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# PRACTICA DE MODELOS DE SIMULACION Y

LABORATORIO

## INSTRUCCIONES.- Realice las siguientes simulaciones en flujo

multifase dinmico de petrel, tomando en cuenta que el grupo
en cada uno de los casos deber incluir un tutorial del
modelo simulado con su carpeta y finalmente la grabacin en
vivo realizando el modelo donde intervengan todos los
integrantes del grupo. Todo debe ser incluido en un DVD o
varios segn la necesidad del grupo.

## Fecha de entrega: Viernes 4 de Noviembre Hrs. 7:00 (Al ingreso

al Parcial Final).
EXERCISE 1 : FAULT
MODELING
MODELO A MOSTRAR EN LA SIMULACION

Fault Modeling
The purpose of this process is to build a fault model using variety of fault
data. There are several ways of defining the fault
model in Petrel. A fault model can be generated
based on fault polygons, interpreted seismic lines,
imported structural maps or fault sticks. The dip,
azimuth, length and shape define the fault planes by
the means of Key Pillars. The Key Pillars build the
framework of the 3D model, hence the name Key
Pillars. A Key Pillar is a vertical, linear, listric or
curved line consisting two, three or five shape points representatively. The
figure in the upper right corner shows a listric Key Pillar consisting of one top,
one middle and one base shape point. Every fault has to be defined by Key
Pillars to be included in a 3D grid. Faults might be crossing, branching and
vertical truncated and the intersections of the faults must be connected in the
fault modeling process. The fault model is complete when all faults are
represented by Key Pillars and been properly connected.

## Important icons used in the process steps:

Select/Pick mode Select shape point

## Create fault from fault polygons Select pillar

Add to or create fault from selected fault sticks Connect two faults

Create fault from fault sticks, surface or interpretation Add pillar to end

## Move along line tangent only Linear pillar

Listric pillar
Exercise Overview:
A) Define a new model
B) Create faults based on fault polygons
C) Edit Key Pillars
D) Connect faults
E) Create faults using selected fault sticks
F) Create faults from all fault sticks
G) Automatic generation of faults from fault sticks in the input tab in Petrel Explorer
H) Optional exercises
Adjust Key Pillars to top and base surface automatically
Digitize Key Pillars using 2D structural grid
Digitize Key Pillars on a general intersection with surfaces displayed
During each part you will be deleting, adding, modifying and connecting Key
Pillars. When finished you will have a fault model similar to the fault model
displayed below.

## A Define a new model

Before building a 3D grid in Petrel, it is necessary to define a model. The new
model only contains empty folders. When you begin generating Key Pillars,
they will be placed in one of these pre-defined folders.

Exercise Steps
1 Double click on Define Model in the Process Diagram. A window will pop up (Process for
Define Model).
1. Call the model GeoModel and click OK. The model will be placed under the Models tab in the
Petrel Explorer.

## A) Create faults based on fault polygons

A fault polygon is the line of intersection of the fault with the structure surface.
To build Key Pillars from these polygons they must have Z-values related to the
surface they belong to. In an earlier exercise you assigned Z-values from
structure grids to these polygons. To build Key Pillars from these polygons the
polygon lines must represent a single fault (not multiple faults).

Exercise Steps

## 1 Activate the Fault modeling process in the process diagram.

2. Display the fault polygon files in the fault polygons folder in the 3D window.
3. Select which fault to be modeled and set the suitable pillar geometry; vertical, linear, listric or

## curved . Depending on the type of fault to be modeled.

Open the settings for the fault model process by double clicking on the process in the Process
Diagram. Use the default settings. However, the fault model should represent the input data
properly. Note the option to extend the Key Pillars above the given min point and below the
given max point of the input data. You can control how far Pillars are extended.
4.

## 5. Click on the Set Select/Pick mode icon in the Function bar

6. In the 3D window select all fault polygons that describe one fault by clicking on the fault
polygons and on the Shift Key.

7. Click on the Create faults from polygons icon in the Function bar to generate Key Pillars
along the selected polygons.
8. The new fault has been added under the Fault folder in the Model tab of Petrel Explorer and
called Fault 1. You can change the name to a more appropriate name by clicking twice on
the Fault 1 and changing the name under the Info tab of the window that pops up.

Use as few shape points as possible to describe the shape of the
fault. Also note the option to set the increment in of the Key Pillars in the
settings for fault modeling process.
EXERCISE 2 : PILLAR
GRIDDING
Pillar Gridding

## The Pillar Gridding process is the

generation of a spatial framework. In this exercise you will generate skeleton
grids based on the Key Pillars as defined in the previous exercise. The Key
Pillars will be converted into fault surfaces that are defined by Pillars. Pillars will
also be inserted in between the faults and as such, define the grid cell size in
the I and the J directions.

You will learn how the skeleton grids are generated and how it is possible to
apply trends and directions to improve the quality of the grid. The grid cell size
(increment) in the I and the J directions will be specified. The final step will be
to perform a quality control check on the generated skeleton grids by playing
through it in the I and the J directions. The skeleton grids will be divided into
segments separated by faults and boundaries. Each segment will have a
specific number of cells, which can be changed to make the grid density higher
or lower for specific segments.

The generated skeleton grids, also called pillar grid, defines the spatial
framework into which the horizons will be inserted later. This means that the
pillars are not associated with Z-values. The three skeleton grids that are
created do not represent surfaces. Rather, they represent the position of the
pillars at the top, middle and base levels.

In the next process (the Make Horizon process) will the horizons be inserted
and connected to the pillars, and cells in the z-direction will be defined. A 3D
grid will first be generated after this process has been completed.

## The goal of the Pillar Gridding process is to create evenly distributed

rectangular shaped grid cells.
Important icons used in the process steps:
Create boundary Set part of grid boundary

## Set arbitrary direction New I-trend

New J-trend

Exercise Overview:
A) Before Pillar Gridding
B) Create a new skeleton grid
C) Create a simple grid boundary and quality check your fault model
D) Create a segment boundary
E) Insert directions and trends
F) Pillar Gridding
G) QC of Skeleton grid
H) Optional Exercises (Specify number of cells, Defining segments using trends, Set fault
undefined, Set fault not part of segment boundary)

## B Before Pillar Gridding

Since Pillar Gridding uses the Key Pillars that define the faults and their
intersections to guide the building of the final pillars, the Key Pillars must be
properly constructed. Before starting Pillar Gridding a series of checks need to
be performed to ensure that the fault modeling process is complete. Once
these checks have been performed then Pillar Gridding can be initialized and
the skeleton grids created.

Exercise Steps
In the 3D window display all the faults in the fault model.

B)

## C) Create a new 3D grid

Pillar gridding creates the first component (pillars) of a 3D grid. Because of this
the process must either create a new 3D Grid or write over the top of an
existing one. When updating a model you should overwrite an existing 3D Grid
because the settings will already be set from previous executions and make the
update easier. The best way to do this is to copy the 3D Grid and overwrite the
copied version.

Some key settings such as name of the 3D grid and the grid increment are set
when initializing the Pillar Gridding process, although they can be altered at
any time.

Exercise Steps
2 Start the process of creating a new 3D Grid. Note that when you double
clicked on Pillar Gridding in the Process Diagram, a 2D window opened with
your fault model displayed. The line is the projection line between the Key
Pillars mid-points you defined in the previous exercise. The dots are the
mid-point on the Key Pillar it self.

9. Enter a name for the 3D grid (3D Grid) and specify the I and J increment
(100).
10. Move the Pillar Gridding window out of the way but leave it up, as it will be
used repeatedly in the following exercises.

## D) Create a simple grid boundary and quality

The boundary marks the lateral extent of the 3D grid. It can be defined
interactively in a number of ways. The boundary may completely enclose the
faults or it may cut across faults. Alternatively faults can form part of the grid
boundary. The 3D Grid is only defined inside the boundary. Therefore no
volumes, structural horizons, or attribute cells will be calculated or exist
outside the boundary.

To completely enclose all faults in the 3D grid the tool for Create boundary
can be used. This option is used for digitizing a boundary in the 2D window.

Exercise Steps
3 Display one of the time surfaces in the input tab of Petrel Explorer in the
2D window. This will be used as a guide when digitizing the boundary.
11. Start creating a boundary around the area of interest by using the icon
Create boundary and click with the left mouse button to draw a
boundary. Double click on the left mouse button to close the boundary.
12. Build a 2D grid (QC check) by double clicking on the Pillar Gridding process
in the Process Diagram and pressing Apply. If the boundary is not closed,
then close it. Key Pillars that are crossing each other will be marked with
yellow dots. If this is so then go to the Window menu and Tile Vertical the
3D window with the fault model displayed and the 2Dwindow with the
Pillar grid displayed. The problem pillars will be displayed in the 3D window
as well, activate the Fault Modeling process and fix the problem by editing
the Key Pillars. Run the Pillar Gridding process over again.

## E) Create a segment grid boundary

Exercise Steps
4 Display one of the time surfaces in the input tab of Petrel Explorer in the
2D window. This will be used as a guide when digitizing the boundary.
13. Start by making faults, on the left side of the area, part of the boundary.
Use the Set Select/Pick mode to mark a fault. Note that when clicking on
the line connecting the shape points on the fault (the dots) the whole fault
becomes yellow. This means that the fault is selected and you can give it a
purpose. Alternatively you can press one shape point (start point) hold the
Shift key and press the end shape point (the start and end shape point
turn yellow).
14. Click on the Set part of grid boundary icon. Note that the fault or the part
of fault will be marked with a double blue line, as shown in the figure
below.

15. Continue the boundary from fault to fault (digitizing points in between) on
the south, east, and north sides of the boundary.
16. Select the Create Boundary Segment icon.
17. Click on the point on a fault to start digitizing the boundary from.
18. Digitizing the boundary between the faults so it matches the surface
displayed. You can digitize anyway you like but you can not cross faults.
19. Click on a shape point on a fault to end the boundary.
20. Continue to set the boundary for the rest of the area.
21. Build a 2D grid (QC check) by pressing Apply. If the boundary is not closed,
then close it. If Key Pillars are crossing, then go back to the Fault Modeling
process, change the view to 3D display and edit the Key Pillars so that they
are no longer crossing. Press Apply over again.

It is possible to move parts and delete parts of the digitized boundary. The Pillar
Gridding process must be active in the Process Diagram (the name is bold in
the Petrel Explorer) and the boundary is displayed in the 2D window.

Select the Select and Edit/Add points icon. Click on the point to be moved on
one of the digitized lines and moving it to the desired position.

To create a new point click on the line between two points and move a little.

Points are deleted by selecting the Set select/pick mode icon. Click on the
point to be deleted and press the Delete key. To delete several points hold the
Shift key down and select points with the set select/pick mode. To delete a
whole boundary click on the line between the digitized points, and press delete.

Faults have to be deleted and edited in the 3D window using the Fault Modeling
process. But trends can be edited and deleted as described above.

## It is possible to remove a fault from being part of the boundary

Select the Select and Edit/Add points icon. Click on the entire fault by clicking
on the line between the shape points or select part of a fault clicking on a
shape point (start point), holding the Shift key and pressing another shape
point (end point).

Click on the Set Segment Boundary icon. The selected portion of the fault will
turn from blue to white, indicating that it is no longer part of the boundary but
still defines a segment boundary (fault is used as a boundary for cell
construction).

## F) Insert directions and trends

Fault I- or J-directions are terms used by Petrel to identify faults that exert
strong control when Pillar Gridding. Fault directions may be of three types:
Arbitrary, I, and J. Arbitrary direction is the default setting for all faults. I
direction (faults are colored green in the 2D window) is used for faults trending
in one direction. J-direction
(faults are colored red in the
2D window) is used for
faults trending orthogonal to
the I-direction. During Pillar
Gridding faults designated
as either I or J will have
sides of the final cells
oriented parallel to their
fault surfaces and the
surface will make up one
side of adjacent cells. Arbitrary fault surfaces will also make up one side of
adjacent cells. However, the other side of the adjacent cells and the sides of
other nearby cells will not be oriented parallel to these faults. This means that
the geometric form of cells adjacent to arbitrary faults is very non-orthogonal
and the form of cells adjacent to an I- or J-directed fault is close to orthogonal.
Trends are lines, created by you, that improve the quality of the grid. Trends act
just like I- or J-directed faults during Pillar Gridding, implying that like trends
and directions should be aligned parallel to each other (I || I, J || J, I _|_ J). A
trend can be inserted to guide the gridding process. If you insert a green trend
it must be parallel to the green directions, and a red trend must be parallel to
the red directions.

General guidelines:
Start simple, preferably with no directions, and
insert directions only where necessary.
Red (or green) directions and trends should be
parallel to each other.
Red directions should be perpendicular to sets of
green directions and visa versa.

## The space between like directed

faults should be about the same along the length of
the direction.
Do not make two faults the same direction if they
are wide apart at one end and close together in the
middle or at the other end. The number of cells
between two directed faults of the same type (both
I or both J) will remain the same over the length of
the two faults. Therefore, if the two faults come
together the size of the cells gets very small to
allow the number of cells to remain the same.
Do not make part of one fault an I-direction and the

## rest of the fault a J-direction.

Do not put in to many similar directions too close

together.

Exercise Steps
5 Look for the overall fault pattern in the 2D window. In this case the major
faults are oriented North-South. Give the main fault(s) aligned North-South
a red J direction. With the Select/Pick mode icon select the line between
the shape points to select the fault and press Set J-direction icon.
22. Give a perpendicular fault a green I direction, selecting the faults in the
same manner as above and pressing Set I-direction icon.
23. Press Apply in the process window and observe the changes in the mid
skeleton grid. Note that the cells along the directed faults are aligned
parallel to the fault whereas the cells along the arbitrary fault (white) are
cut towards the fault.
24. Continue to set directions to all major faults in the project.
25. Insert a trend in the I direction (green) between two J directed faults (red),

## similar to the left figure below.

26. Press Apply and observe how the cells are aligned along the trend line
(right figure above).
27. Make sure that the direction and trend alignment are ok by QC the mid-
skeleton grid in the 2D window. Add directions on faults and trends to
refine the mid-skeleton grid.

Note that the number of cells is constant between
to faults defined with direction. This is illustrated on
the figure above.
It is possible to move parts and delete parts of the
digitized trend. The Pillar Gridding process must be
active in the Process Diagram (the name is bold in
the Petrel Explorer) and the trend is displayed in
the 2D window.

## Select the Select and Edit/Add points icon. Click on

the point to be moved on one of the digitized lines
and moving it to the desired position.
To create a new point click on the line between two
points and move a little.
Points are deleted by selecting the Set select/pick
mode icon. Click on the point to be deleted and
press the Delete key. To delete several points hold
the Shift key down and select points with the set
select/pick mode. To delete a whole trend click on
the line between the digitized points, the trend
should now be selected. Press delete. Alternatively
open the trend folder under the fault model folder
in Petrel Explorer, model tab. Find the trend to
delete, highlight it and press delete.

G) Pillar Gridding
After the Boundary has been defined and the 2D cell geometry tuned to the
point of acceptability (trends and directions may be applied to help tuning the
2D cell geometry), the 3D grid can be constructed. The result of this
construction is the Skeleton, which is a series of pillars, one for the corner of
each cell. Top, middle and base skeleton grids are used to view these pillars
easily in the X-Y dimensions. The pillars themselves are viewed in intersection
to check their integrity.

Under the Pillar Geometry tab in the Pillar Gridding process window, toggle off
Curved for the Non-Faulted Pillars. This will create a simpler 3D Grid
geometry with less chance for problems.
When the result is satisfying press OK to make the top and base skeleton grid.
Say "Yes" to the window that pops up (asking if you want to build the top and
base skeleton grids).

H) QC of Skeleton grid
You should always do a quality control check after the skeleton grid has been
generated. The important steps during QC involve checking for crossing pillars.
Crossing pillars will generate negative cell volumes. If you find crossing pillars,
you must either do the Pillar Gridding over again and use directions and/or
trends to avoid the crossing pillars, but most likely you will have to go back to
the Fault Modeling process and adjust the Key Pillars.

The reason why the QC is important after the construction of the skeleton grids,
even if the mid skeleton grid was fine during the Pillar Gridding process, is
because Petrel only checks for crossing pillars for the mid skeleton when Pillar
Gridding. When extrapolating the pillars to create the top and base skeleton,
Petrel will not check for any crossing pillars.

Exercise step
6 Activate the project in the Model tab of Petrel Explorer.
28. Open the Skeleton folder in the newly created 3D grid.
29. Perform a visual check of the grids individually in the 3D window, look for
spikes and irregularities. The comments below describe what to look for.
30. Display the Key Pillars from the fault model to locate the problem.
31. In the 3D window display a J-intersection from the Intersections folder.
Click on the name to make it active.
32. Double click on the intersection folder and toggle on show pillars in the
style tab settings window.

## 33. Use the player to move the intersection along the

grid. Check the pillar geometries for crossing pillars.

## MODELO FINAL A MOSTRAR

34. Perform the necessary corrections on process the fault model to improve
the skeleton grids (you will have to run the Pillar Gridding again).
EXERCISE 3 : VOLUME
CALCULATION
Volume Calculation
Volumes are most commonly calculated in
the Volume Calculation Process step. Volumes
can be calculated exactly within zones, segments
and user defined boundaries (e.g. License
boundaries). The Contacts defined in the
previous process (Make Contact) are used as
input to the Volume Calculation process.

## Volume calculations can be performed using

several hypotheses in one operation. Each
hypothesis is called a run. The user has the option to include an uncertainty
range for the contact level and create distribution functions based on this
uncertainty range.
The procedures for defining the set-up used for volume calculations are straight
forward but require that the user thoroughly checks all the volume menus.

All settings related to the Volume Calculation process is found under the
Volume Calculation process window. The user will specify the type of output to
generate (3D properties, report, distribution functions) and which input to be
used. Uncertainty analysis can be done based on an uncertainty in the
hydrocarbon contact level. If you want to see the effect of different property
models, then you should define several Volume Runs, each using different
inputs (such as property, contacts or boundary).

A report defined by the user will be created after the process has been run,
listing all the volume number per zone, per segment and/or per facies.

The user also has the option of creating a volume height maps (typically a
HCPV or STOIIP map).

Exercise Overview:
Calculate bulk volume above a contact
Creating a STOIIP Map
Draping the STOIIP map on a depth surface
Optional Exercise
Creating a Distribution Function

## I) Calculate bulk volume above a contact

To execute a Volume Model, first activate the proper model. Double click on the
Volume Calculation process to open the dialog window.

Exercise Steps
7 Open the Volume Calculation process
8 Specify Common Settings:
a Toggle on the properties to create and define which parameters to be included in the
report. Toggle on Bulk both in the Make property column and in the in report column.

a. Specify Report settings. The Detail level defines the order of reporting. If zone is level 1
and segment level 2 that means that the volumes will be reported for each segment in
each zone.
b. Define the Units of the reported numbers:

35. Define the inputs for Volume Run 1 under the Individual Run tab:
a. Contacts tab: Select Hydrocarbon Interval(s): Oil and Gas and enter the gas-oil
contact and the oil-water contacts by first selecting them in the Fluid Contacts folder
and then clicking on the blue arrow
b. Under the Gen.Properties enter the general properties to be used. If you do not have a
N/G property in your project then use a constant value of 0.8.

c. Under the Oil Zone Properties choose which Water saturation (Sw) property to be used
and enter the Bo=1.21. If you do not have a Sw property in your project then use a
constant value of 0.3.

d. Under the Gas Zone Properties choose to use a constant Water Saturation and enter
Bg=0.0009

## 36. Press OK to calculate the volumes.

37. A report will be created. Try to copy the entire report by clicking
in the upper left corner (as shown by the arrow on the illustration to
the right) and then click on Copy . Open Excel and select Paste

If negative volumes are detected a warning will be
given. Negative volumes will occur if the model
contains crossing pillars. These are typically
associated with vertically truncated faults or other
faults. The Bulk Volume property can be used to
filter on negative volumes to see where they occur.
Do this from Properties > Settings > Filters >
Values Filter and filter on the Bulk Volume to only
see negative values.
Cell volumes are calculated exactly across
segments, boundary polygons and contacts. This is
possible due to the triangulation of the cells.

## J)Creating a STOIIP Map

A hydrocarbon column height map is the sum of all the values in the same X,Y
position. For instance, a STOIIP map will show the sum of STOIIP for every X,Y
position in the entire grid. It will therefore show you where to expect the
highest concentration of oil.

Exercise Steps
9 Close the report window
38. Open the Volume Calculation process. Use the same settings as define previously but toggle
on STOIIP as the Volume Height map to be created. If you dont want to regenerate the Bulk
volume, you should toggle this option off. You can toggle on the option Overwrite existing
properties (in the lower left part of the window) to not create all the same properties over
again.

39. After running the process, the map will be placed in a folder in the bottom of the Petrel
Explorer Input tab
40. Display the map. You will probably have to click on the to be able to see it.
K) Draping the STOIIP map on a depth
surface
Exercise Steps
10 Open the settings for the Top Tarbert horizon, found under the Horizons folder under 3D Grid
(DC) in the Petrel Explorer Models tab. Under the Output tab, select Make Surface. The
generated surface will be stored under the Input tab in the Petrel Explorer.
41. Open the Settings for the generated Top Tarbert depth surface. Under Style tab >Solid > Color
choose Textured. Select the STOIIP map by clicking on it in the Petrel Explorer Input tab
(make it bold) and enter it into the Surface/Image/Seismic position by clicking on the blue
arrow .

## 42. Press OK.

43. Display the Top Tarbert depth surface to see the STOIIP map draped over it. Remember that
you are now draping the STOIIP map for all zones on to the Top Tarbert surface.