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Anatomy and physiology of male reproductive system

The testes are two glandular organs, which secrete the semen; they are
suspended in the scrotum by the spermatic cords. Testes are suspended
outside the abdominal cavity in the scrotum,

In ayurveda Acharya Sushruta , while explaining the anatomy of testis has

said " Maamsa asruk kapha medaha prasaadaadwavrushanaha" which
means The two testes are made up of musles,blood , fat and their


The Scrotum is a cutaneous pouch which contains the testes and parts of the spermatic cords (The
spermatic cord is composed of arteries, veins, lymphatics, nerves, and the excretory duct of the testis.
These structures are connected together by areolar tissue,).

It is divided on its surface into two lateral portions by a ridge or raph.(Sushruta explains raphe' as
"seevani" or a stitch like ridge. He has cautioned not to injure it with surgical instruments )Of these two
lateral portions the left hangs lower than the right, to correspond with the greater length of the left
spermatic cord. The Testes (two egg-shaped structures) remain in the Scrotum, outside the body, where
the temperature is about 3 degrees C Cooler than the body internal temperature (27 degrees C. Sperm
development in the Testes Requires the Lower Temperature.)

The testis is composed primarily of seminiferous tubules and interstitial cells. Seminiferous tubules are
packed closely together. There are approximately 500 tubules in each testis. The cells within the
seminiferous tubules are germ cells an sertoli cells.

The germ cells mature into spermatozoa or sperms. The Sertoli cells serve as supporting cells for
developing germ cells.

Leydig cells are very important cells that are present in the interstitial space outside the seminiferous
tubule. These cells produce testosterone which stimulates the germ cell maturation.

The complex process involved in production of sperms from germ cells is known as spermatogenesis.

Spermatozoa or sperms are first produced at puberty and

spermatogenic activity is maintained into old age. Millions of sperms are produced each day. Millions of
sperms are produced each day.

The mature sperms are released into the lumen of seminiferous tubule. The sperms pass into epididymis.
(Lying upon the lateral edge of this posterior border is a long, narrow, fiattened body, named the
epididymis.), The canal of the epididymis is continued into the vasdeferens which rise up over the brim of
the pelvis and passes down to the prostate gland at the base of the urinary bladder. It joins the seminal
vesicles to form the ejaculatory ducts. Epididymis serves as sperm conduit and sperm reservoir where
sperm acquire motility and fertilizing capacity.

Just prior to ejaculation, the testes are brought close to the abdomen and fluid is rapidly transported
through the vas deferens to the ejaculatory duct and subsequently into the urethra.(The urethra passes
through the penis and opens to the outside.)