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The Leading Companions and Important Personalities

Marking Scheme

5 (a) Identify each of the Ten Blessed Companions. [4]


(M/J/04)

(b) Explain the significance of

(i) Abu Bakr, and


either (ii) 'Uthman,
or (iii) 'Ali
during the lifetime of the Prophet. [2 x
6]

(a) Allow 1 mark for all the four future Caliphs


Allow mark for each of the other six Blessed Companions
'Abd al-Rahman Ibn 'Awf, Abu Ubayda Ibn Jarrah, Talha Ibn 'Ubaydullah, Zubayr lbn
al-
'Awwam, Sa'd Ibn Abi Waqqas, Sa'id Ibn Zayd.

(b) (i)
(No marks for his early biography)
Abu Bakr was the first adult male to accept Islam.
He brought other prominent Meccans to Islam.
He accompanied the Prophet on the hijra.
During that journey he was reassured by the Prophet and is referred to in the
Qur'an.
He gave his daughter in marriage to Muhammad.
He readily accepted the truth of the Prophet's account of the mir'aj.
He remained close to the Prophet during the battles fought by the Muslims.
He gave all his possessions to support the Tabuk expedition.
He led the prayers during the Prophet's illness.
He led the first pilgrimage to Mecca.
(No marks for his activities after the Prophet's death.)

(ii)
'Uthman became a Muslim at an early stage.
He gave his wealth to help Islam, e.g. by buying a well near Medina for the
Muslims.
He married the Prophet's daughter Ruqayya.
He took part in the emigration to Abyssinia with her.
When Ruqayya died he married the Prophet's daughter Umm Kulthum.
He made a contribution towards the costs of the Tabuk expedition.

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He was a scribe for the Prophet.
He acted as the Prophet's ambassador to Mecca when the Muslims first
approached the
city.
He was chosen to escort the Prophet's wives at the farewell pilgrimage.

(iii)
'Ali was brought up by the Prophet and Khadija.
He was one of the first Muslims.
Some say he was the first to accept Islam after Khadija.
On the night of the hijra, he agreed to lie in the Prophet's bed as a decoy.
He married Fatima soon after the Muslims arrived in Medina and became
the Prophet's son-in-law.
A sign of his closeness to the Prophet is that he was paired with him when Ansar
and
Muhajirun were paired.
He played a prominent part in the battles against the Quraysh and Jews.
As a scribe of the Prophet he wrote the Treaty of Hudaybiya.
He washed and buried the Prophet's body.
The Prophet uttered a number of Hadith that give Ali much honour and a place
very
close to him.
In Shi'a views, words of the Prophet about 'Ali at Ghadir Khumm on the return from
the
farewell pilgrimage are an indication that he meant 'Ali to be his successor.
For his bravery the Prophet gave him the title Asad Allah / Lion of God.

Question 5 [ER]
This was also popular, and was generally well answered.
In (a), most candidates were able to answer this part with ease, and gained 4
marks. Some answers included biographical notes about the ten individuals; these
were not asked for, and were not credited.There were many good answers in (b) on
Abu Bakr, explaining his close support for the Prophet and detailing his loyalty
through his actions. But details about Uthman and Ali were fewer. Some
candidates forgot about Uthmans part in the negotiations between the Muslims
and Meccans, and others forgot about Alis part in the Prophets departure from
Mecca for Medina. General comments such as, Hazrat Uthman gave all his wealth
to help the Prophet, or Hazrat Ali was always loyal towards the Prophet could not
be credited because they were not sufficiently detailed to be explanations.

5 (a) Identify the Ten Blessed Companions.


[8](O/N/05)

(b) Explain why they were known by this name.


[2]

2
(c) Write brief notes about the lives of any three of these
Companions who did not
become caliphs.
[3 x 2]

(a) These are:


Abu Bakr - caliph
`Umar - caliph
`Uthman - caliph
`Ali caliph - 2 maximum for all four Caliphs names
`Abd al-Rahman ibn `Awf
Abu `Ubayda
Talha
Zubayr
Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas
Sa`id ibn Zayd 6 maximum

(b)
On one occasion when they were all with the Prophet he promised them
that
they would all enter paradise directly.
Since they were spared the final judgement, they were called the Ten
Blessed
Ones, `Ashara mubashshara.

(c)
[In each case look for two clear comments.
Do not credit general remarks such as, He was a good Muslim,
but look for definite biographical comments.
Most answers will probably refer to Talha and Zubayr, and one other.]

Question 5 [ER]
This was the more popular of the two optional questions, and most candidates who
attempted it did very well indeed. They clearly knew the Ten Blessed Companions
and were able to write about them in detail. In (a) most were able to give the ten
names, and so they obtained full marks for this part. A few candidates wrongly
included the names of Hamza, Abu Hurayra and Zayd Ibn Thabit.
Most answers to (b) included the reference that the Ten were promised paradise in
their own lifetime, though the significant implication of this that they would be
spared the final Judgement was not mentioned.
Answers to (c) were usually full enough to gain the two marks allocated for each
Companion, and many candidates obtained full marks for this part. Candidates who
talked about the Companions in general terms as good men and upright Muslims
but did not mention anything specific about each were not given credit.

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5 (a) Write briefly about two of the Ten Blessed Companions who did not
become caliphs. [2 x 2]
(O/N/07)

In each case look for two specific biographical points, i.e. not 'he was a pious
Muslim' or 'he
gave all his wealth for Islam', but e.g. 'Taiha became a Muslim when he heard Abu
Bakr
speak', or 'Zubayr opposed 'Ali because he disagreed with his handling of the
assassins of
'Uthman'.

(b) Explain the significance of


(i) Abu Bakr, and
either (ii) 'Uthman,
or (iii) 'Ali
during the lifetime of the Prophet. [2 x
6]

(b) (i) (No marks for his early biography)


Abu Bakr was the first adult male to accept Islam.
He brought other prominent Makkans to Islam.
He accompanied the Prophet on the hijra.
During that journey he was reassured by the Prophet and is referred to in the
Qur'an.
He gave his daughter in marriage to Muhammad.
He readily accepted the truth of the Prophet's account of the miraj.
He remained close to the Prophet during the battles fought by the Muslims.
He gave all his possessions to support the Tabuk expedition.
He led the prayers during the Prophet's illness.
He led the first pilgrimage to Mecca.
(No marks for his activities after the Prophet's death.)

(ii)
'Uthman became a Muslim at an early stage.
He gave his wealth to help Islam, e.g. by buying a well near Medina for the
Muslims/He made a contribution towards the costs of the Tabuk expedition
He married the Prophet's daughter Ruqayya.
He took part in the emigration to Abyssinia with her.
When Ruqayya died he married the Prophet's daughter Umm Kulthum.
He was a scribe for the Prophet.
He acted as the Prophet's ambassador to Mecca when the Muslims first
approached
the city.
He was chosen to escort the Prophet's wives at the farewell pilgrimage.

(iii)

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'Ali was brought up by the Prophet and Khadija.
He was one of the first Muslims.
Some say he was the first to accept Islam after Khadija.
On the night of the hijra, he agreed to lie in the Prophet's bed as a decoy.
He married Fatima soon after the Muslims arrived in Medina and became the
Prophet's son-in-law.
A sign of his closeness to the Prophet is that he was paired with him when Ansar
and
Muhajirun were paired.
He played a prominent part in the battles against the Quraysh and Jews.
As a scribe of the Prophet he wrote the Treaty of Hudaybiya.
He washed and buried the Prophet's body.
The Prophet uttered a number of Hadith that give 'Ali much honour and a place
very
close to him.
In Shi'a views, words of the Prophet about 'Ali at Ghadir Khumm on the return from
the farewell pilgrimage are an indication that he meant 'Ali to be his successor.
For his bravery the Prophet gave him the title Asad Allah/Lion of God

Question 5 [ER]
This proved to be a more popular question than Question 4 with many candidates scoring very
high marks. Unfortunately, some candidates combined two companions in part (a), thereby
losing marks. The question specifically asked for two companions and hence candidates were
expected to write distinctly about these two. In general, however, there were plenty of options
available in the mark scheme and candidates utilized these and secured good marks.
In part (b), the question specifically asked about their significance during the lifetime of the
Prophet. However, some candidates gave information outside this historical boundary, making
their answer irrelevant.

4 (a) Write briefly about the conversion to Islam of Abu Bakr, Umar,
Uthman and Ali.
[10] (O/N/09)

Good answers for this part will give full, yet concise, accounts of the four conversion
stories.
Candidates should talk about the conversion stories and not their later lives.
Some points that could be mentioned for each companion are:

Abu Bakr: close friend of the prophet from childhood and amongst the first to
convert (first
free adult male); he became Muslim without hesitation; was open about calling
others to the
new faith and persuaded many to accept Islam; he purchased slaves and set them
free; he
was the first person to openly invite people to the new faith and was beaten
severely.

5
Umar: he was initially angry at the prophet and the new message he was preaching
and set
out to kill him; on his way he was told his own sister and brother-in-law had
converted and so
went there; overheard recitation of part of sura Ta Ha; when he read the words
himself he
went to accept Islam; he had a reputation of being the fiercest man in Makka and so
his
conversion provided Muslims some protection; he fought Quraysh until Muslims
could pray
at the Kaba.

Uthman: he converted at the hands of Abu Bakr; was the third male convert; his
family
deserted him after his conversion; he was married to the Prophets daughter
Ruqayyah soon
after; amongst the first group to migrate to Abyssinia.

Ali: he was a cousin of the prophet who had been taken into the prophets
household to
alleviate the financial burden on his family; one of the first Muslims (only ten when
he
accepted Islam); when the prophet openly invited others to come to Islam, only Ali
stepped
forward to help him; for this Ali was made the prophets brother and vice-regent;
caused
ridicule amongst Quraysh who laughed at the thought of elders obeying Ali; Ali
stood firm
during persecutions.

(b) In what ways did the conversion of Umar help the young Muslim
community? [4]
Good answers here should show an understanding of the significance of Umars
conversion.
Answers could talk about how his conversion boosted Muslim morale. He was an
open
persecutor and oppressor of Muslims, but upon conversion was the most open about
public
praying. Muslims couldnt pray at the Kaba until he became Muslim. He helped the
Muslims
gain confidence in practising Islam openly; no-one dared interfere with Umar when
he was
praying. He was known for his temper and his physical strength. All this gave a
physical
protection to the vulnerable Muslims.

Question 4 [ER]
Quite a few candidates did not know enough facts about Uthmans conversion for this question.
Some candidates got the details mixed up between the personalities and some focused on their
contribution to Islam in general rather than what was being asked of them. As compared to

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Uthmans conversion, there was a lot more material that could have been written about Umar,
candidates must keep this in mind and write relevantly and in detail about those that have more
material instead of trying to write equally about all. It is the overall quality of the answer that is
given the mark.
Part (b) was answered well by most candidates, they understood the question and were able to
answer coherently giving valid points.

5 (a) Write about the lives of Umar and Uthman during the lifetime of the
Prophet. [10]
[M/J/2013]

(b) Why was Umars conversion important for the early Muslims?
[4]

(a) Answers for this part should give accounts of the lives of both these companions,
while the
Prophet was still alive and before they became caliphs.
Umar ibn al-Khattab: accepted Islam at the age of 26. Before his conversion, he had
gone to
kill the Prophet; when told to get his own house in order first, he found his sister
reciting the
Quran; after his conversion Muslims could pray openly. He didnt emigrate in secret,
He fought
in all the battles, giving half his wealth for the campaign of Tabuk, and is one of the
ten
promised paradise. He was one of the witnesses for the Treaty of Hudaybiyah,
although he was
initially not satisfied with the terms. On the Prophets death he said he would kill
anyone who
said that the Prophet had died.
Uthman ibn Affan: accepted Islam through Abu Bakr. He married the Prophets
daughter
Ruqayyah. He was wealthy in Makka, but still tortured by his relatives after
conversion, and was
amongst those who migrated to Abyssinia. Ruqayyah fell ill before the Battle of Badr
and so he
was excused from participating; she died while the Prophet was at battle. Uthman
later married
the Prophets other daughter, Kulthum, and was given the name possessor of the
two lights.
He went to Makka as the Prophets emissary to allow the Muslims to perform the
pilgrimage,
and was detained by the Makkans; this led to the signing of the Treaty of
Hudaybiyah.

(b) Answers here should reflect upon the character of Umar, and give reasons as to
why his
actions were important.

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Candidates could write about his staunch character and that people feared him,
which meant
that his conversion was a boost for the morale of the Muslims. His openness meant
that he
was not willing to pray in hiding, and so Muslims could now pray openly. His temper
and
physical strength gave protection to the vulnerable Muslims as no-one dared
challenge him.

[ER]

Question 5
(a) Candidates responded well provided they read the question carefully and noted that this
referred to events during the lifetime of the Prophet and not afterward so events concerning
the compilation of the Quran by Umar were not relevant. It was also important for candidates to
refer to both Umar and Uthman, not just one of them. The best answers traced the life of
Umar, his conversion, his donation of wealth for Tabuk, up to his initial refusal to accept the
Prophets death. For Uthman, the best answers mentioned his conversion through Abu Bakr,
marriage to the Prophets daughter Ruqayyah, migration to Abyssinia, ill treatment in Makka,
second marriage to Kulthum, and went on to discuss his role in negotiations with the Makkans.

(b) Candidates answered this question well, explaining that Umars strength helped Muslims to
pray openly and gave the new community of Muslims a boost in troubled times.

5 (a) Write about the role of Umar in the lifetime of the Prophet.
[10]

(b) What lessons can Muslims learn from Umars conversion? [4]
[M/J/2015]

(a) Candidates should expand on the points below and write a clear and concise
narrative.
Umar ibn al-Khattab: he accepted Islam at the age of 26/27. Before his conversion,
he had
gone to kill the Prophet; when told his own sister and brother in law had converted
he went to
her house. He found them reciting verses from sura Taha; Umar was angry with
them then
asked to see the writing which they were reading, but his sister said only those who
have been
purified can read it, and so Umar made wudu before being given the Quran. After
his

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conversion, Umar refused to keep Islam a secret, after which Muslims could pray
openly. He
didnt emigrate in secret, he fought in all the battles, giving half his wealth for the
campaign of
Tabuk, and is one of the ten promised paradise. He was one of the witnesses for the
Treaty of
Hudaybiyya, although he was initially not satisfied with the terms. On the Prophets
death, in his
grief, he said he would kill anyone who said that the Prophet had died.
Details about Umars life after the Prophets death will not be credited.

(b) Candidates could say that Umar had a very staunch character and was open
about his
idolatry and opposition to Islam. Yet his conversion meant that the Quran was able
to affect
someone who on the outside looked like an enemy of Islam, therefore Muslims
should still try
to convey the good in Islam to non-Muslims even if they seem against it.
His conversion meant Muslims had someone to stand up and defend them, and he
was not
afraid of letting people know about his new faith, so Muslims should also try to be
open about
their faith and not hide it.
Candidates can offer other answers but should try to give an explanation or details
to get
higher marks.

[ER/11]
Question 5
This was a popular question and was answered consistently well.
(a) Most candidates knew the main outline of 'Umar's life and wrote a good
chronology of events. The best answers wrote in detail about him confronting
his sister and his own conversion, his openness in worship which gave the
Muslims strength, his emigration, that he did not emigrate in secret, as well
as giving details about the battles that he fought in. They also wrote about
his initial disapproval of the Treaty of Hudaybiyah and his grief at the
Prophet's death.
Excellent answers elaborated on the events mentioned above, as well as
giving details about his life before he became Muslim and gave relevant
quotations from his life.

(b) Many candidates wrote good answers about 'Umar's conversion allowing
Muslims to understand that even those who seem to be the fiercest
opponents of Islam can still change and so Muslims should never lose hope in
people and should pray for them.

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4 (a) Write an account of the following figures during the lifetime of the
Prophet: Hamza,
Abu Bakr and Ali. [10]
(M/J/11)

Candidates should be able to give narratives of the biographies of these figures


during the life
of the Prophet. They should mention their relationship to the Prophet and describe
the way in
which this relationship developed with the development of Islam. They should also
mention
key events from each persons life. Good answers will be able to provide a narrative
of the
lives of these figures and mention important facts from their lives, mentioning
incidents that
occurred from their relationship, when they happened and what happened.

(b) Explain why one of these figures was important in the development of
the Islamic
community.
[4]

Good answers here will choose one of these figures and say why his relationship
was
important to the Prophet and the early development of Islam. Candidates should be
able to
talk about how their chosen figure gave the Prophet encouragement and defended
him, and
why this was important to the Prophet, and therefore the Islamic community, at the
time it
happened.

Question 4 [ER]
(a) This was the most popular of the optional questions for the candidates and was generally
well answered. Most candidates who attempted this question showed that they had knowledge
about the lives of these three figures and many answers gave lots of detailed information about
them. As well as giving information about these figures it was important to have depth and/or
clarity in the presentation to reach the higher levels. So, for example, instead of simply writing
He was always with the Prophet, he fought in many battles, a better response would have
been, He was a constant companion of the Prophet, and was also with him when he migrated
from Makka to Madina. He fought in all the major battles such as the battle of Badr and Uhud.
(b) Most candidates chose to write about Abu Bakr for this question, and whilst there were some
insightful and detailed answers, most gave general answers about Abu Bakrs role as Caliph.
Candidates should remember that this paper tests the role of the Prophets companions during
his life and so they should keep this in mind when writing their answers.

10
4 (a) Write about the major contributions made to Islam by Abu Bakr
during the Prophets
Lifetime. [10] (O/N/2010)

For this answer, candidates should give a detailed account of the main events in
Abu Bakrs
life with the Prophet. They should be able to give a basic description of Abu Bakr
being the
Prophets childhood friend, and the first to accept Islam. This could be elaborated
upon by
describing how he was a staunch supporter of the Prophet, guiding others to accept
Islam
and giving his wealth in the battle of Tabuk. Other important points that could be
described
are his loyalty to the Prophet, particularly after the night journey, as well as him
being the
Prophets companion during the hijra.

(b) Why was Abu Bakr given the title Saviour of Islam?
[4]

Candidates in this part should try to show an understanding of the importance and
significance of Abu Bakr to the Prophet and therefore to Islam. They could mention
how his
loyalty to the Prophet contributed to keeping the community united, he held the
community
together when the Prophet died, and this led to him becoming the first caliph.

Question 4 [ER]
(a) This was generally well answered, and again good answers were able to give a detailed
narrative about the main contributions to Islam from Abu Bakrs life. Most candidates who
attempted this question showed that they had knowledge about the life of Abu Bakr and the role
he played in the development of Islam. Many candidates wrote e.g. that Abu Bakr was the
Prophets childhood friend, he was amongst the first to accept Islam, he believed the Prophet
when he said he went on the night journey, and he supported the treaty of Hudaibiyah. These
are all relevant points, however candidates who elaborated on these points, e.g. that he
accepted Islam without hesitation giving the quote from the Prophet related to this would have
gained higher marks.

(b) This part was answered well on the whole. Good answers said that Abu Bakrs contributions
and loyalty to the Prophet played an important role in keeping the Muslims together during the
life of the Prophet, and that it was his closeness to the Prophet that led to him becoming Caliph
and ultimately getting the title Saviour of Islam.
There were many answers that wrote generally about Abu Bakrs contributions, but most were
able to offer some evaluation of his role.

(a) Write about the role played by Abu Bakr during the period between the
first revelation

11
and the death of the Prophet. [10]
[O/N/2014]

(b) What lessons can Muslims learn from Abu Bakrs conduct in this
period, and how are
these lessons relevant now?
[4]

(a) For this answer, candidates should give a detailed account of the main events in
Abu Bakrs
life with the Prophet. Abu Bakr was the Prophets childhood friend, and the first to
accept
Islam. He was a staunch supporter of the Prophet, and was open about practising
Islam. He
would buy slaves and set them free. He guided others to accept Islam. He set off to
Abyssinia but returned when his friend offered him protection. He did not hesitate to
believe
the Prophet when he told the people about his night journey and ascension. He was
the
Prophets companion during the migration to Madina, and the Quran mentions him
as one of
two in the cave, in reference to this journey. He gave his daughter in marriage to the
Prophet.
He participated in all the major battles and gave his wealth in the battle of Tabuk.
He was a
witness to the Treaty of Hudaibiyah. When the Prophet passed many companions
refused to
believe it, and it was Abu Bakr who came to address them telling them that
Muhammad
(pbuh) has passed away but Allah is alive and will never die. He was elected as
caliph soon
after this.

(b) Candidates could write about stories of friendship and loyalty, or about belief
and strong
faith, or other points mentioned about his life, but as well as mentioning them they
should
give concrete examples of how these could be applied in peoples lives, so e.g.
showing how
Muslims can be loyal to their friends, or how Muslims could give their wealth to
benefit the
Muslim community in times of need.

[ER][11]

Question 5
(a) Again, responses to this question ranged from poor to good. Some candidates gave a few
general comments such as Abu Bakr being with the Prophet when he migrated, or that he
believed the Prophet at the time of the night journey, but lacked the detail required. Some

12
candidates wrote mainly about Abu Bakr at the time of the persecutions of the Muslims and how
he set free slaves and was hurt himself, while a few wrote about his life as Caliph.
Those that gave good answers wrote about a range of events from Abu Bakrs life, expanding
on them with relevant details.

(b) This was answered satisfactorily, with most candidates giving general answers about
maintaining a strong faith, being steadfast, spreading Islam and helping others.
There were some good answers where candidates gave thoughtful examples, such as saying
that Muslims should never hesitate to spend money to help the cause of Islam, therefore they
can donate money to the education and support of Muslim scholars.

5 (a) Describe the main events during the lifetime of the Prophet which
involved the
following people:
(i) Khadija,
(ii) Abu Talib
(iii) Abu Sufyan. [3x4] (M/J/08)

(b) Explain why the death of Abu Talib was a significant event for the
Prophet. [4]

(a) (i)
She proposed marriage to the Prophet
She comforted him after his first experience of revelation
She was the first to accept Islam
She endured the hardship of the boycott with him
She gave birth to Fatima
(ii)
He brought the Prophet up when his relatives had died
He took Muhammad on trading trips
He protected the Prophet from a number of threats from Quraysh
He endured the boycott with the Prophet and his followers
(iii)
He led the Makkan caravan that was threatened by the Muslims at Badr
He signed the Treaty of Hudaybiya as leader of the Makkans
He privately converted to Islam before the conquest of Makka
His house was a refuge for Makkans during the conquest

(b)
Abu Talib was the leader of the Banu Hashim for most of the Prophets early life
As such he could give the Prophet the clans protection
Thanks to this Muhammad could make his proclamations in relative safety
His death, and the succession of Abu Lahab to headship of the clan, deprived the
Prophet of this protection

Question 5 [ER]
In part (a) this asked about the main events of the Prophets life in which the three figures of
Khadija, Abu Talib and Abu Sufyan were involved, and in part (b) it asked for an explanation of
why Abu Talibs death was significant.

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There were some full answers to (a), and most candidates were able to give some events in
which the figures featured. But, as was said above, many candidates took this as an opportunity
to write all they knew about the three, and so included irrelevant details such as Khadijas
constant support for Muhammad and Abu Talibs constant protection of him, neither of which
was an actual event. The best answers referred to such details as Khadija taking her husband
to her cousin Waraqa after his first experience of revelation, Abu Talib taking him on merchant
journeys, and Abu Sufyan fighting against him at Badr and Uhud.

There were also some excellent answers to (b), in which candidates referred to the clan system
of Mecca, and to the Prophet being able to claim protection under this system this as long as
Abu Talib was head of his clan; this protection was withdrawn when he died and was replaced
by a hostile uncle. Others wrote about the Prophets sadness at his uncles death, which may
have been a comment on the event but was not an explanation of its significance.

5 Explain the importance of the following figures during the lifetime of the
Prophet:
(a) Abu Talib; [4]
(M/J/05)
He trained the Prophet as a merchant.
He brought him up after his grandfathers death.
He protected him against his enemies in Mecca. [1 mark, but 2 marks for
explanations of how he could do this under the tribal structures of the time]
He shared in many of the Prophets hardships.

(b) Bilal; [4]


He was a slave who became one of the first Muslims.
He was tortured mercilessly but never gave up his faith. [1 mark, but 2 marks for
full
details of his conduct under torture]
He was appointed as the first muezzin in Islam.

(c) Abu Sufyan; [4]


He was a merchant and one of the leaders of Mecca.
He became one of the Prophets main opponents.
The Battle of Badr was fought over his caravan.
He led the Meccan army at the Battle of Uhud.
After much resistance to the Prophet he finally reached an agreement with him
and
became a Muslim.
Meccans who gathered in his house when the Prophet entered the town were
guaranteed safety.

(d) the Ansar. [4]


They were people of Medina who accepted Islam.
They helped the Muslim emigrants (muhajirun) when they came north.
They shared their possessions with them.
They took them as brothers.
They helped the Prophet against unbelievers in Medina.

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Question 5 [ER]
While this was not as popular as Question 4, most candidates who attempted it did
very well.
(a) Most were able to identify Abu Talib as the Prophets uncle, and to say how he
took a part in
training the Prophet as a merchant. Fewer commented on how he shared the
hardships
experienced by the Prophet and his followers in Makka, and even fewer explained
how under the clan system of the time he was able to protect the Prophet from
harm.
(b) Most answers were complete, commenting on Bilals early conversion and the
tortures he incurred because of this, and his task as first muezzin of the community.
(c) Again, answers to this part were mostly very full, commenting on Abu Sufyans
hostility to the
Prophet, and his eventual conversion. The best said how his caravan had been the
cause of the
Battle of Badr, and how he had been a leader of the Makkan force at Uhud.
(d) Many answers to this part lacked the crispness of the other parts, maybe
because candidates were by now running out of time. Most identified the Ansar, but
said little about their importance as helpers and brothers to the migrant Makkan
Muslims, their most important function in early Islam.

5 Explain the importance of the following during the lifetime of the


Prophet:
(a) Abu Talib, [4]
(O/N/08)
He brought the Prophet up after his grandfathers death.
He trained him as a merchant.
He protected him against his enemies in Makka.
As head of the Prophets clan he had the power to do this.
He supported the Prophet during the boycott and allowed the Muslims to stay at
his gorge.

(b) Bilal, [4]


He was a slave who became one of the first Muslims.
He was tortured mercilessly but never gave up his faith.
This showed the depth of his loyalty to Islam.
He was appointed as the first muezzin in Islam.
This shows the equality of all believers according to Islamic teachings.

(c) Abu Sufyan, [4]


He was a merchant and one of the leaders of Makka.
He became one of the Prophets main opponents.
He was involved/participated in the main battles against the Muslims of Madina.
After much resistance to the Prophet he finally became a Muslim.
This was a sign that Islam had triumphed over the people of Makka.
The Prophet designated his house as a place of refuge at the capture of Makka.

(d) the Ansar. [4]

15
They were people of Madina who accepted Islam
They helped the Muslim emigrants (muhajirun) when they came north
They shared their possessions with them/took them as brothers
Their help enabled Islam to become established in the community of Madina

Question 5 [ER]
This question was a very popular one and the majority of the candidates who attempted it went
on to answer it well. There were some excellent answers for part (a) in which candidates
referred to how the Prophet was brought up by Abu Talib with great care and concern, how he
was taught the art of trading by him and the protection that Abu Talib gave him as the head of
the clan when he was opposed by the people of Makka. However having said that it must be
pointed out that in answering (c) not a single candidate stated that the conversion of Abu Sufyan
was indicative of the fact that Islam had finally triumphed over the people of Makka. The (d) part
of this question was perhaps the weakest in terms of the answers given. Again in this
part very few mentioned the fact that it was the help of the Ansars that enabled Islam to become
established in the community of Madina.
4 (a) Write biographical accounts of any two of the following Muslims:
(i) Bilal
(ii) Talha
(iii) Hafsa
(iv) Hasan. [2 x 5] (O/N/07)

(a) (i)
He was an Ethiopian slave.
His Makkan master tortured him for his belief.
Although rocks were laid on his chest he continued to call out "One".
He made the first calls to prayer in Islam.
He retired when the Prophet died.
He was among the first converts.

(ii)
He was one of the first converts to Islam.
He was included among the closest Companions of the Prophet.
He was nominated one of the Ten Blessed Companions.
He refused to accept 'Ali's refusal to punish 'Uthman's assassins.
He and Zubayr raised forces to press their complaints.
He was killed in the battle of the Camel.

(iii)
She was the daughter of 'Umar.
She became one of the Prophet's wives.
She was given care of the first copy of the Qur'an.
She kept this in her possession.
This was used in the final compilation of the Qur'an under 'Uthman.

(iv)
He was the Prophet's grandson.
He was the elder son of Fatima and 'Ali.
He was recognised by many as leader of the community on his father's death.

16
He was forced to renounce his leadership by Mu'awiya.
He was murdered by his wife at the caliph's insistence.
Accept other valid points that are made.

(b) Explain the importance in Islam of the two Muslims you have chosen. [2 x 3]
In each case allow 1 mark for a basic comment.
Allow 1 extra mark for a comment about the part played in affairs of the community.
Allow 1 extra mark for a comment about why this conduct was important.

Question 4 [ER]
Very few candidates attempted this question. Of those who attempted it, many managed to give
an acceptable answer for part (a), but struggled with part (b), especially in relation to Hafsa.
Candidates should have been able to explain how Hafsas keeping of the early compilation of
the Quran helped enormously in the final standardisation under Uthman. This personal
evaluation is always necessary in order for candidates to express themselves intelligently and
be able to relate the historical accounts to contemporary relevance

Question 4 [ER] (M/J/03)

Part (a) was generally popular and well answered, though a surprising number of
answers omitted obvious points, such as Bilal giving the first call to prayer, Talha
being one of the Ten Blessed Companions, and Hafsa keeping the Quran. Some
answers stated that Talha was killed at the Battle of Siffin. Good answers gave four
full and clear descriptive points about the three chosen figures, linked into a brief
biography. The more searching part (b) was clearly a difficult challenge to most
candidates. Many were able to explain how Bilals example of steadfast faith when
he suffered persecution has inspired Muslims since, and some
explained the importance of Hafsas role in preserving the copy of the Quran made
under Abu Bakr, but the importance of the other two figures presented problems. It
was particularly noticeable that no candidate mentioned the importance of Hasan in
Shi`i beliefs.
Part (b) is one of those elements in the examination in which the very best
candidates can show their qualities. Successful answers to this part would help
candidates towards an A grade, so preparation to answer this kind of question
should be given greater importance than at present.

5 (a) Write about the main points in the lives of Bilal and Abu Sufyan.
[10] [O/N/12]

Candidates should write a clear and concise narrative about the events of the two
companions lives, in the order that they happened.

Bilal: candidates could mention that he was originally from Ethiopia and that he was
a slave.
After conversion he suffered harsh persecution at the hands of his master, and
candidates

17
could give details of this story. They could also mention that he was one of the
slaves freed
by Abu Bakr. He migrated to Madina and fought in all the battles. Good answers will
be able
to give details of his appointment as the first muezzin. They could also mention that
he killed
his former master, that he gave the adhaan after the Conquest of Makka, and after
the death
of the Prophet he was so grief stricken he refused to call the adhaan again and left
Madina.
Candidates may go on to mention his life after Madina, that he went to Damascus
and died
there.

Abu Sufyan: he was a prominent and powerful figure among the Quraysh, and a
staunch
opponent of the Prophet and the Muslims. It was his caravan returning from Syria
that was
the basis for the battle of Badr, and candidates should give details of his
involvement in this
event. After the loss at Badr, revenge was sought and Abu Sufyan led the Quraysh
army to
Uhud. His wife Hind also went seeking revenge for the death of her father. After
Uhud Abu
Sufyan vowed to fight again and the next time they met was at the battle of the
trench.
Candidates could also talk about the breaking of the treaty of Hudaibiyah, Abu
Sufyans
attemtps to restore the treaty, his subsequent conversion when the Prophet
marched
towards Makka, and the honour the Prophet gave him despite him being a fierce
opponent
for many years. At Taif Abu Sufyan lost an eye, and Yarmouk he lost the other; he
died
aged 90 in Madina.

(b) What can be learnt from Bilals role in the Islamic community?
[4]

Candidates should give thoughtful answers about how events from Bilals life can
provide
Muslims with valuable lessons.
They could write about how his ethnic background was not a hindrance in his status
as a
companion of the Prophet, and so racial equality should be practised amongst
Muslims of all

18
communities. His background of being a slave did not prevent the deep friendship
between
him and the Prophet, and so all men should be treated equally despite their class.
They
could also mention that due to the beauty of his voice the Prophet favoured him as
muezzin,
and that it is the purity of ones heart that God looks at.

Question 5 [ER]

(a) This question was generally well answered with candidates being able to give relevant
detail to the lives of Bilal and Abu Sufyan. To get the higher levels candidates needed to
give details of both peoples lives, some candidates wrote about Bilal with little or no
information about Abu Sufyan. (b) Most candidates wrote about Bilals perseverance
under torture and his unshaken faith. The better candidates were able to give thoughtful
answers about racial equality being practiced by Muslims, and that all people should be
treated equally.

4 (a) Describe the roles played by Abu Talib and Hamza in the life of the
Prophet. [10]

(b) Did the role of Abu Talib help strengthen the early Muslim community?
Give reasons
for your answer. [4] [M/J/2014]

(a) Both men were uncles of the Prophet, one who accepted Islam and the other did
not. Abu
Talib: he was the brother of the Prophets father, and the leader of the Banu Hashim
clan,
making a respected leader amongst the Quraysh; the Prophet came into his care
after the
death of the Prophets mother and then grandfather; the Prophet worked for him
and went on
trade journeys with him; the Prophet chose Ali to adopt and look after when Abu
Talib faced
financial difficulty; after prophethood, the Quraysh would try to get Abu Talib to stop
his
nephew from his mission, but he remained in support of him; his support of the
Prophet
provided him with protection from the Quraysh hostilities; Abu Talib died after the
boycott,
and the Prophet was greatly saddened by his death.

Hamza: he was an uncle and foster-brother of the Prophet; he was a warrior and
sportsman
and had little interest the issues of Makkah; he hit Abu Jahl when he heard Abu Jahl
had

19
assaulted the Prophet; after that he became Muslim; it gave the Muslims a lot of
strength and
they were able to pray in public; in the battle of Badr he killed leading men of he
Quraysh
including Hinds father Utbah; she vowed revenge and hired Washi to kill Hamza
which he
did at the battle of Uhud; he was given the title chief of Martyrs.

(b) Candidates can give a yes or a no answer but they have to give reasons. Other
reasons can
be given but they have to be relevant to the question.

They could say yes it did, for example, because he allowed the boycotted Muslims
to stay at
Shib-i-Abi Talib, which gave them a place to stay in a time of difficulty; that he
supported the
Prophet at all times, which in turn supported the followers of the Prophet and this
would have
helped them carry on in their mission; that when the Quraysh offered the Prophet
bribes and
the Prophet refused, Abu Talib said he would not ask him again, which again helped
strengthen the support given to the Prophet and his community.
They could say no it did not, for example, because he did not become Muslim if he
had
more people may have converted; him remaining non-Muslim gave the Quraysh
continued
reason to oppress the Muslims.

[ER]
Question 4

(a) Candidates gave reasonably good answers to this part, especially when writing about Abu
Talib. Quite often candidates wrote well about one personality and less about the other. Many
candidates did not write about or develop the story of Hamza and his martyrdom at the hands of
Wahshi, but rather mentioned it in brief.

(b) Most candidates answered this by saying that he did help strengthen the early Muslim
community, but some then were unable to give reasons for their answer to allow good marks.
Those that did give good reasons said that Abu Talibs support allowed the Prophet to carry on
preaching his message as the Quraysh were not able to harm him while he was under Abu
Talibs protection, or that he allowed the Muslims to stay in his gorge which protected them from
harm.

5 (a) Describe the main events that involved the Prophet with Abu Talib
and Abu Sufyan.

20
[10]
(S/P/09)
L1 for some awareness of who either of these figures were
L2 for basic references to the involvement of both figures in the Prophets life
L3 and above for accounts of key events involving the Prophet and each figure

(b) Explain why the death of Abu Talib threatened the Prophets security in Makka.
[4]

L1 for some awareness of the Abu Talibs role in bringing up the Prophet
L2 for references to Abu Talib as the Prophets protector
L3 and above for explanations of the clan system, and Abu Talib as head of the
Banu Hashim having power to give the Prophet protection

5 (b) Explain why the death of Abu Talib threatened the Prophets security
in Makka.
[4] (S/P/09)
Answer 1
Abu Talib cared for the holy Prophet after his grandfather Abd al-Muttalib died. He
took him
to his house and treated him like his own son. When the Quraish tried to stop the
Prophet
from preaching, he took the Prophets side. He even suffered with the Prophet
during the
boycott. When he died the Prophet was very sad.

Level: 1
This response shows who Abu Talib was and says something about the way he
remained
loyal to the Prophet. But it does not answer the question.

Answer 2
When the Prophets mother died he was cared for by his grandfather Abd al-
Muttalib. But he
died, and then his uncle Abu Talib took care of him. He brought him up like his own
son, and
when Hazrat Khadija wanted to marry the Prophet he gave his permission. He was
always on
the side of the Prophet, and protected him against the Quraish. When Quraish asked
Abu
Talib to persuade the Prophet to be silent the Prophet refused, but Abu Talib still
stood by the
Prophet. His death was a great blow to the Prophet. It came in the same year as the
death
of Hazrat Khadija. After this the Prophet had no advisers or protectors.

Level: 2
This response shows that the candidate clearly knows the facts about Abu Talib and
that he

21
acted as protector of the Prophet as well as guardian. But there is still no discussion
of the
significance of his death for the Prophets personal security.

Answer 3
Abu Talib was the brother of the Prophets father. He took care of the Prophet on the
death of
his grandfather Abd al-Muttalib. He protected the Prophet when he started to
proclaim the
revelations which almighty Allah revealed to him. When Quraish asked him to
silence the
Prophet he refused. He was head of the Prophets clan and so he could protect him.
The
Prophet could preach in safety. When he died his protection was no longer there and
so the
Prophet was at the mercy of Quraish.

Level: 3
Here the candidate has clearly grasped the function of the clan system in Makka
and has
seen the importance of this to the Prophets safety. He hints that he understands
how Abu
Talibs position gave him power to protect the Prophet, but he does not go into this
in any
detail.

Answer 4
The holy Prophet was brought up by Abu Talib from his boyhood. Hazrat
Muhammads
mother died when he was 6 and he went to his grandfather Abd al-Muttalib. But
then he died
and Abu Talib took the Prophet to be his own son. He remained loyal to the Prophet
throughout his life, and he loved him like his own child. When the Prophet began to
receive
revelations he did not become a Muslim, but he gave the Prophet freedom to teach
Tawhid.
The Quraish wanted the Prophet to stop, and they asked Abu Talib to make him
stop, but he
refused. Abu Talib was very powerful. He was the head of the clan of Hashim, the
Prophets
clan, and he could ask the members of the clan to support anyone in it. This is why
he could
give the Prophet protection from all the difficulties put in his way by Quraish. This
means that
when he died in the ninth year of prophethood his protection was no longer there
for the holy
Prophet, and the Prophet was at risk of persecution from Quraish.

Level: 4

22
This response outlines the significance of the Makkan clan system clearly and fully.
It gives a
thoroughly worked out explanation of how the Prophet was protected under the
system and
why he would be exposed on his uncles death. The candidate shows that he both
has full
factual knowledge of the relationship between the Prophet and Abu Talib, and full
understanding of how this relationship functioned to enable the Prophet to work
without
severe molestation.

5 (a) Give an account of the lives of Abu Sufyan and Khalid bin Walid
during the time of the Prophet.
[10][O/N/2014]

Abu Sufyan: he was a prominent and powerful figure among the Quraysh, and a
staunch
opponent of the Prophet and the Muslims. It was his caravan returning from Syria
that was
the basis for the Battle of Badr, and candidates should give details of his
involvement in this
event. After the loss at Badr, revenge was sought and Abu Sufyan led the Quraysh
army to
Uhud. His wife Hind also went seeking revenge for the death of her father. After
Uhud Abu
Sufyan vowed to fight again and the next time they met was at the Battle of the
Trench.
Candidates could also talk about the breaking of the treaty of Hudaybiya, Abu
Sufyans
attempts to restore the treaty, his subsequent conversion when the Prophet
marched
towards Makka, and the honour the Prophet gave him despite him being a fierce
opponent
for many years. At Taif Abu Sufyan lost an eye, and Yarmouk he lost the other; he
died aged
90 in Madina.

Khalid bin Walid: He was from a family who opposed the Prophet in Makka, and
although
he did not take part in the Battle of Badr, he played a vital role in the Battle of Uhud
against
the Muslims, turning the Muslim victory to defeat. Candidates should give details of
his role.
He converted to Islam after the Treaty of Hudaybiya. In 629, Khalid set out for
Madina. On
the way he met 'Amr ibn al-'As and Uthman ibn Talha, who were also going to
Madina to
convert to Islam.

23
After conversion he took part in the Battle of Muta. It was the first battle between
the
Romans and the Muslims. He reported that the fighting was so intense, that he used
nine
swords, which broke in the battle. Khalid took over after Zayd ibn Haritha, then
Jafar ibn Abi
Talib, then Abdullah ibn Rawaha were killed. It was because of him that the Muslims
returned
safely.
He subsequently took part in the Conquest of Makka, Battle of Hunain and the
Battle of
Tabuk. Candidates can give details of these events.
He was at the farewell pilgrimage of the Prophet, and is said to have collected three
hairs
from the Prophet there, which gave him victory in his battles. He died in 642 in
Syria.

(b) In your opinion, can Muslims today learn anything from Abu Sufyans
involvement
with the Prophet?
[4]

Muslims can learn that no matter how fierce a person is against Islam, they can
change and
become friends to Islam. Therefore, Muslims should not treat non-Muslims in a bad
way, as
they can be part of their community in the future. The example of the Prophet is to
treat
people well no matter how they treat you.
Muslims can also learn that a new Muslims sins are wiped clean so their past should
not be
held against them. So Muslims now should not look down on new Muslims no matter
what
their background.
These are just some examples, candidates can offer other answers but should give
details of what the lessons mean.

[ER][12]

Question 5
(a) This was the least popular of the questions and proved to be quite challenging for the
candidates, particularly in their knowledge of Abu Sufyans life. However, there were a few
candidates who managed to extract important events related to Abu Sufyans life from their

24
knowledge of seerah, such as Heraclius interrogating him about the Prophets character, his
being conferred honour at the conquest of Makka by the Prophet or his encounter with his
daughter, Umm Habiba, when he visited her in Madina.
The part on Khalid elicited either very good or quite poor responses. Those who gave good
answers wrote about his role in the battle of Uhud, and his conversion and participation in Muta
were well brought out.
(b) On the whole, this part was generally not well answered, as little evaluation was given.
Better candidates said that, since Abu Sufyan, who was one of the bitterest enemies of Islam,
can have a change of heart, non-Muslims should be treated well. Of those who answered less
well, many were very unforgiving towards Abu Sufyan saying that he will go to hell, he is an
enemy of Islam etc., hence missing the fundamental messages of forgiveness and mercy as
prescribed by Islam.

4 (a) Write about the Prophets relationship with the following figures:
Aminah, Halimah
Saadiah and Abu Talib. [10]
[O/N/12]

Candidates here should give brief descriptions of the role these three personalities
played in
the Prophets life. Better answers will mention the relationship between these
figures and the
Prophet and narrate key events in their lives.
With reference to Aminah, candidates could briefly mention the events surrounding
the
Prophets birth, that he did not spend much time with his mother (being sent for
nursing),
when he was reunited with his mother they travelled to Yathrib to meet his family,
that she
died on the way back from Yathrib, and that after prophethood he wept at her
grave.
Halimah Saadiah: candidates could write about how she came to be the Prophets
wetnurse,
how her and her familys fortunes changed whilst the Prophet was with them, that
she
asked to keep the Prophet for longer than the initial two year period; that she was
shaken by
the story of the two angels who came to clean the Prophets heart, after which she
returned
the Prophet to his mother. The Prophet was known to call Halimah my mother.
Abu Talib: candidates could write about how he came to be guardian of the Prophet,
that he
loved the Prophet like his own son. They could also mention their trade journeys
together
and how Abu Talib reacted to his prophethood. He also provided the Prophet with
protection
in Makka due to his position, but suffered with him during the boycott.

25
(b) What can these relationships teach Muslims today about family ties?
[4]

Candidates should reflect upon the relationship the Prophet had with these figures
and write
about how they teach Muslims about their relationship with their family.
Good answers could mention that despite not having spent a lot of time with his
mother he
still had an emotional attachment to her in particular when he visited her grave. So
Muslims
should not forget their parents after they are gone and pray for them. They could
also
mention that although Halimah was not his biological mother, he gave her the same
respect
as his own mother due to the time he spent with her and her family (he stretched
out his
mantle for her when she visited him after prophethood). This shows the respect that
should
be given to those who look after you in childhood. Candidates could also talk about
the bond
between the Prophet and Abu Talib, and how he loved and respected Abu Talib when
he
wasnt Muslim. This is an important example for people who have family members
who are
not Muslim.

Question 4 [ER]

(a) This was the least answered of the optional questions. The answers given were brief, so
even where a candidate knew about the events in these individuals lives, they did not narrate
them in any considerable detail for them to gain high levels.
A few candidates wrote about his mother Aminah and the journey they took to Yathrib to meet
family, and that she died on the way back; for Halimah a few candidates wrote about the
experiences she had after taking the Prophet for feeding, that she was shaken by the story of
the angels coming to clean the Prophets heart, and that the Prophet often referred to her as my
mother; Abu Talib was written about in the most detail but still few candidates wrote about the
trade journeys the Prophet went on with him. A number of candidates did not seem to know who
Aminah was and referred to her as the Prophets wife, and some thought Halimah and Saadiah
were two different people, one being the wet nurse and another his wife.

(b) Candidates rarely gave evaluative answers here, most answers saying generally that family
ties should be kept and looking after your mother was important. Candidates could have said
that the importance of a mother can be seen by the fact the Prophet had an emotional
attachment to her despite not having lived with her for long; that even though Halimah was not
his biological mother he gave her the same respect as his mother; and that despite him not
being Muslim the Prophet loved and respected Abu Talib.

26
(a) Give an account of the lives of Ali ibn Talib and Zayd bin Harith, during
the life of the
Prophet. 10]
[O/N/2015]

(b) To what extent do Ali and Zayds relationships with the Prophet
provide models for
family relations today? [4]

(a) Answers for this part should give accounts of the lives of both these
companions, while the
Prophet was still alive and before they became caliphs.
Ali ibn Talib: the Prophets cousin, he went to live with the Prophet at a young age
to alleviate
the hardship on his father; was one of the first to accept the message of Islam at
the age of ten;
when the Prophet started open preaching, he called his clansmen to Islam and it
was only Ali
who stepped forward to accept it; the Quraysh laughed at Ali being made an emir
that they
should obey; he stood by the Prophet during the persecutions and the boycott in
Makka; he was
entrusted with the Qurayshs belongings to be returned to them when the Prophet
migrated to
Madina, and he met the Prophet and Abu Bakr at Quba; in Madina Ali was made the
brother of
the Prophet; he married the Prophets daughter Fatima and they had four children;
Ali was a
prominent fighter in all the battles (except Tabuk), commanding the Muslim army at
Khaybar; he
was one of the scribes of the Prophet, writing down the Quran as well as the Treaty
of
Hudaibiyah; Ali rode next to the Prophet on the final pilgrimage; Ali and Abbas
washed the
body of the Prophet when he died.
Zayd bin Harith: He was eight years old when he was captured as a slave; he was
bought by
Khadijas nephew and given to Khadija; she then gave him to the Prophet who freed
him; his
family never stopped looking for him; they heard he was in Makka and arrived with
a ransom to
free him; the Prophet gave him a choice to go with his father and uncle or to remain
with him;
Zayd chose to remain with the Prophet, after which the Prophet declared Zayd his
son and heir;
he was called Zayd bin Muhammad until the revelation 33.5 was revealed after
which he was
called Zayd bin Harith; he was the third person said to have accepted Islam; he
accompanied

27
the Prophet when he tried to preach to the people of Taif and was injured as well;
he was
amongst those who went back to Makka to accompany the remaining Muslims to
Madina; he
married several times, once to the Prophets cousin Zainab, a marriage that ended
in divorce
(verse 33.37); he was close to the Prophet and fought in many battles, including
Badr, Uhud,
Trench and Khaybar; he commanded seven military expeditions; at the Battle of
Muta he was
the standard bearer, and was killed on the battlefield.

(b) These stories can tell Muslims that it is not just immediate relations that are
important, and
that Muslims should look after other family members as well.
Ali was not his son but the Prophet looked after him like he was, and so if there is a
need in
your family, then it is encouraged to help family members by treating their children
the same
as you would your own, rather than giving your own children better things than
other
relatives.
Adoption is also important in Islam and candidates could write that adopted children
are to be
given the same treatment in the family as other children. Although God later
changed the
inheritance of adopted children, their treatment within the family should be like
your own
children.

28

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