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W hat Can Be Done? 3 -9

Land mines kill or maim

some 26,000 people each
year. Most victims are
civilianseven children.

D avid C h a n c e llo r/A lp h a

Will the threat of land
mines ever be eliminated?

C over: C o p yrig h t A dria n B rooks P h o to g rap h y

A Footstep Away From Death 3

How to Cope Land M ines W eighing the C o st 4
With Despair 20
An Earth Free of Land M ines 8
Despair is common to all
A S a ilin g -S h ip Extravaganza 10
humans. How can the Bible
help you to deal with intense You Are G oing to D ie! 12
feelings of despondency? 14
When L ittle B ro th e r Com es Home
The D ram atic H istory
of a Land of C o n tra s ts 16
W hat Can a Bird Teach a P risoner? 25
Loidas Journey Are You Lactose Intolerant? 26
out of Silence 22
W a tch in g the World 28
From birth, Loida could From Our Readers 30
not communicate. What
helped her to break through AIDS in A fric a -W h a t Hope
for the New M illennium ? 31
her 18-year silence?
How to Enjoy a Happy Fam ily Life 32

Awake! M ay 8, 2000
IC R C /D a v id Higgs
Sometimes I dream that I have two legs again.
. . . Years ago, when I was very small, I went to play
with my friends close to my house. All of a sudden
BOOM . . . The whole of m y right leg was blown off.
Song Kosal, 12, Cambodia.

E ach day, o n th e average, som e 70 p e o p le are m a im e d o r killed by lan d

m ines. M o s t v ictim s a re n o t soldiers. In stead , th ey a re civ ilian s m e n ten d in g
c a ttle , w o m en g e ttin g w ater, a n d c h ild ren playing. F o r ex am ple, eight-year-old
R u kia, fe a tu re d o n o u r cover, was m aim e d by a m in e th a t killed h e r th re e

b ro th e rs a n d h e r a u n t.

A lan d m in e c a n rem a in active fo r m o re th a n 50 years a fte r it is p la n te d .

T h u s, it is th e o n ly w e a p o n in existence w hich kills m o re p e o p le a fte r a c o n
flict ends th a n w hile it is fo u g h t, n o tes The Defense Monitor. N o o n e know s

ho w m an y lan d m in e s are p la n te d w orldw ide. It is n o t u n c o m m o n to h e a r

e stim a tes o f a t least 60 m illion. True, m an y lan d m in es a re b ein g rem oved.

A s re c e n tly as 1997, how ever, th e U n ited N a tio n s re p o rte d th a t fo r every
m in e c leared , 20 a re laid. In 1994, ap p ro x im ately 100,000 w ere rem o v ed , w hile

an a d d itio n a l 2 m illio n w ere p la n te d .

W hy a re la n d m in es th e w eap o n o f choice fo r m an y m o d ern -d ay w arlords?

W h a t a re th e e c o n o m ic a n d social costs? H ow a re su rv iv o rs affected? W ill o u r
On December 26 ,1993, six-year-old Augusto was strolling
through an open field near Luanda, the capital of Angola.
Suddenly he noticed a shiny object on the ground. Intrigued,
he decided to pick It up. His next movement set off a land mine.
As a result of the blast, Augusto had to have his right foot
amputated. Now 12 years old, he Is confined to a wheelchair
much of the time, and he is blind.

A U G U S T O was m aim ed by an antiper- dental. According to the boo k Landm inesA

/ \ sonnel land m ine, so nam ed because Deadly Legacy, some explosives are aim ed de
1. its prim e target is people rath er than liberately at civilians in order to em pty terri
tanks o r oth er m ilitary vehicles. It is estim at tory, d estro y fo o d so u rces, c re a te refu g ee
ed th a t to date, m ore th an 350 types o f anti flows, or sim ply spread terror.
p erso n n el land m ines have been m an u fac To cite one example, in a C am bodian con
tu red in at least 50 countries. M any o f these flict, m ines were placed aro u n d the perim e
are designed to w ound, n o t kill. W hy? Be ters o f enemy villages, and then these villages
cause injured soldiers need assistance, and a were bom barded w ith artillery fire. A ttem p t
soldier m aim ed by a land m ine will slow down ing to escape, civilians fled straight into the
m ilita ry o p e ra tio n s ju s t w h a t th e enem y minefields. M eanwhile, in an effort to force
wants. Furtherm ore, the desperate cries of a the governm ent to the bargaining table, m em
w ounded com batant can strike terror into the bers o f the K hm er Rouge placed m ines in rice
h eart o f his com rades. Hence, land mines are paddies, striking fear into the hearts o f farm
usually considered m ost effective when the ers and virtually halting agriculture.
victim s surviveeven if ju st barely. W hat happened in Som alia in 1988 was p e r
As noted in the preceding article, however, haps even m ore heinous. W hen Hargeysa was
m ost victim s o f land-m ine explosions are ci bom bed, residents were forced to flee. Sol
vilians, n o t soldiers. This is n o t always acci diers then p lanted land m ines in the aban-
---------------------------------------------------------------- A w ake!----------------------------------------------------------------
W hy Awake! Is Published Awake! is for the enlightenment of the entire family. It shows how to cope with
todays problems. It reports the news, tells about people in many lands, examines religion and science. But it does more.
It probes beneath the surface and points to the real meaning behind current events, yet it always stays politically neutral
and does not exalt one race above another. Most important, this magazine builds confidence in the Creators promise of
a peaceful and secure new world that is about to replace the present wicked, lawless system of things.
Unless otherwise indicated, New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures With References is used.

Awake!(ISSN 0005-237X ) is published sem im onthly by Watchtower Bible and Tract Society of New York, Inc.; M ilton G. Henschel, President; Lyman
A. Swingle, Secretary-Treasurer; 25 Columbia Heights, Brooklyn, NY 11201-2483. Periodicals Postage Paid at Brooklyn, N.Y., and at additional m ail
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Vol. 81, No. 9 Printed in U.S.A. 2000 Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania. All rights reserved. Sem im onthly ENGLISH

4 Awake! M ay 8, 2000
31 a Em 40
Average number of land mines per square mile
source: unitedNationsDepartment
o f H um anitarian Affairs, 1 9 9 6
in the nine most densely mined countries

doned hom es. W hen the fighting ended, the may not sound too expensive to some. But for
refugees re tu rn e d , o n ly to b e m aim e d o r m ost o f the population o f Angola, $125 repre
killed by hidden explosives. sents m ore than th ree m o n th s wages!
But land m ines th reaten m ore th an life and Consider also the agonizing social cost. Cit
limb. C onsider som e o th er effects o f these sin izens in one Asian land, for instance, avoid so
ister weapons. cializing with am putees for fear o f being con
tam inated by bad luck. M arriage m ight be
Economic and Social Cost
ju st an elusive dream for an am putee. I dont
Kofi A nnan, secretary-general o f the U nit p la n to m a rry , la m e n ts an A n g o lan m an
ed Nations, notes: The presenceor even the whose leg had to be am putated after he was
fear o f the presenceo f a single landm ine can injured in a land-m ine explosion. A wom an
prevent the cultivation o f an entire field, rob a wants a m an who can w ork.
whole village o f its livelihood, place yet an o th
U nderstandably, m any victim s suffer feel
er obstacle on a co u n try s road to reconstruc
ings o f low self-worth. I can no longer feed
tion and developm ent. Thus, in A fghanistan
my family, says a C am bodian m an, and this
and Cam bodia, about 35 percent m ore land
m akes me asham ed. Som etim es such feel
could be cultivated if farm ers did not fear to ings can be even m ore debilitating th an the
tread on the soil. Some take the risk. Im ter loss o f a limb. I believe th a t the greatest dam
rified o f m ines, says a C am bodian farm er. age I experienced was em otional, says A r
But if I dont go ou t to cut grass and bam boo, tur, a victim in M ozam bique. M any tim es I
we wont survive. would becom e irritated sim ply because som e
O ften, survivors o f land-m ine explosions one looked my way. I thought th a t no one had
face a crushing financial burden. For example, any respect for me anym ore and th at I would
in a developing country, a child who loses a leg never again have a norm al life.*
at ten years o f age may need up to 15 artificial
* For more information on dealing with the loss of a limb, see
limbs during his or her lifetime, each o f which the cover series entitled Hope for the Disabled, appearing on
will cost, on the average, $125. G ranted, that pages 3-10 of the June 8, 1999, issue of Awake!

Would you welcome more information? Write Watch Tower at the appropriate address.
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* Audiocassettes also available. St. Catherine Avondale

Awake! M ay 8, 2000 5
What About Demining? take a century. T he worldwide picture is even
In recent years intensive efforts have been m ore dismal. It is estim ated th a t using c u r
p u t forth to encourage nations to ban the use rent technology, dem ining the planet w ould
o f land mines. In addition, some governm ents cost $33 billion and take m ore th an a th o u
have b e g u n th e d a n g e ro u s ta sk o f rem ov sand years!
ing those m ines th at have been planted. But G ranted, innovative techniques for clear
several obstacles stand in the way. One has ing m ines have been p roposed from the use
to do w ith time. D em ining is painfully slow. of fruit flies th a t are genetically m anipulated
In fact, dem iners estim ate that, on the aver to detect explosives to the use o f giant radio-
age, it takes a hundred tim es longer to clear a controlled vehicles th a t w ould dem ine five
m ine th an to plant one. A n other obstacle is
acres per hour. It may be som e time, though,
expense. A single m ine costs betw een $3 and
before such techniques can be used on a large
$ 15, b u t to rem ove one can cost up to $ 1,000.
scale, and they will likely be available only to
T hus, to ta l dem ining seem s virtually im the richest countries.
possible. To clear all the m ines in C am b o
In m ost places, therefore, dem ining is ac
dia, for example, would require th a t everyone
com plished the old-fashioned way. A m an
in th a t country devote his entire incom e to
this task for the next several years. It is es craw ls on his belly probing the soil a h ead
tim ated th a t even if the finances were avail w ith a stick, inch by inch, clearing 200 to
able, rem oving all th e m in es th e re w ould 500 square feet a day. D angerous? Yes! F or
every 5,000 m ines cleared, one d e m in e r is
killed and two are injured.
M aking M oney Tw ice?
Efforts to Unite Against Land Mines
A b asic p rin c ip le o f b u s in e s s is th a t co m In D ecem ber 1997, representatives from a
p a n ie s are lia b le w h e n th e ir p ro d u c ts cause num ber o f countries signed the Convention
h a rm . Thus, Lou M cG ra th , o f th e M in e s Ad on the P rohibition o f the Use, Stockpiling,
v is o ry G ro u p , a rg u e s t h a t c o m p a n ie s P roduction and Transfer o f A nti-P ersonnel
th a t have p ro fite d fro m m a n u fa c tu rin g land
M ines and on T heir D estruction, also known
m in e s s h o u ld be o b lig e d to pay re p a ra tio n s .
Iro n ica lly, th o u g h , m any o f th e m a n u fa c tu r
as the O ttaw a treaty. This is an achievem ent
e rs ha ve b e e n th e v e ry o n e s to p ro fit fro m w ith o u t p reced en t o r parallel in e ith e r in
d e m in in g . For e x a m p le , a fo rm e r m in e p ro ternational disarm am ent or international hu
d u c e r fro m G erm any re p o rte d ly g o t a $ 1 0 0 - m anitarian law, says Jean C hretien, prim e
m illio n d e m in in g c o n tra c t in K u w a it. And in m inister o f C anada* Still, nearly 60 countries
M o z a m b iq u e a $ 7 .5 - m illio n c o n tr a c t fo r including some o f the w orlds greatest land
c le a rin g p rio rity ro a d s w e n t to a c o n s o rtiu m mine m anufacturers have not yet signed the
o f th re e c o m p a n ie s tw o o f w h ich had d e ve l
op e d m in e s.
S o m e fe e l th a t it is g ro ssly im m o ra l fo r th e Will the O ttaw a treaty succeed in elim inat
c o m p a n ie s th a t m a n u fa c tu re land m in e s to ing the scourge o f land m ines? P erhaps to
be th e o n e s to m a ke m o n e y c le a rin g th e m . some extent. But m any are skeptical. Even if
In a s e n se , th e y c la im , la n d -m in e d e v e lo p e rs all the countries o f the world would adhere
are m a k in g m o n e y tw ic e . Be th a t as it may, to the proceedings o f O ttaw a, p o in ts o u t
bo th th e m a n u fa c tu rin g a n d th e d is a rm in g Claude Sim onnot, a codirector o f H andicap
o f la n d m in e s c o n tin u e to be th riv in g b u s i
nesses. * The treaty went into effect on March 1, 1999. As of Janu
ary 6, 2000, it had been signed by 137 countries and ratified by
90 of them.
6 Awake! M ay 8, 2000
International, in France, th a t would be only the m ost secret places o f the hum an heart,
one step in the direction o f freeing the plan . . . where pride reigns, w here em otion is p a ra
et from all danger o f m ines. Why? M illions m ount, where instinct is king. Treaties can
of m ines rem ain buried in the soil, patiently not reverse such deeply en tren ch ed h u m an
waiting for future victim s, Sim onnot says. traits as h atred and greed. But does this m ean
M ilitary historian John Keegan brings up th at hum ans will forever be helpless victims
another factor. W arfare, he says, reaches into o f land mines?

Background: IC R C /P aul Grabhorn

ICRC/Till M ayer
In Cambodia, graphic posters and
signs warn of land mines

For every 5 ,000 mines cleared, one

deminer is killed and two are injured
IC R C /P h ilip p e D utoit
H ill h rJ
HO can solve the problem of land sals from a well-armed enemy nation. On the

W mines? As we have seen, hum an ef contrary, God-given peace involves changes in

forts cannot root out hatred, bigot the way people think and in the attitudes th at
ry, and greed. Students of the Bible, however,
realize th at the C reator can bring a lasting so
they hold tow ard fellow hum ans.
Jehovah G od will educate m eek ones in his
lution. But how will he do so? ways of peace. (Psalm 25:9) His Word, the Bi
Establishing a Peaceful Society ble, promises a tim e when all those alive will
Wars are fought by people, not by weapons. be persons taught by Jehovah, and the peace of
If we want to see peace, therefore, the hatred your sons will be abundant. (Isaiah 54:13) To
th at divides m ankind into racial, tribal, and na an extent, this is already taking place. W orld
tional groups m ust be done away with. G od wide, Jehovahs W itnesses are known for pro
prom ises to do this by m eans o f his Kingdom, moting peace among people o f even the m ost
for which millions throughout the world have diverse backgrounds. People who are taught
been taught to pray. M atthew 6:9,10. the lofty principles o f the Bible strive to live in
The Bible speaks of Jehovah as the God unity regardless o f issues th at would otherw ise
who gives peace. (Rom ans 15:33) The peace divide them. Bible education changes their en
that G od offers is not based upon bans and tire outlook from one of hatred to one o f love.
treaties, nor is it founded upon fear of repri John 13:34, 35; 1 C orinthians 13:4-8.
Besides education, the need for global col
laboration has long been regarded as a key ele-
ment in the elim ination o f weapons. For exam m arvelous prom ises o f the Bible. (M ark 3:
ple, the International C om m ittee of the Red 1-5) O f course, at present he m ust endure the
Cross recom m ends th at the international com painful effects o f the land-mine explosion th at
m unity unitedly prom ote preventative and cu m aim ed him. Nevertheless, A ugusto looks for
rative m easures in dealing w ith the threat of ward to the day when G o d s prom ise o f a para
land mines. dise earth will be a reality. At th at tim e, fore
Jeh o v ah p ro m ise s to do fa r m ore. T h e told the prophet Isaiah, the eyes of the blind
prophet Daniel foretold: The G od of heav ones will be opened, and . . . the lam e one will
en will set up a kingdom th at will never be climb up ju st as a stag does.Isaiah 35:5, 6.
brought to ru in __ It will crush and put an end In th at coming Paradise, land mines will no
to all these [existing] kingdoms, and it itself more pose a th reat to life and limb. Instead,
will stand to tim es indefinite. Daniel 2:44. people living in all corners of the globe will re
G ods Kingdom will accom plish w hat m an side in security. The prophet M icah described
cannot. For example, prophetically Psalm 46:9 it this way: They will actually sit, each one un
says: He [Jehovah] is m aking wars to cease to der his vine and under his fig tree, and there
the extremity of the earth. The bow he breaks will be no one m aking them trem ble; for the
apart and does cut the spear in pieces; the wag very m outh o f Jehovah o f arm ies has spoken
ons he burns in the fire. G o d s Kingdom will it.M icah 4:4.
bring about a clim ate w herein m an can tru Would you like to learn m ore about G o d s
ly enjoy peace w ith his C reator and with his prom ises as set forth in his Word, the Bible?
fellowman.Isaiah 2:4; Zephaniah 3:9; Reve C ontact Jehovahs W itnesses locally, or write
lation 21:3,4; 22:2. to th e a p p ro p ria te a d d re ss
Augusto, m entioned in the introduction to listed on page 5 of
the preceding article, finds com fort in this Bi this m agazine.
ble message. His parents, who are Jehovahs
Witnesses, are helping him to put faith in the

Under Gods Kingdom, land mines

A Sailing-Ship
By A wake/correspondent in France

U L Y 1 999 SA W M A N Y O F T H E M O S T

/ B E A U T IF U L S A I L I N G S H I P S I N T H E


n o r th e r n Fr a n c e , fo r a su m p

tu o u s F E S T IV A L C A L L E D T H E

A rm ada of th e Ce n tu r y .

Th ir t y g r e a t s a il in g s h ip s


M I L E S O F Q U A Y S F IT T E D O U T F O R The Mexican three-masted bark Cuauhtemoc

T H E O C C A S IO N . m
i ' . ,

M a p s on p ages 1 0 ,1 7 ,
an d 3 1 : M o u n ta in H i g h
M a p s C o p yrig h t 1 9 9 7
H onfleur D ig ita l W isd o m , In c.

The graceful "Eto//e /Wo/ene

had been resurrected from
a watery grave

A painting of the port of Rouen from 1 8 5 5 ,

when sailing ships navigated the Seine
C h a rle s -L o u is M o zin , P o rt d e R ouen , vue g e n e ra te R o u en , M u s e e d es B eau x-A rts

Awake! M ay 8, 2000
The event was billed as the m aritim e ex Some of the old ships present in Rouen
travaganza o f the m illennium . C oncerts, had been saved from a watery grave. For ex
fireworks, nautical events, and exhibitions ample, determ ined enthusiasts rescued the
of m aritime paintings and photographs were Uruguayan Capitan Miranda by restoring the
scheduled during the event. magnificent vessel. The Molene, which
Friday, July 9, was m arked by the majes sank in the early 1980s in the p o rt of Douar-
tic arrival of the sailing ships. Over the next nenez, Brittany, was refloated and given a
ten days, m illions o f visitors from France new lease on life, th an k s to m uch loving
and other E uropean countries flocked to the care.
quays. A local association of am ateur radio op
Some of the shipssuch as the erators decided th at during the festival they
dziezy (Poland), the Khersones (Ukraine), the would establish a radio connection between
Statsraad Lehmkuhl (Norway), and the Liber- the ship Mir and the orbiting Russian space
tad (Argentina)are seafaring giants mea station, Mir.Finally, at 10:27 p.m., on July 17,
suring 300 feet in length, with the tallest the link was made between the three-m asted
mast rising 160 feet above the water. ship and her sister sh ip in space. C ap
Tall ships were present from 16 countries, tain Zorokhov was able to speak with Com
including Belgium, G erm any, Ireland, Por m ander Afanassiev, who was in the space
tugal, Russia, Uruguay, and Venezuela. The station some 220 miles above.
Netherlands was the m ost represented coun The Arm ada reached its climax on Sun
try, with six ships. Among these were the day, Ju ly 18, w ith a p a ra d e dow n th e
handsom e three-m asted b ark Europa and Seine River, from Rouen to the open sea.
the old Oosterschelde, a three-m asted to p Hundreds of thousands o f people lined the
sail schooner launched in 1918, which used 75-mile-long route, waving at the crews on
to carry wood, salted herring, clay, cereals, the ships as they passed by old N orm an vil
hay, and fruit between Africa, the M editer lages, abbeys, and chateaus.
ranean, and northern Europe. Afterward, the splendid sailing ships left
The A rm ada provided an exceptional op for a regatta, a film, or some other extrava
p o rtu n ity for visitors to satisfy th eir cu ganza in a distant port. The quays returned
riosity. The gangplanks were p u t down, and to their regular business. But Rouen will re
everyone could easily visit the decks, free of m em ber that, at least for ten days, it was the
charge. crossroads of the sailing world.
Some of the ships have been featured in
m otion pictures. The Norwegian ship Chris Rouen, the city of D G AUTHIER M A R IN E S /
P hoto Jo G a u th ie r
tian Radich, for example, had a starring role one hundred steeples,
in the 1958 film Windjammer. The old wood became a forest
en Kaskelot (sperm whale in Danish) has of masts
been in several movies, including the French 22
film Beaumarchais linsolent and a remake of
Treasure Island.
The Polish three-masted Iskra is unique in
that her three masts have different riggings.
The foresail mast is square-rigged, the main
mast has a gaff (trapezoidal) rig, and the miz
zenmast has a Bermuda (triangular) sail.

Awake! M ay 8, 2000 11


My search for the best available treatment
without blood in Spain
F YOU could take a trip anywhere in the world, where

T would you choose to go? For me the answer was sim

ple. I teach Spanish in school, and along with my hus
band, Jay, and my son Joel, I attend a Spanish-language con
gregation of Jehovahs Witnesses in Galax, Virginia, U.S.A.
My longing, then, was to travel to Spain. So you can imag
ine how thrilled I was when my parents offered to take
me there! Although my husband and son could not come
along, my dream was about to come true as my parents and
I boarded a direct flight to Madrid. U pon our arrival on
April 21, we decided to drive to Estella, a small town in Na
varre, in northern Spain. I made myself comfortable in the
back seat and prom ptly dozed off.
The next memory I have is of lying in a field, with the sun
shining in my eyes. W here am I? How did I get here? Am I
dreaming? As these questions raced through my mind, a
horrible reality settled in. Something was wrong, and this
was no dream. My left sleeve was torn to shreds, and I
couldnt move my arms or my legs. Later, I learned that our
car had crashed through a guardrail and that I had been
With my husband thrown from the vehicle as it tumbled down a 65-foot embankm ent. Thank-
and son fully, neither I nor my parents have any recollection of the accident.
I called out for help, and a truck driver rushed over to me. Then he de
scended farther down the embankment to the car, where my parents were
trapped. Tell the ambulance to hurry! he shouted to his partner. The peo
ple in the car are in bad shape! Then he came back to where I lay paralyzed,
and with good intentions, he tried to straighten my leg. I screamed in agony,
realizing for the first time how badly I was hurt.
Soon I was in the emergency room in the local hospital in Logrono. The
police kindly notified Jehovahs Witnesses in the area of where I was and
what had happened. Before long, many from the congregations in Estella and
Logrono were at my bedside, along with the local Hospital Liaison C om m it
tee. Indeed, throughout my ordeal at this hospital, dear fellow Christians
whom I had never before met were ready and willing to care for my needs,
around the clock. They also lovingly cared for my parents, who recovered
sufficiently to be released from the hospital about a week after the accident.
12 Awake! M ay 8, 2000
About 1:00 a.m. on Wednesday, the doctors came to operate on my bro
ken hip. I told the doctor th at I did not want to receive blood.* He reluctant
ly agreed to honor my request, although he told me that I would likely die.
I survived the surgery, but I found it strange that my wounds were not
cleaned, nor were my bandages later changed.
By Friday my blood count had dropped to 4.7, and I was losing strength.
The doctor agreed to give me an alternative treatm entinjections o f eryth
ropoietin (EPO), which, along with iron and blood-building supplem ents,
stimulates red blood cell production.* By now, Jay and Joel had arrived.
How good it was to see my husband and my son!
At approximately 1:30 a.m., a doctor told Jay that the hospital had already
obtained a court order to adm inister blood if my condition worsened. Jay
told him that my wishes were that I not receive blood under any circum
stances. Then she will die! the doctor replied.
Jay talked to the Hospital Liaison Com m ittee about transferring me to
another facilityone th at would respect my wishes. N ot that everyone at
this hospital was antagonistic. One doctor, for example, assured me th at she
would do her utm ost to make sure that I was treated with all the respect I
deserved. But soon other doctors were pressuring me. Do you want to die
and leave your family behind? they asked. I assured them that I wanted the
best treatm ent available w ithout blood. The doctors were not moved to
help. You are going to die! one stated bluntly.
The Hospital Liaison Com m ittee found a hospital in Barce
lona that agreed to treat me w ithout blood. W hat a contrast
between the two hospitals! In Barcelona two nurses gently
washed me and made me feel comfortable. W hen changing my
bandages, one of the nurses saw that they were green and
caked with dried blood. She said that she was ashamed that
her fellow countrym en had treated me this way.
Soon I was receiving the medical treatm ent that was sup
posed to have been started at the hospital in Logrono. The re
sults were dramatic. W ithin days my vital organs were out of
danger, and my hemoglobin count had gone up to 7.3. By the
time I left the hospital, it had risen to 10.7. W hen I needed
more surgery at a hospital in the United States, it was up to
I am grateful for the efforts of doctors and nurses who are
willing to accom m odate the wishes of their patients, whether
they agree with them or not. W hen the hospital staff respect a patients be Two members
liefs, they are treating the whole personand thus they are providing the of the Hospital
Liaison Committee
best treatm ent available.
* For Bible-based reasons, Jehovahs Witnesses refuse blood transfusions.See Genesis 9:4; Leviti
cus 7:26,27; 17:10-14; Deuteronomy 12:23-25; 15:23; Acts 15:2 0 ,2 8 ,2 9 ; 21:25.
* Whether a Christian will accept EPO or not is a personal decision.See The Watchtower of
October i, 1994, page 31.
Awake! M ay 8, 2000 13
W hen
Little Brother VI

C om es H om e
C o u rte s y : T o u ris m ,
N e w fo u n d la n d an d L a b ra d o r

ACH spring, after seven or eight m onths sure anywhere from 20 inches in length to

E of nom adic life at sea, the puffin returns

to its hom e in A rctic waters. It is breeding
season, and the puffin seems to be dressed up
about four tim es th at size. They line the b u r
row with bedding consisting of grass, twigs,
and feathers. Some puffins nest in cracks un
der boulders or in rocky crevices. Using its
for the occasion. Indeed, its feet have turned
bright orange, and its bill has grown a col bill, the puffin picks its way through dirt and
orful plate, which is later shed. The distinct then shovels the dirt away with its webbed
black-and-white plumage remains year round, feet.
and this gives the puffin a somewhat cleri The courtship o f the puffin couple takes
cal appearance. Perhaps this explains the At place in the water. During the cerem ony the
lantic puffins scientific nam e Fratercula arcti- males flick their heads, puff up their chests,
ca, which means little friar, or brother, of the and flutter their wings, and the couples repeat
north.* edly tap bills. This last ritual, called billing,
Puffins head for their cliffside burrows in continues even after mating. It appears to be
small groups called rafts, each of which com the couples way of affirming a m utual bond.
prises about 20 or 30 birds. E ither during the After an egg is laid, it is literally taken under
journey or upon reaching the burrow, the puf the parents wingsa responsibility shared by
fin will find its mate. Interestingly, many puf father and m other. Six weeks later, when the
fins keep the same burrow and the same chick hatches, the real work begins. The gray-
m ateyear after year. black, soft, down-covered hatchling is b rood
Puffins can fly, but they are clearly not the ed for a week to help it m aintain its body
w orlds greatest aviators. Indeed, their ar tem perature. The parent puffins make an in
rival on shore can resem ble a crash landing! creasing num ber of trips to the sea to secure
Furtherm ore, the puffins takeoff is somewhat enough food for their chick. The fishing expe
clumsy, and at times it seems th at the birds ditions are not too dangerous, since there are
wings will not support its stout body. Some so many puffins going out to sea and back to
puffins even have trouble getting out of the the burrows. It seems that the flurry o f activi
water. But once those wings are beatingand ty makes it difficult for gulls and other preda
they may beat as rapidly as 400 times a m in tors to attack.
ute the puffin can achieve a cruising speed of Puffins are expert swimmers and divers. Us
50 miles per hour. ing their webbed feet as rudders and their
Puffins are obviously m ore com fortable at wings to p ro p e l th em selves, they can re
sea than on land. But come to land they must, main underw ater for more than 30 seconds,
for a puffin couple will have to prepare a bur at d ep th s reaching nearly a h u n d red feet.
row for their young. U pon reaching land, a A puffin may return home with one or two
couple will clean the burrow, which may mea- small fishperhaps capelins or sand lanc
esin its bill. O f course, the smaller the fish,
* The name may also allude to the fact that the puffin clasps
its webbed feet together after emerging from the water, as if in a the m ore the puffin can hold in its beak. One
prayerful stance. was observed with a catch o f m ore than 60!

14 Awake! M ay 8, 2000
C o u rte s y : T o u ris m , N e w fo u n d la n d and L a b ra d o r;
p h o to g ra p h e r: B a rre tt an d M ack ay
Puffins a t Witless Bay, Newfoundland

Backward-pointing spines in its m outh enable

the puffin to hold fish in place while m ore are
being caught. This is a good thing, considering
that a baby puffin can eat 50 fish a day.
After about six weeks, the parent puffins
head back to sea. The fledgling puffin, now left
on its own, slims down in preparation for leav
ing the burrow. In the evenings it does wing
exercises. Finally, under cover o f dark
ness, the puffin tum bles down to the sea
and vigorously paddles away.
Two to three years will elapse before
the young puffin returns to its place of
birth, and it will be four or five years
old before it mates. The m ature puffin
will perhaps weigh a bit over a pound
and stand only about 12 inches high. Even
though it is relatively small, a healthy puf
fin can live for about 25 years. One A tlan
tic puffin survived to the ripe old age of 39!
Experts estim ate the A tlantic puffin pop
ulation to be 20 million. These birds are
fascinating to watch. Even in the m ost or
dinary things the puffin is entertaining,
wrote David Boag and Mike Alexander
in their book The Atlantic Puffin. And
if you live near the no rth ern shores of
the A tlantic or the Pacific, perhaps you
will see one. In any event, one thing is cer
taineach spring, little brother o f the n o rth
will come home, and a new generation o f dark-
feathered seabirds will be born.

Tom V e s Q /C o rn e ll
L a b o ra to ry of O rn ith o lo g y
1 9 9 6 V is u a l Lan g u ag e

The Dramatic History of a

T HAS been called the land o f contrasts and w ith good

I reason. W hile Brazil is m ainly a tropical country, its cli

m ate ranges from subtropical in the south to equatorial in
the Am azon region. Brazils history is m arked by contrasts
as well. Over the years, this vast landcovering an area o f
3,286,502 square miles, w ith a 4,600-mile coastline has b e
com e hom e to people from a num ber o f different cultures.
H ospitality was one o f the first qualities th at the Portuguese
noticed when they set foot in Brazil 500 years ago. Indeed, in
writing to Portuguese King M anuel I in the year 1500, Pero
Vaz de C am inha described native B razilians m ixing freely
with their Portuguese visitors and em bracing them . But w hat
were the Portuguese doing in Brazil?
On M arch 9,1500, Pedro Alvares C abral set sail from P o rtu
gal with a fleet o f ships. His intention was to found a trading
post in Calicut, India. Before reaching his destination, how
ever, Cabral landed on the coast o f w hat is now the Brazilian
state o f Bahia. The date was April 23,1500.
Some researchers say th at the Portuguese already knew o f
Brazils existence and th at C abrals stop there was no acci
dent.* In any event, it seemed th at the only com m odity Brazil
had to offer was brazilwood, a tree known for its crim son-
red dye. W hile this had obvious potential, Indian spices were
w orth more.
So for ten years P o rtu g al leased Brazil to F ern an d o de
N oronha of Portugal, who gathered brazilw ood and paid tax
es to the Portuguese Crown. But other E uropean countries
also wanted to expand their com m erce w ith the New World,
* When the Portuguese and the Spanish signed the Treaty of Tordesillas in 1494, they
divided the land to the west of the South Atlantic. Therefore, some say that Cabral set
out to take possession of land that was already designated to Portugal.
Awake! M ay 8, 2000
1. Pumas are plentiful
in Brazil
C o u rte s y S ao P aulo Zoo
2. Orchids in the
Amazon jungle
3. Traditional dress of
Salvador, Bahia
4. A macaw
5. Copacabana Beach,
Rio de Janeiro.
Brazil has over
4,0 0 0 miles of
beautiful coastline
and N oronha was pow erless to curb the growing illegal trade
carried on by French, English, and Spanish navigators. Fearing
that they m ight lose Brazil, the Portuguese began colonization
in 1532. Sugar production becam e Brazils first lucrative busi
I G old m ining and diam ond m ining becam e thriving busi
Brasiliacapital of Brazil
nesses during the 18th century. By the tu rn o f the 19th cen since 1 9 6 0
tury, the production o f latex from the rubber tree had be
come an im p o rtan t econom ic activity in the A m azon region*
Later, coffee farm ing played a role in the urb an izatio n o f
Brazil, financing railroad construction and the m odernization
of the ports o f Santos and Rio de Janeiro. By the close o f the
19th century, half the w orlds coffee was being harvested in
Brazil, and Sao Paulo was Brazils chief econom ic center.
Sadly, slavery played a p a rt in Brazils history. At first, the
Portuguese settlers used the Indians to cut down and trans
p o rt brazilw ood. L ater, th e In d ian s were p u t to w ork on
sugarcane plantations. Tragically, large num bers o f natives
contracted E uropean diseases and died from them . To replace
these workers, Portugal brought in slaves from Africa.
Over the years m illions o f A fricans were brought to Brazil as
slaves, and they brought their cultural and genetic heritage
with them. T hat influence can be seen in popular m usic such
as the sam ba and in capoeira (a system o f fighting) as well as in
foods such as feijoada, m ade with black beans cooked with
pork, sausage, and jerky. Finally, in 1888, slavery was abol
ished in Brazil. A bout 750,000 peoplem ost o f whom worked
on plantationswere freed.
From the 19th century on, m illions o f foreigners flocked to
Brazil, including G erm ans, Italians, Japanese, Poles, and Span
iards as well as those o f Swiss and Syro-Lebanese descent.
Brazil is a fine place to live. Its flora and fauna are plentiful. As
a rule, Brazil is free o f n atu ral disasters. There are no wars,
earthquakes, volcanoes, cyclones, or tidal waves. So why not
get to know Brazil by visiting som e o f its well-known sights?
You will enjoy the same hospitality and natural beauty th at
Sao Paulothe economic
im pressed the Portuguese 500 years ago. center of Brazil fo to : m o ura

* Set Awake!, May 22, 1997, pages 14-17.

Awake! M ay 8, 2000 19
___________________________________________ ________ ;______________ ____* _____________ > ...........................

How to Cope With Despair

ESPAIR is com m on to all humans, at a traum atic experience, or family problems
D least to a degree. For some, however,
feelings o f despondency become so severe
make them feel as if they were floundering
in the middle o f the ocean, with each wave
that death seems preferable to life. m aking it harder to reach the shore. One
The Bible shows th at even faithful ser man stated: You feel a sense o f w orthless
vants of G od are not im m une to problems nessas though no one will miss you once
and pressures that lead to despair. Consider, you are gone. The loneliness one feels is at
for example, Elijah and Jobboth of whom times unbearable.
enjoyed a good relationship with God. After In some cases circum stances change for
fleeing for his life from wicked Queen Jeze th e b e tte r, relieving th is in te n se p re s
bel, Elijah began to ask [Jehovah] that his sure. But what if our circum stances will not
soul m ight die. (1 Kings 19:1-4) The righ change? How can the Bible help us to cope
teous m an Job experienced a series of trage with despair?
dies, including a loathsom e disease and the
The Bible Can Help
death o f ten children. (Job 1:13-19; 2:7,8) His
Jehovah had the ability and the power to
despair caused him to state: I would pre
sustain E lijah and Job th ro u g h th eir d if
fer death to all my sufferings. (Job 7:15,
ficulties. (1 Kings 19:10-12; Job 42:1-6) How
New English Bible) Clearly, anxiety had be
come quite intense for these faithful men of
For some today, despair may stem from
the painful effects of aging, the death of a
mate, or serious financial difficulties. Others
find th at relentless stress, lingering effects of

comforting th at realization is for us today! Christian meetings. U pon returning home,
The Bible states: G od is for us a refuge M arias feelings of distress would come back
and strength, a help th a t is readily to be full force. However, by focusing on how she
found during distresses. (Psalm 46:1; 55:22) can help others, M aria is able to endure.
Though it may seem th at feelings of despair But what if we find it difficult to pray or
are pulling us under, Jehovah promises that cannot seem to pull ourselves out o f isola
he will keep fast hold of us with his right tion? In that case we m ust reach out for help.
hand of righteousness. (Isaiah 41:10) How The Bible encourages us to tu rn to the old
can we avail ourselves o f this assistance? er men of the congregation. (James 5:13-16)
The Bible explains th a t through prayer A man dealing with severe ongoing depres
the peace of G od th at excels all thought sion stated: Som etim es talking to som e
will guard [our] h e a rts and [our] m ental one you trust helps ease the mind and calm
powers by means o f C hrist Jesus. (Philippi- the spirit, so that rational thinking prevails.
ans 4:6, 7) Because o f our distress, we may (Proverbs 17:17) O f course, when prolonged
see no way out o f our problem. If we perse and intense despondency is indicative of a
vere in prayer, however, Jehovah can guard medical problem, appropriate professional
our hearts and minds, providing us with the assistance may also be needed* M atthew
strength we need to endure.Romans 12:12; 9:12.
Isaiah 40:28-31; 2 C orinthians 1:3, 4; Philip- Though no easy solutions exist, we should
pians 4:13. not underestim ate G ods ability to help us
We will benefit by being specific in our cope with our problems. (2 C orinthians 4:8)
prayers. Though our thoughts may be dif Persisting in prayer, avoiding isolation, and
ficult to put into words, we should feel free getting qualified assistance will help us re
to talk to Jehovah about what we feel and gain stability. The Bible prom ises that G od
what we perceive is the root of the problem. will bring to a com plete end the root causes
We need to petition him for the strength to of our intense despair. Christians are deter
sustain us through each day. We have the mined to rely on him while awaiting the day
assurance: The desire o f those fearing him when these form er things will not be called
[Jehovah] will p erform , and th eir cry for to m ind.Isaiah 65:17; Revelation 21:4.
help he will hear, and he will save them . *Awake! does not endorse any particular treatment. Chris
Psalm 145:19. tians should make sure that any treatment they pursue does
not conflict with Bible principles. For more information, see
In addition to praying, we m ust resist iso The Watchtower of October 15, 1988, pages 25-9.
lation. (Proverbs 18:1) Som e have found
stre n g th in giving o f th em selv es to o th
ers. (Proverbs 19:17; Luke 6:38) Consider a IN OUR NEXT ISSUE
woman named Maria,* who not only battled
with cancer b u t also experienced the loss of Chronic Illness Coping as a Family
eight family m em bers in just one year. M a
ria had to force herself to get out o f bed Runaway Dads
and get back into a routine. She went out Can They Really Run Away?
nearly every day to teach others about
the Bible, and she regularly attended
How Our Family Was Reunited
* Not her real name.

Awake! M ay 8, 2000 21
Loidas Journey
As told by L o id a s mother

So I read simple books to her and endeav

ored to teach her the alphabet. But Loida
could not speak, nor could she indicate any
awareness of what I was saying. There was
no way of knowing w hatif anythingshe
could grasp.
As the years passed, my efforts to teach
Loida seemed to have little success. Still, I
spent many hours reading to her. We even
included her in our family Bible study with
IKE any expectant m other, I wor Noem i, o u r youngest daughter, using the

ried that my baby might be born books Listening to the Great Teacher and My
with some type of defect. Still, I Book o f Bible Stories* I read many of the chap
| was not prepared for the heart- ters from these books to Loida repeatedly.
^ rending scream s o f Loida, my N o t being able to c o m m u n ic a te w ith
third child, as she came into the world. Inad you love is truly frustrating. W hen I
vertently, the doctor had broken Loidas col took Loida to the park, she would cry incon
larbone with his forceps. A couple of weeks solably. Why? It seemed to me th at she was
a fte r c o rre c tiv e surgery, Loida was sent torm ented by the fact that she could not run
home. O ur joy, however, was short-lived. and play like the other children. On one oc
During the next few m onths, it became ap casion, Loida burst into tears when her sis
parent that something was terribly wrong. ter read something to me from a school text
L oidas m ed icatio n caused adverse reac book. Clearly, something bothered her, but I
tionsincluding fever, diarrhea, and convul had no idea what it was. Loidas speech was
sionsand treatm ent for these symptoms limited to a few inarticulate sounds, which
only seemed to make her condition worse. indicated her basic needs for food, water,
Soon Loida could not control her bodily bed, or toilet.
movements. Finally the doctors told us that At age nine, Loida began a tte n d in g a
Loida had cerebral palsy. They said that she school for children with special needs. D ur
would never walk or speakor even under ing the next three years, however, her condi
stand us. tion worsened. She was afraid to walk even
a few steps w ithout help, and she all but
Early Attempts at Communication
D espite the grim prognosis, I still felt * Published by the Watchtower Bible and Tract Society of
New York, Inc. Listening to the Great Teacher is now out of
that Loida could understand many things. print.

22 Awake! May 8, 2000

stopped uttering any speech sounds. My hus miles just to com pose a single page of com
band and I decided that it would be better to m unication, and it could take hours for her to
educate Loida at home. complete it!
For the next six years, I taught Loida as Nevertheless, Loida is thrilled to be able to
well as I could. I wrote letters on a black talk to us. In fact, this was her first mes
board, hoping that Loida would copy them. sage to us: I am so happy that, thanks to
My efforts were futile. Was the problem a Jehovah, I can now com m unicate. A ston
lack of comprehension, or was it that Loida ished, we asked Loida: W hat were you doing
could not write because she had no control while you were sitting all day? Loida told us
over the movements of her hands? that she would work out in her mind what
By age 18, Loida had become so difficult to she wished she could say to us. Indeed, Loi
manage that I earnestly prayed to Jehovah, da said that for 18 years she had longed to
begging him to help me com m unicate with communicate. W hen Rut started going to
my daughter. The answer to my prayer came school, she said, I read the school textbook
in an unusual way. to myself. I moved my m outh and emitted
some sounds, but you couldnt understand
Breaking Through the Silence me. T hat is why I often began to cry.
A turning p o in t cam e w hen my daugh I tearfully apologized for not having under
ters were redecorating our bedroom. Before stood her better. Loida replied: You are a
stripping off the old wallpaper, Noemi wrote good mother, and you never gave up. I have
some names on the wallnames from the Bi always been happy alongside you. I love you
ble and names of friends and family mem very much. So dont cry anymore. OK?
bers. Out of curiosity, my daughter Rut asked
Loida if she knew where Jehovah was writ Spiritual Progress
ten. Surprisingly, Loida went to the wall and Loida already had a knowledge of the Bi
put her head next to where G ods name ap ble, and she had m em o rized som e Bible
peared. Rut wondered if Loida could recog verses. But soon she told us th at she want
nize the other names, so she tested her. To ed to offer comm ents at the congre
R uts amazement, Loida could identify every gation Watch tower Study, a weekly
one of them even the names she had nev question-and-answer Bible discus
er seen spelled out before! Rut gathered the sion. How would she do this? One
entire family to see it for themselves. Loida of us would read the entire ar
could read! ticle to her. Then Loida would
In time, we came up with a m ethod that select a question she wanted
would help Loida speak to us. We attached to answer. We would write
letters of the alphabet to the wall of our long dow n h e r c o m m e n t as
hallway. Putting smaller letters on a hand
held board would not w ork, since Loi
da does not have enough control of her
hands to point to each letter. So when
Loida wished to com m unicate, she
would spell out her message by walk
ing up to each letter on the wall. As
you can imagine, this would be quite
tiring. In fact, Loida had to walk
she spelled it out to us. Then, at the meeting, that we shall be as Jehovah created us, w ith
one of us would read Loidas comment. Its out sickness. . . Isnt it marvelous?
thrilling for me to be able to participate,
Helped to Endure
Loida once told us, because it makes me feel
I now understand many things about Loi
a part of the congregation.
das former behavior that used to baffle me.
W hen she was 20 years old, Loida ex
For example, Loida says that when she was
pressed the desire to get baptized. When she
younger she didnt like to be hugged because
was asked if she knew what it m eant to dedi
she was so frustrated. It seemed so unfair
cate oneself to Jehovah, Loida replied that
that my sisters could speak and learn things
she had already done this seven years earlier
when she was just 13 years old. I prayed and I could not, she said. I felt so angry.
to Jehovah, she said, and I told him that I There were tim es when I would have pre
wanted to serve him forever. On August 2, ferred to have been dead.
1997, Loida symbolized her dedication to Je Even with the gift of com m unication, Loi
hovah by water baptism. Thanks to Jeho da faces m any challenges. F or exam ple,
vah, Loida told us, my greatest wish has every m onth or so she has a series of con
come true! vulsions during which she seems to be chok
Loida enjoys talking about G o d s King ing and her arm s and legs move uncontrolla
dom to relatives and neighbors. At times she bly. In addition, any infectioneven a simple
accompanies us as we preach to people on coldweakens her considerably. Occasion
the street. She has also prepared a letter that ally Loida gets depressed over her condition.
we leave at the door when no one is at home. W hat helps her to endure? Well, let her tell
Loida takes a special interest in the elder you in her own words:
ly and those who are sick. For example, we Prayer has been an enorm ous help. It
have a sister in our congregation who had makes me so happy to talk to Jehovah, to feel
her leg am putated. I know what it means close to him. I also appreciate the love and
to be unable to walk, Loida told us, and attention from others at the Kingdom Hall.
so she prepared a letter of encouragement I feel very fortunate that despite my physi
for this sister. Then there is Jairo, a young cal problem s, I have been brou g h t up by
boy in another congregation, two wonderful parents who
w ho is p rac tic a lly p a ra love me so m uch. I will
lyzed from the head down. never forget what my sis
W hen Loida heard of his ters have done for me.
plight, she wrote a let T h o se b e a u tifu l le t
ter to him. In part, it ters on the wall saved
stated: Soon Jehovah ' my life. W ithout Je
will make us well. In hovahs love and the
Paradise there will be love of my family, my
no suffering. T hen I life would have had
will challenge you to no meaning.
a race. I am lau g h
ing because it will be g
great fun. To think 1 J > i Loida and her family
What Can a Bird
Teach a Prisoner?

CC O R D IN G to the Sunday Tribune of D urban, South

Africa, birds are playing a role in softening the
a . hearts of inmates at Pollsmoor Prison. C urrently 14
convicts are participating in a program that involves taking
care of cockatiels and lovebirds in their cells.
How does the program work? Each participating inmate
has a makeshift incubator in his cell. A hatchling is pu t in the
care of the prisoner, who hand-feeds the helpless little crea
ture every hour or two, day and night, for about five weeks.
Then the bird is placed in a cage, which is also kept in the cell.
W hen the bird is grown, it is sold to the public. Some inm ates
become so attached to their birds that they cry when the in
evitable parting takes place.
Even some hardened criminals have become noticeably
more tender and gentle after speaking to and caring for the
birds daily. One inmate said: I tame the birds, but they have
tam ed me too. A nother says that the birds taught him pa
tience and self-control. A convicted thief says that caring for
a bird made him realize that being a parent is a big responsi
bilitysomething he neglected with his own children when
he was free.
Caring for these birds has another benefit for inmates.
With the skills they learn here, says Wikus Gresse, who con-
ceived the program, they
W can get a job outside with
bird breeders or a vet.

Are You
Lactose Intolerant?

My husband and I bloodstream

werevisiting , lactose m ust be broken dow n
some friends
in the state o f Puebla, in Mexico. Our hosts had into glucose and galactose. F or this to take
their own cows, so they offered us fresh milk along place, an enzyme called lactase is needed. T he
with breakfast and supper. problem is th a t after infancy the body p ro
The first night we felt bad, but the second day duces less lactase. Having a deficiency o f lac
was terrible. My stomach became so bloated that I tase, m any adults becom e lactose intolerant.
looked as i f I were several months pregnant. Then W hen a p e rso n ingests m o re lacto se in
both o f us developed severe diarrhea. milk and its derivatives th an he can digest,
It was not until years later that we found out bacteria in the colon convert it into lactic acid
that we are lactose intolerant.Bertha. and carbon dioxide. W ithin as little as 30 m in
utes, typical sym ptom s set in, including n au
E R T H A S ex p e rien c e is n o t ra re , for

B som e estim ate th at as m uch as 75 per

c e n t o f th e w o rld s a d u lt p o p u la tio n
may experience some or all o f the symptom s
sea, cram ps, bloating, and diarrhea. Som e who
are not aw are th a t they are lactose in to ler
ant may try to soothe the stom ach w ith m ore
o f lactose intolerance * Just w hat is this con milk, thereby only aggravating the problem .
dition, and w hat causes it? M ost im portant, The degree o f lactose tolerance varies from
w hat can be done to cope w ith it? one p e rs o n to th e next. S om e c a n
The term lactose intolerance refers drink a small glass o f m ilk w ithout
to th e b o d y s inability to digest experiencing any adverse effects. For
lactose, the p redom inant sugar others, even this m odest am ount will
in milk. To be absorbed into the b rin g on sym ptom s. Som e su g g est
th at to determ ine how m uch you can
* Lactose intolerance affects more Asians
than any other group. Those of northern Eu
tolerate, you should start out w ith a
ropean descent are least affected. small glass o f milk. Then gradually in-
Diagnosing Lactose Intolerance
Several m e th o d s are used to d e te c t lactose in to le ra n c e .
Lactose tolerance test: A fte r fa s tin g , th e p a tie n t d rin k s a liq u id c o n ta in in g lac
to se . Blood s a m p le s are ta k e n to d e te rm in e how w ell th e la cto se is b e in g d ig e ste d .
Hydrogen breath test: U n d ig e ste d la c to s e p ro d u c e s v a rio u s g a s e s , in c lu d in g
hydrogen. This pa sse s fro m th e in te s tin e s into th e b lo o d s tre a m and th e n into th e
lungs, a fte r w h ic h it is exhaled.
Stool acidity test: U ndigested la cto se in th e colon p ro d u ce s a c id s th a t can
be d e te c te d in a s to o l sa m p le .
T hese te s ts a re usu a lly p e rfo rm e d on an o u tp a tie n t basis.

crease the am ount you drink on subsequent ucts altogether. Instead, try to determ ine how
occasions. In this regard, rem em ber th at while m uch you can tolerate, and then consum e no
the sym ptom s o f lactose intolerance are un m ore th an th a t am ount. W hen possible, eat
com fortable, they are rarely dangerous. other foods along w ith any products contain
What to Eat and What to Avoid ing lactose. Rem em ber, too, th a t aged cheeses
If you suffer from lactose intolerance, you contain less lactose, and it may be th a t they
need to d eterm in e w h a t you can and c a n will not cause a problem . W h at a b o u t yogurt?
not eat. M uch will depend up o n your toler It has alm ost as m uch lactose as milk, but
ance level. Foods th a t contain lactose include som e people w ith lactose intolerance can di
milk, ice cream , yogurt, b utter, and cheeses. gest it w ith ease. Why? Because yogurt has
Some prepared foods, such as cakes, cereals, m icroorganism s th a t synthesize lactase, and
and salad dressings, m ight also contain lac this aids the digestion o f lactose.
tose. Therefore, people w ith lactose intoler So if you suffer from lactose intolerance, do
ance should check the n u tritio n label on such not worry. As we have seen, knowledge about
products. this ailm ent will allow you to control it easily.
O f course, m ilk is a prim e source o f cal But keep the following p oints in mind:
cium, and insufficient calcium intake can lead (1) C onsum e sm all am ounts o f m ilk and
to the developm ent o f osteoporosis. Hence, dairy products, along w ith o th er foods, to de
those w ho are lactose intolerant should look
term ine your degree o f tolerance.
for oth er sources o f calcium . Som e fresh veg
etables, such as broccoli, cabbage, and spin (2) E at yogurt and aged cheeses, w hich are
ach, contain calcium . So do alm onds, sesam e usually m ore easily digested.
seeds, and soft-boned fish, like sardines and (3) M ake use o f a n y av ailab le p ro d u c ts
salmon. th at are lactose free o r th a t contain lactase.
Even if you are lactose intolerant, you may By follow ing th ese suggestions, you can
not have to elim inate m ilk and dairy prod cope w ith lactose intolerance.
Awake! M ay 8, 2000 27
Counting Fame by Books press release, Hurricane Mitch Powell, the lead researcher, the
If fame is having a book is estimated to have caused findings emphasize the dangers
written about you, . . . Je some 11,000 deaths in the Ca of driving while sleepy.
sus Christ remains the most ribbean. Both the Seychelles
and M auritius have experi Nearly a Third of the World
famous figure in the modern Infected With TB
world, says the British news enced severe droughts in the
paper T h e G u a rd ia n . Research past two years. High tempera Nearly one third of the world
on the books in the Library of tures and pollution are bleach population1.86 billion peo
Congress, in Washington, D.C., ing coral reefs, reducing biodi plewere infected with TB in
revealed 17,239 books about Je versity. Islanders also fear the 1997, says a panel of 86 health
sus. That was almost twice as effects of rising sea levels result experts from more than 40 na
many as those written about ing from global warming. It is tions. The panel, chosen by
William Shakespeare, who oc estimated that 80 percent of the the World Health Organization,
cupied second place with 9,801 atolls in the Maldives could dis also estimated that 1.87 million
books. Vladimir Lenin came appear into the ocean. people died from the disease
in third with 4,492, followed that year, while 7.96 million
Sleepy Drivers
by Abraham Lincoln, who had Versus Drunk Drivers new cases of infection were re
4,378 books written about him, ported. The study, published in
and Napoleon I, with 4,007. T h e J o u rn a l o f th e A m e ric a n M ed
Mary, the mother of Jesus, was ic a l A sso cia tio n , said that eighty
in seventh place, with 3,595 percent of all incident TB cas
books, and was the only woman es were found in 22 countries,
in the top 30. Joan of Arc, the with more than half the cas
next closest woman, had 545 es occurring in 5 Southeast
books written about her. As for Asian countries. According to
composers, Richard Wagner the study, nine of 10 countries
led the list, followed by Mozart, with the highest incidence rates
Beethoven, and Bach. Picasso per capita were in Africa. In
heads the list of painters, ahead Not sleeping enough can some countries with high HIV
of Leonardo da Vinci and Mi have the same results as drink infection rates, the case fatality
chelangelo. However, Leonardo ing too much, says T h e N ew rate exceeded 50 percent. High
heads the list of scientists and York Tim es. A Stanford Univer TB rates continue as a result of
inventors, beating Charles Dar sity study checked the reaction poor control of the disease
win, Albert Einstein, and Gali time of 113 people with sleep in those lands. The authors of
leo Galilei. There is no living apneaa condition that inter the study forecast 8.4 million
person in the top 30, says T h e rupts sleep at night and causes new cases of TB this year. Most
G u a rd ia n . daytime sleepinessagainst a of those infected never become
control group of 80 volunteers. sick with the disease. However,
Paradise Lost? After their baseline reaction where the bacteria is dormant,
At a special session of the time was determined, the com it can become active when the
United Nations General As parison group began drinking patient becomes malnourished
sembly, 43 small island nations 80-proof alcohol. On three out or the immune system is weak
aired their concerns over envi of seven tests of reaction time, ened, states the same source.
ronmental threats, reports the people known to have apnea did
French daily L e M on de. Many of worse than those whose blood Children Exposed
to Cigarette Smoke
these paradisaic islands are in alcohol measured [.08] percent,
creasingly vulnerable to hurri making them too drunk to drive Nearly half of the worlds
canes, cyclones, floods, and wa in 16 states, the T im es report children live with a smoker,
ter shortage. According to a UN ed. According to Dr. Nelson B. says the U n iv e rsity o f C a lifo r-

28 Awake! May 8, 2000

tains some hymns addressed to
n ia B e r k e le y W e lln e s s L e tt e r , lyse, catalogue and restore ar
commenting on a recent re dear mother God. One pleads tefacts, states T h e E c o n o m ist.
port from the World Health Or for her mother love and re The discovery of a desert cem
ganization. Thats more than fers to God in the feminine etery that may hold as many as
700 million children. Consid gender throughout. In anoth 10,000 graves led one archaeol
ering that the number of adult er song Jesus is depicted as a ogist to say: The last thing we
smokers is expected to increase player-manager of a football need is more mummies. Only
to 1.6 billion during the next team, and its chorus is a well- a few outstanding ones will be
20 years, even more children known football chant. Some put on display. The rest will be
will be exposed to secondhand of the songs are from children, reburied.
smoke. These children will have including a group of orphans
an increased risk of develop whose parents died of AIDS. Deadly Booby Traps
ing such health problems as ear Dave Hardman, one of the proj Angola has one of the highest
infections and respiratory ail ects promoters, said: It is a concentrations of land mines in
ments. song book that marries all tra the world. But land-mine clear-
ditions. We wanted to get song ers there are facing a new prob
Best Seller, Few Readers writers to tackle the realities of lem: booby trap mines aimed at
It is the biggest bestseller life through the eyes of faith. them. According to T h e S u n d a y
in the history of the planet, T im e s of London, de-mining
Too Many Mummies?
states the S ta r-T e le g ra m news experts have discovered two
paper of Fort Worth, Texas. types of switch that have been
Both cultural icon and spir attached to the mines. One det
itual touchstone, the Bible is onates them on exposure to
revered by three major world light and is powered by batter
faiths with billions of believ ies that last for up to 12 months.
ers. But in a paradox to tax The other incorporates a mag
the wisdom of Solomon, it is netic loop or coil designed to
widely unread. Yet, Bible sales cause an explosion when it sens
are setting new records, and es mine-sweeping equipment,
most Americansover 90 per Egypts problem is unique which can be over 60 feet away.
centare said to own an aver too many antiquities. New In other words, this is a de
age of three versions, according finds are constantly being an miner mine, said Tim Car-
to a research firm. However, nounced: the beautifully deco stairs of the Mines Adviso
ry Group. It is specifically
one survey showed that two rated tomb of Tutankhamens designed to kill people like
thirds of them do not regular nurse at Saqqara, a pyra our volunteers who are trying
ly read the Bible. Most cannot mid capstone at Dahshur, a to help communities by get
even name the four Gospels or very large temple precinct at ting rid of landmines. Angola
cite five of the Ten Command Akhmlm, a vast underground now has an estimated 70,000
ments. And the majority say funerary complex with over amputees as a result of mine
they find the Good Book irrel 200 rooms at Luxor, sculptures incidentsthe highest in the
evant, the paper adds. and other artifacts from sunk worldand doctors perform
en ports and palaces off Alex an average of 35 amputations
Hymns for the Millennium andria, to name a few. Cai each month. As mines continue
British churchgoers will ros Egyptian Museum already to be laid by the warring par
soon be singing football chants has over 120,000 ancient ob ties in Angolas civil war, farm
during worship if they choose jects on display and even more ers abandon their fields and
to use the new worship book than that stashed away in stor cities have been unable to get
S o n g s f o r th e N ew M ille n n iu m , age. Each week produces ex food supplies. UN Secretary-
reports T h e T im es of London. citing new finds, creating yet General Kofi Annan warns that
Published jointly by the Church more pressure on bulging store hundreds of thousands of An
of England and the Method rooms, as well as on the time golans face severe malnutrition,
ist Church, this new book con and budgets of those who ana disease and death.

Awake! M ay 8, 2000 29

Choosing a Marriage Partner Thank you At the time I read the article, I was feeling
for the fatherly care you showed us young very down. Sometimes I feel that I will never
ones in the article The Bibles Viewpoint: reach my spiritual goals. I have also had a dif
How to Choose a M arriage Partner. (Oc ficult time m aintaining a positive attitude to
tober 8, 1999) Inexperience makes many ward my work as a full-time evangelizer. Wil
young ones rush into marriage, mistaking lem and Gre had a fine, optim istic outlook
infatuation for true love. I would rather be in the face of obstacles, and Jehovah blessed
alone than be with someone with whom I their efforts. T hat reinforced my confidence
am notcompatible. that I too can reach my goals if I keep my
S.R.M., Brazil faith strong.
K. C., United States
I am 40 years old and have never married.
I pray to Jehovah each day concerning find Outgoing Thank you so much for the arti
ing a mate, and I try hard to cultivate the cle Young People Ask . . . Why C ant I Be
qualities needed to make a successful m ar More Outgoing? (October 22, 1999) I am
riage. It was so encouraging to read the sug 17 years old, and the article almost made
gestions on looking for a spiritually strong me think it was w ritten just for me. It ex
person, someone who shares the same goals pressed exactly the way I feel inside. I have
and is endeavoring to cultivate the fru it often heard it said that I am conceited. But
age of G ods spirit. Thank you so much for the fact that someone is quieter than every
strengthening my resolve to continue waiting body else is no reason to misjudge that per
on Jehovah. son.
E. E, United States R. R., Germ any
Swifts For many years, from my balcony A serious illness I suffered as a child has
I have observed European swifts building made me feel isolated from others. This ar
nests. They arrive in May and disappear ticle helped me to come to term s with my
suddenly in August. Thanks to the article feelings and to find a way of overcoming the
Swift in Nam eSwift in Flight (Octo situation. I am going to work on cultivating
ber 8, 1999), I now know m uch more about friends in my congregation.
these fascinating creatures. J.EE, Brazil
A. D., Germany
Wrong Number! I always enjoy your arti
Life Story I have been a full-time evange- cles and their usual accuracy. However, in
lizer for over a decade now and have often Watching the World, the item Car C ra
felt a strong urge to thank you for your zy (September 8, 1999) stated: It is esti
well-written articles. M ost meaningful to mated that about 40 million vehicles are
me have been the wonderful experiences of currently operating in the United States.
missionaries. Ive always wanted to be one The actual figure is much larger than that.
myself. Experiences like those of Willem R. K., United States
and Gre van Seiji (Reality Has Exceeded
My Expectations, October 8, 1999) help Our apologies for this error. We inadvertent
me to m aintain my desire to serve in a for ly quoted the wrong statistic. Currently, over
eign land. 130 million cars are registered in the United
P K., United States States.ED.

30 Awake! M ay 8, 2000
Hope for the
New Millennium?

A S T S e p te m b e r d e le g a t e s fr o m v a r io u s

L p a rts o f A fric a g a th e re d in L u sa ka , Z a m -
J b ia , fo r th e 1 1 th In te r n a tio n a l C o n fe r
e n c e on AID S a n d STD s in A fric a . O ne p u rp o s e
o f th e c o n fe re n c e w a s to e n c o u ra g e g re a te r in
te rre g io n a l c o o p e ra tio n in a n s w e rin g th e q u e s
tio n , H ow ca n w e ta c k le th e s p re a d o f A ID S in Professor
A fric a ? Nkandu Luo
P h o to g rap h by p e rm is s io n o f
P r o fe s s o r N k a n d u L u o , th e n th e Z a m b ia n E. M w a n a le z a , T im e s o f Z a m b ia

m in is te r o f h e a lth , s a id th a t th e s itu a tio n in A f

rica a n d in o th e r p a rts o f th e d e v e lo p in g w o rld
is e x tre m e ly s e rio u s , a d d in g th a t it is a rre s t T h e c o n fe r e n c e e m p h a s iz e d t h a t th e p ro
in g a n d e ven re v e rs in g s o m e o f th e s ig n ific a n t h ib it iv e c o s t o f t r e a t m e n t m a k e s it d if f ic u lt
g a in s m a d e in h e a lth a n d in o th e r s o c ia l a n d if n o t im p o s s ib le fo r th o s e w ith A ID S to a ffo rd
e c o n o m ic s p h e re s . m e d ic a l c a re . On th e a v e ra g e , fo r e x a m p le , a
A s y m p o s iu m on b lo o d s a fe ty a c k n o w le d g e d U g a n d a n in an u rb a n a re a e a rn s a b o u t $ 2 0 0 a
th a t AID S h a s b e e n tra n s m itte d th ro u g h tra n s m o n th . B u t tr e a tm e n t u s in g a n tire tro v ira ls ca n
fu s io n s . O n e d o c to r, a r e p r e s e n ta tiv e o f th e c o s t up to $ 1 ,0 0 0 p e r m o n th !
W orld H e a lth O rg a n iz a tio n s B lo o d S a fe ty U nit, T h e L u s a k a c o n fe r e n c e in d ic a te d t h a t th e
p o in te d o u t th a t w h ile s e x u a l in te rc o u rs e w ith s ta r t o f th e n e w m ille n n iu m w o u ld s e e no e a sy
an in fe c te d p a rtn e r d o e s n o t a lw a y s tr a n s m it s o lu tio n to th e s p re a d o f A ID S . S tu d e n ts o f th e
HIV, th e re c ip ie n t o f A ID S -c o n ta m in a te d b lo o d B ib le , h o w e ve r, re a liz e th a t u ltim a te ly th e s o lu
will be in fe c te d in e v e ry c a s e ! W ith g o o d re a tio n fo r a ll s ic k n e s s e s d e p e n d s u p o n th e C re
s o n , th is d o c to r s ta te d th a t in s u c h a ca s e , th e a to r, J e h o v a h G o d , w h o p ro m is e s t h a t in h is
s a fe s t b lo o d tra n s fu s io n is th e o n e th a t is n o t n e w w o rld , no r e s id e n t w ill say: I a m s ic k .
g iv e n . Is a ia h 3 3 :2 4 .
HAVE b e e n re a d in g th e Awake! w h e n ta lk in g w ith d o c m e m b e r o f th e fa m ily . A m o n g
Watchtower and Awake! to rs a b o u t h e a lth p ro b le m s . its in s tru c tiv e c h a p te rs a re th e
m agazines fo r 4 0 ye a rs, w rite s T h a n k s to th e s e rie s o f a r t i follow ing: Train Your C hild From
G raciela fro m A rg e n tin a , S o uth cles w ith th e cover title Help fo r In fa n c y , H e lp Y o ur T e e n a g e r
A m e rica . Today, a fte r so m any C hildren W ith Learning D isabili to T h riv e , P ro te c t Y o ur F a m i
y e a rs , I can tru ly say th a t th e y t ie s (F e b ru a ry 2 2 , 1 9 9 7 ), w e ly From D e stru c tiv e In flu e n c e s ,
h a v e fitte d m y n e e d s . T h e y ca m e to realize th a t one o f o u r a n d You C an O v e rc o m e P ro b
h e lp e d m e th ro u g h c h ild h o o d , d a u g h te rs has a le a rn in g prob lem s T hat D am age a Fam ily.
d u rin g m y te e n y e a rs , w ith le m .
c o u rts h ip and m a rria g e , and in The p u b lica tions o f th e W atch
th e re a rin g o f my six ch ild re n . Tower Society can help fa m ilie s
The m agazines help my hus to cope w ith th e m any problem s
b a n d a n d m e w ith re a rin g th e y fa c e and to enjoy a happy
ou r fo u r ch ild re n w ho s till live a t life to g e th e r. For e x a m p le ,
h o m e . I m a k e go o d use o f th e th e 1 9 2 -p a g e book The Secret
m a g a zin e s to ta lk w ith my c h il of Family Happiness can be n e fit
dren and w ith th e ir te a c h e rs a t h u sb a n d s, w ives, p a rents, c h il
school. I have read d ire c tly fro m d re n , g ra n d p a re n ts yes, every