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In search of saturation

The importance of saturation

measurements is reflected by
the time and effort which has
been devoted to gathering them.
The most fundamental reservoir
parameters - oil, gas and water
content - are critical factors in
determining how each oilfield
should be developed.

In this article Jean-Louis Chardac,

Mario Petricola, Scott Jacobsen and
Bob Dennis outline the importance
of saturation measurements and
reveal how the latest techniques are
he lp in g re s e rv o ir e n g in e e rs a n d
geoscientists to maximize production
and improve total recovery.

aturation, the proportion of oil, gas, Invasion plans
water and other fluids in a rock, is a
crucial factor in formation evalua- One of the major problems with satura-
tion. Without saturation values, fluid dis- tion measurements is invasion - the
tribution can not be evaluated and no movement of drilling mud and mud fil-
informed decision can be made on the trate into the formation (figure 2.2).
development of an oil or gas reservoir. During drilling, mud is circulated from
When geologists and reservoir engi- the surface. Initially the formation is
neers talk about oil pools, it sounds as invaded by a process referred to as
though there are large bubbles of oil in spurt invasion. This occurs as soon as
the rock sequence. In reality, the oil and the drill bit exposes fresh rock surfaces,
gas in hydrocarbon reservoirs is dis- with whole mud flowing directly into the (b)
tributed through the pore space between formation, replacing the water which
the sand or carbonate grains which com- was present in the pore space.
prise the reservoir layer (figure 2.1). In However, within a few seconds, the
the best reservoirs this porosity amounts second stage of invasion begins. The
to between 25% and 35% of total volume. drilling mud forms a deposit (mud-cake)
This fraction of the reservoir is filled with on the side of the borehole and mud fil-
fluids in variable proportions and, as trate (a liquid filtered through the mud-
reservoir conditions change through pro- cake layer) oozes into the formation. The
duction, the volumes which each occu- depth and extent of invasion is controlled
pies will alter accordingly. For example, by the physical properties of the mud,
as oil is produced, internal fluid pressure the original formation fluid, and factors
drops and, in many reservoirs, this such as porosity and permeability. Fig. 2.1: Oil and gas fills the pore space
releases gas from solution. The mud filtrate invasion can be between sand or carbonate grains. The
interactions between fluids and grains are
Saturation changes are critical to fluid modelled by resistivity measurements
critical to oil and gas production. Initial fluid
flow and must be carefully monitored to which follow the invasion front saturation and wettability must be determined
optimize reservoir management, and through the rock. This front is often rep- to predict reservoir behaviour. Rocks may be
delay gas or water coning. resented as a single straight line but, in either water-wet (a) or oil-wet (b).
A great deal of effort has gone into the
collection and improvement of satura-
tion measurements. The wide range of (a) (b)
equations and models developed over
the years underlines the importance of
these measurements, and the complexity
of interactions between drilling mud,
rock, water and hydrocarbons around a
Native metals and graphite conduct
electricity, but the vast majority of rock-
forming minerals are insulators. Electrical
current passes through a formation mainly
by the movement of ions in pore water.
Clearly, therefore, porosity is a critical fac-
tor determining resistivity - in short, high
porosity means low resistivity values.
Fluid saturation can be assessed indi-
rectly by measuring the resistivity or elec-
trical resistance of a rock layer. Some (c) (d)
fluids (e.g. gas and oil) have very high
resistivities while formation water and
shales have low resistivities. These varia-
tions can help to discriminate between flu-
ids, but the borehole and surrounding
rock layers are complex environments
where mixtures of mud, mud filtrate,
hydrocarbon, formation water and rock of
varying resistivity are encountered.
Attempts to understand and model
this situation would be difficult enough if
the mixture stayed in one place, unfortu-
nately it does not. Fluid properties
around every borehole change with time.

Formation water Quartz grains Oil Mud

Fig. 2.2: Fluid distribution within a reservoir changes through time (a to d). Saturation, the relative
proportions of fluids in the reservoir will change with time and to model this change correctly it is
essential to measure initial oil and water saturations as accurately as possible. This measurement is
complicated by mud invasion - during drilling the undisturbed formation is modified by a rapid influx
of drilling muds which push oil and formation water away from the well.

22 Middle East Well Evaluation Review

(a) (b)

Fig. 2.3: INVASION

thin beds PLANS: In vertical
wells the invasion zone
is more or less
symmetrical around
the borehole, with mud
filtrate reaching a
(c) (d)
similar depth in similar
formations either side
of the hole (a). In
horizontal wells the
situation is more
complex. Thin beds
above and below the
borehole will be
invaded to a different
extent (b) while, in
other cases, invasion
may be controlled by
Fresh mud filtrate permeability variations
within a reservoir (c)
Original pore fluids or by gravitational
effects (d).

reality, the edges of the invasion zone

are usually ragged and its shape varies
in response to changing mud properties, THE LONG ROAD TO SATURATION
formation conditions and borehole
geometry, etc. (figure 2.3). In 1942 Gus Archie revolutionized the Archies equation quantifies these
During the 1950s, when modern logging way the oil industry looks at fluid satu- phenomena for clean, consolidated
techniques and tools were in their infancy, ration in reservoirs. Before the publica- sands with intergranular porosity. While
the problem of invasion and water satura- tion of his ground-breaking paper this provides a good solution in clastic
tion first became apparent. At that time, geoscientists found it difficult and rocks, many carbonates, with their dif-
invasion was seen as an inconvenient expensive to evaluate water saturation ferent pore geometries and variable size
environmental effect. The invaded zone (a and hydrocarbon reserves. The only are more difficult to evaluate.
rock volume around the borehole which reliable method involved coring the for- The carbonate reservoirs of the
has been filled by mud filtrate) affected all mation using oil-base mud and measur- Middle East are characterized by mixed
shallow-reading tools such as density, neu- ing water saturation in the laboratory. wettabilities - micropores are water-wet
tron porosity and micrologs. When water- Logs measuring a formations electrical and filled with irreducible water, while
based oil was believed to have displaced resistivity were used to identify hydro- macropores contain oil and may be oil-
oil or gas, the logs from these tools had to carbon-bearing formations but could wet. The microporosity systems often
be interpreted very carefully. Even deep not evaluate them quantitatively. dominate resistivity measurements
resistivity logs, designed to record beyond Archies equation relating saturation from logs, giving apparent saturation
the invaded zone, could not be relied to porosity and resistivity changed that. calculations which are inconsistent with
upon in every well and corrections were production data, e.g. dry oil from a zone
R with computed Sw greater than 70%.
often necessary to evaluate the true forma- Rt = m wSn To overcome this problem both
tion resistivity (Rt). w
In recent years technical advances porosity systems (and their wettabili-
Where Rt = rock resistivity, Rw = water ties) must be combined in a single equa-
have helped to change attitudes to inva- resistivity, = porosity, S w = water
sion. The flushing of oil and gas away saturation, m = porosity exponent and n = tion for carbonate sequences. Recent
from the wellbore presents a perfect saturation exponent. work in the Middle East has focused on
opportunity to study fluid displacement reliable measurements of the propor-
within the reservoir. A technique - the Electrical conduction in rocks is tions of micro- and macro- pores using
moved oil plot - has been developed to mainly through ion movement in pore Nuclear Magnetic Resonance tech-
take advantage of this. This plot com- filling brine. In rocks with open pores niques to evaluate pore size distribution
pares the volume of water in the invaded ions move easily, giving low resistivity (see Microporosity Makes Sense) .
and virgin zones. The difference values. In sinuous and restricted pore
between these values is the volume of systems, and those which contain hydro- G.E. Archie (1942) The Electrical Resistivity Log as an
hydrocarbon displaced. carbons, the flow of ions is reduced - Aid in Determining Some Reservoir Characteristics.
leading to higher resistivity values. Petroleum Transactions of the AIME 146, pp 54-62.

Number 17, 1996. 23

A ring of resistivity Fig. 2.4: In reservoir Salinity Saturation
zones invaded by fresh front
In reservoir zones where there is fresh mud a characteristic
low resistivity zone,
mud invasion a characteristic low resis- or resistivity
tivity zone, a resistivity annulus, devel- annulus, develops. Oil
ops. Moving out from the wellbore, logs When an annulus is Fresh
initially encounter a zone of high resistiv- detected, we can be mud
ity (containing oil and fresh mud filtrate), sure that filtrate
then the annulus itself (a low resistivity hydrocarbons are
zone containing oil and saline formation present. However, if
water displaced from the previous zone) the annulus effect
and finally, the high resistivities of the develops beyond the
detection range of Water
original formation water/oil mixture. resistivity tools, Rt
A resistivity annulus probably exists can not be measured
in every pay zone which is drilled with directly and a
fresh and oil-based mud - so it is vital hydrocarbon zone
that the annulus is identified. If the may be overlooked.
annulus is missed an oil or gas zone
may be overlooked. In wells where
saline mud is used the low resistivity Rxo
annulus does not develop.
Simplified models indicate the reasons
for a low resistivity anomaly (figure 2.4)
but do not represent the complex three-
dimensional distribution of oil, formation Rt

water and fresh mud filtrate that mark the
saturation and salinity fronts. If detected,
the annulus is a clear indication that
hydrocarbons are present. However, if
the annulus effect develops beyond the
detection range of resistivity tools, Rt can
not be measured directly and a hydrocar- Distance from wellbore
bon zone may be overlooked.
This high-low-high profile is very
important - when successfully recorded
it provides values for Rxo and Rt and,
more importantly, it indicates the pres-
ence of a pay zone. However, the low Medium
resistivity annulus moves away from the
wellbore through time (as the mud fil-
trate continues to push low resistivity
formation water away from the well) Deep
and, unfortunately, this movement pre-
sents yet another obstacle to resistivity
How can we ensure that the annulus
is identified (to guarantee seeing a
hydrocarbon layer) and measure R t as
the undisturbed reservoir zone is AIT 5
pushed further from the well? AIT 4
An annulus located a long way into AIT 3
the formation (70 in. to 80 in. from the AIT 2
wellbore) would give artificially low AIT 1
readings on other deep reading induc-
tion curves and, in some cases, may be
0 20 40 60 80 100
beyond the maximum depth of investiga-
tion (figure 2.5). Fortunately, the AIT* Depth of investigation (inches)
(Array Induction Imager Tool) can
record data from a zone centered 90 in. Fig. 2.5: DEEPER UNDERSTANDING: A resistivity annulus located 70 in. to 80 in.
from the borehole - much further than from the wellbore could not be identified using deep induction. The deep induction
any other deep resistivity logging tool. value recorded would be too low and if an invasion correction is made to account
This depth of penetration increases the for the low reading it will drive the resistivity value even lower.
probability of identifying an annulus and
of obtaining a good value for Rt.
A deep induction log taking measure-
ments from the annulus would give val-
ues that were too low and an invasion
correction would probably be made to
account for these low values. However,
this would simply push the resistivity
value even lower.

24 Middle East Well Evaluation Review

Thin beds (figure 2.6) present some
unique logging problems. Enhancements
and elaborate processing of logs have
gone some of the way to overcoming the
thin bed problem. Induction measure-
ments are fundamental to formation
evaluation and, because of this, a great
deal of effort has been focused on
enhancing these logs. The methods
involved generally concentrate either on
signal processing or hardware improve-
ments. One of the most important signal
modification methods is deconvolution.
The measurement which appears on
a log is a convolved or smoothed aver-
age of formation property variations
(figure 2.7a). Deconvolution extracts
actual depth variation of a formation
property (such as resistivity) by using Fig. 2.6: THINK THIN: Thin beds can be a major problem in reservoir sequences. Alternations of
information on tool physics to sharpen porous and tight rock types can alter well and reservoir performance dramatically - leading to
this vertically averaged measurement unpredictable early water production in some zones.
(figure 2.7b). The key to this process is
knowing how the tool responds to a Agiba Petroleum Company over- The ability to do all necessary process-
vanishingly thin bed - the tool's vertical came these problems by adopting the ing at the wellsite helps to accelerate
response function (VRF). Once this has latest advanced logging and interpreta- the entire evaluation process in com-
been identified, it can be reversed and tion techniques. High-resolution resis- plex reservoirs.
the log deconvolved to reveal unaver- tivity imaging, coupled with saturation As vertical resolution improves,
aged formation properties. imaging, gave a clearer indication of borehole effects become more pro-
Deconvolution must be carried out radial fluid distribution around the nounced. This is a major problem in
with care. The process usually increases borehole. The radial coverage gave bad borehole conditions, particularly if
noise and inaccurate results can be gen- good permeability indications and con- very saline (conductive) borehole flu-
erated by mathematical instabilities. tributed to a more realistic invasion ids are present.
model. The AIT tool provides more For one well in the Meleiha Field,
Egyptian vision than resistivity measurements, it also Agiba processed their data at all three
monitors borehole environment. This resolutions. The well was drilled with
Many of the oil and gas reservoirs in has two benefits; the inputs required water base mud. Borehole conditions
Egypt's Western Desert are complex. by the environmental correction algo- were fine and the logs were free from
The Bahariya Formation, one of the rithms are measured rather than esti- unwanted borehole effects. At 4 ft resolu-
most important hydrocarbon units in mated and output logs are corrected in tion the logs are characterized by a very
the region, is a prime example. The for- real-time. smooth response, similar to conventional
mation is heterogeneous, mineralogi- These real-time environmental correc- induction logs, with few of the Bahariya
cally complex and very thinly layered tions and R t calculations allow rapid Formation's thin layers being detected.
(figure 2.8). decisions based on high-quality data. At 2 ft resolution the logs show a lot
more detail, including the thin beds that
Fig. 2.7: MODEL were missing in the 4 ft log. The 1 ft reso-
(a) Standard induction (b) Enhanced induction
PERFORMANCE: lution gives the thin bed information
1 ohm-m 1000 1 ohm-m 1000 and provides a more accurate estimate
50 Formation model
with marked of resistivity.
changes in
resistivity. The
standard log (a)
can not identify
subtle changes and
100 misses some peaks
completely. The
enhanced log (b)
Depth (ft)

identifies almost
every bed; the
thinnest being
about 2 ft thick.

Fig. 2.8: THIN BED BAHARIYA: The Bahariya

Formation in Egypt's Western Desert is a
heterogeneous, mineralogically complex
sequence of thin beds - in other words, a log
200 analyst's nightmare.

Number 17, 1996. 25

Fig. 2.9: Borehole
corrections must be
carried out on the AIT
tool's 28 signals
before they can be
combined to form
logs. The corrections
are encoded as tables
for various borehole
conditions. The tables
were developed by
finite element
modelling of the
correction. This
complex 3D problem
required two years of
Cray computer time
to solve.

Using the AIT tool, a resistivity annu- However, when the annulus has When the resistivity of the invaded
lus can be identified more readily, and moved too far into the formation and has zone is much lower than in the undis-
the use of Tornado charts for correction passed beyond the maximum depth of turbed reservoir, the ARI* (Azimuthal
can be avoided. investigation for any available tool, Resistivity Imager) tool or standard dual
The AIT tool was designed to tackle direct measurement of Rt is prevented. laterolog will give a more accurate deter-
three important problems: Clearly, if R t cannot be measured mination of resistivity than the AIT tool.
caving/borehole effects; directly, an estimation technique must It is, therefore, important to assess resis-
invasion description; be devised. Experts are currently work- tivity contrasts before selecting tools.
poor vertical resolution. ing on methods which will allow them to In many Middle East reservoirs resis-
The AIT tool offers five fixed depths invert resistivity profiles to obtain Rt and tivity contrasts mean that induction read-
of investigation, but the measurements Rxo mathematically, using five measure- ings are needed in the water layer, to
are not taken from single points in the ments to evaluate five unknowns. At pre- determine Rw (water resistivity) as accu-
formation, but from areas that centre on sent, this cannot be done quantitatively. rately as possible. When this is the case,
points 10, 20, 30, 60 or 90 inches into it. In addition to annulus identification, induction tools give the best results for
Sampling at five depths of investiga- the AIT tool helps to identify thin beds. deep true resistivity. Accurate resistivity
tion offers many advantages over results Many geoscientists are reaching the con- measurements in water zones can be
from just three depths. The high-low-high clusion that thin bed analysis is important vital. Indications of saturation within the
resistivity variations we need to define in every reservoir. The majority of thick zone will influence major economic deci-
an annulus are more likely to be identi- reservoir intervals are usually layered - sions in the development of a reservoir.
fied by five separate measurements made up of similar, but distinct thinner For complete evaluation both types of
which can see deeper into the forma- units (figure 2.10). By identifying the tool can be run together and this
tion. The AIT tool eases the analysts bur- minor lithological contrasts which define arrangement would be of benefit in most
den - making 28 measurements and using thin layers, it is possible to improve reser- Middle East reservoirs. In practice, how-
built-in borehole correction tables for voir models and so enhance the predic- ever, a choice is generally made and one
various borehole conditions (figure 2.9). tions which are based upon them. or other measurement is given priority.
The latest development in AIT tool
technology has been specifically designed
for the Platform Express* system. It offers Fig. 2.10: The majority
the same five depths of measurement of thick reservoir
but total tool length is only 16 ft. The layers are actually
problem of erratic stick-slip motion sequences of
lithologically similar
encountered in some multiarray induc- thin beds. Identifying
tion tools has been solved by adding an the minor differences
accelerometer to provide real-time depth between these layers
correction for every tool on the string; improves the reservoir
this also ensures that the tools are on- model and, therefore,
depth with each other. the quality of
New algorithms have been developed predictions and
and tested for a range of difficult logging simulations based
conditions. One of these gives better upon it. (Denise Stone,
readings in rugose boreholes and con-
ductive (saline) mud. Additional features
include correction to the resistivity logs
for dip or deviation up to 60, and more
accurate estimates of Rt in the presence
of annulus.

26 Middle East Well Evaluation Review

The AIT tool acquires data at three For the first time, tools such as the FMI deeper is better philosophy is justified
vertical resolutions, but it is usually dis- or FMS can be run in conjunction with an in vertical wells, where the AIT tool can
played at the highest (1 ft) resolution induction log. Careful choice of scales see beyond the mud filtrate and mea-
(figure 2.11). In wells where conditions allows the operator to incorporate FMI or sure R t directly. Unfortunately, the
are not good for resistivity determina- FMS images into AIT images of resistivity, radial symmetry that is assumed in verti-
tion, for example where borehole con- Rwa or saturation without excessive dis- cal wells simply does not exist in highly-
ductivity is high or the borehole is tortion. deviated and horizontal wells (see figure
extremely rugose, there are no benefits 2.3). This asymmetry around the tool is
from processing data to display the high- In too deep a problem. Induction tools measure
est resolution and logs are usually dis- (the conductivity of a bed) and interpre-
played at 2 ft or 4 ft resolution. However, In vertical wells, the assumption of sym- tation is based on a constant induced
even at a vertical resolution of 4 ft, the metry around the borehole encouraged conductivity along the measurement
AIT is about twice as good as other stan- the development of tools that looked loop. However, when the tool cuts differ-
dard fixed focus induction tools, an deeper into the formation as analysts ent layers (each having different con-
important factor when investigating thin sought to measure values beyond the ductivities) a polarisation effect distorts
beds with high resistivity. zone invaded by mud filtrate. This the readings.
The choice of vertical resolution at
which the log will be processed depends
on factors such as hole size and shape,
and the expected range of deep resistivi- Fig. 2.11: This figure
ties. In difficult environments the opera- shows a saturation
map obtained from the
tor may decide to select a lower
AIT tool and porosity
processing resolution to make the data logs. The option of
more robust. running borehole
imaging tools, such as
Sense and sensitivity the FMI and FMS, in
conjunction with an
Calibration of the AIT tool requires a induction log will
zero conductivity environment, or con- improve downhole
ditions which approximate this as closely efficiency.
as possible. The process is carried out at
special facilities, using equipment which
contains no metallic components. During
calibration there must be no metal within
28 ft of the tool and there should be no
stray electrical signals (e.g. the charges
which build up during a thunderstorm)
to affect the settings. This extreme sensi-
tivity may seem inconvenient above
ground, but when the tool is where it
belongs - in the borehole - it can detect
the smallest fluctuations.
In many cases it could be beneficial to
run a FMI* (Fullbore Formation
MicroImager) or FMS (Formation
MicroScanner*) below the induction
tool. The AIT is the only induction tool
that can function in this configuration.
A through-wire sonde was specially
developed for the AIT tool which allows
other tools to be run below it in the
string. This seemingly simple task
required a great deal of engineering
effort. The AIT tool's conductivity mea-
surements detect minute voltage
changes and electrical connections run-
ning through the sonde were likely to
cause major problems unless the tools
could be shielded to eliminate their influ-
ence. Schlumberger has developed a
method which allows other tools to be
linked below the AIT tool without affect-
ing the very low signal levels measured
by the induction tool. This allows for
greater flexibility when a tool string is
being put together.

Number 17, 1996. 27

Over the past year a new generation of
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) z z
tools has been introduced in the Middle B0 field
East. These tools, in contrast to the previ- Precessing B0 field
ous generation, no longer require mud
doping to kill the borehole signal and
this makes the technique applicable in
many more wells. B1 field
Net magnetization
NMR measurements are made by
along z-axis
manipulating hydrogen protons in fluid y y
molecules. In a sense, the protons
behave as small bar magnets - their ori- x x
entations can be controlled by changes
in a magnetic field. A measurement
sequence starts with alignment of pro- Fig. 2.12: Proton alignment is the first step in Fig. 2.13: Aligned protons are tipped 90 by a
tons using powerful permanent magnets NMR measurement. Spinning protons are magnetic pulse oscillating at the resonance or
(figure 2.12). The next step is spin tip- aligned using powerful permanent magnets. Larmor frequency.
ping. With the strong magnetic field B0 The protons precess around an axis parallel to
still applied, the aligned H nuclei are the B0 direction. In logging, B0 is perpendicular
tipped away from B0 by applying a high- to the borehole axis.
frequency oscillating magnetic field B1,
perpendicular to B0 (figure 2.13).
The H nuclei, now tipped in a plane
perpendicular to B0, rotate or precess
Rock grain

Rock grain
around the B0 axis. If the field B0 was per- Rock grain
fectly homogeneous, all of the nuclei Rock grain
would rotate in phase at a frequency
called the Larmor frequency. In reality,
some of the nuclei will collide with pore
walls (figure 2.14) and move back towards
the B0 direction while others may stay in
the plane of precession but be completely
out of phase with the rest of the nuclei. A
measurement of the small magnetic field Rock grain
generated by the nuclei rotating in phase Rock grain
will, therefore, decay as more and more
nuclei slip out of phase. In the laboratory
the longitudinal relaxation time (T1) is Small pore Large pore
usually evaluated but in the wellbore the
transverse relaxation time (T2) is mea-
sured instead. Both are directly related to

pore size (figure 2.14) but T2 is easier to

measure in a logging environment.
The theory set out above is compli-
cated by conditions in the oilfield.
Homogeneous magnetic fields can be
approximated in the laboratory, but not in
a borehole. The frequency of precession Time, msec Time, msec
is controlled by the magnitude of B0 and it
varies as B0 changes. Consequently, inho- Fig. 2.14: COLLISION COURSE: Precessing protons move about the pore space colliding with other
mogeneities in the field strength create protons and with the grain surfaces. At every collision there is a possibility of a relaxation interaction.
regions where the nuclei rotate at different Grain surface relaxation is the most important process affecting T1 and T2 relaxation times.
frequencies and are no longer in phase.
To counteract this dephasing prob-
lem special sequences called CPMG
have been designed to re-focus those Fig. 2.15: TIME TO
RELAX: Water in a
nuclei which were no longer contribut- test tube has a long
ing to the measured signal, even though T2 relaxation time,
they remained in the plane perpendicu- 3700 msec at 40C.
lar to B 0 and were precessing without Relaxation in a vuggy
interacting with the rock surface. carbonate might
approach this value
but water in normal
pore space has
shorter relaxation
times. In sandstones
relaxation times
range from 10 msec to
500 msec.

28 Middle East Well Evaluation Review

Bound fluid Water T2 THRESHOLD
WATER: The high water
Possible free water Water Moved hydrocarbon 3 3000
saturations recorded in some
Volume of water from RT Moved hydrocarbon Oil Porosity reservoir zones can be
0.0 (PU) 25.0 Oil 50.0 (PU) 0.0 Calcite misleading. In this example,
Perfs CMR bound fluid Diff. Caliper Dolomite conventional logs would
0.0 0.25 -20 (IN) 20 Anhydrite
suggest that water might flow
from this zone. However, the
CMR tool shows that the water
is bound in the micropores and
the zone should flow dry oil.
The perforated zone, which
included porous zones with
high water saturations,
produced oil free of water.

Residual oil
Moved oil

Residual oil

irreducible water

Fluid situations Middle East carbonate reservoirs often The profiles match so well that adjust-
display mixed wettabilities - their microp- ing the cut-off to get the best possible fit
In 1995 a comprehensive campaign of ores are water wet and filled with irre- would seem a very good way to select
NMR measurements was conducted in ducible water, while macropores in the the correct value. This means that any
Abu Dhabi. This involved eight wells and rock contain oil and are oil-wet. The porous interval in this sequence can be
four different operating companies. The microporosity systems often dominate perforated and should flow oil without
project was intended to evaluate the resistivity measurements from logs, giving any obvious risk of producing water.
NMR response of Cretaceous and apparent saturation calculations which When the interval in this example was
Jurassic carbonates which are the major are inconsistent with production data, e.g. perforated it flowed dry oil for several
oil reservoirs across the region. In dry oil may flow from a zone with a com- months. In the future, for a more com-
parallel to the logging campaign, core puted water saturation greater than 70%. plete analysis, it may be advisable to
analysis was performed on samples from To overcome this problem both poros- consider the relative permeabilities of
five wells. ity systems (and their wettabilities) must the various fluids as a function of satura-
The main application of NMR mea- be considered for carbonate sequences. tion but at this early stage simple empiri-
surements in the Abu Dhabi study was This is achieved using the Combinable cal approaches are more likely to yield
to understand pore size distribution in Magnetic Resonance (CMR*) tool. useful results than more sophisticated
reservoir zones, to determine bound When saturations are computed using and theoretically rigorous methods.
fluid volumes and, from this information, an equation which accounts for the effect
improve predictions of the fluids which of microporosity on the resistivity log a
will flow from any given zone. different picture emerges.
However, there are a number of
major obstacles. Although the relaxation X
Ct = Cw MmM/X Sw nM/X + fmod SwM m/X Swn/X
time T2 is faster in rock pores than in a
test tube (figure 2.15), reduced logging Where:
speeds were necessary to ensure full Ct = total conductivity, Cw = water conductivity,
characterization of the pore volume. The = porosity, Sw = water saturation, M denotes macro-
average logging speed for the Abu Dhabi porosity and microporosity.
project was between 200-300 feet per
Note: fmod Sw depends on the distribution of micro-
hour. Faster logging rates (up to 900 feet porosity in the rock
per hour) were possible when only
bound fluids were assessed; reflecting This calculation reduces the water M.J.C. Petricola and M.Watfa (1995) Effect of
the fact that these fluids are typically saturation value slightly and, more Microporosity in Carbonates: Introduction of a Versatile
contained in smaller pores. importantly, indicates that all of the Saturation Equation. SPE paper 29841 presented at the
water is bound. Plotting the CMR-derived SPE Middle East Oil Show, Bahrain 1995.
bound fluid against the volume of water
M.J.C. Petricola and H. Takezaki (1996) Nuclear
computed from resistivity, with the spe- Magnetic Resonance Logging: Can it minimize well
cial saturation equation, shows a very testing? 7th Abu Dhabi International Petroleum
convincing match (figure 2.16). Exhibition and Conference, SPE 36328 1996.

Number 17, 1996. 29

In addition to the polarisation effect
there is an anisotropy effect. In horizon- 1 Input model resistivity 1000
tal wells the hole is often situated at the 1 Computed deep induction 1000
top of a reservoir zone - within a few feet in
of an oil-shale interface - and deep resis- feet 1 Computed medium induction 1000
tivity readings, influenced by the forma-
tion above the interface, are not helpful.
The effects of a shale cap rock, for
example, will distort the resistivity mea-
surements being taken in an oil reservoir -10
(figure 2.17). In this case a shale with a
resistivity of 4 m lies above the reservoir
layer. The oil has a resistivity of 200 m,
but measurements in a horizontal well -5 Shale 4m
located less than 10 ft below the interface
would record a value between 40 m and
170 m. There are two possible solutions.
Selection of deep readings in the appro- 0
priate direction (e.g. using the Azimuthal
Resistivity Imager, ARI* tool).
Shallow readings taken before the
effects of invasion have pushed original 5
formation water away from the borehole Oil 200m
wall (e.g. using the Resistivity-at-the-Bit,
RAB* tool).
A sense of direction
Some tool developments have over-
come the asymmetry problem in hori-
zontal wells by offering directional
measurement. The ARI, for example, Fig. 2.17: In a horizontal well the effects of nearby layers (in this case a shale cap rock) can
makes 12 azimuthal (directional) read- distort the resistivity measurements being taken in the oil or gas layer. The shale cap rock
ings around the circumference of the with a resistivity of 4 m lies approximately 5 ft above the reservoir layer. The oil resistivity is
tool. Where the geometry of the well is 200 m, but a horizontal well less than 10 ft below the interface would record a value
somewhere between 40 and 170 m.
understood, it is possible to select read-
ings in the appropriate direction.
Resistivity readings of the LLd and
LLhr logs can be strongly affected by
azimuthal heterogeneities. In heteroge-
neous formations the ARI tools
azimuthal imaging can greatly improve
resistivity log interpretation - azimuthal
resistivity values can be selected and
the values obtained used in a model for
formation evaluation. This is particularly
important in horizontal wells, where the
selected measurement can be for the
zone below the well or, as is more likely,
along the target layer.
Figure 2.18 shows ARI and FMI
images, displayed with ARI resistivity
curves, in a formation which contains
some azimuthal heterogeneities.
The low resistivity readings at
x91.4 m and x92.2 m are clearly different.
This reflects the causes - the shallow low
reading is a continuous event (a low-
resistivity bed) whereas the deeper low
resistivity reading is due to a small het-
erogeneity which is almost certainly con-
fined to the area around the wellbore.
This resistivity low would almost cer-
tainly be mis-interpreted on a standard,
azimuthally-averaged, resistivity log.

Looking down
The ARI can differentiate between resis-
tivity above, below and in the plane of Fig. 2.18: The combination of ARI and FMI images with ARI resistivity curves clearly indicates that
the borehole. This is extremely useful the low resistivity readings at 91.4 m and 92.2 m are caused by different types of heterogeneity.
where anomalous resistivity conditions Standard, azimuthally-averaged logs would not reveal this difference.

30 Middle East Well Evaluation Review

are encountered - for example when the RHOB vs ARI (LLHR down) RHOB vs DLT (LLD)
borehole is approaching a layer where Frequency crossplot Frequency crossplot
water breakthrough has occurred or is
close to a shale layer or crossing tight
layers, etc. 100 100
One benefit of using the ARI tool is
illustrated in figure 2.19. The first cross-
plot shows the ARI down resistivity

plotted against bulk density while the

second shows standard LLd resistivity
versus bulk density. The ARI down cor-
relation is clearly better than that from 10
the LLd. The main reason for this is that
the ARI down is affected by the same for-
mation as the density since in a horizon-
tal well such as this the weight of the
density pad makes it very likely that it
will be facing the lower side of the hole. 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3.0 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3.0
The LLd is reading an average resistivity RHOB RHOB
from around the borehole and produces Fig. 2.19: If a horizontal well is drilled accurately and is located close to the top of a reservoir zone,
a resistivity reading which is too low the important formation properties are those below the well, not an average of properties above
when the formation under the borehole and below. These graphs clearly indicate the value of the ARI tool.
has a high-resistivity and too high when
the formation below has a low resistivity. Fig. 2.20: Flexible
Saturation estimates rely on accurate joints allow the HALS
resistivity values. Using the ARI tool the to hug the borehole
operator can select the most appropriate wall, thereby
direction and, therefore, most realistic ensuring accurate
measurement as the
value for formation resistivity.
tool body moves in
The ARI tool has been used in the and out of rough
Middle East to examine low resistivity sections. The shorter
fractures in an effort to characterize poros- pad also improves
ity. The challenge of logging horizontal logging results in
wells remains and ongoing research is Flex joint deviated holes.
aimed at providing the answers.
Azimuthally averaged readings are of
little use in horizontal wells. LLd, LLs
and induction logs, for example, are
influenced by beds which are parallel
and close to the borehole. This can be
crucial to interpretation when a well is
steered close to the top of a reservoir.
Tools having different depths (or vol- Flex joint
umes) of investigation may give very dif-
ferent results in the same horizontal
well. A density tool, which takes a very
shallow reading may indicate sands
while a neutron detector may indicate
an overlying shale. The quantitative
azimuthal image from the ARI tool helps
to detect and identify these beds and so
allow the most representative reading to
be selected from the azimuthal deep
resistivity measurements.
In practice, resistivity tools are seldom
run alone for complete formation evalua-
tion. Laterologs are often combined with A new laterolog tool, the HALS* (High In some sequences, the complexity of
microresistivity tools and porosity tools Resolution Azimuthal Laterolog Sonde) lithological variation makes results from
to produce the so-called triple-combo. has been developed to overcome these a single tool almost useless. In future,
These combined strings are often problems. Only 16 ft long, HALS is half efforts may focus on running several
more than 90 ft long and, while they the length of the dual laterolog, and has resistivity tools during the same logging
improve efficiency by reducing the num- an azimuthal resistivity array. Used cor- run; and cross-referencing between them
ber of logging runs, they pose problems rectly, directional measurements help to to construct a clear picture of reservoir
in an extended rig up/rig down period, clarify the situation in horizontal wells. lithology and relative bed thicknesses.
reduced logging speed and the need to This tool has been designed to cope This 3D modelling will require advanced
drill more rathole (additional depth at with rough sections and deviated bore- software packages and a better under-
bottom of the well) to ensure complete holes (figure 2.20). The flexible jointed standing of reservoir geometry.
coverage by all three sections of the construction and short pad length help
triple-combo. to keep the tool pressed against the bore-
hole wall.

Number 17, 1996. 31

The shallow end When the RAB tool is run some time This allows the driller and geologist to
after the drill bit, the resistivity value is steer a well in real-time, ensuring that as
One alternative to directional or deep affected by invasion. However, tornado much of the well as possible stays within
measurement of resistivity is to take shal- charts can provide a reasonable correc- the reservoir layer. The RAB tool was
low measurements during drilling - in the tion in order to determine Rt and calcu- designed to perform this task and to mea-
very early stages of invasion. It is now late saturation. sure Rt accurately in saline muds with
possible, using Logging While Drilling When run directly at the bit and mak- high resistivity formations. In these situa-
(LWD) technology, to measure resistivity ing measurements using the bit itself, the tions, borehole and invasion effects on
at the bit. RAB tool provides critical information the tool are small.
Field tests conducted with the RAB* for geosteering, or for selection of casing The RAB tool has greatly extended
(Resistivity-at-the-Bit) tool show that and coring points as soon as the forma- the range of conditions where accurate
measurements made using the ring elec- tion of interest is penetrated. formation resistivity measurements can
trodes (figure 2.21a) record Rt accurately Sensors located very close to the drill be made while drilling. It is suitable for
when run close to the bit (i.e. when the bit detect changes which indicate when a very high-resistivity formations, and can
formation is logged before significant well is about to leave the target zone and make multiple measurements at four
invasion effects develop). Its perfor- move into adjacent shale or water layers. depths of investigation.
mance has been assessed using deep
resistivity tools such as Laterologs.

Fig. 2.21:
RINGS: Using a (a)
ring electrode Rt
can be measured
accurately when
the RAB tool is
run close to the
bit (i.e. when it
logs the formation
before significant Ring
invasion effects measure
develop). The current
button electrodes
resistivity at
different depths
and can help to Receiver
identify the zones measure
where invasion current
starts. In the right
conditions, they
can be used to
compute invasion




Fig. 2.22: The RAB tool's ring electrode
Ammeter induces a voltage difference in the string,
causing current to flow into the formation.
As this returns (arrows), it is measured to
derive formation resistivity. Button resistivity
Cross-section view (red area) delivers good vertical resolution
and allows the borehole to be scanned as the
tool rotates.

32 Middle East Well Evaluation Review

Right on the button Fig. 2.23: DOWNHOLE
The RAB tools button electrodes (figure Detailed images of the
2.21b) measure resistivity at different borehole can be
depths and can help to identify the recorded and stored
zones where invasion starts. In the right downhole in the RAB
conditions, they can be used to compute tool for later analysis.
x015 The imaging facility
invasion diameter. can be switched on or
As the tool rotates, the RAB buttons off, allowing the
take resistivity measurements from operator to select
around the wellbore (figure 2.22). This x020 specific well intervals
azimuthal resistivity data is stored in the for detailed
RAB tool and can be retrieved when it examination.The data
returns to surface. The image which is transfer rate from tool
generated allows computation of dips, x025 to surface is the only
fracture detection and estimation of frac- obstacle to real-time
resistivity imaging.
ture aperture and orientation. The fea-
tures shown are similar to those
obtained using the ARI tool, but offer x030
better resolution.
The RAB button measurements pro-
vide a good indication of movability
when a sufficient break is allowed after
drilling. This, however, conflicts with the
objectives of early logging - to establish a
value for Rt. One solution is to run two x040
RAB passes, one close to the bit to
assess Rt and another after invasion to
evaluate movability.
Additional resistivity data, including x045
detailed images of the borehole (figure
2.23) can be recorded and stored down-
hole for later inspection. Detailed resistiv-
ity imaging using the button electrodes is x050
possible because the resistivity measure-
ments are made in the very early stages
of invasion (figure 2.24). x055
The restricted data transfer rate
between tool and surface is the only
obstacle to real-time resistivity imaging.
Drilling mud
Horizontal drilling can be compared Invasion front
to driving your car or taking a bus across Fig. 2.24: High quality
a city. The RAB tool offers the freedom measurements are
of the car driver - the driller and geolo- possible with the
gist can stop at any time to consult a RAB tool because it
map of changing borehole conditions, examines the
formation almost as
take pictures of the borehole as they
soon as it is drilled -
pass through and change direction to while invasion effects
reach the right destination. Traditional are at a minimum.
horizontal drilling, by comparison, is like
falling asleep on the bus and arriving
somewhere you may not want to be,
with no idea of how you got there.

RAB tool

Number 17, 1996. 33

Cased hole choices Neutron capture

In cased holes, reservoir evaluation and Slow neutron

saturation monitoring are performed in -ray
one of two ways. The first method TDT*
(Thermal Decay Time principle) mea-
sures the decay of thermal neutron pop-
ulations and the other uses tools such as
the RST* (Reservoir Saturation Tool) to
assess changes in a reservoirs fluid satu-
The RST tool contains a minitron - an Excited nucleus
electronic neutron source - which fires
high energy neutrons through the casing
and into the rock layers around the
borehole. These neutrons interact with
the borehole and formation fluids, pro- Inelastic scattering
ducing gamma rays. The RST tool mea- -ray
sures the returning gamma rays to Nucleus
identify water and oil saturations. Fast neutron
Setting your sights on sigma
There are two basic mechanisms which
help to identify saturation values - neu-
tron capture and inelastic scattering (fig-
Fig. 2.25: In neutron capture, neutrons are
ure 2.25). In neutron capture, the high incorporated into the nucleus of the fluid atoms
energy neutrons from the minitron - the gamma-rays released are recorded to
source, after slowing down to a thermal derive the measurements. Inelastic scattering
energy level, are incorporated into the with fast neutrons (where the neutron strikes Excited nucleus
the rock or fluid nucleus but is not captured by
nucleus of rock or fluid atoms - this is it) and associated gamma-ray release, is the
the basis for (sigma) measurements. basis for C/O measurements.
Inelastic scattering with fast neutrons
(where the neutron strikes the rock or
fluid nucleus but is not captured by it) is Saline Formation Fig. 2.26: Capture cross-
the basis for C/O measurements (see Water sections for various
below). atoms can help to
characterize the fluid
The different atoms which comprise content of formations.
oils, formation water, rock etc. capture The difference between
different amounts of neutrons. This cap- oils capture cross-
ture value is referred to as the material's section (around 20)
Capture cross-section

and water (in the range
capture cross-section. The capture cross- 80 to 100) is a simple
section for formations which contain a way to distinguish
lot of high-salinity water is large. Rocks 60 reservoir zone from
that contain oil and little or no saline Oil Injected Water aquifer. However, it is
impossible to
water have a low capture cross-section. 40 differentiate between
Typical capture cross-section () values oil and injected water
for salt water are in the range 80 to 100, using this method.
while the values for oil are usually 20
around 20 (figure 2.26).
There is a simple, linear relationship 0
between saturation and which, in ideal
Salinity of pore fluid
conditions, allows a quick and accurate
determination. However, there are possi-
ble complications. For example, if there is bonate to give a high capture cross-section Carbon and oxygen
mud filtrate behind the pipe, the values reading with the TDT tool. Consequently,
will reflect this and, in non-perforated potential oil zones in acidized wells can In C/O logging the relative concentra-
zones, there is no way to estimate the give a typical water zone reading. This tions of carbon and oxygen atoms in the
effect of any residual mud. In perforated acid effect is one of the main reasons formation fluids are measured to assess
zones it is likely that the mud has been why saturation monitoring should take saturation. In the past, this method was
removed by the perforation process and place in observation wells - not producers. restricted to relatively shallow depths of
the pressure of flowing hydrocarbon, but In most wells, the values provide a investigation, producing results which
even here the values can not be relied good approximation of saturation. The were difficult to interpret (influenced by
on entirely. The measured values at and high-salinity formation water is easily dis- the carbon in carbonate minerals,
around the perforation reflect a disturbed tinguished from hydrocarbons. However, cement etc.) as well as being relatively
reservoir state and may not be character- fresh water injected into the well (and, in slow (about 20 ft/hour).
istic of the rest. comparison to formation water, seawater
This problem is particularly acute in can be considered fresh) will give values
the Middle East where perforated zones close to those for oil. So, in places where
are often acidized to improve permeabil- fresh water is being injected another type
ity. The acid reacts with the formation car- of measurement is required.

34 Middle East Well Evaluation Review

Fig. 2.27: Inelastic The previous generation of logging
107 burst spectra. This tools were large and operated at very
example shows a test slow speeds. An additional problem was
set-up with the tool's their sensitivity to borehole fluid which
Relative counts

106 Carbon far detector immersed

in tanks of oil and
restricted the use of carbon-oxygen log-
Oxygen water. Peaks for ging. In cases where C/O logging was
carbon atoms (in the required, the well usually had to be
105 Inelastic oil) and oxygen killed and the production tubing pulled.
water atoms (in the water) Given all of these problems and limi-
are easily identified. tations it is not surprising that time and
Inelastic effort was devoted to improving the tech-
104 oil nique. When there is fresh water in the
formation this is the only method that
0 2 4 6 can be used.
Energy (MeV) Hardware improvements and the
development of systems, such as the
RST tool, have been the main focus of
Fig. 2.28: research efforts.
ELEMENTAL The compact design of the RST tool
plot of standard
means that a well can be logged quickly
spectra for the RST without killing the well or pulling the pro-
tool can be used to duction tubing. The tool can compensate
finger print the five for borehole fluid composition; allowing
elements shown. formation oil saturation to be measured
Although oxygen and and borehole oil/water fraction to be
Silicon carbon are the most assessed while the well is flowing.
Relative counts

important elements
for saturation
monitoring, the
All the right elements
presence of carbon
Calcium The RST tool can analyze the energy of
and oxygen in rocks
(e.g. limestones) and returning gamma rays to identify chemi-
in cement means that cal elements in the formation. A standard
formation corrections spectrum has been obtained for the tool
Iron may have to be made as a result of extensive testing and this
Carbon in order to identify can be used to identify the elements pre-
true saturation effects. sent in the formation. For saturation mon-
itoring, the most important elements are
oxygen and carbon which provide infor-
mation on the presence of water and
hydrocarbons respectively (figure 2.27).
However, since many rock types con-
tain carbon and oxygen (e.g. limestones -
2 3 4 5 6 7 CaCO 3 and organic-rich shales), it is
Energy (MeV) important that the elements contained in
rock-forming minerals can be identified.
Some of the most important rock con-
stituents are calcium, silicon and iron.
The RST tool can identify these elements
1.2 Dual detector COR model w-w: water in borehole water in formation (figure 2.28), give an indication of lithol-
for 21/2 in RST tool o-w: oil in borehole water in formation ogy and, therefore, provide a more accu-
Far carbon/oxygen ratio

o-o: oil in borehole oil in formation rate assessment of saturation.

0.8 w-o: water in borehole oil in formation
A slimhole tonic?
il o-o
0.6 hole o The RST tool is available in two sizes -
Bore small and smaller. The standard RST tool

has a diameter of 21/2 inches, while the


0.4 w-o Fig. 2.29: This type of plot is used for

slim RST tool, measures just 111/16 inch-

interpretation of RST results. This plot shows


yo so the expected range of values for a 43 porosity es Eliminating the need to kill a well and

0.2 o-w unit limestone formation, with the tool in an pull the tubing cuts out the associated
w-w 8 1/2 in. borehole with 7 in. casing. All data risks and minimizes production loss.
0 should fall within the box. Interpretation is enhanced because kill
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 fluids do not invade the formation. The
Near carbon/oxygen plots smaller RST tool does not offer all of the
larger tools features, but it is designed
for use in shut-in wells.
The carbon/oxygen ratios from RST
analysis are plotted to assess the proba-
ble saturation values for rocks of a partic-
ular porosity (figure 2.29). All data should
fall within the box defined by the four oil
and water values (w-w, o-w, o-o and w-o).
Number 17, 1996. 35
In gas-bearing sandstones, mud filtrate tivity measurements. The low resistivity The Catoosa drilling project was set
invasion is often very deep. When this annulus has long been considered a up to investigate the effects of different
occurs it can be difficult to discriminate good hydrocarbon indicator, but in some types of mud systems on invasion
gas-bearing intervals from those con- formations the time delay between depth. The drilling and logging were car-
taining oil or water. Shaliness and the drilling and logging can mean a very ried out under carefully controlled con-
extreme effects of invasion can mask deep annulus which is beyond the inves- ditions. The gas-bearing formation
the familiar gas crossover between tigation depth of standard resistivity log- selected for the study was the
neutron and density logs. Recorded ging tools. The resulting low recorded in Bartlesville sandstone, a shallow, low-
water saturations can reach 80% in deep resistivity can lead to an unduly pressured (depleted) section at Amoco's
some formations, even with deep resis- pessimistic evaluation of the well. test drilling site in Oklahoma, USA.
Three test wells were drilled with differ-
AIT resistivity (ohm-m) Fractional volume DIL resistivity (ohm-m) ent fluid loss control systems. However,
10 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0 10 some important aspects of log analysis
870 in gas reservoirs were examined.
Three wells were drilled with potas-
sium chloride (KCl) mud, one with a
high fluid loss, the second with a low
fluid loss, while the third was drilled
880 with a partially hydrolized polyacry-
lamide polymer system (PHPA) - an
inhibitive system used to prevent shale
sloughing, differential sticking and skin
damage. Although this mud system is
thought to limit mud filtrate invasion,
890 the invasion depth in this well was
greater than in the other test wells.
Depth (ft)

New generation logging tools with

new or additional measurements indi-
cated that there were some fundamen-
900 tal problems with the ways in which
conventional logs are often used. The
neutron-density gas crossover is
AO20 Vsh/2 IMVR affected by formation shaliness and can
AO30 IDVR be totally eliminated by an invasion
AO60 which exceeds 10 in.
910 AO90
The AIT resistivity logs indicated
that the invasion in all three test wells
had formed an annulus and an inver-
sion of the logs allowed an accurate
estimate of R t . In one instance (the
920 Bartlesville sandstone) the resulting sat-
uration proved to be one third less than
Fig. 2.30: A direct comparison of AIT and Phasor Induction logs in the the value derived from the Phasor
Bartlesville sandstone. Porosity and Vshale logs for reference. Induction tool (figure 2.30).
In the Bartlesville sandstone the AIT

Fig. 2.31: AIT log tools 60 in. and 90 in. logs are in reverse
Bartlesville Sandstone Rxo 20 In values as a function order - indicating an annulus in this
Rann 30 In of radial depth at the zone. Figure 2.31 shows a plot of the
RT 60 In annulus. The annulus sweep of the annulus inner radius for
Petrophysical parameters

10 In 90 In position, indicated by final saturation values in this unit at

the green vertical 887 ft. This point was chosen because it
line, most closely represented the largest curve separation.
matches the log
Differences in curve separation at other

values in figure 2.30

at the well depth depths are probably due to changes in
Annulus position porosity and depth of invasion.
at 887ft indicated.

R.L. Terry, T.D. Barber, S. Jacobsen and K.C. Henry.The

Use of Modern Logging Measurements and New
Processing Algorithms to Provide Improved Evaluation in

10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Deeply Invaded Gas Sands. Presented at the 35th

r1 (in.) SPWLA Logging Symposium, Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA.
June 19-22 1994.
Petrophysical parameters:
Sw = 0.35 Rw = 0.085 = 0.17 Rsh = 8.5
Sxo = 1.0 Rmf = 0.98 Vsh = 0.25 Rwlrr = 0.025

36 Middle East Well Evaluation Review

In one example, a well producing from 0.8 Fig. 2.32: This
a carbonate reservoir - with porosity crossplot compares
between 5pu and 30pu - produced oil with 0.7 near and far
a watercut of about 20%. Figure 2.32 shows carbon/oxygen
ratios (with the test
a crossplot of the near and far carbon-oxy- 0.6 well shut in and

Carbon/oxygen ratio (far)

gen data from this well compared with lab- flowing) with
oratory data for a limestone saturated with laboratory data for
water or oil with a density of 0.85g/cm3. limestone saturated
The large bounded area shows the with either oil or
dynamic range for a 43pu limestone and 0.4 water having a
the inner area that for a 17pu limestone. density of
Some of the data points fall outside the 0.85 g/cm3.
bounded area - this is due to statistical
variations, a borehole which was slightly Shut in
larger than the assumed 6 in. diameter 0.2
and a low oil density (0.715g/cm 3 ) at
reservoir conditions. Lab data 43 p.u.
The RST can be used for a variety of Lab data 17 p.u.
tasks - reservoir monitoring, detection of
water breakthrough and fluid contact 0
-0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
Carbon/oxygen ratio (near)
Gas and gravity
There are alternative methods for deter-
mining gas and oil saturations. In reser-
voirs where gas is present, gas neutron
measurement techniques are used to Fig. 2.33: The
evaluate the Hydrogen Index within a combination of ARI
layer. From this it is possible to derive and AIT tools will
allow the user to
the gas-oil saturation value.
establish a 3D picture
The density contrast between gas and of formation
water is the key to the borehole gravime- resistivity, apparent
try technique. It is used to measure gas water resistivity and
cap expansion or to track the entry of hydrocarbon
gas from injection wells - gas displacing saturation (from the
oil, not water displacing oil. AIT) and to link these
As oil is produced from a reservoir it values to wellbore
is replaced by gas. However, the density features recorded by
the ARI tool.
contrast to be assessed covers very
large areas and the changes which have
to be detected call for very accurate

Enter the third dimension

When running together, these tools will greatly enhance our understanding
Since the 1950s, research into resistivity provide a radial description of resistivity of invasion and reservoir heterogeneity.
tools and techniques has continued with- variations (from the AIT) and an Another possibility would be to com-
out interruption. Many of the analyses azimuthal measurement (from the ARI). bine ADN (Azimuthal Density Neutron)
which can be made today would have If these can be combined, a true 3D rep- and RAB tools. This arrangement has not
seemed impossible twenty or even ten resentation of resistivity around the well- yet been run in the Middle East, but it
years ago. However, the oil industrys bore might become available at some would provide four porosities and four
appetite for information, gathered more future date (figure 2.33). resistivity measurements which could be
rapidly and with greater accuracy than At present, however, there is no soft- combined to give four saturation values.
before, has not yet been satisfied. ware capable of delivering a true 3D The pursuit of high-quality saturation
New software is under development resistivity image. Combining both types data has been a long and difficult pro-
which will combine all of the resistivity of logs may be a starting point in the cess. The new generation of tools and
tools, including LWD measurements, to development of this kind of system. techniques offer a wealth of information
derive the best possible resistivity value If a 3D method could be developed which is helping to transform our per-
in all borehole conditions - variable bore- one of the most obvious applications ceptions of reservoir behaviour.
hole size, formation resistivity, mud would be in horizontal wells where the
resistivity Rt /Rxo contrast etc. resistivity measured on the lower side of
However, there are many more possi- the borehole can generally be better cor-
bilities to be explored to make the most related with the density/porosity mea-
of the 3D aspect of the new resistivity surements which are themselves affected
measurements provided by tools such as mainly by the petrophysical properties of
the AIT. For example, running the AIT rocks and fluids in that location.
tool in combination with an ARI tool While it may be some time before true
would allow the use of ARI electrical 3D imaging can be developed, the consid-
stand-off and calliper information to ered combination of radial and azimuthal
refine the AIT borehole correction. resistivity information we have at present

Number 17, 1996. 37