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5/6/2017 Small Intestine Cancer Treatment (PDQ)Patient Version - National Cancer Institute

SmallIntestineCancerTreatment
(PDQ)PatientVersion
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GeneralInformationAboutSmallIntestine
Cancer
KEYPOINTS

Smallintestinecancerisararediseaseinwhichmalignant
(cancer)cellsforminthetissuesofthesmallintestine.

Therearefivetypesofsmallintestinecancer.
Dietandhealthhistorycanaffecttheriskofdevelopingsmall
intestinecancer.

Signsandsymptomsofsmallintestinecancerinclude
unexplainedweightlossandabdominalpain.

Teststhatexaminethesmallintestineareusedtodetect
(find),diagnose,andstagesmallintestinecancer.

Certainfactorsaffectprognosis(chanceofrecovery)and
treatmentoptions.

Smallintestinecancerisararediseaseinwhich
malignant(cancer)cellsforminthetissuesof
thesmallintestine.
https://www.cancer.gov/types/small-intestine/patient/small-intestine-treatment-pdq#section/all 1/22
5/6/2017 Small Intestine Cancer Treatment (PDQ)Patient Version - National Cancer Institute

Thesmallintestineispartofthebodysdigestivesystem,which
alsoincludestheesophagus,stomach,andlargeintestine.The
digestivesystemremovesandprocessesnutrients(vitamins,
minerals,carbohydrates,fats,proteins,andwater)fromfoodsand
helpspasswastematerialoutofthebody.Thesmallintestineisa
longtubethatconnectsthestomachtothelargeintestine.Itfolds
manytimestofitinsidetheabdomen.

Thesmallintestineconnectsthestomachandthecolon.Itincludesthe
duodenum,jejunum,andileum.

Therearefivetypesofsmallintestinecancer.
Thetypesofcancerfoundinthesmallintestineare
adenocarcinoma,sarcoma,carcinoidtumors,gastrointestinal

https://www.cancer.gov/types/small-intestine/patient/small-intestine-treatment-pdq#section/all 2/22
5/6/2017 Small Intestine Cancer Treatment (PDQ)Patient Version - National Cancer Institute

stromaltumor,andlymphoma.Thissummarydiscusses
adenocarcinomaandleiomyosarcoma(atypeofsarcoma).

Adenocarcinomastartsinglandularcellsintheliningofthesmall
intestineandisthemostcommontypeofsmallintestinecancer.
Mostofthesetumorsoccurinthepartofthesmallintestinenear
thestomach.Theymaygrowandblocktheintestine.

Leiomyosarcomastartsinthesmoothmusclecellsofthesmall
intestine.Mostofthesetumorsoccurinthepartofthesmall
intestinenearthelargeintestine.

SeethefollowingPDQsummariesformoreinformationonsmall
intestinecancer:

AdultSoftTissueSarcomaTreatment
ChildhoodSoftTissueSarcomaTreatment
AdultNon-HodgkinLymphomaTreatment
ChildhoodNon-HodgkinLymphomaTreatment
GastrointestinalCarcinoidTumorsTreatment
GastrointestinalStromalTumorsTreatment

Dietandhealthhistorycanaffecttheriskof
developingsmallintestinecancer.
Anythingthatincreasesyourriskofgettingadiseaseiscalleda
riskfactor.Havingariskfactordoesnotmeanthatyouwillget
cancer;nothavingriskfactorsdoesn'tmeanthatyouwillnotget
cancer.Talkwithyourdoctorifyouthinkyoumaybeatrisk.Risk
factorsforsmallintestinecancerincludethefollowing:
https://www.cancer.gov/types/small-intestine/patient/small-intestine-treatment-pdq#section/all 3/22
5/6/2017 Small Intestine Cancer Treatment (PDQ)Patient Version - National Cancer Institute

Eatingahigh-fatdiet.
HavingCrohndisease.
Havingceliacdisease.
Havingfamilialadenomatouspolyposis(FAP).

Signsandsymptomsofsmallintestinecancer
includeunexplainedweightlossandabdominal
pain.
Theseandothersignsandsymptomsmaybecausedbysmall
intestinecancerorbyotherconditions.Checkwithyourdoctorif
youhaveanyofthefollowing:

Painorcrampsinthemiddleoftheabdomen.
Weightlosswithnoknownreason.
Alumpintheabdomen.
Bloodinthestool.

Teststhatexaminethesmallintestineareused
todetect(find),diagnose,andstagesmall
intestinecancer.
Proceduresthatmakepicturesofthesmallintestineandthearea
aroundithelpdiagnosesmallintestinecancerandshowhowfar
thecancerhasspread.Theprocessusedtofindoutifcancercells
havespreadwithinandaroundthesmallintestineiscalled
staging.

Inordertoplantreatment,itisimportanttoknowthetypeof
smallintestinecancerandwhetherthetumorcanberemovedby
https://www.cancer.gov/types/small-intestine/patient/small-intestine-treatment-pdq#section/all 4/22
5/6/2017 Small Intestine Cancer Treatment (PDQ)Patient Version - National Cancer Institute

surgery.Testsandprocedurestodetect,diagnose,andstage
smallintestinecancerareusuallydoneatthesametime.The
followingtestsandproceduresmaybeused:

Physicalexamandhistory:Anexamofthebodytocheck
generalsignsofhealth,includingcheckingforsignsofdisease,
suchaslumpsoranythingelsethatseemsunusual.Ahistoryof
thepatientshealthhabitsandpastillnessesandtreatments
willalsobetaken.

Bloodchemistrystudies:Aprocedureinwhichablood
sampleischeckedtomeasuretheamountsofcertain
substancesreleasedintothebloodbyorgansandtissuesinthe
body.Anunusual(higherorlowerthannormal)amountofa
substancecanbeasignofdisease.

Liverfunctiontests:Aprocedureinwhichabloodsampleis
checkedtomeasuretheamountsofcertainsubstances
releasedintothebloodbytheliver.Ahigherthannormal
amountofasubstancecanbeasignofliverdiseasethatmay
becausedbysmallintestinecancer.

Endoscopy:Aproceduretolookatorgansandtissuesinside
thebodytocheckforabnormalareas.Therearedifferenttypes
ofendoscopy:

Upperendoscopy:Aproceduretolookattheinsideofthe
esophagus,stomach,andduodenum(firstpartofthesmall
intestine,nearthestomach).Anendoscopeisinserted
throughthemouthandintotheesophagus,stomach,and
duodenum.Anendoscopeisathin,tube-likeinstrument
withalightandalensforviewing.Itmayalsohaveatoolto

https://www.cancer.gov/types/small-intestine/patient/small-intestine-treatment-pdq#section/all 5/22
5/6/2017 Small Intestine Cancer Treatment (PDQ)Patient Version - National Cancer Institute

removetissuesamples,whicharecheckedundera
microscopeforsignsofcancer.

Capsuleendoscopy:Aproceduretolookattheinsideof
thesmallintestine.Acapsulethatisaboutthesizeofalarge
pillandcontainsalightandatinywirelesscamerais
swallowedbythepatient.Thecapsuletravelsthroughthe
digestivetract,includingthesmallintestine,andsendsmany
picturesoftheinsideofthedigestivetracttoarecorderthat
iswornaroundthewaistorovertheshoulder.Thepictures
aresentfromtherecordertoacomputerandviewedbythe
doctorwhochecksforsignsofcancer.Thecapsulepasses
outofthebodyduringabowelmovement.
Doubleballoonendoscopy:Aproceduretolookatthe
insideofthesmallintestine.Aspecialinstrumentmadeup
oftwotubes(oneinsidetheother)isinsertedthroughthe
mouthorrectumandintothesmallintestine.Theinside
tube(anendoscopewithalightandlensforviewing)is
movedthroughpartofthesmallintestineandaballoonat
theendofitisinflatedtokeeptheendoscopeinplace.Next,
theoutertubeismovedthroughthesmallintestinetoreach
theendoftheendoscope,andaballoonattheendofthe
outertubeisinflatedtokeepitinplace.Then,theballoonat
theendoftheendoscopeisdeflatedandtheendoscopeis
movedthroughthenextpartofthesmallintestine.These
stepsarerepeatedmanytimesasthetubesmovethrough
thesmallintestine.Thedoctorisabletoseetheinsideofthe
smallintestinethroughtheendoscopeanduseatoolto
removesamplesofabnormaltissue.Thetissuesamplesare
checkedunderamicroscopeforsignsofcancer.This
proceduremaybedoneiftheresultsofacapsuleendoscopy
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areabnormal.Thisprocedureisalsocalleddoubleballoon
enteroscopy.

Laparotomy:Asurgicalprocedureinwhichanincision(cut)is
madeinthewalloftheabdomentochecktheinsideofthe
abdomenforsignsofdisease.Thesizeoftheincisiondepends
onthereasonthelaparotomyisbeingdone.Sometimesorgans
orlymphnodesareremovedortissuesamplesaretakenand
checkedunderamicroscopeforsignsofdisease.

Biopsy:Theremovalofcellsortissuessotheycanbeviewed
underamicroscopetocheckforsignsofcancer.Thismaybe
doneduringanendoscopyorlaparotomy.Thesampleis
checkedbyapathologisttoseeifitcontainscancercells.
UpperGIserieswithsmallbowelfollow-through:Aseriesof
x-raysoftheesophagus,stomach,andsmallbowel.Thepatient
drinksaliquidthatcontainsbarium(asilver-whitemetallic
compound).Theliquidcoatstheesophagus,stomach,and
smallbowel.X-raysaretakenatdifferenttimesasthebarium
travelsthroughtheupperGItractandsmallbowel.

CTscan(CATscan):Aprocedurethatmakesaseriesof
detailedpicturesofareasinsidethebody,takenfromdifferent
angles.Thepicturesaremadebyacomputerlinkedtoanx-ray
machine.Adyemaybeinjectedintoaveinorswallowedtohelp
theorgansortissuesshowupmoreclearly.Thisprocedureis
alsocalledcomputedtomography,computerizedtomography,
orcomputerizedaxialtomography.
MRI(magneticresonanceimaging):Aprocedurethatusesa
magnet,radiowaves,andacomputertomakeaseriesof

https://www.cancer.gov/types/small-intestine/patient/small-intestine-treatment-pdq#section/all 7/22
5/6/2017 Small Intestine Cancer Treatment (PDQ)Patient Version - National Cancer Institute

detailedpicturesofareasinsidethebody.Thisprocedureis
alsocallednuclearmagneticresonanceimaging(NMRI).

Certainfactorsaffectprognosis(chanceof
recovery)andtreatmentoptions.
Theprognosis(chanceofrecovery)andtreatmentoptionsdepend
onthefollowing:

Thetypeofsmallintestinecancer.
Whetherthecancerisintheinnerliningofthesmallintestine
onlyorhasspreadintoorbeyondthewallofthesmall
intestine.
Whetherthecancerhasspreadtootherplacesinthebody,
suchasthelymphnodes,liver,orperitoneum(tissuethatlines
thewalloftheabdomenandcoversmostoftheorgansinthe
abdomen).

Whetherthecancercanbecompletelyremovedbysurgery.
Whetherthecancerisnewlydiagnosedorhasrecurred.

StagesofSmallIntestineCancer

KEYPOINTS

Testsandprocedurestostagesmallintestinecancerare
usuallydoneatthesametimeasdiagnosis.

Therearethreewaysthatcancerspreadsinthebody.
Cancermayspreadfromwhereitbegantootherpartsofthe
body.

https://www.cancer.gov/types/small-intestine/patient/small-intestine-treatment-pdq#section/all 8/22
5/6/2017 Small Intestine Cancer Treatment (PDQ)Patient Version - National Cancer Institute

Smallintestinecancerisgroupedaccordingtowhetherornot

thetumorcanbecompletelyremovedbysurgery.

Testsandprocedurestostagesmallintestine
cancerareusuallydoneatthesametimeas
diagnosis.
Stagingisusedtofindouthowfarthecancerhasspread,but
treatmentdecisionsarenotbasedonstage.SeetheGeneral
Informationsectionforadescriptionoftestsandproceduresused
todetect,diagnose,andstagesmallintestinecancer.

Therearethreewaysthatcancerspreadsinthe
body.
Cancercanspreadthroughtissue,thelymphsystem,andthe
blood:

Tissue.Thecancerspreadsfromwhereitbeganbygrowing
intonearbyareas.

Lymphsystem.Thecancerspreadsfromwhereitbeganby
gettingintothelymphsystem.Thecancertravelsthroughthe
lymphvesselstootherpartsofthebody.

Blood.Thecancerspreadsfromwhereitbeganbygettinginto
theblood.Thecancertravelsthroughthebloodvesselsto
otherpartsofthebody.

Cancermayspreadfromwhereitbegantoother
partsofthebody.

https://www.cancer.gov/types/small-intestine/patient/small-intestine-treatment-pdq#section/all 9/22
5/6/2017 Small Intestine Cancer Treatment (PDQ)Patient Version - National Cancer Institute

Whencancerspreadstoanotherpartofthebody,itiscalled
metastasis.Cancercellsbreakawayfromwheretheybegan(the
primarytumor)andtravelthroughthelymphsystemorblood.

Lymphsystem.Thecancergetsintothelymphsystem,travels
throughthelymphvessels,andformsatumor(metastatic
tumor)inanotherpartofthebody.

Blood.Thecancergetsintotheblood,travelsthroughthe
bloodvessels,andformsatumor(metastatictumor)inanother
partofthebody.

Themetastatictumoristhesametypeofcancerastheprimary
tumor.Forexample,ifsmallintestinecancerspreadstotheliver,
thecancercellsintheliverareactuallysmallintestinecancercells.
Thediseaseismetastaticsmallintestinecancer,notlivercancer.

Smallintestinecancerisgroupedaccordingto
whetherornotthetumorcanbecompletely
removedbysurgery.
Treatmentdependsonwhetherthetumorcanberemovedby
surgeryandifthecancerisbeingtreatedasaprimarytumororis
metastaticcancer.

RecurrentSmallIntestineCancer
Recurrentsmallintestinecanceriscancerthathasrecurred(come
back)afterithasbeentreated.Thecancermaycomebackinthe
smallintestineorinotherpartsofthebody.

TreatmentOptionOverview
https://www.cancer.gov/types/small-intestine/patient/small-intestine-treatment-pdq#section/all 10/22
5/6/2017 Small Intestine Cancer Treatment (PDQ)Patient Version - National Cancer Institute

KEYPOINTS

Therearedifferenttypesoftreatmentforpatientswithsmall
intestinecancer.

Threetypesofstandardtreatmentareused:
Surgery
Radiationtherapy
Chemotherapy
Newtypesoftreatmentarebeingtestedinclinicaltrials.
Biologictherapy
Radiationtherapywithradiosensitizers
Patientsmaywanttothinkabouttakingpartinaclinicaltrial.
Patientscanenterclinicaltrialsbefore,during,orafter
startingtheircancertreatment.

Follow-uptestsmaybeneeded.

Therearedifferenttypesoftreatmentfor
patientswithsmallintestinecancer.
Differenttypesoftreatmentsareavailableforpatientswithsmall
intestinecancer.Sometreatmentsarestandard(thecurrently
usedtreatment),andsomearebeingtestedinclinicaltrials.A
treatmentclinicaltrialisaresearchstudymeanttohelpimprove
currenttreatmentsorobtaininformationonnewtreatmentsfor
patientswithcancer.Whenclinicaltrialsshowthatanew
treatmentisbetterthanthestandardtreatment,thenew
treatmentmaybecomethestandardtreatment.Patientsmay
https://www.cancer.gov/types/small-intestine/patient/small-intestine-treatment-pdq#section/all 11/22
5/6/2017 Small Intestine Cancer Treatment (PDQ)Patient Version - National Cancer Institute

wanttothinkabouttakingpartinaclinicaltrial.Someclinical
trialsareopenonlytopatientswhohavenotstartedtreatment.

Threetypesofstandardtreatmentareused:

Surgery
Surgeryisthemostcommontreatmentofsmallintestinecancer.
Oneofthefollowingtypesofsurgerymaybedone:

Resection:Surgerytoremovepartorallofanorganthat
containscancer.Theresectionmayincludethesmallintestine
andnearbyorgans(ifthecancerhasspread).Thedoctormay
removethesectionofthesmallintestinethatcontainscancer
andperformananastomosis(joiningthecutendsofthe
intestinetogether).Thedoctorwillusuallyremovelymphnodes
nearthesmallintestineandexaminethemunderamicroscope
toseewhethertheycontaincancer.

Bypass:Surgerytoallowfoodinthesmallintestinetogo
around(bypass)atumorthatisblockingtheintestinebut
cannotberemoved.

Evenifthedoctorremovesallthecancerthatcanbeseenatthe
timeofthesurgery,somepatientsmaybegivenradiationtherapy
aftersurgerytokillanycancercellsthatareleft.Treatmentgiven
afterthesurgery,tolowertheriskthatthecancerwillcomeback,
iscalledadjuvanttherapy.

Radiationtherapy
Radiationtherapyisacancertreatmentthatuseshigh-energyx-
raysorothertypesofradiationtokillcancercellsorkeepthem
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fromgrowing.Therearetwotypesofradiationtherapy:

Externalradiationtherapyusesamachineoutsidethebodyto
sendradiationtowardthecancer.

Internalradiationtherapyusesaradioactivesubstancesealed
inneedles,seeds,wires,orcathetersthatareplaceddirectly
intoornearthecancer.

Thewaytheradiationtherapyisgivendependsonthetypeofthe
cancerbeingtreated.Externalradiationtherapyisusedtotreat
smallintestinecancer.

Chemotherapy
Chemotherapyisacancertreatmentthatusesdrugstostopthe
growthofcancercells,eitherbykillingthecellsorbystopping
themfromdividing.Whenchemotherapyistakenbymouthor
injectedintoaveinormuscle,thedrugsenterthebloodstream
andcanreachcancercellsthroughoutthebody(systemic
chemotherapy).Whenchemotherapyisplaceddirectlyintothe
cerebrospinalfluid,anorgan,orabodycavitysuchasthe
abdomen,thedrugsmainlyaffectcancercellsinthoseareas
(regionalchemotherapy).Thewaythechemotherapyisgiven
dependsonthetypeandstageofthecancerbeingtreated.

Newtypesoftreatmentarebeingtestedin
clinicaltrials.
Thissummarysectiondescribestreatmentsthatarebeingstudied
inclinicaltrials.Itmaynotmentioneverynewtreatmentbeing
studied.InformationaboutclinicaltrialsisavailablefromtheNCI
website.
https://www.cancer.gov/types/small-intestine/patient/small-intestine-treatment-pdq#section/all 13/22
5/6/2017 Small Intestine Cancer Treatment (PDQ)Patient Version - National Cancer Institute

Biologictherapy
Biologictherapyisatreatmentthatusesthepatient'simmune
systemtofightcancer.Substancesmadebythebodyormadeina
laboratoryareusedtoboost,direct,orrestorethebody'snatural
defensesagainstcancer.Thistypeofcancertreatmentisalso
calledbiotherapyorimmunotherapy.

Radiationtherapywithradiosensitizers
Radiosensitizersaredrugsthatmaketumorcellsmoresensitive
toradiationtherapy.Combiningradiationtherapywith
radiosensitizersmaykillmoretumorcells.

Patientsmaywanttothinkabouttakingpartina
clinicaltrial.
Forsomepatients,takingpartinaclinicaltrialmaybethebest
treatmentchoice.Clinicaltrialsarepartofthecancerresearch
process.Clinicaltrialsaredonetofindoutifnewcancer
treatmentsaresafeandeffectiveorbetterthanthestandard
treatment.

Manyoftoday'sstandardtreatmentsforcancerarebasedon
earlierclinicaltrials.Patientswhotakepartinaclinicaltrialmay
receivethestandardtreatmentorbeamongthefirsttoreceivea
newtreatment.

Patientswhotakepartinclinicaltrialsalsohelpimprovetheway
cancerwillbetreatedinthefuture.Evenwhenclinicaltrialsdonot
leadtoeffectivenewtreatments,theyoftenanswerimportant
questionsandhelpmoveresearchforward.

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5/6/2017 Small Intestine Cancer Treatment (PDQ)Patient Version - National Cancer Institute

Patientscanenterclinicaltrialsbefore,during,
orafterstartingtheircancertreatment.
Someclinicaltrialsonlyincludepatientswhohavenotyetreceived
treatment.Othertrialstesttreatmentsforpatientswhosecancer
hasnotgottenbetter.Therearealsoclinicaltrialsthattestnew
waystostopcancerfromrecurring(comingback)orreducethe
sideeffectsofcancertreatment.

Clinicaltrialsaretakingplaceinmanypartsofthecountry.See
theTreatmentOptionssectionthatfollowsforlinkstocurrent
treatmentclinicaltrials.ThesehavebeenretrievedfromNCI's
listingofclinicaltrials.

Follow-uptestsmaybeneeded.
Someoftheteststhatweredonetodiagnosethecancerortofind
outthestageofthecancermayberepeated.Sometestswillbe
repeatedinordertoseehowwellthetreatmentisworking.
Decisionsaboutwhethertocontinue,change,orstoptreatment
maybebasedontheresultsofthesetests.

Someofthetestswillcontinuetobedonefromtimetotimeafter
treatmenthasended.Theresultsofthesetestscanshowifyour
conditionhaschangedorifthecancerhasrecurred(comeback).
Thesetestsaresometimescalledfollow-uptestsorcheck-ups.

TreatmentOptionsforSmallIntestine
Cancer
SmallIntestineAdenocarcinoma
https://www.cancer.gov/types/small-intestine/patient/small-intestine-treatment-pdq#section/all 15/22
5/6/2017 Small Intestine Cancer Treatment (PDQ)Patient Version - National Cancer Institute

Whenpossible,treatmentofsmallintestineadenocarcinomawill
besurgerytoremovethetumorandsomeofthenormaltissue
aroundit.

Treatmentofsmallintestineadenocarcinomathatcannotbe
removedbysurgerymayincludethefollowing:

Surgerytobypassthetumor.
Radiationtherapyaspalliativetherapytorelievesymptomsand
improvethepatient'squalityoflife.

Aclinicaltrialofradiationtherapywithradiosensitizers,withor
withoutchemotherapy.
Aclinicaltrialofnewanticancerdrugs.
Aclinicaltrialofbiologictherapy.

CheckthelistofNCI-supportedcancerclinicaltrialsthatarenow
acceptingpatientswithsmallintestineadenocarcinoma.Formore
specificresults,refinethesearchbyusingothersearchfeatures,
suchasthelocationofthetrial,thetypeoftreatment,orthe
nameofthedrug.Talkwithyourdoctoraboutclinicaltrialsthat
mayberightforyou.Generalinformationaboutclinicaltrialsis
availablefromtheNCIwebsite.

SmallIntestineLeiomyosarcoma
Whenpossible,treatmentofsmallintestineleiomyosarcomawill
besurgerytoremovethetumorandsomeofthenormaltissue
aroundit.

https://www.cancer.gov/types/small-intestine/patient/small-intestine-treatment-pdq#section/all 16/22
5/6/2017 Small Intestine Cancer Treatment (PDQ)Patient Version - National Cancer Institute

Treatmentofsmallintestineleiomyosarcomathatcannotbe
removedbysurgerymayincludethefollowing:

Surgery(tobypassthetumor)andradiationtherapy.
Surgery,radiationtherapy,orchemotherapyaspalliative
therapytorelievesymptomsandimprovethepatient'squality
oflife.

Aclinicaltrialofnewanticancerdrugs.
Aclinicaltrialofbiologictherapy.

CheckthelistofNCI-supportedcancerclinicaltrialsthatarenow
acceptingpatientswithsmallintestineleiomyosarcoma.Formore
specificresults,refinethesearchbyusingothersearchfeatures,
suchasthelocationofthetrial,thetypeoftreatment,orthe
nameofthedrug.Talkwithyourdoctoraboutclinicaltrialsthat
mayberightforyou.Generalinformationaboutclinicaltrialsis
availablefromtheNCIwebsite.

RecurrentSmallIntestineCancer
Treatmentofrecurrentsmallintestinecancerthathasspreadto
otherpartsofthebodyisusuallyaclinicaltrialofnewanticancer
drugsorbiologictherapy.

Treatmentoflocallyrecurrentsmallintestinecancermayinclude
thefollowing:

Surgery.
Radiationtherapyorchemotherapyaspalliativetherapyto
relievesymptomsandimprovethepatient'squalityoflife.
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Aclinicaltrialofradiationtherapywithradiosensitizers,withor

withoutchemotherapy.

CheckthelistofNCI-supportedcancerclinicaltrialsthatarenow
acceptingpatientswithrecurrentsmallintestinecancer.Formore
specificresults,refinethesearchbyusingothersearchfeatures,
suchasthelocationofthetrial,thetypeoftreatment,orthe
nameofthedrug.Talkwithyourdoctoraboutclinicaltrialsthat
mayberightforyou.Generalinformationaboutclinicaltrialsis
availablefromtheNCIwebsite.

ToLearnMoreAboutSmallIntestine
Cancer
FormoreinformationfromtheNationalCancerInstituteabout
smallintestinecancer,seetheSmallIntestineCancerHomePage.

Forgeneralcancerinformationandotherresourcesfromthe
NationalCancerInstitute,seethefollowing:

AboutCancer
Staging
ChemotherapyandYou:SupportforPeopleWithCancer
RadiationTherapyandYou:SupportforPeopleWithCancer
CopingwithCancer
QuestionstoAskYourDoctoraboutCancer
ForSurvivorsandCaregivers

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AboutThisPDQSummary
AboutPDQ
PhysicianDataQuery(PDQ)istheNationalCancerInstitute's
(NCI's)comprehensivecancerinformationdatabase.ThePDQ
databasecontainssummariesofthelatestpublishedinformation
oncancerprevention,detection,genetics,treatment,supportive
care,andcomplementaryandalternativemedicine.Most
summariescomeintwoversions.Thehealthprofessionalversions
havedetailedinformationwrittenintechnicallanguage.The
patientversionsarewrittenineasy-to-understand,nontechnical
language.Bothversionshavecancerinformationthatisaccurate
anduptodateandmostversionsarealsoavailableinSpanish.

PDQisaserviceoftheNCI.TheNCIispartoftheNational
InstitutesofHealth(NIH).NIHisthefederalgovernmentscenter
ofbiomedicalresearch.ThePDQsummariesarebasedonan
independentreviewofthemedicalliterature.Theyarenotpolicy
statementsoftheNCIortheNIH.

PurposeofThisSummary
ThisPDQcancerinformationsummaryhascurrentinformation
aboutthetreatmentofsmallintestinecancer.Itismeantto
informandhelppatients,families,andcaregivers.Itdoesnotgive
formalguidelinesorrecommendationsformakingdecisions
abouthealthcare.

ReviewersandUpdates

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EditorialBoardswritethePDQcancerinformationsummariesand
keepthemuptodate.TheseBoardsaremadeupofexpertsin
cancertreatmentandotherspecialtiesrelatedtocancer.The
summariesarereviewedregularlyandchangesaremadewhen
thereisnewinformation.Thedateoneachsummary("DateLast
Modified")isthedateofthemostrecentchange.

Theinformationinthispatientsummarywastakenfromthe
healthprofessionalversion,whichisreviewedregularlyand
updatedasneeded,bythePDQAdultTreatmentEditorialBoard.

ClinicalTrialInformation
Aclinicaltrialisastudytoanswerascientificquestion,suchas
whetheronetreatmentisbetterthananother.Trialsarebasedon
paststudiesandwhathasbeenlearnedinthelaboratory.Each
trialanswerscertainscientificquestionsinordertofindnewand
betterwaystohelpcancerpatients.Duringtreatmentclinical
trials,informationiscollectedabouttheeffectsofanew
treatmentandhowwellitworks.Ifaclinicaltrialshowsthatanew
treatmentisbetterthanonecurrentlybeingused,thenew
treatmentmaybecome"standard."Patientsmaywanttothink
abouttakingpartinaclinicaltrial.Someclinicaltrialsareopen
onlytopatientswhohavenotstartedtreatment.

ClinicaltrialsarelistedinPDQandcanbefoundonlineatNCI's
website.Manycancerdoctorswhotakepartinclinicaltrialsare
alsolistedinPDQ.Formoreinformation,calltheCancer
InformationService1-800-4-CANCER(1-800-422-6237).

PermissiontoUseThisSummary
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PDQisaregisteredtrademark.ThecontentofPDQdocuments
canbeusedfreelyastext.ItcannotbeidentifiedasanNCIPDQ
cancerinformationsummaryunlessthewholesummaryisshown
anditisupdatedregularly.However,auserwouldbeallowedto
writeasentencesuchasNCIsPDQcancerinformationsummary
aboutbreastcancerpreventionstatestherisksinthefollowing
way:[includeexcerptfromthesummary].

ThebestwaytocitethisPDQsummaryis:

PDQAdultTreatmentEditorialBoard.PDQSmallIntestine
CancerTreatment.Bethesda,MD:NationalCancerInstitute.
Updated<MM/DD/YYYY>.Availableat:
https://www.cancer.gov/types/small-intestine/patient/small-
intestine-treatment-pdq.Accessed<MM/DD/YYYY>.[PMID:
26389461]

Imagesinthissummaryareusedwithpermissionofthe
author(s),artist,and/orpublisherforuseinthePDQsummaries
only.IfyouwanttouseanimagefromaPDQsummaryandyou
arenotusingthewholesummary,youmustgetpermissionfrom
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