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2.

3 Ribbed Slabs

To ensure adequate stiffness against bending and torsion and to allow ribbed slabs to be
treated as solid slabs for the purpose of analysis, EBCS-2 recommends that the following
restrictions on size are satisfied:
Ribs shall not be less than 70mm in width; and shall have a depth, excluding any
topping of not more than 4 times the minimum width of the rib. The rib spacing
shall not exceed 1.0m
1
Thickness of topping shall not be less than 50mm, nor less than 10 the clear
distance between ribs. In the case of ribbed slabs incorporating permanent blocks,
the lower limit of 50mm may be reduced to 40mm.

bw df

Clear
dw distance

bc Rib Spacing

Fig. 2.3.1 Ribbed slab

Minimum Reinforcement

The topping shall be provided with a reinforcement mesh providing in each


direction a cross-sectional area not less than 0.001 of the section of the slab.
The breadth of ribs may be governed by shear strength requirements. The method
proposed in the ISE manual for the estimation of rib breadths limits the shear
stress in the rib to 0.6 N/mm2 for concretes with characteristic cylinder strength of
25 N/mm2 or more. The required breadth is given by:

V
b= mm
0 .6 d
Where V is the maximum shear force in Newton on the rib considered as simply
supported and d is the effective depth in millimeters. For characteristic cylinder strengths
less than 25 MPa, the breadth should be increased in proportion.
If the rib spacing exceeds 1.0m, the topping shall be designed as a slab resting on
ribs, considering load concentrations, if any.
The function of the flanges with the web shall be checked for longitudinal shear.
The ultimate limit state in longitudinal shear is governed either by the effect of
inclined flange compression (acting parallel to its middle plane) or by tension in
the transverse reinforcement.
The longitudinal shear per unit length Vsd, which may be obtained as a function of
the applied transverse shear Vsd :
(a) For flange in compression :
b c b w Vsd
vsd =
2 b c z
(b) For flange in tension.
As Asw Vsd
vsd =
2 As z
Where : Vsd applied transverse shear.
be effective width of a T-section.
z - internal lever arm.
As area of the longitudinal steel in the effective flanges outside the projection of
Web in to the slab.
Asw area of the longitudinal steel inside the slab within the projection of the
Web into the slab.
Resistance to longitudinal shear.
(a) Resistance to inclined compression per unit length VRd1
VRd1 = 0.25 fcd hf
Where : hf = total thickness of the flange.
(b) Resistance to diagonal tension per unit length VRd2
Asf Fyd
VRd2 = 0.50 fctd hf +
Sf
Where : Asf = area of transverse reinforcement per unit length , perpendicular to
the web-flange interface.
If , at the section with M = Mmax , the flange is subjected to a tensile force, the
concrete contribution 0.50 fctd hf .( in the above equation) should be neglected.

av (shear span)

sf hf

Fd,max

Fd,max
M=0 Asf

M = Mmax
Example 2.3.1
Design a one way ribbed floor system shown below subjected to live load of 5 kN .
m2
Materials used include c-30 , s-300 , n = 8 and class I work. Ribbing is in the x-direction.

S1 S2
7m

x x x
x 6m 5m

Solution:
(i) Cross-section of the ribbed slab:
Bw 70mm say bw = 100mm
Dw 4*70mm = 280mm say dw = 250mm
Rib- spacing say 800mm clear dist , bc = 800-100 = 700mm

50mm
1

df * 700 = 70mm Take df = 70mm.
10

70mm
100mm 700mm 800mm
A rib is to be considered like a T-
section

( ii ) Loading

Dead load:
Self wt. = 25*(0.1+0.8*0.07) = 2.025 kN
m
Finishing (PVC & C. screed ) = 0.92 * 0.8 = 0.736 kN
m
Total DL = 2.76 kN
m

Live Load : LL = 5*0.8 = 4 kN


m
Design load , Pd = 1.3*2.76 +1.6*4 =10 kN
m
Considering s2
le 5000
bw 100 1100 mm
5 5
Be
c/c beam spacing = 800mm
be = 800mm

( iii) Analysis

(a) Max. support moment


10
EI -content
6m
6m 5m
Rel.stiff,k 5 6
D.F. 1.0 0.45
FEM -45
6.25
-38.75 38.75
Final mom. 10 10
LD

23.54kN 38.75
32.75
36.46kN 17.25kN
SD 36.46
(-) 3.28 17.25
(kN) (-)
(+) 3.65m
1.72
23.54 32.75

(-)
VMD (+) (+)
kNm

14.84

(b) Max. span moment:


10 kN
m

6m
6m 5m
Rel.stiff,k
5 6
D.F. 0 0.45 0.5
FEM -45 8.625
5
16.534 19.84
Final mom. -28.47 28.47
10 10
LD

25.25kN 28.47
12.59
34.75kN 1.21
SD 34.75
(-) 4.56 1.21
(kN) (-)
(+) 3.48
0.44
25.25 12.59
28.47
(-)
VMD (+) (+)
kNm
31.88
0.27

( iv ) Design
c 30 fcd 13.6MPa fyd
m = 0.8 fcd = 23.977
s 300 fyd 260.87 MPa
n=8

800mm
70mm
250mm

100mm

For max. span moment:


Mmax = 31.88 kNm = Md
Assuming b = bc , compute
12.5M d
Kx = 0.5 2.5 6.25
f cdb e d 2
Md 31.88 * 10 6
= = 0.0376
f cdb e d 2 13.6 * 800 * 279 2

Kx = 0.5 2.5 6.25 12.5 * 0.0376


= 0.048
X = kxd = 0.048* 279 = 13.39m
Y = 0.8x = 10.7mm<70mm
the section is rectangular as assued
Kx 0.048
As =Pbed = bed = * 800*279
m 23 .977
As = 447mm2
447
#14 = = 2.9
154
For max. support moment:
Mmax + 38.75kNm = md
b = bw = 100mm
kx = 0.448 for 0% moment redistribution checked:
Md 3.875 * 10 6
d= =
0.8 f cd bk x (1 0.4k x 0.8 * 13.6 * 100 * 0.448 * (1 0.4 * 0.448)
d = 311.2mm> 279mm
Increase bw = 100mm to 15-mm
311.2
D= = 254.1mm< 279mm 0k
15
Use bw = 150mm
1
Md
Reinforcement :kx = 0.5 2.5 6.25 12.5 B 2 , where B =
f cd bd 2
kx 0.448
Fmax = = =
m 23.977

Shear reinforcement:
In the vicinity of the support:
Assume supporting Beam width to be 300mm.
The largest shear at d distance from face of support ( It is in loading case1)
32.17kN
36.46kN

x x + 279 = 0.429m
3.22m
x
3.65m
vsd = 32.17 kN
VRD = 0.25 fcdbwd
= 0.25* 13.6 * 150 * 279 * 10-3
= 142.29 kN >> 32.17kN ok
2 2

fctd = 0.21 f ck 3 = 0.21 * ( 24) = 1.165 MPa


3

1.5 1.5
k1 = 1+50p = 1+50*0.0187 = 1.935 2.0
k2 = 1.6 d = 1.6-0.279 = 1.321> 1.0
Vc = 0.25 fctdk1k2bwd
= 0.25*1.165*1.935*1.321*150*279*10-3
= 31.16kN
Since Vsd = vc provide minimum shear reinforcements
Ar f yR 56 * 300
Smax = 280mm
0.4bw 0.4 * 150
Or Smax = 0.5d = 0o.5*279 = 139.5mm
Use6 stirrup c/c 130mm
Transverse reinforcement at topping.
Cross-section area per rib
Ac = 70*800+100*250 = 81000mm2
Based on EBVS-2 , Ast = 0.001 Ac
Ast = 0.001*81000 = 81mm2
Reinforcement in a unit width (i.e. 1m)
50 * 1000
Spacing of 8 = 494mm
101.25
Use 8 c/c 400mm (since secondary reinforcements shall not be greater than 400mm
spacing)
Longitudinal shear
Flauge in compression
Compression under max. span moment
Mmax =31.88kNm Corresponding design
Shear , Vsd = 25.25 kN
x
Kx = 0.448 =
d
x = 0.448 * 279
& Z = d-0.4x = d (1-0.4 kx)
Z = 279 (1-0.4*0.448) = 279mm
Be = 800mm , bw = 150mm
be bw Vsd 800 150 25.25 kN
Vsd = * mm
2bc Z 2 * 800 229

Vsd = 44.79 kN
m
VRd 1 = 0.25 fcd hf = 0.25* 13.6* 70 = 238 kN
m
VRd 1 = 238 kN kN safe against failure by crushing of
m >> 44.79 m
concrete.
Asf f yd
VRd 2 = 0.50 fctd hf +
Sf

0.21 * 24
2 2
0.21 f ck 3 3
Fctd = 1.165Mpa
1.5 1.5
Sf = 400mm
A 8 * 1000 50 * 1000 2
Asf = 125 mm
Sf 400 m
125 * 260.87
VRd = 0.50* 1.165*70 + 40.775 81.522
400
122.30 kN kN
m > 44.79 m safe.
Flauge in tension
Tension under max. support moment
Mmax = 38.75 kNm
corresponding design shear
Vsd = 36.46 kN
Z = 229mm since kx = 0.448
As = 514 = 5*154 = 770mm2
Asw = s14 = 3*154 = 462mm2
770 462 36.46
Vsd = * 31.84 kN
2 * 770 0.229 m

VRd 1 = 238 kN kN safe


m > 31.84 m
Asf f yd 125 * 260.87
VRd 2 = 81.52 kN
sf 400 m

VRd 2 = 81.52 kN kN
m > 31.84 m safe.
27.66
38.75
2.35m
6m

RC SLAbS
2. One way slabs
2.1 Introduction to Reinforced concrete slabs
A reinforced concrete slab is a broad, flat plat, usually horizontal, with top and bottom
surfaces parallel or nearly so. It is used to provide flat surfaces mainly for roofs and
floors of buildings, parking lots, air fields, road ways etc. It may be supported by
reinforced concrete beams (and is usually poured monolithically with such beams by
masonry or reinforced concrete walls, by structural steel members, directly by columns,
or continuously by the ground.

Classification
Beam supported slabs may be classified as one-way slabs main reinforcement in each
element run in one direction only , the loads being carried by the slab in the direction
perpendicular to the supporting beam.
Two-way slabs main reinforcement run in both directions where ratio of long to short
span is less than two.
Others include flat slabs or plates, two-way ribbed or grid slabs etc.
One-way slabs one-way solid slabs
- ribbed slabs
solid

beams