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M. Rogac

Civil Engineering Faculty, Podgorica, Montenegro

Email: mili_5@t-com.me

M. Knezevic

Civil Engineering Faculty, Podgorica, Montenegro

Email: milosknezevic@hotmail.com

M. Cvetkovska

Civil Engineering Faculty, Skopje, Macedonia

Email: cvetkovska@gf.ukim.edu.mk

ABSTRACT

This paper presents the plastic analysis of steel frame structure loaded by gravity loads. By applying the cinematic theorem

of ultimate analysis, the ultimate load for the case of elastic - ideally plastic material is calculated. The identical structure

was treated in the computer program SAP2000 where the zone of material reinforcement in the plastic area was covered.

Keywords: Steel frame structure, plastic analysis, ultimate gravity load, material reinforcement.

1 INTRODUCTION 18.0

For the frame structure according to Figure 1, of the

welded steel cross section of columns and beams

1.45

gravity load on all beams, the ultimate load based on

the Theory of elasticity and Theory of plasticity is

calculated. [1]

40.0

0.86

4.00

1.45

4.00

18.0 (cm)

4.00

8.40 8.40 (m)

Figure 1. Frame structure layout. Plastic analysis of structures enters the field of plastic

behavior of material consisting of a yield zone - zone

Analysis of the structures according to the Theory of II and zone of material reinforcement - zone III

elasticity means the determination of the stress- (Figure 3).

deformation characteristics in the field of elastic

The Theory of plasticity often uses approximate -

behavior of material - zone I (Figure 3). According to

diagrams that greatly simplify the problem, and are

[1], the ultimate load according to the Theory of

sufficiently accurate for solving of engineering

elasticity, namely the load on the start of yield is

problems. Figures 4 and 5 show the idealized forms of

que = 42.24 kN/m, while the maximum deflection is

maxe = 19.03 mm. - curves used in the calculation.

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Civil Engineering Forum Volume XXI/2 - May 2012

Au = (M u + 2 M u + M u ) 6

(2)

= (4 312.5 ) 6

As = Au

p

q u = 70.86 kN / m (3)

steel.

Figure 4. Elastic-ideal plastic material. displacement.

THE FRAME IN THE COMPUTER

PROGRAM SAP2000

In the computer program SAP2000, the behavior of

the structure after the yield point is modeled with

plastic hinges that can be defined in an arbitrary

number of points along the length of a finite elements

of the structure. Thus, the linear deformations are

covered with the finite elements, and plastic

deformations are covered with plastic hinges assigned

to the finite elements. [2]

Figure 5. Elastic material with three-linear behavior in the

plastic zone. The formation of a plastic hinge requires a certain

length at which the plastification of material will

2 PLASTIC ANALYSIS happen - the length of a plastic hinge (lp). According

to [3], for steel frame structures it is necessary to

2.1 CINEMATIC THEOREM OF ULTIMATE adopt a length of plastic hinge approximately equal to

ANALYSIS - CASE OF ELASTIC-IDEALLY the height of cross section. In the analyzed example,

PLASTIC MATERIAL the plastic hinges (PZ) of lp = 0.4 m length are

Ultimate load (qup) resulting the structure collapse - adopted, arranged on a mutual axial distance of 0.4 m

formation of a local mechanism (Figure 6), is on all finite elements of the structure. This ensures the

calculated using the principle of virtual displacements. possibility of plastification of all cross-sections of the

structure.

The work of external load on a virtual displacement:

Hinge property data for deformation controlled hinge

1 1 p

are calculated based on moment-curvature diagram.

As = L qu = 8.4 4.2 qu 6

p

(1) For the adopted cross section (Figure 2) and -

2 2

diagram from Figure 7, which represents the best

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Civil Engineering Forum Volume XXI/2 - May 2012

carbon steel, M- connection is calculated using

computer program XTRACT.

Figure 7. - diagram for low carbon steel elastic

material with three-linear behavior in the plastic zone.

lines on the M- diagram: Actual diagram magenta

line; Effective diagram blue line. Effective diagram

is defined with two points: Yield point (Effective

Yield Moment 309.0 kNm; Effective Yield Curvature

0.0156 1/m) and Ultimate point (Ultimate Moment

453.4 kNm = 1.4673 EYM; Ultimate Curvature 1.025

1/m = 65.72 EYC) and it is used for hinge property

data calculation (Figure 9). Yield points (B and B-) are

marked in magenta on the diagram and in the table,

while the ultimate points (E and E-) are marked in red.

Because of easier tracking of the plastic hinge status,

three more points are defined on the diagram: IO

blue, LS cyan, CP green. Points scale factors from

Figure 9 (20, 40, 60) are arbitrarily adopted.

Failing Material 5 SD

Failure strain .2000 Compression

Curvature at Initial Load 0 1/m

Curvature at First Yield 15.37E-3 1/m

Ultimate Curvature 1.025 1/m

Moment at First Yield 304.6 kN-m Figure 9. Frame Hinge Property Data for PZ.

Ultimate Moment 453.4 kN-m

Centroid Strain at Yield 11.46E-9 Compression By the method of testing, an ultimate uniformly

Centroid Strain at Ultimate .4138E-6 Compression distributed gravity load is determined

N.A. at First Yield -74.55E-6 cm qup = 90.10 kN/m. During the load of 90.20 kN/m, a

collapse mechanism has been formed and a program

N.A. at Ultimate -40.38E-6 cm

detects a failure in calculation.

Energy per Length 387.1 kN

Effective Yield Curvature 15.59E-3 1/m Figure 10 shows the deformed structure with specified

Effective Yield Moment 309.0 kN-m position and status of activated plastic hinges. Plastic

Over Strength Factor 1.468 hinges status is indicated by the corresponding color

EI Effective 1.98E+7 N-m^2

according to Figure 9. If the ratio of obtained

curvature to Effective Yield Curvature is within 1-20

Yield EI Effective 143.2E+3 N-m^2

plastic hinge on Figure 10 is marked in magenta, 20-

Curvature Ductility 65.72 40 in blue, 40-60 in cyan and 60-65.72 in green color.

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Civil Engineering Forum Volume XXI/2 - May 2012

Figure 10-a. Plastic hinges are not activated - Steps 1-39. Figure 10-d. Position and status of activated plastic hinges

Step 49.

Figure 10-b. Position and status of activated plastic hinges Figure 10-e. Position and status of activated plastic hinges

Step 40. Step 54.

Figure 10-c. Position and status of activated plastic hinges Figure 10-f. Position and status of activated plastic hinges

Step 43. Step 70.

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Civil Engineering Forum Volume XXI/2 - May 2012

Figure 10-g. Position and status of activated plastic hinges Figure 10-j. Position and status of activated plastic hinges

Step 76. Step 88.

Figure 10-h. Position and status of activated plastic hinges Figure 10-k. Position and status of activated plastic hinges

Step 79. Step 91.

Figure 10-i. Position and status of activated plastic hinges Step 93.

Step 85.

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Civil Engineering Forum Volume XXI/2 - May 2012

occurs at the center of the upper left beam according

to Figure 11.

tabular results and moment - plastic rotation diagrams

(Figure 13) for all the adopted plastic hinges in the

structure.

Figure 12. The displacement of curvature along the

Since the curvature is defined as the rotation per cantilever beam with ultimate moment in the fixed end: (a)

length unit of the bar, the rotation of cross section A in cantilever, (b) bending moment diagram, (c) actual and

relation to cross section B (AB) of the bar with the idealized displacement of the curvature.

change of the curvature (x) is according to [4] equal

to: In the Figure 12, a concept of plastic rotation in the

B zone of plastic hinge is defined in the case of

AB = ( x ) dx (4) cantilever beam loaded by force at the free end. The

A hatched area represents the actual plastic rotation that

occurs in the zone of formation of a plastic hinge.

According to [4], it is adopted that the plastic Dashed line is used to mark the idealized diagram - a

curvature (p = u - y) has a constant value at the rectangle of dimensions (u-y) lp with an area equal

length of the plastic hinge (lp) so the plastic rotation to hatched one. [4]

(p) is equal to:

Figure 13 shows characteristic results for the plastic

hinge in which plastic deformations firstly appeared

p = ( u y ) l p (5) (Figure 10-b). In all the steps moment and plastic

rotation intensity is shown as well as plastic hinge

status through the appropriate color.

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Civil Engineering Forum Volume XXI/2 - May 2012

Figure 13-a. Diagram Moment-Plastic Rotation Step 39. Figure 13-d. Diagram Moment-Plastic Rotation Step 49.

Figure 13-b. Diagram Moment-Plastic Rotation Step 40. Figure 13-e. Diagram Moment-Plastic Rotation Step 54.

Figure 13-c. Diagram Moment-Plastic Rotation Step 43. Figure 13-f. Diagram Moment-Plastic Rotation Step 70.

1223

Civil Engineering Forum Volume XXI/2 - May 2012

Figure 13-g. Diagram Moment-Plastic Rotation Step 76. Figure 13-j. Diagram Moment-Plastic Rotation Step 88.

Figure 13-h. Diagram Moment-Plastic Rotation Step 79. Figure 13-k. Diagram Moment-Plastic Rotation Step 91.

Figure 13-i. Diagram Moment-Plastic Rotation Step 85. Figure 13-l. Diagram Moment-Plastic Rotation Step 93.

1224

Civil Engineering Forum Volume XXI/2 - May 2012

Based on the conducted analysis, a behavior of steel an entry of the structure in geometric nonlinearity, not

frame structure loaded by the gravity load at stress only material nonlinearity that is analyzed here. In

levels in the plastic range can be observed. addition, the ratio L / max 5.3 involves an elastic line

that has elements of a catenary with all its

For the case of elastic-ideal plastic material, using the peculiarities in the calculation of such structures.

cinematic theorem of ultimate analysis approximately

1.68 times bigger value of ultimate gravity load were Plastic analysis includes large deformations, so there

obtained in relation to the value of ultimate load is a question of justification of the basic assumptions

calculated according to the Theory of elasticity. of plastic analysis, especially of Bernoullis

Introducing the material reinforcement in the analysis, hypothesis of plane cross sections.

this ratio is increased to 2.13 according to Table 1.

However, the deformations in the structure are This paper analyzes the steel structure under the

multiple increased, so that in the third case, an assumption of ideal stability of all structural elements.

achieved ratio of maximum span toward maximum In further analyzes it would be interesting to introduce

the influence of stability of compressed structural

deflection has reached a value of 5.3, and a ratio of

maximum deflections according to the Theory of elements to the ultimate load.

plasticity and Theory of elasticity is 82.82. It is Assumptions and idealizations mentioned in the

therefore necessary to carefully analyze the results of previous two paragraphs have allowed a simple plastic

plastic analysis of the structure, particularly in terms analysis, and their justification should be confirmed or

of structure usability. rejected by the experimental determination of ultimate

gravity load of analyzed steel structure.

The ratio of Max the maximum

Ultimate ultimate loads deflection maximum deflection

gravity according to the span toward according to the

Method of calculation load Theory of maximum Theory of

plasticity and deflection plasticity and

qu (kN/m) Theory of

max (mm ) L

=

8400 Theory of

elasticity

max max elasticity

The cinematic theorem

of ultimate analysis.

The theory of

70.86 1.68 / / /

Elastic-ideal plastic

plasticity

material

SAP 2000 Elastic

material with three-linear

90.10 2.13 1576.0 5.3 82.82

behavior in the plastic

zone

REFERENCES

Rogac M.: "Plastic Analysis of Steel Frame Structure Sanchez L., Plumier A.: "Particularities Raised by The

Calculation of Ultimate Gravitational Load", Evaluation of Load Reduction Factors for The

Seminar paper of the course Theory of Seismic Design of Composite Steel-Concrete

Plasticity, Civil Engineering Faculty in Structures", Stability and Ductility of Steel

Podgorica, Podgorica, 2010, 60 p. Structures, Timisoara, 1999, 41-48 p.

Computers and Structures, Inc., SAP2000 Steel Park R., Paulay T.: Reinforced Concrete Structures,

Design Manual, California, USA, 2000 A Wiley-Interscience Publication, Christchurch,

New Zealand, 1974, 769 p.

1225

Civil Engineering Forum Volume XXI/2 - May 2012

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