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6
3
4
7
1
2
5

Rigid raft

Flexible raft
Contact pressure
Load carried by piles
Pile group

(a)

(b)

b

(a)

(c)

(b)

(d)

(e)

s

Pile

(f)

0
. 3
Raft
0
. 2
0 . 8
0
. 6
0
. 1
0
. 5
0
. 4
0
s/b 0 . 3
0 . 1
0 . 2 0
0 . 2
0 . 4
0 . 6
0 . 8
1
∆w*

1/P * t

(a)

0
. 3
Raft
0
. 2
0
. 8
0
. 1
0
. 6
0
. 5
0
0
. 4
0 . 1
s/b 0 . 3
0 . 2 0
0 . 2
0 . 4
0 . 6
0 . 8
1
∆w*

1/P * t

(b)

0
. 3
Raft
0 . 8
0
. 2
0
. 1
0
. 6
0
. 5
0
0
. 4
0 . 1
s/b 0 . 3
0 . 2 0
0 . 2
0 . 4
0 . 6
0 . 8
1
∆w*

1/P * t

(c)

p gt

0
. 6
m 0 . 8
s/b
m 1
m 0 . 6
0
. 5
0
. 3
0
. 4
0
. 5
0
. 4
0
. 6
0
. 8
0
. 3
0
. 2
0
. 1
L p /a eq 3
0 0
0 . 2
0 . 4
0 . 6
0 . 8
1

1/P * t

1
s/b
0
. 8
0
. 3
L p /a eq 3
0
. 4
0
. 6
0
. 5
0
. 6
0
. 4
0
. 2
0
0 . 2 0
0 . 2
0 . 4
0 . 6
0 . 8
1
∆w/(∆w at m 1)

m

(a)

1
s/b
0
. 8
0
. 3
L p /a eq 3
0
. 4
0
. 5
0
. 6
0
. 6
0
. 4
0
. 2
0 0
0 . 2
0 . 4
0 . 6
0 . 8
1
P* g

m

(b)

0
. 2
0
. 15
h/L p
L p /a eq 3
2
0
. 1
4
s/b 0 . 4
7
10
0
. 05
0
0 . 05
0 . 1 0
0 . 2
0 . 4
0 . 6
0 . 8
1
∆w*

1/P * t

0
. 2
E
p /E s
0
. 15
L p /a eq 3
100
500
0
. 1
1000
s/b 0 . 4
3000
10000
0
. 05
0
0 . 05
0 . 1 0
0 . 2
0 . 4
0 . 6
0 . 8
1
∆w*

1/P * t

0
. 2
0
. 15
ν
L p /a eq 3
s
0
. 1
0
. 1
s/b 0 . 4
0
. 3
0
. 5
0
. 05
0
0 . 05
0 . 1 0
0 . 2
0 . 4
0 . 6
0 . 8
1
∆w*

1/P * t

P* g

1/P* t

0
. 6
0
. 5
ν
s
0
. 1
0
. 4
0
. 3
0
. 5
0
. 3
0
. 2
0
. 1
0 0
0 . 2
0 . 4
0 . 6
0 . 8
1
m
(a)
0
. 6
0
. 5
ν
s
0
. 1
0
. 4
0
. 3
0
. 5
0
. 3
0
. 2
0
. 1
0 0
0 . 2
0 . 4
0 . 6
0 . 8
1

m

(b)

0
. 20
K rs 0 . 1
0
. 10
s/b 0 . 4
0
. 00
0 . 10
0 . 20
1 . 5
.
.
2
2 5
3
3
5
∆w*

L p /a eq

P* g

K pr

0
. 2
0
. 15
L
p /a eq
1
. 6
3
. 0
0
. 1
0
. 05
0
0 . 05
0 . 1 0
0 . 2
0 . 4
0 . 6
0 . 8
1
∆w*

1/P * t

1
L
p /a eq
0
. 8
1
. 6
3
. 0
0
. 6
0
. 4
0
. 2
0 0
0 . 2
0 . 4
0 . 6
0 . 8
1

m

0
. 3
K rs 0 . 1
0
. 2
K pr 1 . 02
0
. 1
L p /a eq 3
0
. 0
0 . 1
Fully elastic analyses
0 . 2
0 . 3
0 . 4
0 . 5
0 . 6
0 . 7
0 . 8
0 . 9
1
∆w*

s/b

(a)

2 . 0

1 . 5

1 . 0

0 . 5

0 . 0 0

K rs 0 . 1

0 . 1

0 . 2 Area ratio a gr

(b)

0 . 3

0 . 4

M*

0
. 3
Raft
s/b
0
. 2
0
. 3
L p /a eq 3
0
. 4
0
. 5
0
. 1
0
. 6
0
. 0
0 . 1
0 . 0
0 . 2
0 . 4
0 . 6
0 . 8
1 . 0
∆w*

1/P * t

(a)

0
. 006
Raft
0
. 004
Max.
0
. 002
0
. 000
0 . 002
0 . 004
Min.
0 . 006
0 . 3
0 . 4
0 . 5
0 . 6

s/b

(b)

P* g

1/P * t

1 . 0

s/b
0
. 3
0
. 4
0 . 5
0 . 6

0 . 8

0 . 6

0 . 4

0 . 2

0 . 0 0

0 . 2

0 . 4

0 . 6

0 . 8

1

m

(a)

1 . 0

0 . 8

0 . 6

0 . 4

0 . 2

0 . 0 0

s/b
0
. 3
0
. 4
0 . 5
0 . 6

0 . 2

0 . 4

0 . 6

0 . 8

1

m

(b)

2 . 5 m

14 m

Instrumented pile

p gt

0

0

0

0

0

. 5

. 4

. 3

. 2

. 1

0

Centrifuge test
HyPR

0 5

10

15

20

Total applied load: MN

(a)

25

1
0
. 8
Centrifuge test
HyPR
0
. 6
0
. 4
0
. 2
0
m

0 5

10

15

20

Total applied load: MN

(b)

25

Total applied load: MN
0
5
10
15
20
25
10
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
Ave., HyPR
Dif., HyPR
70
Ave., Centrifuge
80
Dif., Centrifuge
90
Settlement: mm