

A. True B. False
52. When you hide a slide it remains in your file, even though it is hidden when you run the
A. True B. False
53. Unitprice is a valid name for a cell or range.
A. True B. False
54. You cannot change the position of the slide images on the Handout master.
A. True B. False
55. When you turn on background printing, you can continue working in PowerPoint while you


A. True B. False
56. E-mail addresses are case sensitive.
A. True B. False
57. The two parts of e-mail address is separated by @ symbol.
A. True B. False
58. In SMTP, the message can be of any length.
A. True B. False
59. You can draw objects in a presentation by using the Design toolbar.
A. True B. False
60. To create a new worksheet, select worksheet from the file menu.
A. True B. False
61. In a multi-page document, the dotted line extends on a page is called as soft page break.
A. True B. False
62. Numerals have the same width in a proportionally spaced font.
A. True B. False
63. In Word, the ruler is displayed by default.
A. True B. False
64. Even and odd pages can have different footers in Word.
A. True B. False
65. Headers and footers are displayed in the normal view in Word.
A. True B. False
66. Page preview shows the page in SYSIWYG mode.
A. True B. False
67. You can use the AutoFormat command to analyze the formatting in the document and
automatically create styles for you.
A. True B. False
68. Print Preview of Word does not allow you to do any editing.
A. True B. False
69. To fill a formula into a range, select the cell that contains the formula and then drag the fill
handle downward, upward, right or left far as you need.
A. True B. False
70. In Word, the easiest way to resize a picture is by dragging its edges to match the size and
shape you want.
A. True B. False
71. Email messages that cannot be delivered to the recipient because of a temporary error, such
as a full mail-box is called soft bounces.
A. True B. False
72. You can draw an image using the light pen by moving it over the screen.
A. True B. False
73. 1 MHz CPU can process one million instruction in a second.
A. True B. False
74. CPU speed is not measured in Megahertz or Giaghertz.
A. True B. False
75. The data, which is available in the main memory is much faster then secondary memory.
A. True B. False
76. The data once stored in the CD-r discs cannot be erased.
A. True B. False


77. DVD-ROM is an optical disc that is a capable of storing data from 4.7 GB to 17 GB.
A. True B. False
78. DVD-R uses WROM technology.
A. True B. False
79. The Blue-ray disc used to record, store and playback high-definition video, digital audio and
computer data.
A. True B. False
80. A binary digit (0,1) the smallest unit for storing data
A. True B. False
81. In the INTERNET, IP address is used to forward data packets in intermediate routers,
A. True B. False
82. Immediate access store is also known as main memory of the computer.
A. True B. False
83. Pen drive is a type of flash memory data storage device integrated with a USB connector.
A. True B. False
84. MAC address on a network is the computers unique hardware number.
A. True B. False
85. In remote login, Telnet is used to access distant servers,
A. True B. False
86. The data to be drawn as a chart cannot be selected after the chart wizard is strarted.
A. True B. False
87. An Isotropic antenna is a point in space that radiates power in all directions equally.
A. True B. False
88. Star topology requires a multipoint connection.
A. True B. False
89. BD-ROM disc is read-only and no data writing can be done.
A. True B. False
90. When a formatted number does not fit within a cell, it displays #DIV/0.
A. True B. False
91. Cathode Ray Tube and Liquid Crystal Display are types of mouse available in the market.
A. True B. False
92. The well-known non-impact printers are inkjet laser printers.
A. True B. False
93. Voiceband is used in special leased lines to connect minicomputers and mainframes.
A. True B. False
94. An affordable technology that uses existing telephone lines to provide high-speed
connections is called microwave.
A. True B. False
95. The capacity of communication channel is measured in baud rate.
A. True B. False
96. The greatest capacity for data transmission happens in voice band devices.
A. True B. False
97. The standard protocol for the Internet is IP protocol.
A. True B. False
98. USB stands for Uniform Serial Bus.
A. True B. False
99. Christopher sholes invented QWERTY keyboard.
A. True B. False


100. Mouse was created by Ralph H.Baer in 1967.

A. True B. False


1.A, 2. A, 3. D, 4. D, 5. A, 6. B, 7. C, 8. D, 9.B, 10.B, 11.A, 12. D, 13. A, 14. B, 15. A, 16.
D,17.D,18. A, 19. A, 20. B, 21. B, 22. A, 23. B, 24. B, 25. B, 26. D, 27. D,28. B, 29. C, 30.
C, 31. C, 32.D, 33. C, 34. D, 35. D, 36. A, 37. B, 38. B, 39. D, 40. B, 41. D, 42. C, 43. B,
44. B, 45. B, 46. D ,47. C,48. C, 49.C, 50.C,