Sei sulla pagina 1di 3

10/3/2016 FluidseBook:MomentofMomentumEquation

Ch4.FundamentalLaws(IntegralAnal.) MultimediaEngineeringFluids
Conservation Linear Momentof Conservation
Mass Momentum Momentum Energy

Fluids MomentofMomentumEquation CaseIntro Theory CaseSolution
Chapter
1.Basics
2.FluidStatics FLUIDMECHANICSTHEORY
3.Kinematics
4.Laws(Integral) Thebasicconceptsofangularmomentumandtorque
5.Laws(Diff.)
willfirstbeintroduced.Themomentofmomentum
6.Modeling/Similitude
7.Inviscid equationisthenstatedforacontrolvolumealongwith
8.Viscous anillustrationofitsapplications.
9.ExternalFlow
10.OpenChannel
AngularMomentumandTorque

Appendix
BasicMath Theangularmomentum,H,ofaparticleabouta
Units
BasicEquations
referencepointOisthecrossproductbetweenthe
Water/AirTables positionvector,r,andthemomentumofthesystem,
Sections mV,orinequationform,

Search H=rmV

eBooks wheremisthemassofthesystem,andVisthe
Dynamics AngularMomentum velocityofthesystem.Thedirectionoftheangular
Statics Clicktoviewmovie(36k)
Mechanics
momentumisperpendiculartotheplanecontainingthe
Fluids positionvectorandvelocityvector,anditcanbe
Thermodynamics determinedbyusingtherighthandrule,asshownin
Math thefigure.

Author(s): Theangularmomentumandtorqueormomentofa
CheanChinNgo particlearerelated.Recall,thetorque,T,isgivenby
KurtGramoll
thecrossproductofthepositionvectorandtheforce
KurtGramoll vector:

T=rF

Theforcecouldalsobewrittenasmaandusingthe
chainruleas,
RightHandRule
Clicktoviewmovie(64k) T=rmdv/dt=d(rmv)/dt

Thus,foraparticle,thecrossproductoftheposition
andforcevectorsisequaltothemomentumrateof
change,or

rF=dH/dt

MomentofMomentumEquation

Themomentofmomentumequationisalsoreferredto
astheangularmomentumequation.Themomentof
momentumequationforafixedandnondeforming
controlvolumecanbederivedusingbytakinga
materialderivativeoftheangularmomentumofa
particle(omittedhere),whichwillgive

Torque
Clicktoviewmovie(30k)

whereristhepositionvector(aboutareferencepoint),
Vistheabsolutevelocityofthefluid,andnisthe
outwardunitnormalvector.Forsteadyflow,thefirst
termontherighthandsideofthemomentof
https://ecourses.ou.edu/cgibin/ebook.cgi?doc&topic=fl&chap_sec=04.3&page=theory 1/3
10/3/2016 FluidseBook:MomentofMomentumEquation

momentumequationvanishes.ThetermVnwillbe
positivewhentheflowisoutofthecontrolvolume
whileitisnegativewhentheflowisintothecontrol
volume(seeanothersectionformorediscussion).The
directionsofthequantitiesrFandrVaredetermined
bytherighthandruledescribedpreviously.

Themomentofmomentumequationcanbestatedin
UnitNormalVector wordsasfollows:
Clicktoviewmovie(22k)

HydraulicTurbine Themomentofmomentumequationcanbeappliedto
Clicktoviewmovie(28k) analyzerotatingsystems,suchasturbines,sprinklers,
andfans.Inanalyzingsuchsystems,thevectorform
oftheequationisoftenresolvedintoscalarform,and
onlythedirectionalongtheaxisofrotationis
considered.

Takethelawnsprinklerasshowninthefigurefor
example.Forsteadyflow,themomentofmomentum
equationreducesto
LawnSprinkler
Clicktoviewmovie(45k)


Butnotice,therearetwopossiblevelocitieswiththis
formulation.Vrelisthevelocityrelativetotherotating
nozzle,asifoneisstandingonthenozzlehead.Next,
Vabs istheabsolutevelocityasviewedfromthenon
rotatingframeofreference(i.e.theground).

Sowhytwovelocities?Duetotheconservationof
mass,themassflowrate,dm/dtisconstant,andthus
Vrelmustalsobeconstant.Vrelisconstantforanon
acceleratingsystem.TheVabs istheratethemassis
reallymovingascomparedtothegroundandthis
VelocityRelationships: drivestherotatingarm.Itiscriticalthattherelationship
Vtip NozzleTipVelocity(=r) betweenVabs andandVrelisunderstoodandused
VrelFluidVelocityRelativetoNozzle correctly.Theyarerelatedas
VabsAbsoluteVelocityfromGround
Vabs =Vrel+Vtip

whereVtipisusuallyintheoppositedirection,andthus
negative.

Generally,thebasicsteadystateangularmoment
equationiswrittenwithseparatetermsforfluidcoming
inandgoingout(velocityisassumedperpendicularto
theinletoroutletarea,andareadoesnotchange)
giving

MomentofMomentumAnalysis
ofaLawnSprinkler

https://ecourses.ou.edu/cgibin/ebook.cgi?doc&topic=fl&chap_sec=04.3&page=theory 2/3
10/3/2016 FluidseBook:MomentofMomentumEquation

Thisformisforfixed,nondeformingcontrolvolumes.
Forrotatingsystem,theabsolutevelocitymustbe
used.

Alongtheaxisofrotation,theaboveequationcanalso
bewritteninscalarformforoutletonlysystemsas
simply

Tshaft=rVdm/dt

whereTshaftisthetorqueoftheshaft,Visthe
tangentialvelocityofthefluid,anddm/dt(=AVrel)is
thetotalmassflowoutofthecontrolvolume.Notice,
thisisascalarequation,andtheminussignmeans
thattheshafttorqueopposestherotatingarms.This
equationassumesnofluidiscomingintothesystem
exceptatthecenterofrotation(i.e.asprinklertype
system).

ShaftPower

Insomecases,theshaftpowerisneededtodetermine
apumpsizeorturbineoutput.Powerissimplythe
workperunittime.Forrotatingsystems,thiscanbe
expressedas

whereistheangularvelocityoftheshaft.

https://ecourses.ou.edu/cgibin/ebook.cgi?doc&topic=fl&chap_sec=04.3&page=theory 3/3