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Chapter 1

Getting Started

Some list of best teacher;

To be a good and best teacher, we should know about the fundamental of classroom practice,
they are;

1. Classroom Observation
Before start lesson, we should make a warming up as a bridge and connector to the
student in oeder to make them easier in teaching learning process, for example
greeting, check attendance list, review last material, or smalltalk about hot news etc.

2. Beneath the Lesson

We have just observed a relatively effective class hour in which the teacher
competently planned a lesson around a textbook, managed everything with no major
problems, and carried out the activities with some warmth and enthusiasm.

Chapter 2

A MethodicalHistory of Language Teaching

There are some kinds of methods use in language teaching learning in order to make
our students become interest and understand to the materials, they are the grammar
translation method, gouin and the series method, the direct method, the audiolingual method,
cognitive code learning, and designer methods of the spirited 1970s such as;

a. Audiolingual

1. Theory of language

Language is a system of rule governed sturtures hirierachically arranged.

2.Theory of Learning

Habit formation:skills are learned more effectively if ocal precedes written,analogy,not


b. Total Phyical Response

1. Theory of Language

Basically a structuralist grammar-based view of language

2. Theory of Learning

L.2 Learning is the same as L1 learning comprehension before productionis imprinted

Through carrying out commands fright-brain functioning reduction of stress.

c. The Silent Way

1. Theory of Language

Each language is comkposed of elements that give it a unique rhythm and spirit.

functional vocabrlary and core structure are key tothe spirit of the language.

2. Theory of Learning

Process of learning a second language are fundamentally different from L1. learning L2

Is an intellectual,cognitive process.Surrender to the music of the language.silent

Awareness then active trial.

d. Community Language Learning

1. Theory of Language

Language is more than a system for communication,it involves whole personal,,culture,

Educatinal,developmental communicative processes.

2. Theory of Learning

Learning involves the whole person. It is social process of growth from childlike

dependence to self-direction and independence.

e. The Natural Approaches

1. Theory of Language

The essence of language is meaaning vocaburary not grammar,is the heart of language.

2. Theory of Learning

There are two ways of L2 language development acquistion-a natural subconsciously

Process,and learning-a conscious process.Learning can not lead to acquistion.

f. Suggestopedia

1. Theory of language

Rather conventional although memorization of whole meaningful text is recomended.

2. Theory of Learning

Learning occurs through suggestion,when learners are in a deeply related state.

Baroque music is used to induce this state.

g. Communicative Language Teaching

1. Theory of Language

Language is a system for the expression primary functions-interaction and communication

2. Theory of Learning

Activities involving realcommunication carrying out meaningful tasks :and using language

Which is meaningful to the leartner promote learning.

Chapter 3

The Present: An Informed Approach

The interaction between our approach and our classroom practices is the key
to dynamic teaching. The best teachers always take a few calculated risks in the
classroom, trying new activities here and there, such as;

1. Learner Centered Instruction

This term applies to curricula as well as to specific can be
constrated with teacher centered,and has received various recent interpretations.
Leaner centered Instruction included
- Techniques that focus on or account for learners need,styles,and goals
- Techniques.that give some control to the student (group work or strategy training)
- Curricula that include the consultation and input of students and that do not
presuppose objectives in advance.
- Techniques that allow for student creeativity and innovation
- Techniques that enhance a students sense of competence and self worth.

2. Cooperative and Collaborative learnig

A curriculum or classroom that is cooperative and therefore not competive
usually involves the above learrner centered characteristics.

Oxford (1997:445) stated that some advantages for cooperative learning (as opposed

To individual learning) on such factors as promoting intrinsic: Motivation,..

heightening self esteem...,creativing caring and altruistic relationships,and lowering

anxiety and prejudice.

3. Interactive Learning
Interactive classess will most likely be found
- Doing a significant amount of pair work and group work,
- Receicving authentic language input in real world context.
- Producing language for genuine,meaningful communication.
- Performing classroom tasks that prepare them for actual language use out there.
- Practicing oral communication through the give and take and spontancity of actual
- Writing to and for real audiences,not contrived once.

4. Whole Language Education

Now the term has come to encompass a great deal more. Whole language is a
label that has been used todescribe
- Cooperative learning
- Participatory learning
- Student centered learning
- Focus on the community of learners
- Focus on the social nature of language
- Use of authentic, natural language
- Meaning-centered language
- Holistic assessment techniques in testing.
- Integration of thefour skill
5. Content Based Instruction
Content Based instruction (CBI).according to Brinton,Snow,and Wesche
(1989:7) is the integration of content learning with language teaching aims.More
specifically,it referrs to the concurrent study of language and subject matter.

6. Task Based Instruction

Peter Skehans (1989 :95) concept of task seems to capture the essential.He define
task as activity in which
- Meaning primary
- There is some communication problem to solve
- There is some sort of relationship to comparable real world activities
- Task completion has sme priority and
- The assessment of the task is in terms of outcome.

Chapter 4

Teaching by Principle

It should be made clear,however,that all twelve of the principle outlined in this

chapter spill across somewhat arbitrary cognitive,affective and linguistic boundaries. They

1. Automaticity
We will call our first principle of language learning and teaching the Principle
of Automaticity and include under this rubrik the importance of
- Subconscious absorption of language through meaningful use.
- Efficient and rapid movement away from a capacity limited control of a few bits
and pieces to a relatively unlimited automatic mode of processing language form
- Resistance to the temptation to analyze language forms.
The Principle.of Automaticity may be stated as follows :

Efficient second language learning involves a timely movement of the control

of few language forms ito the automatic processing of a relatively unlimited number
of language forms. Overanalyzing language,thinking too much about its form and
consciously lingering on rule of language all tend to impede this graduation to

2. Meaningful Learning
The Principle of meaningful learning is quite simply stated meaningful
learning will lead toward better long term retention than rote learning.
Some clasroom implications of the principle of Meaningful Learning :
1. Capitalize on the power of meaningful learning by appealing to students
interest,academic goals and career goals.
2. Whenever a new topic or concept is introduce attempt to anchor it in
studentsexisting knowledge and background so that it becomes associated
with something they already know.
3. Avoid the pitfalls of rote learning:
a. Too much grammar explanation.
b. Too many abstract principle and theories
c. Too much drilling and /or memorization
d. Activities whose purpose are not clear.
e. Activities that do not contribute to accomplishing the goals of the
lesson,unit,or course.
f. Techniques that are so mechanical or tricky that student focus on the
mechanics instead of on the language or meanings.

3.The Anticipation of Reward

The principle behind Skinners operant condioning paradigm,which I term the

reward priciple,can be stated as follows:
Human beings are universally driven to act,or behave by the anticipation of some
of reward tangible or intangible,short term or long term-that will ensure as a result
of the behaviour.
Considering all sides of the reward Principle ,the following constructive
classroom implications may be drawn :
a. Provide an optimal degree of immediate verbal praise and encouragements to them.
b. Encourage students to reward each other with compliments and supportive action.
c. In class with very low motivation,short term reminders of progress may help student
to perceive their development.
d. Display enthuiism and excitement yourself in classroom.
e. Try to get learners to see the long term rewards in learning English by poiting out
what they can do with English where they live and around the world

Chapter 5

Intrinsic Motivation in the Classroom

The three cognitive definitions of motivation

a. Drive theory

Those who see human drive as fundamental to human behavior claim that motivation stem
from basic innate drives. David Ausubel (1968) elaborate on six different drives:


- manipulation


- stimulation

- knowledge

- ego enhancement

b. Hierarchy of need story

one of the most widely cited theories os motivatin come from Abraham Maslow (1970)
who in the spite of drive theory,elaborate further to describe a system need within each
human being than propelically as a pyramid of need,processing from the satification of purely
phsyical needs up through safety and cammunal need, to need esteem,and finally to self
actualization, a state of reaching your fullest potenstial.

c. Self control theory

Certain cognitive psychologists focus on the importance of people decding for themselves
what to think or feel or do.We define ourselves by making our own decisions, rather than by
simoly reacting to other.Motivation is hingest when one can make one.s own choices whether
they are in short term or long term context.

Chapter 6

Learner Variable I : Teaching Across Age Levels

1. Teaching Adult
There are five variables that apply to children , keep in mind some suggestion and
1. Adults are more able to handle abstract rules and concepts.
2. Adult have longer attention spans for material that may not be intrinsically
intresting to them.
3. Sensory input need not always be quite as varied with adult but one of the secrets
o f lively adult classes is their appeal to multiple senses.
4. Adult often bring a modicum of general self confidence (global self esteem) into
classroom ,the fragility of egos may therefore not be quite as critical as those of
5. Adult with their more develoved abstract thinking ability are better able to
understand a context reduce segment of language.
Chapter 7

Learner Variables II : Teaching Across Proficiency Level

Teaching beginning level

You will be able to design classroom techniques that are consistent with you approach

1. Studentss cognitive Learning Processes

In those first few day and even week of language learning ,virtually all of the student
processing with respect to the second language itself is in a focal.
2. The role of the teacher
Beginning students are highly dependent on the teacher for models of language and so a
teacher centered or teacher fronted classroom is appropriate for some of your classroom
3. Teacher Talk
Your input in the class is crucial.Every ear and eye are indeed focused on your own
English need to be clearly articulated .
4. Authenticity of Language
The language that you expose your students to should,according to principle of CLT be
aunthentic language,not just because students are beginners.
5. Fluency and accuracy
Fluency is goal at this level but only within limited utterance lengths.Fluency does not
have to apply only to long utterance.The flow of language is important to establish
from the beginning, in reasinable short segments.
6. Student creativity
The ultimate goal of learning a language is to be able to comprehend and produce it in
unrehearsed situations, which demand both receptive and productive creativity.
7. Tehnique
Short, simple techniques mut be used.
8. Listening and Speaking goals
Notice that listening and speaking function for beginnera are meaningful and authentic
communication task.
9. Reading and writting goals
The most important contextual factors that you should bear in mind in teaching reading
and writting to beginners is their literacy level.
10. Grammar
In ESL situation,where you must rely on English in the classroom,grammatical
explanationof any complexity would at this level overwhelm the student.