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Chisinau 2015

1 Tourism-an economic and social activity

1.1 The concepts of ,,tourism and ,,tourist

1.2 Tourism and economic and social development

2 Dimensions of the tourism phenomenon

2.1 Determinate factors of tourism development

2.2 Domestic and international tourism of RM

3 Tourist circulation
3.1 Forms of tourism:structure,characteristics,interactions

Theme 1: Tourism-an economic and social activity

1.1 The concepts of ,,tourism and ,,tourist
1.2 Tourism and economic and social development

1.1 The concepts of ,,tourism and ,,tourist

Key words: tourism, WTO, recreation, cultural, nature, pleasure, sports, religious, medical,

Learning objectives: O1 To define what is tourism and to state the main types of it
O1 To define what is tourism and to state the main types of it

Tourism is travel for pleasure; also the theory and practice of touring, the business of attracting,
accommodating, and entertaining tourists, and the business of operating tours.Tourism may be
international, or within the traveler's country.
The World Tourism Organization defines tourism more generally, in terms which go "beyond the
common perception of tourism as being limited to holiday activity only ", as people "traveling to
and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for
leisure, business and other purposes".Tourism can be domestic or international, and international
tourism has both incoming and outgoing implications on a country's balance of payments. Today,
tourism is a major source of income for many countries, and affects the economy of both the
source and host countries, in some cases being of vital importance.1

Perhaps the most common type of tourism is what most people associate with
traveling: Recreation tourism. This is when people go to a place that is very different from their
regular day-to-day life to relax and have fun. Beaches, theme parks and camp grounds are often
the most common places frequented by recreational tourists. If the objective of ones visit to a
particular place is to get to know its history and culture then this type of tourism is known
as cultural tourism. Tourists may visit different landmarks of a particular country or they may
simply opt to focus on just one area. They may also attend festivals and ceremonies in order to
gain a better understanding of the people, their beliefs and their practices.For tourists who want
to see wildlife or bask in the joy of just being in the midst of nature, nature tourism is the
answer. Ecotourism and nature treks are all part of this kind of tourism. Bird watching, for
example, is one activity that nature tourists are fond of doing. What marks this kind of tourism is
that it is environmentally responsible, has low impact and advantageous to the local
community.Many people today are stressed out in the corporate rat race and in need of
rejuvenation. Thus, they go on trips that refresh their souls and spirits. This is called pleasure
tourism and usually includes yoga workshops and detox vacations, among others. Others,
however, de-stress by engaging in a particular sport. Called sports tourism, travelers here target
places which are known for a particular sporting facility. Skiing, for example, is a type of sports
tourism. Also included in this category are those who go to a destination to experience a sports
spectacle such as the Olympics, FIFA World Cup and others.Religious tourism is another type
of tourism where people go to a religious location or locations to follow the footsteps of their
founder or to attend a religious ceremony. Catholics, for example, go on pilgrimages in the Holy
Land to experience the paths where Jesus walked. Medical or health tourism is a relatively new
type of tourist activity where the main focus of the travel is improving ones health, physical
appearance or fitness. For instance, certain countries promote the expertise of their doctors and
surgeons in the field of cosmetic surgery and invite foreigners to have their liposuction, facelift,
nose lift and other forms of cosmetic procedures to be done there. Medical tourism also
incorporates aspects of recreation tourism where the patient goes to a relaxing getaway to
recover from the procedure.Adventure tourism is another type of tourism that is catered for
those who want to do more than just visit regular tourist sites. These kinds of trips involve
challenging activities like rock climbing, mountain climbing and wild water rafting.It should be
noted that there are no strict delineations when tourists go on their trips. These kinds of tourism

often overlap so its not unusual for travelers to experience more than one type of tourism in one

Conclusion: In conclusion I can say that tourism is a travel for pleasure and there are many
types of tourism like adventure tourism this type of tourism involve activities like mountain
climbing; medical or health tourism this type of tourism is based on health improving; religious
tourism represent visits to religious locations etc.

1.2 Tourism and economic social development

Key words: economic, development, tourism, social

Learning objectives: O1 To state the economic development of tourism

O2 To state the social development of tourism and its effects on

O1 To state the economic development of tourism

Tourism is now one of the worlds largest industries and one of its fastest growing economic
sectors. For many countries tourism is seen as a main instrument for regional development,
as it stimulates new economic activities. Tourism may have a positive economic impact on
the balance of payments, on employment, on gross income and production, but it may also
have negative effects, particularly on the environment. Unplanned and uncontrolled tourism
growth can result in such a deterioration of the environment that tourist growth can be

compromised. The environment, being the major source of tourist product, should therefore
be protected in order to have further growth of tourism and economic development in the
future. This is specially true with regard to tourism based on the natural environment as well
as on historical-cultural heritage. Sustainable tourism has three interconnected aspects:
environmental, socio-cultural, and economic. Sustainability implies permanence, so
sustainable tourism includes optimum use of resources, including biological diversity;
minimization of ecological, cultural and social impacts; and maximization of benefits for
conservation and local communities. It also refers to the management structures that are
needed to achieve this. The paper provides a theoretical framework for sustainable tourism.
It comprises two parts. The first part presents general views on tourism and sustainable
economic development, and some opinions on the relationship between tourism and the
environment. The second part concentrates on strategies and policy instruments.3

O2 To state the social development of tourism and its effects on society

Travel has a significant influence on national understanding and appreciation of other

people. Government policies in progressive and enlightened nations encourage travel,
particularly domestic travel, as a means of acquainting citizens with other parts of their
country and building appreciation for the homeland. The presence of visitors in a country
affects the living patterns of indigenous peoples. The way visitors conduct themselves and
their personal relationships with citizens of the host country often has a profound effect on
the mode of life and attitudes of local people. Probably the most pronounced effects of this
phenomenon are noted when visitors from North America or western Europe travel in an
emerging country that has a primitive culture or a culture characterized by a low (economic)
standard of living and an unsophisticated population. A favorable situation exists when
visitors and those of the host country mingle socially and become better acquainted. This
greatly increases the awareness of each others character and qualities, building appreciation
and respect in both groups.4

Conclusion: In conclusion I can say that because tourism is one of the largest industries for
some countries it is the main instrument for regional development and it stimulates some
new economic activities.