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THE SHINTO PANTHEON.

ALTHOUGH probably every one of the myriad writers on Japan has a tilt with its religions, no treatise on Shinto, its ethnic faith, has thus far appeared. Yet the material now at hand well deserves a treatise. Since Professor C. P. Tiele in 1877 ( His tory of Religions ) and Professor Max Müller in 1878 ( Origin and Growth of Religion ) forbore to treat Shinto from lack of data, research has been conducted on the field with every advan tage that New Japan could offer, mainly by three distinguished Englishmen, Mr. E. Satow and Mr. W. G. Aston of the British Embassy, and Professor B. H. Chamberlain of the Imperial Uni versity, Tokyo. The contributions of these scholars, found mostly in the Transactions of the Asiatic Society of Japan, will be constantly used in this article; they quite supersede even the modern contributions by such writers as Rosny, Pfizmaier, and Hoffmann, who never saw Japan and possessed a very inadequate knowledge of archaic Japanese. They equally supersede the writings of men like Kaempfer (1651 1716) and Siebald (1796 1866), who, though they lived in the Dutch settlement near Naga saki, saw exceedingly little of Japan; and even this was under such strict surveillance from a jealous government that all they heard on politics or religion was garbled. Hence the erroneous reports on Shinto presented down to a decade ago even by standard works on religion such as Dr. Tylor's Primitive Culture. The aim of the present article will be to present a careful summary of the reliable modern monographs on at least the pantheon of Shinto, together with some new material the nature of which will duly appear. The very interesting and equally accessible cult must

remain for treatment on some future occasion.

Shinto, the name by which the ethnic faith of the Japanese is

commonly known, was adopted as the Chinese equivalent of

the

vernacular Kami no michi, commonly translated God-way, but properly meaning Way of the Superiors, and denoting not only nature-gods and ancestral spirits, but certain living men, and even extraordinary animals and things a truly remarkable case of primitive undifferentiation. The relations of Shinto to

'75 f £5

animals and things a truly remarkable case of primitive undifferentiation. The relations of Shinto to '75

2

The Shinto Pantheon.

its imported

from

rivals, £iddhism and Confucianism, will best appear

£istoricsketch Here three periods must be distinguished.

During the first of th&se, from an unknown early time until

550 A. D., those primitive ideas prevailed of which the Kojiki, Records of Ancient Matters, and the Yengishiki, Ceremonial

Laws, form the most reliable extant literature. These works

indicate a union of political and religious elements which were differentiated only later. Chinese culture with Confucianism slowly filtered in during the early centuries of the Christian

era.

The advent of Buddhism in the sixth century A. D. inaugurated the second period of Shinto, one of complete arrest of develop ment, and of almost complete absorption by Buddhism, whose

priests diplomatically identified Shinto deities as avatars of ancient

Shinto was thus

Buddhas a doctrine of höben or pious fraud.

for the first time differentiated from the State, which, however,

supported both Buddhism and Shinto. Only in the provinces of Izumo and Ise was Shinto maintained in approximate purity. Most of the Shinto shrines came to be served by Buddhist priests,

and their cult to be modified in accordance with Buddhist ideas, and

thus arose the important Ryöbu Shinto, a mixed religion respon sible for the general tolerance on religious subjects prevalent since its rise in Japan. The third period began about 1700 A. D., and owed its begin ning to the revival of Confucianism in the preceding century. In conformity therewith, Japanese literati turned their gaze to their own past, and consequently inaugurated a politico-religious movement which led at the same time to the disestablishment of Buddhism, the overthrow of the Shogunate that had usurped the Mikado's throne, and the opening of Japan to foreign inter course. The literary leaders in this movement were the great Japanese scholars Mabuchi (1697 1769) Motoori (1730 1801) and Hirata (1776 1843) whose work was an indispensable pre liminary to that of the English scholars named above. Since the revival of pure Shinto in 1868, Buddhism has in part slowly reasserted itself, while Shinto, in spite of state and imperial patron age, has shrunk to ever smaller proportions, and Confucianism, with its associated Chinese culture, has vanished at the sight of

Western science.

While other faiths of the Japanese are thus missionary reli gions, Shinto is native to the Japanese people, and we must therefore look for its origin, with their own, somewhere on the Asiatic main

-

v e to the Japanese people, and we must therefore look for its origin, with their

The Shinto Pantheon.

3

land. The latest view, that of Professor Chamberlain, is that geo graphy, legend, history, and the present distribution of population in Japan almost force the assumption that the bulk of the Jap anese race entered southwestern Japan from Korea via Tsushima. These invaders drove the aboriginal Ainus partly southward, whence arose a striking relationship of the modern Luchuan lan guage with archaic Japanese; but especially northward, subjuga ting or exterminating them, until now their feeble and moribund

remnant is found only in the northern Yezo and Kuriles. Yet

there is no Ainu blood in the Japanese strain, as has often been stated, for hybrids between the two become barren in the third or fourth generation. The marked difference between the two Japanese types the pudding face of the lower classes and the

oval face of the samurai, arises, according to Dr. Baelz, from two

Kyushu ;

linguistic and mythologic evidence points the same way. But one

must not, therefore, forthwith identify Japanese and Chinese.

The similarities in culture between the two are readily accounted

for, partly by Japanese borrowing from their more civilized neigh bors, partly by fundamental human tendencies. The differences

demand a distinction as wide as can be found within the limits of

the Mongolian race that spreads from Finland to Japan. Profound differences in physiognomy, temperament, artistic endowment, language, social structure, and religion indicate that the Japanese

descend, not from the hundred families that entered China

some thirty centuries B. C. from the far West, but from the abo rigines that those invaders everywhere found and fought, though later they derived from this source the elements of music and drawing. The two chief sources of information upon primitive Shinto are, by common consent, the Kojiki and Yengishiki, and no extant works hold the mirror up to nature at the barbarian stage more faithfully than do these same two. Their antique flavor is dis cernible in every line, and any fair comprehension of them is impos

sible without the aid of the learned notes of Mr. Chamberlain *

or Mr. Satow. Another book of annals, the Nihongi or Chron icles of Japan, is of secondary importance; though written only eight years after the Kojiki, it was composed in a Chinese ration

streams of invaders, one landing in Izumo, the other in

* Trans. Asiatic Society of Japan, vol. xxi., for 1893.

* Kojiki, being the Supplement to vol. x. of Trans. A. S. J.

* Ancient Japanese Rituals, being vol. vii. parts 2 and 4, and vol. ix. part 2,

of the same Transactions.

Trans. A. S. J. * Ancient Japanese Rituals, being vol. vii. parts 2 and 4, and

4

The Shinto Pantheon.

alistic spirit. Per contra, the Kojiki was composed wholly in the native spirit, and where Chinese influence is discernible, this is because it has affected the folk-faith, which the Kojiki records. Among other traits its unblushing coarseness stands in antipodal contrast with that prudery of the Chinese Classics which distin guishes them indeed from all other ancient literature. But the hierologist will prefer the Kojiki, as giving him the priceless truth about barbarian nations, to the expurgated and didactic Shu King. It is quite an error to suppose with several writers that the Kojiki trangresses the proprieties as no other literature in the world. Not to mention the generally inaccessible Tantras one

may compare with the Kojiki the Proben der Volksliteratur

Sud-Siberiens passim, especially vol. v., pp. 183 ff., or to come nearer home, an unexpurgated edition of Chaucer's poems. Some space must be devoted to an outline of the legendary first volume of this remarkable work, beginning with a quotation from

it" which is indispensable to an estimate of the subsequent inter pretation, and is, at the same time, a typical barbarian cosmogony and theogony.

§ I. The names of the Deities that were born in the Plain of

High Heaven when the Heaven and Earth began were the Deity Master-of-the-August-Centre-of-Heaven, next the High-August Producing-Wondrous Deity, next the Divine-Producing-Won drous Deity. These three Deities were all Deities born alone, and hid their persons. The names of the Deities that were born next from a thing that sprouted up like unto a reed shoot when the earth, young and like unto floating oil, drifted about medusa like, were the Pleasant-Reed-Shoot-Prince-Elder Deity, next the Heavenly-Eternally-Standing Deity. These two Deities were like wise born alone, and hid their persons. The five Deities in the above list are separate Heavenly

Deities.

§ II. The names of the Deities that were born next were the

Earthly-Eternally-Standing-Deity, next the Luxuriant-Integrating Master-Deity. These two Deities were likewise Deities born alone, and hid their persons. The names of the Deities that were born next were the Deity Mud-Earth-Lord, next his younger sister the Deity Mud-Earth-Lady; next the Germ-Integrating Deity, next his younger sister the Life-Integrating-Deity; next the Deity Elder-of-the-Great-Place, next his younger sister the Deity Elder-Lady-of-the-Great-Place; next the Deity Perfect

* As translated by Mr. Chamberlain in his Kojiki, 15 20.

Deity Elder-Lady-of-the-Great-Place; next the Deity Perfect * As translated by Mr. Chamberlain in his Kojiki, 15

The Shinto Pantheon.

5

Exterior, next his younger sister the Deity Oh-Awful-Lady (or Oh-Venerable-Lady); next the Diety the Male-who-Invites, next his younger sister the Deity the Female-Who-Invites.

§ III. Hereupon all the Heavenly Deities commanded the two

Deities, His Augustness the Male-Who-Invites and Her August ness the Female-Who-Invites, ordering them to make, consoli date, and give birth to this drifting land. Granting to them an heavenly jeweled spear, they thus deigned to charge them. So the two Deities, standing upon the Floating Bridge of Heaven, pushed down the jeweled spear and stirred with it, whereupon, when they had stirred the brine till it went curdle-curdle, and drew (the spear) up, the brine that dripped down from the end of the spear was piled up and became an island. This is the island of Onogaro.

§ IV. Having descended from Heaven on to this island, they

saw to the erection of an heavenly august pillar, they saw to the

Their first child they

placed in a boat of reeds, and let it float away. Next they gave

birth to the Island of Aha. This likewise is not reckoned among

their children. Resort to divination showed that failure had arisen from the

woman speaking first. On improvement in this respect, the Jap anese primitive pair gave birth to the various islands constituting Japan, which, the native commentators explain, have grown enor mously since birth. Izanami (to use the familiar Japanese name instead of F-Q-I) then similarly bears to Izanagi certain deities presiding over various spheres of nature, the last of whom, the Fire-Deity, occasions her death in parturition. Izanagi slays the offender, and visits his wife in Hades. While Izanagi washes himself from the pollution thus incurred, numerous deities arise from the articles of clothing he throws down and from the parts of the river he visits, but especially three from certain bodily members, namely, Amaterasu-O-Mi-Kami, Heaven-Shining Great-August-Deity, from his left eye (the left is the more honor able throughout the Far-Orient); Tsuki-Yomi-no-Kami, His Augustness Moon-Night-Possessor, from his right eye, and Taka Haya-Susano-no-Mikoto from his nose. The third deity whose long name is usually abbreviated to Susano, Impetuous Male, was expelled by his father, whereupon he rushed up to Heaven and quarreled violently with his sister Amaterasu, who then re

tired, as every Japanese child knows, into the Heavenly-Rock

Dwelling and thus threw the Central-Land-of-Reed-Plains

erection of a ball of eight

knows, into the Heavenly-Rock Dwelling and thus threw the Central-Land-of-Reed-Plains erection of a ball of eight

6

The Shinto Pantheon.

into darkness. The eight hundred myriad kami combine to induce her to reappear, and then oust Susano, who descends again to Japan at the province of Izumo where he has various adven tures. His rule over Izumo descends through six generations to the famous O-Kuni-Nushi, Great-Land-Master. This person,

after various adventures, which are reserved for analysis later,

is visited by several deputations from Amaterasu to demand his abdication in favor of her scion Ni-Nigi-No-Mikoto, known in the rituals as the Sovereign Grandchild, who finally descends from Heaven, not as one expects, to Izumo, but to Kyushu, a large

%

island some two hundred miles south of Okuninushi's home.

He

brings with him from Heaven the jewels, mirror and sword that have since then constituted the Japanese regalia, and is accompa nied by the leading actors in the enticement of Amaterasu from the Rock-Dwelling. Now, what the leading actors did to draw forth the Sun-goddess was just to perform certain religious cere monies; and at this important juncture of the descent from Hea ven they are individually identified as ancestors of the several priestly families of Japan, notably the Nakatomi and Imibe, while the imperial line is traced to Amaterasu herself. The estab lishment of this ancestry in nature-deities and their ceremonial attendants of the imperial and sacerdotal families, obviously fur nished the principle for the selection and rectification of myths and legends, which, as the Japanese preface (of equal date with the body of the work) explains, formed the Kojiki. Hereby the Kyushu oval faced tribe showed its descent from the supreme and worthy Amaterasu and her companions, while the Izumo pudding faces were traced to the inferior and rebellious Susano, though ultimately both could therefore trace ascent to the primitive pair, Izanagi and Izanami. Here, then, as so often elsewhere, the con quered race asserts itself in the resultant composite. In fact, a majority of the legends deal with deities of the conquered, while down to the present day, though Amaterasu occupies the first place, the second and third are filled by Susano and Okuninushi,

both deities of the Izumo tribe.

From this point, Yamato Province, whither the conquerors had advanced from Kyushu, under the lead of the famous Jimmu Tenno, accounted by Japanese their first human sovereign, forms the scene of the drama, though the Izumo Deity, Okuninushi, now called the Great-Deity-of-Miwa, figures largely in the cult, and even becomes supposititious father of the maiden whom Jimmu

1 Kojiki, 9.

figures largely in the cult, and even becomes supposititious father of the maiden whom Jimmu 1

The Shinto Pantheon.

7

makes his chief empress. The mythical element now decreases,

and legend gradually passes into annals which can

from Chinese sources until the Kojiki ends with the fifth cen

tury, A. D.

be confirmed

It is worth while to notice how, in contrast with the coalescence,

both in blood and culture, of these two kindred Mongolian tribes, the Izumo and Kyushu, the Ainus, belonging to quite another race, whose ethnology is yet unsettled, have left as little influence upon Shinto faith as they have upon Japanese blood. The Rituals, though recorded in print no earlier than 927 A.D., must have their composition referred to the same times as the Kojiki, say within the first five centuries A. D. Such, then, is the thread on which are strung the various myths and legends of

the deities we have now to interpret.

None of the deities mentioned in §§ I. and II. (cf. pp. 4, 5), except the last couple, are known to Japanese folk-lore, but the first, the Lord-in-the-Very-Centre-of-Heaven, has recently become interesting to the specialist because Professor K. T. Kume, of the Imperial University, Tokyo, has attempted to show his identity

with Tien, Heaven, of the Chinese." An examination of Pro

fessor Kume's article, which probably embodies all ascertainable data in favor of his view, shows that his thesis is not proved. This negative conclusion is, however, by no means useless, for it proves an important difference between Shinto and the ancient religion of China, which, added to the many others that are forth coming, is decisive against the attempt to assimilate Shinto as a

whole with it, and therefore favors its inclusion in the Turko

Tartar group. Another Japanese student of Shinto, Professor T. Matsu yama, would construe the second and third deities as simply the Master-of-Heaven under the aspect of producer or creator, and translates the second sentence of § I., These three deities were one and invisible. He then argues that this grand truth gradually grew fainter, while at the same time ancestral and nature gods

were introduced. Thus the title Amaterasu was first bestowed

on a princess as a laudatory epithet, and only later mistaken for the sun. This mixture of the traditional theory of the rise of ethnic religions from a primitive single revelation with Spencer ian animism, which I gather from his lectures in Japanese, is

equally discernible in Mr. Matsuyama's contribution to the Par

* Shikai for January, 1892, Tokyo, suppressed soon after publication from

Politico-religious reasons.

to the Par * Shikai for January, 1892, Tokyo, suppressed soon after publication from Politico-religious reasons.

8

The Shinto Pantheon.

liament of Religions (pp. 1370 3), where almost every sentence embodies an error. In strong contrast with it stands the correct account of Shinto by one of its priests on pp. 1374-5 of the same

work.

A similar account of Shinto, though here allowed to be re formed, was presented at the Parliament by the Rt. Rev. R.

Shibata, whose lady admirers went so far as to kiss him, from respect for his truly exalted views. As Saint Xavier was preach ing far and wide in Japan ten years before the founding of the sect to which Mr. Shibata belongs, it is not unlikely that its inno vations were suggested by Christian monotheism rather than by

the Spirit of Mount Fuji.

Mr. Satow's more scientific method gives the following results:

The central place in Japanese mythology is taken by the sun. Legend makes this goddess the daughter of Izanagi, but this genealogy reverses the order of the generation of the myth. In the Kojiki the three original deities who existed before all things are called Lord-in-the-very-Centre-of-Heaven, the Lofty-Pro

ducer, and the Divine-Producer, besides whom we find men

tioned in the ritual of the Praying for Harvest three other creator-deities named, Vivifying-Producer, Fulfilling-Pro ducer, and Soul-Lodging-Producer; and even then this list of producers is not exhausted. The most natural explanation of these numerous names is that they were originally synonymous epithets of the sun, denoting the various aspects under which it was contemplated as working benefits for the human race, and this supposition is confirmed by the mention in several places of a deity entitled From-Heaven-Shining-Producer, who is mani festly the sun. Lord-in-the-very-Centre-of-Heaven is an ex tremely apt epithet for the great luminary, probably chosen after it had been recognized as an object of adoration. Sometimes the Divine Producer and the Lofty Producer are spoken of together as the progenitor and the progenitrix of the Mikado, while on other occasions the From-Heaven-Shining-Great-Deity is substituted for the Divine Producer, and in one place the Sun-Goddess is called both progenitor and progenitrix. There were a few temples sacred to the Lofty Producer, and a great many dedicated to the Sun; and while there is nothing surprising in the fact of several temples being dedicated to the Sun-God under different titles, from the non-existence of temples of the

1 Parliament of Religions, pp. 451 5.

* Westminster Review, July, 1878.

from the non-existence of temples of the 1 Parliament of Religions, pp. 451 5. * Westminster

The Shinto Pantheon.

9

Lord-in-the-Very-Centre-of-Heaven, the Divine-Producer.

and others, it would be perfectly reasonable to infer that these

were not originally separate deities. This theory of the origin of the remarkable triad that heads

the Shinto pantheon is probably the best that the very scanty data

afford, but something may well be added

its successors. Though the titles of the two Producers in our triad are ambiguous as to sex, an ancient identification of them as

Progenitor and Progenitrix of the Mikado" plainly implies their nature as a sexual pair. This fact easily suggests a derivation of the triad from the well-known Chinese one, the taiki, yang, and

yin ; but while the preface to the Kojiki, made by Yasumaro,

the selecter of its contents, shows that he was informed at least

on the yang-yin, he identifies it, not with the two Producers of our triad, but with the last couple of this deity-series, Izanagi and Izanami, while he speaks of our triad simply as the Three Dei

ties.

Another negative conclusion results from a promising com parison of the Heavenly - Eternally-Standing-Deity and the Earthly-Eternally-Standing-Deity with the Chinese Tien and Heutheu; for while Heutheu (Earth) is feminine in China and universally in myth, the Earthly-Deity is masculine in Japan. It was probably as Earth-god that he was worshiped at Gekusan in Ise, where the Food Goddess has since displaced

him.

The four pairs preceding Izanagi and Izanami are so transpar ently fictions that even the orthodox native commentator, Hirata," considers them merely names descriptive of the various stages through which Izanagi and Izanami passed before arriving at perfection. In the parallel passage of the Nihongi, the Earthly Deity" makes the beginning and is followed by others wholly dif ferent, with one exception, from those introduced in the Kojiki, while other ancient authorities give yet other variations.

The occurrence of a triad is curious and, in the absence of more

specific ground, it is worth while to note that it belongs with the odd five mentioned at the end of § I., and with the odd seven at the end of § II. As the favorite Shinto numbers are certainly

both on the triad and on

* Trans. A. S. J., v. 7, part 2, p. 114.

* Sacred Books of the East, xvi. 375.

* Kojiki, 11.

* Handbook for Japan, Third Ed. p. 248.

* Trans. A. S. J., v. 3; Appendix, p. 58.

of the East, xvi. 375. * Kojiki, 11. * Handbook for Japan, Third Ed. p. 248.

10

The Shinto Pantheon.

the even ones, four, six, and especially eight, the myth-maker may herein have sought to further distinguish his philosophically grounded deities from their home-made successors. In any case no pregnant notion should be sought in this triad. - The ideal scheme of the series is apparent. The native cos mologist had, not the Heaven-Shining-Deity only, as Mr. Satow supposes, but Izanagi and Izanami, who are obviously cases of genuine folk-lore and current to-day everywhere in Japan, as the primitive pair, for a starting point, and worked backward with increasing abstractness. Thus Izanagi and his sister-wife (after the fashion of the Incas and Pharaohs), procreate children, while

the four preceding pairs simply succeed each other, and the seven

deities preceding them are single only. The statement made of these seven deities that they were born alone and hid their

invisible. In

bodies means were single (not married) and

spite of Mr. Chamberlain's excellent judgment he seems to have tripped in his interpretation (note 7 in loco) came into existence

without procreation

and died. Hirata translates as given

by us above. Notice that became alone is predicated of all those unaccompanied by a sister-wife, but of no others. When

Izanami, likewise a heavenly deity, dies, she is said to retire,

not to hide her body. But, if §§ I. and II. show plain marks of invention and compo

sition at the hands of the nobleman Yasumaro, and have, with their deities, since that time remained unknown to the com

monalty, on the other hand, §§ III. and IV. introduce veritable folk-lore. The complete absence of any attempt by students of Shinto to interpret these two curious sections has probably arisen from failure to connect them with a certain stone cult widely spread in Japan, but resembling these two sections in that their common lot heretofore has been relegation to the category of the obscene. As the stone cult belongs to the phallic type, well recognized by all students of primitive culture as a widespread cult, it will be best to let archeology here plain and unambigu ous illustrate our obscure text. We write archeology, but, indeed, the symbols, though green with lichens, still enjoy the cult

of the folk."

-

The next great deity met with in the Kojiki after Izanagi and Izanami is Amaterasu-O-Mi-Kami, Heaven-Shining-Great-Au gust-Deity, the supreme deity of the Shinto pantheon, whose

* The import of these symbols may be understood by reference to Phallicism in Japan, by E. Buckley, University of Chicago Press.

import of these symbols may be understood by reference to Phallicism in Japan, by E. Buckley,

The Shinto Pantheon.

11

name, function in mythic story, and cult combine to demonstrate

her origin in sun-myth. Thus, she sprang from the eye of her

nature-father, Izanagi; eternal night prevails when she retires into her rock dwelling; the cock that crows in the morn is her attending animal; the mirror with eight (semi-cardinal) points is her symbol; she is induced to restore light by a ceremony per formed by other gods according to the counsel of the eight hun dred myriad deities: she held the sovereign right to transfer the rule over Japan from the Izumo to the Kyushu chieftain, and is still worshiped from the summit of Mount Fuji by thousands of pilgrims who make the toilsome ascent to greet Amaterasu-O-Mi Kami as she begins day for the world upon the Land-of-the Rising-Sun." This obvious mythical nature is quite confirmed by the relation of Amaterasu to her brother Susano, the Rain-Storm God, as will be seen presently, yet the Japanese euhemerist is not wanting. Thus, early in the last century Hakuseki made great use of the ambiguity in the word kami to show that the gods were originally but men. In the present century Moribe, though an orthodox Shintoist, decided that some of the (so to speak) uselessly

miraculous incidents need not be believed in as revealed truth,

but were childlike words. Similarly Mr. Takahashi Goro, a con temporary writer, supposes the existence of a queen called Sun, and so forth. This is a useful hypothesis for those who believe man incapable of personifying nature, except by the aid of a

ghost.

Mr. Satow, while allowing the independent nature of Shinto sun-cult, would account for the connection of the imperial line with it by means of a verbal error. Hiko and hime, ancient titles usually translated Prince and Princess, mean literally sun

(or fire) male and sun (or fire) female.

The use of these lauda

tory epithets led in time to the belief that the monarch was really of the sun-race, especially as kami meant both chief and deity. The sex of the sun was fixed by the fact that the first remembered ancestor of the Mikado was a distinguished woman. Against this view, however, the following considerations hold good. Ama terasu belongs to myth, and must, therefore, have had sex from the very outset, for myth involves personification, and that in turn sex. Hiko and Hime may just as well have been effect as cause of the identification of chieftain with chief deity, and this

Kojiki, pp. 42 58, 93-113. * Kojiki, Introduction, p. 11.

f c h i e f t a i n with chief deity, and this Kojiki,

12

The Shinto Pantheon.

process of identification is so natural that its ground may be better sought in logic than in verbal error. It is doubtful whether even the barbarians' fancy identified simply and absolutely a

flesh and blood ancestor with the sun.

Amaterasu secures issue

only so far as it is her jewel that Susano transforms into a man. In Shinto myth the drama of the sun is worked out in connection, not with the moon Tsuki-Yomi, who is mentioned only to be dropped but with the Rain-Storm God, Susaho, whose charac ter will be considered next. As the noisy and violent rain-storm is undoubtedly male, the quiet and calm sun would in contrast be female, somewhat as in the nursery tale current with us where

the wind and sun compete in making a traveler take off his coat,

and the sun wins by the female trait of gentleness. Indeed a woman is compared to the sun by the Tartars of South Siberia, who moreover actually describe the sun as silvern and female, while the moon is golden and male, precisely as in Shinto." These comparisons seem quite inappropriate to us who speak of the silver queen of night, but the fact is that sun and moon play a rôle in myth varied with the zone where the myth-makers live, as may be abundantly seen in Mr. Tylor's very interesting account where it appears that many peoples besides our Tartars regard the sun as feminine and the moon as masculine. The

parallel with the Tartars is the more important for us because the Tartars belong to the same Mongolian race, and probably even to the same Ural-Altaic branch of it as do the Japanese, while the classic Chinese, who make the sun and moon respectively mas culine and feminine, though nearer geographically are remoter

ethnically.

sun is not only female but chief, the reason lies in an original matriarchate, an indication of which may be found in the Japan ese ancient custom allowing children of the same father, but not of the same mother, to intermarry. It is only much later in the stream of Japanese legend that we meet with a Chinese importa tion, the sun-bird with three legs (with difficulty identified only recently by Mr. Aston ), while yet later the legend of Yamato Take, which bears some resemblance to sun-myth, is again genu inely Japanese."

It is possible that where, as among the Japanese, the

* Proben der Volksliteratur der Türkischen Stämme Süd-Siberiens, ii., pp.

203, 480, 484.

* Primitive Culture, ii., pp. 286, 287, 291, 299, where the rationale is given.

* Trans. A. S. J., v. xxii., part I., 31 33.

* Kojiki, pp. lxvii. and 205 220.

299, where the rationale is given. * Trans. A. S. J., v. xxii., part I., 31

The Shinto Pantheon.

13

If Amaterasu occupies the first place in the Shinto pantheon, the second and third belong to her brother Susano and his de scendant of the sixth generation, Okuninushi. No student of Shinto known to the writer has attempted an interpretation of these deities, though their general mythical nature has been occa sionally noticed. Yet, if Amaterasu be plainly interpretable in sun-myth, Susano, who stands in immediate connection with her, should be equally interpretable. The following traits indeed indicate that he represents the rain-storm. His name means Impetuous Male. He was born as Izanagi washed his august

nose, that nose wherein is the breath. The Chinese version of

the myth indeed states that the breath of Pan-ku was transmuted into the wind." He abandons his appointment to rule over the sea-plain, i. e., the rain-storm blows up in the southwest mon soon from over the sea. His weeping dries up all the rivers

to the

and seas, an apparent contradiction and a standing puzzle

Japanese commentators, but plain enough, when the rains flood the country and hide the boundaries of rivers and lakes a thing

of annual occurrence in Japan. He mounts with great noise

heavenwards to the great terror of his sister, Amaterasu, and devastates the country, whereupon Amaterasu retires into a cave

nature-fact,

and thus plunges the land into eternal night. In

the rain-storm rises from the horizon with thunder, obscures the

sun, and spoils the carefully terraced and irrigated rice-fields of Japan. Another episode of the same struggle describes certain

Torrent Princesses born from Susano's sword, while Gods of

Luck, of Heaven, and of Life arise from Amaterasu's jewels; i. e., waterfalls notably increase after rain, and nature smiles when the sun reappears. For his misconduct Susano is expelled, where upon he kills the Food-Goddess, from whom then spring the various cereals, and then in Izumo he kills the serpent with red eyes, bloody belly, and eight heads and tails, by first making him drink wine from eight vats arranged upon a platform; i. e., rain destroys the planted seed from which can then grow the new crops, and extinguishes fire, for which purpose it is to this day stored in tubs placed along the house ridge (the platform of the myth). From the tail of this serpent Susano extracts the mar

velous Herb-Quelling-Great-Sword, famed in subsequent story;

* Meyer's Chinese Reader's Manual, p. 174. This myth was not classic Chinese, and therefore probably folk-lore of the aborigines that the Chinese found in Eastern Asia, whence its similarity to the Shinto may be cognate and not derivative either

that the Chinese found in Eastern Asia, whence its similarity to the Shinto may be cognate

14

The Shinto Pantheon.

i.e., the steel sword is forged in the fire. When he began to build the palace of Suga, Pure, clouds rose up thence; i.e., clouds encompass the elevations where tarns form, and here the Impetuous-Male at last rests in peace, for in the usage of the Kojiki the erection of a palace closes the career of a hero. Those familiar with the frequent obscurities, fragmentariness, and even contradictions of many undoubted myths, will grant

that so clear and continuous a parallelism can have arisen only in

mythopoeic fancy, and not in any incidental correspondences with heroic history. Moreover, the facts have not been selected, but are all that are recorded of Susano. A comparison with the Vedic meteorologic myth will both confirm this mythic interpre tation of Susano, and also show how the hue and form of myths vary with climatic conditions. Japan suffers from floods, never from drought, and sees lightning usually not more than once in a year. Per contra, India suffers from drought, rarely, I believe, from floods, while thunderstorms are frequent and terrific. Hence the Japanese myth makes Susano devastate, while the Indian myth makes Indra bless the land, and that by striking with his

bolt the Vritra that withholds the desired rain.

The following specifications from the Kojiki account of Okuni nushi will plainly show that his origin lay in moon-myth." He has eighty brethren (stars) with whom he competes for the hand of a princess, and wins her by the help of a hare (a world-wide mythologic companion of the moon) that he had benefited. The

eighty deities, enraged at this, roll a red hot stone upon him and thus kill him. (Sunrise conceals the moon.) Hereupon Prin

cess Cockle-Shell and Princess Clam restore him to life. (The

Chinese also connect shellfish with the moon, probably through

the tides, which were very early associated with the moon, though the correct reason was of course not known.") Okuni thus be comes a beautiful young man, and wanders off, only to be again caught and tortured by insertion into the cleft of a tree which on withdrawal of the wedge crushes him to death. (Phases of the moon.) Again restored to life, he visits the Nether-Distant Land, whence he is pursued by a deity so far as the Even Pass-of-Hades. (New moon appears once more on the horizon.) He then slays his eighty brethren. (Stars fade when the moon

Kojiki, pp. 68 105.

* Meyer's Chinese Readers' Manual, p. 288. Huish, Japan and its Art, p. 131.

* Les Fêtes annuelles à Emoui. De Groot, p. 128.

Chinese Readers' Manual, p. 288. Huish, Japan and its Art, p. 131. * Les Fêtes annuelles

The Shinto Pantheon.

15

appears.) Throughout his course he carries on amours, marrying in all eight women. (So ever with the inconstant moon. )

Finally Amaterasu requires him (Sunrise conceals the moon.)

It is this last trait that fitted the Moon-God of the Izumo tribe

to abdicate in favor of her scion.

to represent it, probably through identification with its historic chief Okuninushi, who abdicated in favor of a historic Ninigi, in the mythical scheme of the Kojiki, which, of course, had to express the views of the conquering Kyushu tribe that traced its chief's ancestry to Amaterasu. The first to state the general truth of some reflection of legendary fact in the Kojiki at this point was P. Kempermann, and all serious students have since his time one way or other concurred. But while mythical consistency would require that the Kyushu heaven-born chief descend upon Izumo, the legend is faithful enough to fact to represent him as descending upon Kyushu, whence indeed the legend goes on to relate his scions advanced eastwards, ever conquering. The legend naïvely adds that Kyushu is opposite to the land of Kara, which so far, therefore, corresponded to the heaven of the myth. Besides all the other evidence (cf. p. 3) pointing to Korea as the continental point of departure for the Japanese emigrants, and therefore as identical with the heaven of the myth, there is an odd bit of direct evidence for the synonomy of Korea and Heaven in the shape of the two animals, identical in appearance

and function, in that they guard, one on either side, the entrance

gates of Shinto shrines, but which bear the names Koma-inu, Korean-dog, and Ama-inu, Heaven-dog. These are obvi

ously congeners of the tigers found at the gates of Chinese tem

ples and yamen, whose function is

to scare away evil spirits.

As tigers were never known in Japan, the sculptor degenerated his form until the folk could recognize in it only their familiar dog. As sole condition of his abdication Okuninushi had specified that he must be provided with a great temple, and this is still represented by the famous shrine called Izumo O Yashiro, Great Temple of Izumo, the second holiest shrine in Japan. Hither some quarter of a million pilgrims annually wend their way from all quarters of Japan; the sound of their hands clapped to call the attention of the deity is often strong and unbroken as that of

* Tylor's Primitive Culture, i. 355.

* Mittheilungen der deutschen Gesellschaft Ostasiens, Jan., 1874.

* Les Fetes annuelles à Emoui.

De Groot, p. 608.

355. * Mittheilungen der deutschen Gesellschaft Ostasiens, Jan., 1874. * Les Fetes annuelles à Emoui. De

16

The Shinto Pantheon.

a cataract. This is because, though the scion of Amaterasu as sumed the outward sovereignty of Japan, the realm of the In

connotes,

not the underworld or future world (which in the primitive Shinto world-view are not places of judgment), but means properly the present day world of thought and secret action, in other words, just what escapes the observation of the earthly ruler and his civil servants." The tutelary gods of every province in Japan must resort to the O Yashiro every October hence called everywhere, except in Izumo, the godless month there to report upon

the condition of each individual's soul. Okuninushi rewards and

punishes by means of the natural good and evil that happen to men. Thus, e.g., the birth of a child should be thankfully rec ognized in the temple of his agent the tutelary god. On the other hand, the sending of a pestilence and the dumbness of a royal prince were both attributed to him, and the ground for their in

flictions turned out to be ceremonial offense. The occasional association of Okuninushi with the underworld and future world

must be regarded as a later invention under the influence of Bud

dhism.

The son of this Okuninushi, by name Koto-shiro-nushi, Events Symbol-Lord, a title given in reference to his abdication with his father, though of much less importance than any of the deities already described, is yet accounted a great god, and as such is figured on the kakemono, or scroll-picture of the twelve chief deities, sold in the vicinity of the Izumo O Yashiro. If we now add the name of Sukuna-hiko (probably an ancestral deity, for whom cf. p. 22), we shall have named all the deities figured there in the following order:

visible was granted to Okuninushi. This Invisible

Ama no mi naka nushi,

Lord in the very centre of heaven.

Kami musubi,

Divine producer.

Taka mi musubi,

Lofty august producer.

Izanami, Female who invites. Izanagi, Male who invites.

Amaterasu,

Heaven shiner.

Susano, Impetuous male. Tsuki Yomi, Moon night possessor.

Okuninushi,

Great country ruler.

1 The Great Temple of Izumo, a Japanese work by Baron Sengi, high priest of the Izumo Temple.

* Trans. A. S. J. vol. iii., Appendix, p. 77.

*

Kojiki, pp. 175, 193.

-

by Baron Sengi, high priest of the Izumo Temple. * Trans. A. S. J. vol. iii.,

The Shinto Pantheon.

17

Koto shiro nushi, Events symbol Lord. Sukuna hiko, Small Prince.

Saruta hiko,

Monkey field Prince.

All these twelve except the first triad and Tsuki-Yomi are hon ored by temples more or less numerous. In contrast with this Izumo scroll, we find the largest one obtainable in the vicinity of the Ise Shrine to Amaterasu contains figures of the following

deities:

Izanami.

Kasuga.

Amaterasu.

Toyouke-bime.

Saruta-hiko.

Izanagi.

Hachiman.

Notice here the absence of Susano and Okuninushi with his

son, the great rivals of Amaterasu and her scion Ninigi; and at

the same time the introduction of three new deities, all of whom

are closely associated with Amaterasu and the imperial line. The chief of these three is Toyo-uke-bime, Abundant-Food Lady, the goddess of food, usually represented with a sheaf of rice in her arms, since rice is the staple food of the Japan ese. Her other names, Ukemochi and Ogetsu, have the same meaning as Toyouke. Such a deity would in any case be of great importance, but she became yet greater by the removal of her temple 478 A.D. to the neighborhood of the great Ama terasu's Shrine in Ise Province. She is a thorough nature-deity, since, besides her name and sphere, she is represented in the Kojiki as slain by Susano, the rain god, after which she can pro duce the various cereals from her bodily members. A ritual for Luck Wishing of the Palace invokes Yabune-Toyouke, House Abundant-Food, without obvious significance, unless an alterna tive meaning of Toyouke, viz., Abundant Support, be taken, in which case she could, as Earth Deity, support the palace founda tion." If so, we should have a ready explanation for what is other wise quite unaccountable, namely, the association with Toyouke of the fox, which burrows in the earth, as also for the square ness of Toyouke's temple fence, square being female in Chinese symbolism. Perhaps in Japan, as in China, the very various functions of earth were later divided among more special deities; for besides Yabune Toyouke we find other deities derived from Toyouke, such as Kukunochi, the producer of all trees, and Kay

* So Mr. Satow in Trans. A. S. J., vol. ix. Part II. p. 210.

* Les Fêtes, etc., De Groot, p. 153.

of all trees, and Kay * So Mr. Satow in Trans. A. S. J., vol. ix.

18

The Shinto Pantheon.

anu Hime, the parent of all grasses. The silkworm and even cattle were likewise produced from her slain body, all of which deriva tives point to an original earth wounded by agriculture. There is no doubt about the notion of division of functions of a deity, for Shinto writers recognize all such derivatives as Waki-no-tama, Parted Spirits. It should be noticed that the choice by Amaterasu (as revealed by her in vision) of Toyouke as neighbor

at the Ise Shrines harmonizes with the unerotic relations of Ama

terasu with Susano and Tsukiyomi. Another lack in data about this deity consists of the ignorance as to the nature of her symbol or seat in her temple at Ise, though that of Amaterasu, her neigh

bor, is well known to be a mirror.

The great shrine to this goddess at Inari, near Kyoto, has im parted its name to the deity it honors in accord with a common practice in Japan of naming persons or gods after the place where they reside. In consequence the deity to whom are devoted the thousands of tiny wayside shrines in Japan is called Inari Sama

after their model at Inari. Furthermore, since the attendant

animal of Toyouke, the fox, invariably flanks the entrance to her shrine, though ever so small, the farmer has exaggerated associa tion into identity, and considers that Inari is the fox. Thus we find transformation from Earth through Food and Inari to Fox Deity, truly a remarkable series. Thus much, then, for the great nature deities of Shinto as re corded in the Kojiki, its most reliable archive of theogony. But a millennium of ordinary wear and tear, the manipulations of Bud dhist priestly ingenuity (shown in the sect of Ryobu), and espe cially the graftings of hero and ancestor cult have hidden from the Japanese folk the original nature of all except Amaterasu, whose sun-clear character could hardly be mistaken. This process is exemplified, as we have just seen, in the Earth-Deity. The Moon-Deity becomes, on the subjugation of his tribe, a Nemesis

or Providence, and this notion would doubtless have become a

dominant moral force had not imported religion arrested natural development. Still later the same deity becomes a Ruler of the Dead, though Buddhism overshadows this notion also. Again, Susano, though demonstrably a Rain-Storm god in origin, is no longer recognized as such even by the learned among the rest that throng his temples scattered throughout the land. For all these Susano is a wholly historic person, hero of a hundred exploits,

and ancestor of Okuninushi believed to have been simply ruler

* Trans. A. S. J., vol. iii. Appendix, p. 75.

exploits, and ancestor of Okuninushi believed to have been simply ruler * Trans. A. S. J.,

The Shinto Pantheon.

19

of Izumi. Thus Shinto well illustrates that law of increasing

anthropomorphism which ends by nearly concealing the nature

origin of great deities. There is, however, no case in Japan of

a historic person supplanting a nature-deity (unless Okuninushi

furnish such a case), as has so often happened in the neighboring China." No doubt even Amaterasu has gained added lustre as ancestress of the line imperial unbroken for a hundred and twenty generations. Kompira San has come into the Shinto (but only the Ryobu sect) pantheon from no one knows where. His great shrine in Shikoku is a place of immense resort especially for sailors, whose votive ships, in thanksgiving for deliverance from

the storm, crowd an extensive hall called ema do, such as is often

provided for votives in picture or model. It must by no means be supposed that the above series has

exhausted the tale of Shinto nature-deities, which is, indeed, of

indefinite limits, as the number usually assigned, eighty myri ads, sufficiently shows. Though many of these are not known to have been actors in mythic drama, their names sufficiently indi cate their mythic nature. Thus in the Harvest Ritual we read

of Blessing-Well, Powerful-Rock-Gate, Country Vivifier, Takechi

Farm, and Asuka Mountain. In other rituals and records we read of Gods of the Wind, of Pestilence, of Rivers, and of Fire.

The cult of this last is still represented by a festival in November when slight fires of straw probably only a remnant of the ori ginal blaze are lit in the temple courts. At the same date Hettsui-no-Kami, Goddess of the Kitchen Range, is celebrated

in the households. A drill is still used for kindling fire to cook

the offerings at the shrines of Ise and Izumo. The Taoist cult of the Fire, wherein at the Spring Festival priests and people walk

the

purity, its original significance as a solar symbol being quite for gotten. At the great shrine of Susano, in Kyoto, numerous braziers burn through the New Year's Eve, at which thousands of

people kindle a bit of rope with which to convey the new fire to

the household shrines and hearths.

fire with bared feet, has in Japan developed into a test of

A remarkable case of personification is involved in the ritual

for Yabune-no-Mikoto, Abode Augustness, which is simply the royal palace. Indeed, all other things whatsoever which possess powers of an extraordinary and eminent character are called

* Les Fêtes etc., De Groot, pp. 360, 680, and many other places.

* Les Fates, etc., De Groot, p. 134.

* Occult Japan, P. Lowell, pp. 47 62.

Groot, pp. 360, 680, and many other places. * Les Fates, etc., De Groot, p. 134.

20

The Shinto Pantheon.

kami, superiors, or, as the word is usually translated into Eng lish, deities. Lastly, we should notice that kami may be evil. Let us hear Hirata again. Eminent does not mean solely worthy of honor, good, or distinguished by great deeds, but is applied also to the kami who are to be dreaded on account of their evil character or miraculous nature. Thus, the dragon, goblins, fox, tiger, and wolf are all kami. Motoori tells us, fur ther, that whenever anything goes wrong in the world it is to be attributed to the action of the evil gods, whose power is so great that the sun goddess and the creator god are sometimes unable to restrain them. The people prayed to the good gods in order to obtain blessings, and performed rites in honor of the bad gods in order to avert their displeasure. Both Hirata and Motoori, however, are modern expositors and apologists for Shinto in competition with Buddhism and Confucianism. As for the

Kojiki (p. 41), it recognizes only evil deities in general who are

offset by certain rectifying deities, but neither class is heard of

more than once. No one individual bad deity is ever mentioned, and misfortunes are traced to one or other of the great gods, e.g., the Great Deity of Miwa, or the Wind Gods. Least of all is there any organization of evil deities or any arch-demon. Nor is there any ritual for evil deities in the Yengishiki; and very few charms are issued in the names of evil gods, such as those from

the Pestilence God, and from the Small Pox God.

Ancestral deities cannot be better introduced than in the words

of Motoori. Amongst human beings who are at the same time

kami are to be classed the successive Mikados, who in the Man

yefu-shifu and

account of their being far removed from ordinary men, as well as many other men, some who are revered as kami by the whole empire, and those whose sphere is limited to a single province, department, village or family. These various classes may be most conveniently noticed in reverse order. Ancestor cult has passed through as many changes and is as obscure in history as the nature-cult we have just considered. Thus the household ancestor cult has passed into the hands of Buddhism, the tablets, averaging 8x3 inches in size and following the Chinese pattern, being found always in the Butsudan Buddha shelf, and not upon the kami-dana kami-shelf. The revivers of pure Shinto would purge Japanese homes of these Buddhist

* Trans. A. S. J., vol. iii., Appendix, p. 42, quoted from Hirata.

other ancient poetry are called distant gods on

*

Trans. A. S. J., vol. iii., Appendix, p. 43.

quoted from Hirata. other ancient poetry are called distant gods on * Trans. A. S. J.,

The Shinto Pantheon.

21

corruptions, but meanwhile they mostly continue to carry the day, for the masses are comprehensively Shinto, Buddhist, and Confucian. Every morning some member or even servant of the family must present a first small portion of the freshly cooked rice, and on anniversaries of the death-day a full variety of foods, including those known to be favorites of the deceased.

This household cult of an ancestor is discontinued after a hundred

years, because, as some say, the deceased is then born again, or,

as others, he then becomes a kami, but both these notions are of

Buddhist origin, and the real ground is no doubt the inevitable weakening of regard as distance increases, combined with the practical inconvenience of accumulated tablets and services. Each district honors an uji-gami, family-god, the nature and origin of which are variously explained. This local or tutelary deity is the agent of Okuninushi, and to him, therefore, the new born is presented for adoption as an uji-ko, family child, while the traveler from home will secure a paper charm from the same

source. Festivals for the dead, tamamatsuri, soul festivals,

used to be held at fixed times, when all the people laid offerings of flowers, edibles, and wine upon the graves. This developed

into an annual observance at the rice harvest, when the first

fruits were offered to the ancestral manes, and this practice con tinues in a modified form until the present." Like the household ancestor cult, the annual festival of the dead, known to foreigners as the Feast of Lanterns, but properly to be called All Souls Day, has fallen into the hands of Buddhism. The spirits of dead ancestors are believed at this time, July 13 16, to visit the household altar, and special offerings of food are made to them, while the living eat sparsely. In the rural districts the festival is celebrated by a dance. Note in contrast herewith how, in China, ancestor cult has maintained itself quite independently of Buddhism, and at the same time in stronger force than in Japan. Indeed, so far as I know, no literary remains or cult-survival

affords evidence for the existence of household ancestor cult pre

vious to the introduction of Buddhism. The presumption, how ever, is strongly in favor of its existence.

All cases of the deification of eminent men, that is, of hero

worship, which have happened since the advent of Buddhism have likewise fallen into its hands, mostly under the sect known as Ryobu. Thus with the great minister and scholar Michizane,

whose death, A. D. 903, during an unjust banishment, was fol

* Trans. A. S. J., vol. xix., part 3.

and scholar Michizane, whose death, A. D. 903, during an unjust banishment, was fol * Trans.

22

The Shinto Pantheon.

lowed by many portents. Apotheosized as Tenjin Sama, Heaven Spirit-Lord, he is now adored as God of Calligraphy, a very important art in the Far-Orient, and equivalent to letters, for

which accordingly there is no god in Japan as there is in China.

His temple at Kitano, a suburb of Kyoto, has the largest income but one of the three thousand shrines in that city sacred to Buddhism. Hachiman San, the apotheosis of the Emperor Ojin

300 A. D. as God of War, in which character he is figured

on the Ise kakemono, and Toshogu, the apotheosis of the great

Iyeyasu 17th century A. D. are likewise adored in

temples belonging to Ryobu Shinto, Two-faced Shinto, one

looking towards Shinto, the other towards Buddhism. Kompira

San, noticed above, was also in charge of this sect, which at the revolution in 1868 was deprived of its spoils in favor of the revived pure Shinto. The present reign has witnessed the apotheosis, now of course a la pure Shinto, of several eminent persons, among whom is notable the scholar Motoori, a shrine to whom stands at his birthplace near Tsu. Sukuna-hiko, The Little Prince, of sufficient importance to be figured among the

chief twelve deities on the Izumo scroll, and to be honored by

several temples, is yet relatively small in significance and of very obscure origin. The account of him given in the Kojiki is best interpreted so among others by Professor Kume euhemeris tically, and it is probable that he brought with him the elements of Chinese medicine, for he passes as God of Medicine, and is figured as an old man bearing a pot in his hand. If so, he must be counted among the earliest cases of hero-worship, and of course previous to the introduction of Buddhism. The ancestral gods of a single family may, under favorable

conditions, become objects of a national cult. Thus Kasuga San,

figured on the Ise scroll as an old man riding a deer, really rep resents four deities one a goddess, the ancestral gods of a certain priest who in 767 A. D. built them a shrine, and whose descendants, on becoming powerful, raised their family god with them. Kasuga is simply the name of the place where the shrine stands, become a name for the god (cf. p. 18) about whose indi viduality the folk entertain no doubt. But the highest effect is produced where the cult of powerful ancestors and that of great nature-deities combine forces. This has happened notably in two cases, just those connected with the great shrines, Naiku San in Ise and O Yashiro in Izumo, which

Shogun

* Trans. A. S. J. vol. vii. part 4, p. 394.

with the great shrines, Naiku San in Ise and O Yashiro in Izumo, which Shogun *

The Shinto Pantheon.

23

stand respectively first and second in point of sacredness and pop ularity in Shinto, even as Mecca and Jerusalem do in Islam, the latter shrine in both cases being that of the conquered but related people. At Naiku San, Inner Temple, is carried on in great

state the cult of Amaterasu O Kami, considered ancestress of the

Sovereign Grandchild's Augustness, Ninigi no Mikoto, that descended from Heaven (i.e., Korea) to Japan and founded the imperial line that rules Japan to-day. Small wonder then that the Mikado previous to the revolution in 1868 was considered too holy to leave the palace and set foot upon common ground, that his title still in common parlance is Tenshi Sama, Heaven-Son Lord, and that at death he is supposed to become a kami. Second,

but like unto this, is the union of the Moon-God with the Ruler of

the Izumo tribe. The name Okuninushi, Great-Country-Ruler, fits moon or chieftain equally well, and his descendant of the seventy-sixth generation, the present high priest of the Izumo OYashiro, used until recently to be styled Ikigami, Living God. The very courteous reception and the kind exhibition of the numer ous and valuable temple treasures afforded me by this nobleman for his present style is Baron Sengi confirmed my opinion, otherwise easily demonstrable, that Shinto deities have never

been of the jealous and bloodthirsty kind sometimes met else

where.

While the ancestral tablet, brought by Buddhism from China,

is in exclusive use in the household ancestral cult which has been

appropriated by Buddhism, the means used in the temple ances tor cult of Shinto to represent the ancestor is, not a tablet (as it is in Buddhist temples in Japan and in all temples in China), but some personal belonging of the deceased, especially a sword, if a

male, and a mirror, if a female. These and similar articles are

called tamashiro, spirit-substitute, or kanzane, god-seed. " Such an article is the proper representative of the deity wor shiped at any particular temple, and is kept carefully secluded from view in the remotest chamber of the temple, while overt pur poses are answered by a gohei or wand with pendent paper strips. There can be no doubt that this concept is animistic, in that the spirit of the deceased is held to be really present in the shrine, as appears perhaps still more plainly from the practice of often pla cing a pillow in the shrine with the express purpose of signify ing the deity's presence, while the purpose also of the recently revived Shinto funeral is to retain the spirit of the deceased in

- * Trans. A. S. J., vol. ii. p. 119.

of the recently revived Shinto funeral is to retain the spirit of the deceased in -

24

The Shinto Pantheon.

the tamaya, spirit-house, which is to be kept in the home for ancestral worship. Evidently the spirit was considered to be attached one way or other to the object it had once used. Thus the Kojiki (109) represents Amaterasu as saying to Ninigi be fore his descent from Heaven, Regard this mirror exactly as if it were our august spirit, and worship it as in our presence. Yet only confusion is made by calling this notion fetishism which has a very different connotation, distinguished in particular from this before us by not involving ancestor cult. The deity is com monly supposed to reside in an idol also, but idolatry must not therefore be classed as a variety of fetishism. The ground of the Shinto notion is plainly the belief in the continued existence of

the soul after death somewhere or other, to which the association

of ideas adds the notion, here by his personal belonging. To the same order of ideas belongs the popular practice of depositing a doll or toy of a child in the Tai-shi-do of the great Buddhist Temple, Tennoji at Osaka, after which, on the ringing of the Indo-no-kane, Bell of Leading, the prince-saint Shotoku-Taishi

leads the soul of the child into Paradise. The same ideas sur

vive in degree in the Buddhist or Roman or Greek Christian

who reveres relics of the saints, and in the mother who treasures

up toys and clothing of the dear departed, while fetishism finds its modern descendant in the lucky-stone of the boy or boor. On the other hand Kempermann quite mistakes the sources of this relic-worship when he regards it as an evidence for die Tiefe ihres Gefühls und ihrer würdigen Auffassung des Wesens

the nature of deity was

quite conformed to the barbarian type, and the absence of idola try probably dependent on the fact that naturism borrowed its temple properties from ancestor cult, or, in other words, that ancestor cult was grafted on to nature cult before art had enabled the latter to fashion its deities in conformity with their nature

attributes.

der Gottheit. " The Shinto notion of

Ancestor cult appears very plainly, of course, in the funeral

rites of Shinto. Here we can give only fragmentary items about the archaic usage, for during the last twelve centuries the priests

of eschatologic Buddhism have conducted all funerals, even those of Shinto priests, just as they have also controlled those other two

services for the dead, the household ancestor cult and the annual

All Souls Festival, Shinto being prevailingly cosmologic and earthly. The following data are gathered from the article on

* Mittheilungen., etc. Jan., 1874, p. 32.

cosmologic and earthly. The following data are gathered from the article on * Mittheilungen., etc. Jan.,

The Shinto Pantheon.

25

Japanese Funeral Rites, by Mr. A. H. Fay of the British Lega

tion."

Burial was, so far as is known, the most ancient mode of

disposing of the dead. Various ceremonies were observed on the occasion of a death. The body was deposited in a moya, or mourning-house, and left there until the preparations for perma nent interment were completed. Obsequies were performed for

seven or eight days and nights, for which period also food and drink, fruit and favorite dainties were placed as oblations in the moya, and a fire, niwabi, was kept lighted in front of the same Music was played, slow measures danced, the praises of the dead:

chanted and much weeping and wailing done. The purpose of the music was to induce the spirit to return to the body. The funeral procession consisted of a bearer of the food -offerings, broom-bearers, cooks, rice-pounders, hired mourners, lantern

the burial was effected by

night, assistants and the bereaved relatives. In the rear came

men bearing flags blue, red and white in color, and lastly musi cians. The primitive grave was a shallow hole filled up to the extent of a small mound which developed into the tumulus. The head was placed towards the north (whence the living in Japan will not sleep in that position). Earthenware articles alone have been found in mounds of the earliest period; stone ornaments, metal rings, coins, etc., in the later mounds. The custom of mak ing a hitogaki, man-fence, round the mound was abandoned

about 1 B. C. in favor of the humaner

men.

bearers, a survival from times when

use of clay images of

Since the revolution in 1868, the Shinto funeral rite has been

reëstablished, and Mr. Fay gives an interesting account of its various parts as resuscitated or constructed anew by Shinto schol ars. Of burials in a recent year 526,000 were in accordance with the Buddhist rite, 225,000 with the Shinto, and 3,000 with the

Christian.

1 Trans. A. S. J. vol. xix. part 3.

with the Buddhist rite, 225,000 with the Shinto, and 3,000 with the Christian. 1 Trans. A.

**

**

CONT ENT S.

Dedication

Preface

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Introduction:

Bibliography on Phallicism in Japan -

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Bibliography on Shinto Bibliography on Phallicism Museums of Shinto Cultus Museums of Phallic Cultus

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Implements

Implements

I. Phallicism in Japan I. Temples

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Symbols

II.

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III.

IV.

Festivals

Rituals

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V. Phallicism in the Kojiki

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-

-

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II. Creed of

Phallicism

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-

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III. Place of Phallicism in the

IV. Does Phallicism belong to Shinto?

Evolution of Religion

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V. Suggestions for Further Research

Does Phallicism belong to Shinto? Evolution of Religion - V. Suggestions for Further Research | IO

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DEDICATION .

Respectfully dedicated as an expression of highest esteem to

Emil G. Hirsch, Ph.D., Professor of Rabbinical Literature and

Philosophy in the University of Chicago and Rabbi in the Sinai Congregation, Chicago, that profound scholar and ever ready patron of liberal learning, without whose generous aid in the Emil G. Hirsch fellowship, this thesis could not have been

written.

PR E FA C E .

This thesis is meant for a study in Shinto, while a work com plete at least in outline will be published so soon as oppor tunity offers. The circumscription in the circulation of an academic mono

graph renders admissible a detail and frankness in the treatment

of phallicism which would be inadmissible in work destined for the general public. Should any general reader happen upon this article and find it unduly stimulating his lower sensibility, he may thereby judge his distance from the scientific purpose of the writer, and will do better in passing the article to fitter hands. Finally let me say that in breaking such new ground as

is here done, errors both of commission and omission must occur,

and these should meet with prompt correction at the hands of the many scholars in Japan who are best fitted to the task.

and these should meet with prompt correction at the hands of the many scholars in Japan

INTRODUCTION.

BIBLIOGRAPHY ON PHALLICISM IN JAPAN.

On this topic no book of course is to be expected, but there is moreover no monograph, article, or chapter, and but four stray references to the topic as such in any of the very numerous works treating of Japan, or of Shinto, its native faith, which I

have been able, after visiting libraries in many capitals, to con sult. These four references are a description of a phallic festival by Dresser, a single sentence by Dr. J. J. Rein, a footnote by Rev. W. E. Griffis, D.D., and a brief paragraph in the Hand

will be quoted in its proper place.

book to Japan. Each

Neither in accounts of Shinto is any mention made of phal licism, nor in the accounts of phallicism given in special works to be described later is any reference made to Japan. The

encyclopaedias of course reflect this omission of the special works.

Thus Meyer's Conversations Lexicon sub Phallos states that phallicism extended from India to the shores of the Nile and Ionian Sea, no doubt ignorant of the cult of Inyoseki in Japan, as of Fricco among the Teutons.

BIBLIOGRAPHY ON SHINTO).

The authorities referred to in this work are Transactions of

*he Asiatic Society of /apan, Vols. I.-XXI. ; /apan, Kaempfer in Pinkerton's Voyages, Vol. 7; /apan, Caron in the same; /apan, S. S. Rein; /apan, Dresser; Mikado's Empire, W. E. Grif fis; Manners and Customs of the /apanese, Humbert; Hand book for /apan, Chamberlain and Mason; Mythology and Reli. gious Worship of the Ancient /apanese, Satow in Westminster Review for July, 1878; /apanese English Dictionary, Hepburn; Anyöseki, Hirata no Kuro Tane, being selections from the Aoshiden of Hirata Atsutane; AVotes on the Ancient Stone Imple ments of /apan, T. Kanda, Tokyo. The only articles on Shinto at once original and, at least in outline, complete are the three following which are named in their time order:

5

Shinto at once original and, at least in outline, complete are the three following which are

Mittheilungen über die Kamielehre, by P. Kempermann in

Mittheilungen der deutschen Gesellschaft für Natur und Volker

kunde Ostasien s, January, 1874.

Mythology and Religious Worship of the Ancient /apanese, by

E. Satow in Westminster Review for July, 1878.

Introduction to the Kojiki, by B. H. Chamberlain in Transac tions of the Asiatic Society of /apan. Supplement to Vol. X., 1882. It is noteworthy that each of these correct and learned treatises altogether overlooks the phallic cult which is undoubtedly extant in Japan.

BIBLIOGRAPHY ON PHALLICISM.

Though the range of this article is limited to Japan, the gen eral subject of phallicism is so little known even to those likely to meet this paper that a specification of some general sources will probably prove acceptable. It is a matter for regret that treatises on comparative religion omit all recognition of phallicism as a general phase of religion. Of such may be noted:

Primitive Culture, E. B. Tylor, 1871; Introduction to the Science of Religion, F. Max Müller, 1882; Prologomena of the History of Aeligions, A. Reville, 1884; Ecclesiastical Institutions,

H. Spencer, 1885; Religionsgeschichte, C. Saussaye, 1887; Myth,

Aitual and Religion, A. Lang, 1887; Science of Religions, E. Bur

nouf, 1888; AVatural Religion, F. M. Müller, 1888; Physical Religion, F. M. Müller, 1890; Anthropological Religion, F. M.

Müller, 1891.

We venture to draw special attention to the last but one, which in treating nature-worship should have included phallicism. But while it treats abundantly of fire, it makes no mention of the phallos, or linga as it is called in India, to which country all Mr.

Müller's treatises are confined.

Yet while the traveler in that

country sees little or nothing of fire-cult, he sees hundreds of linga, the whole number being estimated at nothing less than thirty

millions !

Saussaye's classic of course mentions phallicism in its historic sections, but no due recognition is made of phallicism in the top ical treatment of the subject entitled Phenomenologischer Theil. Strangely enough, the immense Encyclopaedia Britannica has no article on our topic, but the American and International Encyclo

6

enough, the immense Encyclopaedia Britannica has no article on our topic, but the American and International

paedias, and the German Conversations Lexicons give correct general statements of it. An excellent account of Indian phalli cism appears in the Hinduism and Brahmanism of Sir M. Wil

liams (cf. index sub linga), and in his Buddhism, p. 372. For

the wider Aryan field consult Mythology of the Aryan Nations, by Sir G. W. Cox, though the details here advanced are still under discussion. It is not too much to say that all the works hitherto devoted exclusively to phallicism are unreliable. In fact the rule seems to be, as stated to me by Dr. Reid of the British Museum, that so soon as one begins to study phallicism he goes crazy. The writers of these special works on phallicism are all amateurs a plurality being medical doctors and most of them are warped by an anti-Christian bias. They represent the reaction inevitable on the general neglect of the topic by those theologians, philosophers and anthropologists who have for one reason or another ignored a phase of religion, as natural as it was in fact general, if not quite universal. The chief of these special works

are :

A Discourse on the Worship of Priapus, by R. P. Knight, to

which is added An Essay on the Worship of the Generative Pow

ers during the Middle Ages of Western Europe, Anon., London,

1865. The starring of this work in Sonnenschein s Best Books

must be taken strictly in relation to such other works as exist, and not as a sign of satisfactoriness, which in fact it does not

possess.

Ancient Paiths embodied in Ancient AVames. T. Inman, M.D.

This is a work of Dr. Reid's crazy kind, full of false etymologies and identifications, and intensely doctrinaire and anti-Christian. Its lexical form affords excellent opportunity for the repetition in which it abounds through the 792 pp. of Vol. I., and the 1028 pp. of Vol. II. The uncritical nature of the whole may be

inferred from the author's caution that where statements in the

later portion of the work differ from those in the earlier, the

later must be considered correct | Such books will continue to

entrap the unwary until accredited writers deal with the topic in its rightful place. Yet Inman demonstrates some survivals in Christianity which its accredited teachers find it convenient to hush up. Ancient Pagan and Modern Christian Symbolism. Same

7

which its accredited teachers find it convenient to hush up. Ancient Pagan and Modern Christian Symbolism.

author.

The statement in Sonnenschein that this work will suf

fice for acquaintance with the author's views I cannot confirm. Wholesale condemnation of such works are usually as falsely

motived as the works themselves.

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Rivers of Life. Forlong. 1883. The experience of this writer throughout a long residence in various parts of India as military engineer makes him an authority on rarely known facts, but his neglect to specify names of places and persons lends the whole an untrustworthy air, and damages it as proof. In the six chapters into which his 548 folio pages are divided, no analysis, progress or order whatsoever is discernible. Tree and Serpent Worship. J. Fergusson, 1873. This is the Fergusson of archaeological and architectural fame and the star ring of his work in Sonnenschein is well deserved by his extensive acquaintance with the phallic phenomena of India. Monumens du Cu//e Secre/ des /)ames Romaines. A. Caprée,

1874. These are chiefly reproductions of gems engraved by Greek

artists at Rome about the time of Augustus, and exhibit in great beauty and detail the phallic sacrifices and processions of their own and preceding ages. Particularly one on Plate 50, representing a phallic procession carved on cornelian, about 2 by 1 inches is, so far as I know, after searching museums around the world, a unique monument of that once familiar rite. It comprises besides the phallos which is borne in triumph under a canopy, a gigantic kteis (pudenda muliebria), a bull, a goat, and numerous musi

cians.

I met the above works, among others, in the British Museum, most of them in the reserve shelves, to which only special stu

dents are allowed access.

MUSEUMS.

1) Of Shinto Cultus Implements. The only museums outside Tokyo where I have seen or heard of Shinto cultus implements are the Leyden Museum, the Musée Guimet in Paris, and the Pitt-Rivers Museum in Oxford. The last two make no preten sion to completeness, and indeed both are conspicuously incom plete. Phalloi from Japan these museums have none, nor had their curators learned that such objects were found there. Of the Leyden Museum I unfortunately know nothing in detail,

8

their curators learned that such objects were found there. Of the Leyden Museum I unfortunately know

2) Of Phallie Cultus Implements. The implements of the phallic cult where possessed at all are mostly withdrawn to secret cabinets, except where so conventional as to run no danger of scandalizing the prude and the prudent or of pleasing the pru rient and the vile. Only in the Naples Museum is any notice given of the existence of such cabinet, or is admittance granted the general public. In all other museums examination is granted only on request and that for scientific purposes. An eminent American anthropologist, known to me, visited the British Museum armed with full credentials to the curator of the religious

section, and was allowed to leave without information that a

phallic collection originally valued by R. P. Knight at £50,000 was preserved there. It is such precautions necessary in some degree in behalf of present-day morality that have made possi ble that garbling of history, philosophy, comparative religion, and theology that at present misleads the majority of even the highly educated. But true science knows no sex, and those who cannot forget the latter should eschew the former. Altars, reliefs, neck laces, gems, but especially Greek and Roman vases form the most likely places for phallic monuments except of course phalloi

themselves, and generally stand mixed with other objects quite

safe from the observation of the average museum visitor. Living Authorities on Phallicism in /apan. Though I found no one in Europe or America aware of the presence of phallicism in Japan, I never found an old resident in Japan ignorant of it. It is evidently high time that some mediation be made between these two parties, and such will be the purpose of the present

thesis.

high time that some mediation be made between these two parties, and such will be the

I. PHALLICISM IN JAPAN.

Phallicism forms an integral part of nature worship, and as such will, if normal, possess a cult and a creed, though the latter may be in part or even entirely implied, and can then be elicited only by questions put to the devotees. The content of its religious consciousness may then be compared with absolute religion, and finally it may be tested for conduct. These four spheres of religious activity suggest a convenient scheme for tab ulating data, and will now be considered in the order named. The phallic cult, that is worship or ceremony, requires a con sideration of temples, symbols, festivals, and rituals.

I. Temples. Such phallic temples include (1) the fully equip

ped miya or temple with resident priest or priests; (2) the smaller miya with only occasional services; (3) the mere sheds protecting from the rain, rows of phalloi; and, (4) a mere fence or boundary, while the phallos stands in the open. To the first class belongs a miya at Kasashima, fifteen miles south of Sendai, said to have been founded about 250 B.C. by Yamato

Takeru No Mikoto. The deity worshiped is Saruta Hiko No

Mikoto, of whom more later. In the service of this famous temple were once fifteen resident priests with their families and houses. To the same first class belongs a miya at Makiborimura in Iwade Ken. The deities here are Izanagi, Izanami, and Saruta

Hiko, which three are associated with Konsei Dai Myojin

Root of Life Great Shining God. To the second class belongs the shrine at Kande, eight miles inland from Akashi near Kobe, locally called Dai Seki Miya, or Ra no Seki Miya Great Stone Shrine, or Penis Stone Shrine. Its seclusion in the country has saved its gigantic phallos from the iconoclastic zeal of the reformer to bless the eyes of the archaeologist. I hope the moss-grown pillar deity I found here may yet be granted a place of honor in some museum when the rising sun of an exacter science and a nobler faith has enlight

IQ

yet be granted a place of honor in some museum when the rising sun of an

ened the simple, honest country folk who now trust in him for various daily needs. This miya is about ten feet square, hung with native pictures, furnished with altar and gohei symbol of divinity, and provided back and front with a wooden grating through which the four feet high phallos may be seen standing behind the miya within an oblong stone fence, but unsheltered save by the bamboo forest around. The ground inside this fence is thickly covered with shells, of which more later. Some score yards from the shrine and phallos stands a kteis, formed in this instance by a natural collocation of three rocks, the whole being some five feet high, and requiring so much imagination to con

strue into a kteis that I doubt not the time will come when the

closet philosopher will deny they were ever so considered. Any doubts that such a rough pile of rocks was really worshipped would have been soon dispelled by the tiny native paper flags bearing the legend, Osame tatematsuru, respectfully dedicated, which had been stuck into the ground before the symbol. The local names for this interesting pair are for the phallos Okko San, for the kteis Mekko San, which are names given by the Ainus the dwellers in the land before the Mongol invasion to the hill on which the two now stand and a neighboring hill similar in size and shape, on which the phallos formerly stood. Local tradition preserves the fact, and the /apan Mail of August 22, 1891, p. 224, refers to Oakkan and Meakkan as names given two neighboring hills in Yezo where the Ainus are still extant. Of the third, the mere shed class, I found a good specimen in a shrine to the phallos as Konsei on the Konsei Pass above

Lake Yumoto near Nikko. That this shrine dates back to the

first possession of the land appears certain from the impartation of its name to the pass on which it stands. It may turn out that Okko and Mekko are also names of the pudenda, and originally gave their names to the hills on which they once stood. I got track of this shrine from that model Handbook for /apan (third edition) issued by B. H. Chamberlain and W. B. Mason, two of the foremost scholars in Japan. Their brief note runs thus:

Tradition says that the original object of reverence was made

of gold, but that having been stolen, it was afterwards replaced

by one of stone. Ex-votos, chiefly wood and stone emblems, are

i. i.

that having been stolen, it was afterwards replaced by one of stone. Ex-votos, chiefly wood and

often presented at the shrine. Very little is known about the origin of phallic worship in Japan, although it appears to have been at one time nearly universal in the country districts, especially those of the north and east. This brief statement is the only general one that has yet appeared on the subject, and no doubt summed up general knowledge on it three years ago. It was to be corrected in the forthcoming edition. The shrine consists of a wooden shed some four feet square with a low shelf running round three sides on which stand some dozen phalloi of various sizes in stone and wood. Hard by stands a large stone lantern. On the shrine appears the name and address of

a Tokyo hotel company specially catering to pilgrims, and at whose expense the shrine had probably been restored.

Another shrine of this class stands at Yamada outside the northwest corner of the famous Naiku San the Ise shrine to

Amaterasu, the Heaven-Shiner, regent of the Shinto pantheon, and between two temples, one to Oho-yama-tsu-mi-no-kami the Deity-Great-Mountain-Possessor, and the other to his daughter Ko-no-hana-saku-ya-hime, Princess-Blossoming-Bril liantly-Like-the-Flowers-of-the-Trees , who presides over Mount Fuji. The shrine frames a typical phallos and kteis side by side,

though scores of native miniature torii (wooden gateway to tem

ple) ever pile over and hide these antique dual deities from the

careless observer.

These torii had been removed for the occasion

when the photograph found at the frontispiece of this work was taken. At the neighboring temple of the Ko-no-hana-saku

ya-hime native phalloi and ktenes are brought or taken by persons desiring children, spouse, or healing of diseases of the generative system. An erotic story is related of this deity, Kojiki 115; and her sister /wa-naga-hime, Enduring as the-Rocks, presiding over Mount Oyama, is symbolized by a large stone in the shrine at its summit and there worshiped by the harlots from Tokyo. This stone should be examined to learn whether

it be a kteis or simply symbolic of the deity's name as explained

in a legend or myth, Kojiki 1 16. To this class probably belonged the cases mentioned in the Mika do's Empire 33: I have noticed the prevalence of these shrines

and symbols, especially in eastern and northern Japan, having

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33: I have noticed the prevalence of these shrines and symbols, especially in eastern and northern

counted as many as a dozen, and this by the roadside, in a trip to Nikko. The barren of both sexes worship them, or offer them ex-voto. In Sagami, Kadzusa, and even in Tokyo itself, they were

visible as late as 1874, cut in stone and wood. The road here

referred to from Tokyo to Nikko is about 100 miles long, and three-fourths of it is part of one of the chief highways in Japan. Of the last class, where the temple reduces to its original notion of a separated space in the open, there are naturally many cases of so primitive a cult. Such I infer from the remains was the now dismantled platform at Nikko, the stone phalloi having been all dumped below an adjacent Buddhist temple where they now lie in response to the remonstrance of the then American minister, on the ground that the place was one of great summer resort for foreign families. I transfer from a sheet published by Myase Sadao, and extracted by him from the Koshiden (Ancient History) of the famous Japanese historian and archaeologist Hirata Atsutane, the following cases. All belong to the last-named class or a

subdivision of it yet to be mentioned :

Phallos in the open at Kotakamura, in Katorigori, province

of Shimosa.

Ditto at Otamura, Inabagori, Shimosa. Ditto at Ishigimura, Mishimagori, Echigo.

Ditto at Shibuimura, Nishi Kasaigori, Musashi,

Phallos with kteis beside it at Matsuzawamura, Katorigori,

Shimosa. Both like to drink wine, and hence are called Sake

nomi ishi, Wine drinking stones. The worshiper presents wine which they absorb very quickly. More than 250 years ago the kteis departed to the next village, and in consequence no mar riage could be contracted between the people of the two villages. Sixty-two years ago the stone returned. Lastly come an interesting sub-group, standing in the open hut distinguished by being naturally of sexual shape. Whether art of man has assisted groping nature, or the artist has embel lished his sketch, I cannot judge. Certainly any such stones would not fail to attract the attention of primitive man and sug gest or confirm that sexual philosophy of life which meets the student of primitive culture in every part of the world.

I3

gest or confirm that sexual philosophy of life which meets the student of primitive culture in

First comes an entire island, though of course a very small

bearing on its crown

some dozen trees. It lies northeast of Awaji and is named

Onokorojima, Spontaneously congeled island, or Eshima,

Placenta island, about which more later.

Next comes a natural phallos some twenty feet high and a kteis of proportionate size, about two-thirds of a mile apart, on

Inushima in Bizen.

one, of height greater than breadth and

Last on this sheet of Hiratas is a natural phallos and kteis placed suitably for the inception of coition. Some one did injury to the rock and was destroyed, and all his house. This is simply the list of a single observer and enquirer, and needs the complementation that can easily be given when once attention is called to the importance of the subject as a legiti mate branch of nature worship, and one of the normal manifes tations of religious thought in its search for some clue to that Absolute Ruler of Nature that the deepest thinkers still declare

unsearchable.

Last in this strange story come two groups, each of four immense natural phalloi 15 200 feet high, situated in the court of a Buddhist temple called Reiganji, near Kuroki in the province of Chikugo.

II. Symbols. Next let us consider phallic symbols, and here I

cannot do other than describes the phallic part of my own col lection of Shinto cultus implements now on exhibition in the

Walker Museum of the University of Chicago."

PHALLOI.

1. Natural water-worn phallos of stone with a nodule forming

the glaus penis. Highly prized by former owner as the phallos of a deity. Cn. 22 x 10. From one of the very numerous brothels at Yamada, where stands the famous shrine to the Sun Goddess.

2. Natural water-worn phallos, the ridge of the glaus being

formed of a harder stratum, 9.5 x 4.8. From temple at Mizusawa.

3. Like No. 2 in all respects but size which is 7.1 x 2.3. From

Mizusawa.

4. Natural Phallos but so little like its original that only its

*All measurements are given in centimeters.

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Mizusawa. 4. Natural Phallos but so little like its original that only its *All measurements are

source from a phallic temple would induce an unpracticed for eigner to credit that it was ever considered one. From phallic

shrine at Yamada.

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5. Phallos cut from volcanic stone, well executed and new,

20 x Io.

From shrine on the Konsei Pass.

6. Phallos of baked clay, blackened by age.

Realistic,

22 x 7. From brothel at Yamada, where it stood on the Kami

dana God-shelf, for occasional worship when an inmate had obtained a good fee.

7. Phallos of cast iron, 9.1 x 3.2. From

8. Phallos of wood, 17 x 4. From Mizusawa.

9. Another, 1.9 x 4.

Mizusawa.

Io. Another, stained pink, 22 x 6.

11. Phallos used in pairs as amulet for boys. Octagonal

shaft surmounted with octagonal pyramid, stained in pink, scarlet

and green. A string passing through central and vertical hole

serves to suspend over child's shoulder. From Mizusawa.

12. Phallos of clay, gilded and painted to represent the

shime-nawa or sacred rope, 3.5 x 1.5. From earthenware store opposite the Inari shrine.

13. Phallos-glaus, forming head of a seated man in ceremonial

costume. Clay, with impressed and colored garments, 6.5 x 5.5. Old, from dealer in Miyajima. A remarkable case of personifi

cation.

14. A Priapus, phallos enormous and colored bright red.

Clay, 4.5 x 3.5. From Inari store.

15. Phallos in shape of enormous mushroom, borne on a wom

an's back. Painted clay, 7 x 2.5. From Inarestore. A toy, cf. No. 17.

16. Phallos in shape of a wood obelisk, being a votive for

easy parturition, 12 x 6. From a shrine at Nikko.

17. A nest of five objects carved in wood and gaily painted,

as follows: a, Fukusuke. A man in old Japanese style beckon ing with his left hand. Common in stores to insure success in trade. Compare Robin Goodfellow. 14 x 10. b. Otafuku. A woman of the fat type of beauty. Function similar to above, both are known to every Japanese child, 9 x 5. c. Phallos painted red with sacred rope round, 6 x 4. d. Phallos painted yellow,

with rope, 4 x 2.5 e. Hoshi-no-tama Jewel of Omnipotence.

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with sacred rope round, 6 x 4. d. Phallos painted yellow, with rope, 4 x 2.5

An onion-shaped object of Buddhist origin, 2 x 2, cf. p. 29. From a store in Nikko near the site of a demolished phallic shrine and meant for use as a toy. The associates of the phallos in this group plainly show that it has here sunk from the rank of a god receiving worship to that of a more or less efficient sign of good luck, much as the horseshoe, cornucopia and slipper all probably symbols of the kteis are still used in England. This use was exceedingly common in Japan until about twenty years ago, the toy shops, earthenware shops, and hawkers being well supplied with them. (Mikado's Empire, W. E. Griffis, 33.)

KTENES.

18. Natural water-worn kteis, being a flat piece of slate with

irregular periphery some 4.5 in diameter, and having a water-worn aperture near the center. From Mizusawa.

19. Natural kteis of quartz with deep indentation near centre,

but not water-worn. Irregular, 4 x 2.5. From Yamada shrine.

20. Sea ear shell, Latin Hallotis tuberculata, Japanese Awabi.

Bears name of donor to the Kande shrine. The living shellfish

is so suggestive of the kteis that Japanese women often use its

name in that sense.

From Kande shrine.

21. Cowry shell, Latin Cypraea porcel/ana, Japanese Taka

ragai, treasure shell. Presented at temples by barren women,

3.5 x 2.5.

From Yamada store.

MISCELLANEOUS.

22. Bamboo grass rings interlinked to symbolize coition, but

precise use not learned. From Mizusawa.

23. Votive picture on wood from the phallic shrine at Kande,

representing a tiger which symbolizes the month in which the

donor was born, 32 x 25.

24. Votive picture on wood representing a horse, from the

phallic shrine at Yamada, 6 x 4. For meaning cf. p. 29.

25. Akaza no tsue. Canes of the thorny shrub Chenopodium

album, from Mizusawa. These are used to set up round the house lot to preserve boundary lines. This combination of phallic and boundary ideas by a temple dedicated to Sarutahiko, whose ephithet here is Dosofin Way-beginning God, which

may refer to his function (Kojiki, section 33) as guide, easily sug

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here is Dosofin Way-beginning God, which may refer to his function (Kojiki, section 33) as guide,

gests the same triple combination in Hermes. Other evidence for identity between the phallos and the road-god appears in Mr. Satow's article in the Westminster Review. Was the phallic cane placed in the field to render it fertile, then made to serve also as boundary mark, and finally to preside over the roads which would naturally often adjoin boundaries 2

26. Peach made in candy and sold to children by hawkers at

certain festivals as a symbol of the kteis, for which it appears its cleft adapts it. So the apricot is used in India. From Kyato.

27. Ginseng, Chinese Genseng, Japanese Minjin. The best is

grown in Corea. Price varies with degree of the root's resemb

lance to the human form, which in some cases is remarkable.

The best specimens fetch three dollars each for use in medicine where it passes for a panacea. It is the mandrake of Genesis 30, but not the plant wrongly so named in the United States.

CHARMS.

Of all cultus implements paper charms are by far the most numerous in Japan, no house being without some dozen. Among the various kinds is the phallic.

28. Charm guaranteeing easy birth bearing the name of

Konsei. Cf. p 18, 11 x 5.

29. Charm bearing the inscription An-san-marmori, Easy

birth-charm. The paper is folded into a triangular shape and contains a natural equilateral triangular black stone, 16 x 8. This shape is unique among all the ten thousand charms in Japan and can be accounted for in no way except its resemblance to the pudenda viewed externally, which, as seen, e.g., in statues,

is just that of this talismanic stone taken base uppermost. The

color is also thus alone accounted for.

Of the same color is the

famous Diana of the Ephesians now in the Naples Museum.

Her numerous breasts, and the erotic symbolism on her robe all

indicate the sexual idea. From Sumiyoshi temple.

30. Charm bearing the inscription Honorable-God-offering,'

p

and containing rice and seaweed, the broth from which must be

drunk by a barren woman. 20 x 12. From Sumiyoshi temple.

31. Charm bearing the inscription Seed-lend-temple-divine

ticket.

16 x 5.

From Sumiyoshi temple.

17

Sumiyoshi temple. 31. Charm bearing the inscription Seed-lend-temple-divine ticket. 16 x 5. From Sumiyoshi temple. 17

32.

Charm bearing the inscription Shô ichi i Konsei dai myo

in Zai hatsu. True first rank, root life, great shining deity, great charm. Right and left of this central text stand the words Good for all diseases below the belt. Life will be long. Good for woman when rearing child. Mother and child will be

Inside this envelope is a slip bearing the inscription

healthy.

Ho sai. Saruta hiko. /zanagi. Izanami. Chinza. Harai tamae

Kiyome de Zamae. Offering, purification. Saruta hiko. Izanagi. Izanami. Seat (of worship). Grant to clear away and clean.

The introduction into this charm of Izanagi and Izanami

will become clear on reading the section, Phallacism in the Kajiki. Saruta hiko finds mention here, I believe, owing to an extension or misunderstanding of Saruta's original function as guide to Ninigi no Mikoto when descending from heaven, Kojiki, 107 8. His consequent title michi moto, road origin, has been taken in the sense of life-origin, while he has been said to have been born spontaneously. All the data known to me indicate that his true place is in a lightning myth. This charm is water-stained in consequence of its having been consigned in a box together with many like it to a neighboring pool on suppression of the cult some twenty years ago. When iconoclastic zeal had somewhat abated, the box was fished up, and its owner courteously presented this precious relic of a well nigh extinct cult to a zealous collector of cultus implements. The supreme interests of science should protect the giver from any dis agreeable consequences that might be inflicted by those about him now ashamed of the cult. The very high rank, next that of

the Mikado himself, here assigned Konsei shows the high con

sideration the cult could receive. The presence of a phallos today in the garden of a samurai the old military and literary class well known to me, though long ignored by the noble family, affords additional proof that the cult was not limited to the lower class.

33. Charm bearing the inscription Konsei, great shining

god. Easy birth god charm. From temple at Mizusawa. Before leaving this topic a caution on the danger of confusing phalloi with other stone monuments, of which there are in Japan as elsewhere several kinds, may not be wasted. Not every stand ing stone or log longer than it is thick is a phallos, though some

18

several kinds, may not be wasted. Not every stand ing stone or log longer than it

90 per cent. of phalloi are included in that definition, the remainder lying horizontal or pendant but in either case then accompanied by the scrotum. One needs first of course to learn the history, use, and any inscription on the stone, and then frequently discovers that the stone is a wayside gravestone, a boundary stone, a sign post guiding to a place of pilgrimage, a weather-worn Mure-butsu an unsheltered image of one of the Buddhas or some memorial stone, perhaps, of an extinct tree, perhaps of an execution ground. These specifications all find examples in Japan, and might be mistaken by the tyro anxious to find spoil. Per contra the phalloi now extant and the product of

handicraft in Japan are unmistakable by reason of their realism, though those produced by nature need a practiced imagination.

III. Phallic Festivals. Every temple in Japan besides celebrat

ing the great national festivals makes one in honor of the deity to which itself is specially dedicated. In 1892 I visited

the Kande shrine a second time on

such an occasion held

there on the 18th day of the 3d month, old style, which cor responds to a varying date in our March. The date of the festival at the phallic shrine at Morioka varies from this by only a day, and both plainly concur with the Springtide festivals of all peoples. Tylor's Prim. Culture II., 297. This festival presented

no features other than those usual on such occasions. A Shinto

priest came from a distance for the occasion and presented in the

little shrine the usual offerings of rice cake, fruit, etc., accom

panying them with prayers. Men, women and children from the country side came and departed after making the little offering

and brief prayer, and purchasing refreshment at the temporary

stalls hard by. The neighboring kteis received no offerings though most of the worshipers visited it also. The conduct of all was irreproachable, and the bearing quite unembarrassed, for their errand was the honest one of entreating sexual health and family increase from that deity whose attributes best fitted him to grant them. Here is an account of a more questionable phallic procession as given by Dresser, pp. 197 9: At the next village (en route from Tokyo to Nikko, where Griffis saw the dozen phalloi) which we reached a great Shinto festival was being held. Thousands of people were laughing and shouting and following

I9

which we reached a great Shinto festival was being held. Thousands of people were laughing and

an enormous car, something like that of Jaganath in India. On this car is a platform surrounded by a low railing, while in the center rises a mast thirty or forty feet high from the top of which fly the cut papers which symbolize the Shinto religion (gohei are meant), while around its lower portion a tent of red and white cloth is suspended from a hoop. On the platform are musicians making rude music with gongs and fifes, and a masked actor, whose actions would not be tolerated in England. The staff of this actor is unmistakably phallic. He appears alternately as a man and woman changing his dress in the tent of which we have spoken. It seems that, since foreigners have been permitted to enter the country, such ceremonies have been shorn of many of their characteristics, symbols have been reduced in number, while the processions themselves are now but of rare occurrence. (This was written in 1882. The restriction referred to resulted from the first Japanese embassy to Europe in 1872.) I have learned orally from an old resident in Japan of a pro

cession similar to this, where the center of interest was an

enormous phallos carried in appropriate position by a man. The magnificent procession described by Humbert on pp. 322 3 of his Manners and Customs of the /apanese as taking place

in Tokyo in 1863 was not properly phallic, though it included some

suspicious objects, such as a model lobster, buffalo, and monkey, and seven prostitutes majestically attired in state costumes. The following festival may easily be a survival of a thoroughly phallic one, and affords evidence for a sexual symbolism that

strikes the modern mind as very strange. It is held in the court of a Buddhist temple, which probably adopted and modified the originally coarser rites. Young men and women meet at this

Mount Hiyei, amidst

a vast forest traversed only by footpaths, in the month of August

of an evening, and spend the entire night in a peculiar dance, where forming promiscuously in lines they work their way through the crowds of elder and younger people with a simultaneous swing of the arms, meanwhile singing a composition, which after expressing sympathy with a certain criminal Gorobei by name, in his examination before the stern judge, proceeds to the erotic

effusion of a young woman, from which I cull the symbolic part:

20

Gwanzandaishi temple located half way up

to the erotic effusion of a young woman, from which I cull the symbolic part: 20

With what words shall I compose my love letter? With those belonging to birds, or fishes, or vegetables? Yes, Yes, as I am a greengrocer, I will use the names of vegetables. After several vegetable metaphors and puns suited to expressing her passion, she continues, Would you like to taste the first fruit of the long bean P If not, would you not try to break the hairless peach P Oh quick Ego sum cupidus coiendi tecum. Lastly, here is a neat piece of sexual metaphor which speaks volumes for the familiarity in the primitive times, from which the Manyefushifu where it occurs dates, with such symbols. White shells seem to be a synonym for hairless peach. Generally of course in the Orient the kteis is figured or described as black, while the phallas is colored red, if at all. It is necessary briefly to premise that the piece refers to a method of divination called Tsujiura Road-divining where the person planted a stick in the road, made offerings to it and besought an answer:

When I went out

and stood in the road,

and asked the evening oracle

when he would come back who went over the sweetheart's mount

and the lover's mount,

saying that he would pick up the awabi shells

which come ashore

in the Region of Woods, the evening oracle said to me:

Sweetheart |

he for whom you wait is searching for

the white shells which

come near on the waves

of the offing, the white shells

which the shore waves

bring near. He does not come,

he picks them up. If he be long, 'twill be but seven days, if he be quick,

'twill be but two days. He has heard you. Do not yearn,

my Sweetheart!'" Trans. As. Soc., Vol. 7, p. 427

21

has heard you. Do not yearn, m y S w e e t h e a

IV.

Rituals. No fixed ritual for the phallos is known to me.

Certainly none is contained in the list of the Yengishiki, the official collection of rituals made 927 A.D. (Trans. As. Soc. Vol. 7, prt. 2, pages 103-4.) The content of the impromptu prayers made in this case is always request for some good in connection with generation, e.g., the charm from Makibori bears guarantees of easy birth, health of mother and child, cure of dis eases of the generative organs, and long life. Inquiries from worshipers elicit similar ideas and they reappear in the practice of borrowing a phallos from the shrine during child-birth, and, when the issue has proved good, of returning two new ones.

V. Phallicism in the Kojiki. Having examined some extant

data we are in a position to attempt the interpretation of two

passages in the Kojiki, the sacred book of Shinto. This was

A. D., when a collation was made of

the then extant traditions purporting to extend backward to a divine age which ended some 1500 years before. None of the

authorities on Shinto known to me have attempted any detailed interpretation of the cosgmogony forming Volume 1 of this Kojiki. The general, and for the rest correct statement that Shinto is a compound of ancestor-worship and nature-worship

has not been further discussed by any writer except Mr. Satow, who enters more fully into the matter in his Westminster Review article, without however at all noticing separate myths, and mak ing no mention of sections 3 and 4, which we here copy from Mr.

B. H. Chamberlain's translation given in the 77 ans. As.

plement to Vol. X. Section 3. Hereupon all the Heavenly Deities commanded the two Deities, His Augustness the Male-Who-Invites and Her Augustness the Female-Who-Invites, ordering them to make, consolidate, and give birth to this drifting land. Granting to them an heavenly jeweled spear, they (thus) deigned to charge them. So the two Deities standing upon the Floating Bridge of Heaven, pushed down the jeweled spear and stirred with it, whereupon, when they had stirred the brine until it went curdle curdle, and drew (the spear) up, the brine that dripped down from the end of the spear was piled up and became an island. This is the island of Onogoro.

Soc. Sup

committed to writing 7 12

22

end of the spear was piled up and became an island. This is the island of

Section 4. ** Having descended from Heaven onto this island, they saw to the erection of an heavenly august pillar, they saw to the erection of a hall of eight fathoms. Tunc quæsi vit (Augustus Mas- Qui -Invitat) a minore sorore Augustâ Feminà-Qui-Invitat : 'Tuum corpus quo in modo factum est ? ' Respondit dicens: Meum corpus crescens crevit, sed una pars est quæ non crevit continua.' Tunc dixit Augustus Mas-Qui.Invitat : ' Meum corpus crescens crevit, sed est una pars quæ crevit superflua. Ergo an bonum erit ut hanc corporis mei partem quæ crevit superflua in tui corporis partem quæ non crevit continua inseram, et regiones procreem ? ' Augusta Femina-Qui-Invitat respondit dicens: Bonum erit.' Tunc dixit Augustus M.-Q.-I. : ' Quod quum ita sit, ego et tu, hanc coelestem augustam columnam circumeuntes mutuoque occurrentes, augustarum (i. e., privatarum) partium augustam coitionem faciemus.' Hàc pactione factà dixit (Augustus M. Q.-I.) : 'Tu a dexterâ circumeuns occurre ; ego a sinistrâ occur ram.' Absolutâ pactione ubi circumierunt, Augusta F.-Q.-I. primum inquit : ' O venuste et amabilis adolescens !' Deinde Augustus M.-Q.-I. inquit : ' O venusta et amabilis virgo !' Postquam singuli orationi finem fecerunt, (Augustus M.-Q.-I.) locutus est sorori, dicens : 'Non decet feminam primum verba

facere.' Nihilomimes in thalamo (opus procreationis) inceperunt, et filium (nomine) Hirudiuem (vel Hirudini similem) pepere runt. This child they placed in a boat of reeds, and let it float away. Next they gave birth to the island of Aha. This likewise

is not reckoned among their children.

Now our view is that from beginning to end of this Vol. I is presented a series of nature-myths still susceptible to interpreta tion, and that among them these sections 3 and 4 attempt a cos

mogony expressed in terms of a phallic symbol sec. 3 and of a phallic ceremony sec. 4. First, no one will deny the transparency of the epithets Male-Who-Invites and Female-Who-Invites. They are just the complementary pair so indispensable to reproduction pro jected backwards to account for original production. Hirata,

a Japanese antiquarian of first rank, considers the jeweled

spear'' a phallas and scrotum (7rans. As. Soc., Vol. 3, Appendix,

23

of first rank, considers the jeweled spear'' a phallas and scrotum (7rans. As. Soc., Vol. 3,

p. 59), while the Island of Onogoro on account of its peculiar

shape passes in the native imagination for a gigantic phallos, and is said to contain many such scattered about it. Hear the redoubtable Hirata again in the Inyoseki under the sketch

described in this article, p. 14. He writes:

jima, etc. It is solitary and has no connection in its roots. It stands in the midst of waves and never moves in spite of great earthquakes even. In the island are many curious stones, many of them being shaped like male and female generative organs. The stones produce dewlike liquid, and have a mineral taste on the outside, while within (the stones?) are earths and sands. Now, though this record was made by Hirata so late as 1812, since the phenomena are all natural, they of course antedated the mythical imaginings of the Kojiki, to whose authors the island was well known, and doing so they evidently formed the elements of the myth. The only need then was for poetic fancy to weave primitive pair, artificial phallos, and phallic island into some connected whole, and this made section 3. What was

Hirata's ground for his view of the jeweled spear is not stated, but Japanese archaeology gives monumental evidence of the existence in the polished stone age of phallic rods in great variety, though their exact use is a matter only of inference. These stone rods or stones, called locally Raitsui or thunder bolts, are figured, along with numerous other remains, in an

monograph by the owner of the finest collection of

raitsui in Japan, ex-Governor T. Kanda of Tokyo. In this monograph Plate 7, Figs. 2 and 4; Plate 8, Fig. 8, and Plate 9, Fig. 1 show incised figures which are plainly the kteis, in full accord with another statement of Hirata's, that the jeweled spear bore on it the figure of the female organ (/nyöseki). In section IV. our mythical cosmogony first introduces coition as a means of conceiving origins. After using, in sections I. and

II., terms of terrestrial motion and vegetable life, and in section III.

a mixture of terms from terrestrial and animal life, the myth pro

ceeds to fuller circumstantiality in the familiar terms of purely animal life. Our previous investigations make quite obvious

while apart from those

side lights the terms here employed must have remained unintel

24

This is Onokoro

admirable

the meaning of heavenly august pillar,

*

terms here employed must have remained unintel 24 This is Onokoro admirable the meaning of heavenly

ligible, or at least conjectural. Plainly it was a phallos. As to the parallel reading in the Wikongi a nearly contemporaneous

much rationalized a la Chinese account of Japanese history

which Mr. Chamberlain translates they made the island of Onogoro the central pillar of the land, and which he considers more rational than the account in the Kojiki, the obvious truth is that it is more rational only to those not aware of or not awake to the phallic phenomena described in our preceding pages. Per contra in the light of those phenomena the Kojiki's account is fully vindicated. Textual purity can never be verified better than by archaeology. The hall of eight fathoms was probably a coition house. Mr. B. H. Chamberlain writes in his Introduction to the Kojiki XXVIII., It would also appear to be not unlikely that newly married couples retired into a specially built hut for the purpose of consummating the marriage, and it is certain that for each sovereign a new palace was erected on his accession. (Trans. As. Soc., Vol. X. Supplement.) Mr. Cham

but

berlain no doubt bases his view on the specifications in the Kojiki of a thalamus as the place of first coition for man and wife. Of such mentions I count three, viz., pp. 20, 66, and 75, and note further the following, which seems to indicate a similar purpose:

Eight clouds arise. The eightfold fence of Idzumo makes an eightfold fence for the spouses to retire (within). Oh! that eightfold fence. (Trans As. Soc., Vol. X., Supplement 64.) The parturition house is described, Kojiki 1 18, as eight fathoms long, and this is the length of the coition house in our myth, eight being the perfect number of the Japanese, and probably often used in the sense of fitting or proper. The purpose of such a coition house will be obvious to those familiar with the original function of the bridegroom s best man as protector during the consummation of a marriage which depended on capture, and with the jocose interruptions made on a bridal pair after retiring, e.g., even in England, and so late as the sixteenth century,

according to Brand's Antiquities.

The sequel of section IV. rather

implies that the column stood in the thalamus, but whether within or near it, the running round the column before the marriage consummation will be best understood in the light of those

notions we have found everywhere connected with phallic cult,

25

will be best understood in the light of those notions we have found everywhere connected with

among which that of productivity is plainly the proper one here. In Japan, as elsewhere under the patriarchal government of primitive times, the more children a pair had the richer they were likely to become, and such a recognition of Konsei as this would be considered effectual to that end. If so, nothing would be more natural than for mythic fancy to express in terms so familiar that fruitful union which resulted in the production of nothing less than the islands of divine Japan, as the later sections pro ceed to relate. The later Shinto apologists of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries smooth all difficulties by stating that the islands

have grown enormously since birth ! I submit that this view

meets all the special and concrete notions of the myth, while no other view can meet any, and would have to account for a sense. less farrago of ideas, ending in what must then be regarded as a mere bawdy tale, for which the undoubted general coarseness of manners in primitive Japan, as everywhere under like conditions, affords no sufficient ground.

II. CREED OF PHALLICISM.

To every cult belongs a creed, implied or expressed, written or oral. Of the phallic cult the creed is implied. It shares its world-view with the nature-worship of which it forms one phase, and, as such, sees a superior being, spirit, or god embodied in objects naturally or artificially made to resemble animal generative organs. I write embodied in advisedly, having in mind par ticularly the natural phalloi which are prized vastly higher than the manufactured ones, and being found in nature could hardly be taken for aught else than the veritable organ of the god. Mysticism would cover all difficulties in the view. To such superiors which is all that the Japanese kami, often translated gods or god, means primitive man turned in his needs, and naturally, to that particular one presiding over the sphere in which his need occurred. Hence comes the phallic cult which forms as natural, proper and legitimate a system of worship as that of the sun or fire, and can only by gross misconception be associated with obscenity, though this is often done by those devoid of sympathetic, historic imagination and anxious to point

26

with obscenity, though this is often done by those devoid of sympathetic, historic imagination and anxious

a moral or adorn a tale. That the whole symbolism, though

most natural and striking for that ever mysterious vital force of nature, has become inappropriate for us who are wont to say:

God is spirit, affords no proof that its first intent was not wholly as described above. Cf. Mythology of the Aryan Nations, by Rev. Sir G. W. Cox, 349 50. I have written in the preceding paragraph as if the object of the phallic cult were one single thing, the phallos; and, if the reader has accepted the assumption without challenge, he has but thought in accord with the general treatment of the subject which faultily neglects to duly express the duality of the cult. We speak of phallicism and the Germans of Phalluscult, and thereby tend to ignore the kteis-cult which prevails but little if any less than phallos-cult. But just as the term man is used for mankind, i. e., man and woman, so phallicism serves for what is properly phalloktenism, cult of the phallos and kteis. This

dualism shows itself in the usual juxtaposition in India of the

linga and yoni, in Syria of the masseba and ashera (I take the

masseba as the male symbol), in Greece of the phallos and kteis

(Monumens des Dames Romaines, Plate 50. Mythology of the Aryan AVations, G. W. Cox, 362), in Egypt of the cross and ring combined into the crux-ansata, in China of the yang and yin as seen intertwined in the Corean crest called in Japanese futatsu-tomoye, and finally in Japan of the yoseki and inseki. This dualism is equally conspicuous in the more anthropo morphized objects of worship represented by the phallos and

kteis. Thus Hinduism coördinates Kali with Siva, whose symbols

in particular the kteis and phallos are, and Minakshi the local

goddess at Madura identified with Kali is carried every night

to share the couch of Sundaresvara.

Indeed, in India, where

pretty much everything both rational and irrational has been

tried, a whole sect, the Saktas devotes exclusive attention to this

feminine side of nature. In Syria Astarte coördinated with Baal, in Egypt Isis with Osiris, in Greece Demeter with Dionysas (Mythology of the Aryan AVations, G. W. Cox, 362), and in north Europe Freya with Freyr, and each of these goddesses has often received exclusive honors, usually with the same demoralizing effect as in India. Some students point to Mariolatry as the last

27

exclusive honors, usually with the same demoralizing effect as in India. Some students point to Mariolatry

example of the same tendency (Mythology of the Aryan Nations G. W. Cox, 355). So obviously necessary to reproduction is duality that where a spouse is wanting, feminine qualities are attributed to the male, as with Quetzalcoatl god of reproduction among the Aztecs (American Hero Myths, Brinton, 127). Similarly in Japan we find the couples Kami-musubi-o-kami

and Takami-musubi-o-kami, the Divine-Producer and Divine

Produceress as some understand them (Parliament of Religions, J. H. Barrows, 452. Lectures on Shinto, Professor Matsuyama, Kyoto. Kakemono from Izumo O Yashiro), and again Izanagi

and Izanami, the Male-that. Invites and Female-that

Invites, compared by native Christians with Adam and Eve, a comparison made in the first place naively, but hitting the mark quite closely since both couples belong to phallic myth, though they differ absolutely in subsequent moralization and consequent religious value. But in Japan, where phallicism remains still, as in India, a living faith, it becomes possible to trace out this dual ism into a number of details not otherwise, I think, easily expli

cable.

A quite unequivocal case is that of the interlinked rings of bamboo grass (No. 22 p. 16) expressly designed to represent coition. Equally significant is the presentation of awabi shells (No. 20) symbols of the kteis before the phallos and not the kteis at Kande. Conversely a woman borrows from the Mizu sawa temple a phallos, not a kteis, to help her in parturi tion. At Yamada the reciprocity is recognized only in so far as votives of both sexes are presented, though whether any distinc tion is made in the deity before which they are placed I have yet to learn. The rule valid there to offer a phallos in order to obtain a husband or son, and a kteis for a wife or daughter implies the notion underlying all magic that formal likeness with anything insures power over it. Here too belongs the offering only of phalloi to the phallos on the Konsei Pass. Perhaps a further detail of the dualism necessary to all fruitful issue appears in the practice of pouring wine over the phallos and kteis at Matsuzawa which are said to rapidly absorb it, and in the statement of Hirata that the phalloi and ktenes of Onogoro-shima secrete a dewy liquid. Similarly tiny wooden tablet votives bearing a sketch of

28

the phalloi and ktenes of Onogoro-shima secrete a dewy liquid. Similarly tiny wooden tablet votives bearing

a horse are presented to the Yamada pillar pair. This horse can hardly mean other than in Buddhist symbolism, namely, the fer tilization rain cloud (Indian Buddhism, T. W. Rhys Davids, 133). The rain falling from this cloud is the impregnating medium from heaven to earth in the cosmic myths of so many peoples. Were it not that the hosbi-mo-tama, Jewel-of-Omnipotence, like wise a Buddhist symbol, has been introduced on to the sacred Ise Shrine in the same town, I should hesitate to believe that any Buddhist symbol had penetrated this citadel of Shinto. The horse, however, may prove, together with the sacred albino horse common in great Shinto shrines, a survival of the great horse sacrifice of the Mongol shamanism from which Shinto is descend ent. With this Japanese notion of fertilization compare the effu sion of water sometimes with bilva leaves and marigolds in

the Indian cult of the linga-yoni (Bráhmanism and Hinduism, M. Williams, 439). Lastly, in the phallic procession described by Mr. Draper, an actor appears dressed alternately as man and woman with which compare the exchange of attire in Western orgies. Further data may require modification of the position here taken, and it is much to be hoped that such will be obtained by many investigators in Japan before this primitive formal biology yield to the modern causal science of that name. In any case some special reason must be sought why the votive offering to phallos and kteis are duplicates or reciprocals of themselves. No paral lel to this practice outside of phallicism is known to me either

are

so-called servants of Inari San, to whom, therefore, they are

in or out of Japan; for the foxes so often duplicated there

offered, and not to the fox itself.

The creed or mental equivalent of the phallic cult, then, is that reproduction is controlled by two deities related as man and wife, that these are best represented by their reproductive organs found by man in stream and field, and that they are best wor shiped by the presentation of similar objects of a sex, either opposite or similar to that of the deity concerned. In the case of Konsei, worshiped near Yumoto without any sexual partner, emphasis is placed, as frequently in other cults, on the male

element.

One commentary on such a creed is obvious and unavoidable

29

is placed, as frequently in other cults, on the male element. One commentary on such a

and will serve equally well for all creeds. The mental elevation and consequent value of gods varies solely and directly as the mental elevation of their worshipers. Show me your man, and I will show you his god.

III. PLACE OF PHALLICISM IN THE EVOLUTION OF

RELIGION.

First, there is no need to search for any simpler or more obvi ous principle on which to base phallicism than its own, namely, worship of the superior beings that control reproduction. In other words phallicism may easily be, what no existing evidence confutes and all confirms, namely, a thoroughly primitive form of that naturism nature worship which judicious thinkers regard as coördinate with animism spirit worship instead of attempt ing, as H. Spencer, to derive it from the latter. This contention rests particularly on the existence of the natural phallos and kteis, than which, of course, nothing can be more primitive since

man has roamed this earth.

Wherever the erosive action of water,

whether rain, river or sea, produced from rocks and stones the shapes which even now can vividly suggest to our restrained imaginations the animal generative organs, there a fortiori the primitive savage must have seen indubitable evidence of what to him would seem explicable only as a partial embodiment of the

controllers of his otherwise often unaccountable fortunes.

Thus

in a very striking way Nature the instructor of primeval man has suggested to him not only his inventions but his worship (Tylor's Primitive Culture, I., 64). But, moreover, and of peculiar interest in its bearing on the contention of naturists and animists as to the origin of religion, here in the phallos and kteis were found direct indications of the anthropomorphic nature of those his controllers, for which sun, moon, star, or any other object whatsoever of nature worship failed to afford any morphological hint. If here were the veritable phallos and kteis

of his controllers, the controllers themselves could not be far

off, and would necessarily be imagined in full complementation of the visible organs, that is as human beings, or minds in bodies, which conception is precisely what animism sometimes supposes

itself alone able to account for.

30

or minds in bodies, which conception is precisely what animism sometimes supposes itself alone able to

Second, as to the sequences of this cult. The light thrown by phallicism on the essential nature and evolution of religion is clear and striking. Both the distance and the direction of the newer views of God from the older are made apparent.

That distance is not immeasurable but has lain in time, and

that direction is not inscrutable but has consisted in progress. Man has been the measure of things if not the individual yet the race, and that whether his measure has worked as the limit of capacity or limit of construction. If the former alternative that of capacity be taken, an objective, real god has revealed himself progressively, and therefore at any single stage only partially, to man, just because such partial

revelation has been all that man could receive ; if the latter

alternative that of construction be taken, a subjective, unreal

according to some thinkers nevertheless real God has

been constructed, imagined, or projected by man, but always only progressively, and therefore at any one stage only par tially, just beecause such partial construction was all of which man was then capable. (Self Revelation of God. S. Harris, passim). And therefore, in any case, as man has evolved through out his physical and mental nature, his concept of God has pari fassu improved. Du gleichst dem Geist den du begreifst holds equally true in its converse form. We understand the spirit we resemble. In the case of the Absolute Spirit this under

standing can never reach completeness, and our principle there

the humbler proposition: Man under

stands God so far as he resembles him. The challenge of the skeptic: Show me your God, must be met by the answer alike of Christian, philosopher and anthropologist : Show me your man. There was a stage in man's mental progress when God could be revealed to or constructed by man best that is most intel ligibly and impressively as phallos and kteis. Among all the things that are made it would have been marvelous indeed, if organs so conspicuously instrumental to the mysterious propagation of life had not been used to perceive the invisible things of him since the creation of the world even his eternal power and divinity. Rom, 1:20. Of all the power desired by man alike for himself, flocks and fields, productivity was the chief, and consequently

fore reduces in its case to

or

3 I

man alike for himself, flocks and fields, productivity was the chief, and consequently fore reduces in

the objects considered to embody that power the most honored. That man thus often submerged his god in nature instead of conceiving him as an eternal power above nature was natural anthropologically, though justly repudiated by Paul, a represen tative of a more progressed order. The original symbols, now so shocking to us in their bare materialism, have been refined with man's refinement until finally in the exquisite legend of the Sangreal the symbols have become a sacred thing, which only the pure in heart may see and touch. (Mythology of the Aryan Mations. Rev. Sir G. W. Cox, 360.)

IV. DOES PHALLICISM BELONG TO SHINTO P

Since phallicism has shrines, festivals, priests and amulets identical with those of Shinto, and since its principal symbol

and ceremonial receive mention in the sacred book of Shinto,

and since phallicism belongs of right to nature worship, which in Japan constitutes, with ancestor cult, Shinto, it seems probable that the phallicism of Japan forms an integral part of Shinto. And so Rein in his /apan Like phallic-worship, which, together with its symbols formerly so numerous and widespread, has, as a

result of foreign influence, been entirely banished since the begin ning of the reign of Meiji (1868), belonged to Shintoism, so also does this ancestor-worship appear at least to have judged the Yoshiwaras prostitute quarters very mildly, if not to have

directly favored them. /apan,

however. Phallicism, as we now know, has not yet by any means been entirely banished. Shinto is not rightly designated ancestor-worship, certainly not if it includes phallicism. Nor should phallicism ever be linked, as here, with an undoubtedly

immoral institution like the Yoshiwara, the Japanese name for

the harlot quarter, primarily in Tokyo, but subsequently anywhere. On the other hand, the somewhat unequal distribution of phallicism in Japan, e.g., its apparent absence from the great highway called the Tokaido, the absence of its ritual from the Shinto official prayer-book or Yengishiki, and some philological and archaeological facts that point to the Ainus as the source of the cult require consideration before the connection with Shinto

32

Note several errors here,

the Ainus as the source of the cult require consideration before the connection with Shinto 32

can be considered settled. Batchelor indeed makes no mention

of phallicism in his Ainu of /apan, but the fashion of garbling treatises from all that would unfit them for parlor reading prevails to such an extent that negative evidence on this topic and kindred sociological and physiological ones amounts to simply nothing. The above data best suit the view that phallicism, while originally and properly a part of Shinto, was little if at all recognized in later official religion, though it persisted in the folk-religion,

where indeed it still survives in moribund state.

One general remark. The bearing of the discovery of phalli cism in Japan upon the science of comparative religion is of con siderable interest. Phallicism, long since demonstrated for the Indo-Keltic race and easily demonstrable for the Semitic, now turns up among the Mongols. Thus this now obsolescent cult appears to have prevailed in all three of the historic races. This generality well matches the naturalness and obviousness of the notion involved. The bearing of Japanese phallicism upon the controversy between Canon McClatchie and Dr. Legge upon Chinese phallicism must remain for future treatment.

V. SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH.

Are there other dances of the Gwan-Zan-daishi type? How did hashira come to be the numeral for gods? Why are snakes dried and enshrined worshiped in Idzurmo as protectors from fire and flood? The snake associated with Benten, and worshiped at Shirakumo-jiuja, Kyoto, by the presentation of toy pails of water probably came with Benten

from Hinduism via Buddhism.

Why does a bit of awabi, or its picture, accompany every present made in Japan P Kaempfer in his chap. 13 writes, it is intended to remind them of the frugality as well as the poverty of their ancestors who lived chiefly upon the flesh of this shell. Pinkerton, 7, 734. Probably no such high didactic motive ever entered the heads of men of the period when this custom began. Kaempfer assigns the same reason here well known to be false for preserving the primitive type

of structure in the Ise Shrine.

Does this bit of awabi mean I

33

known to be false for preserving the primitive type of structure in the Ise Shrine. Does

am clinging to your friendship, in the sense of Awabi no kata omoi. Or does the awabi here signify a wish for that abun dance which the kteis mediates and in other lands symbolizes? And does its lozenge-shaped envelope symbolize the same organ? Why were so many phallic shrines found on the highway from Tokyo to Nikko (Mikado's Empire 33), and none on the much longer road from Tokyo to Kohe, i.e., the great Tokaido? That none were there when Caron, Kaempfer, and Siebold traveled it is fairly inferable from their silence as to them, while they did not spare the licentiousness they found common around them. (Caron 613, 629, 634. Aaempfer chap. xx.) Kaempfer, how ever, remarks on other religious objects on the road, as also other monstrous images and idols. Why are red and white the favorite colors of Shinto, as seen

*

in the miko's dress at the kagura, in the flags carried at funerals,

and in those about Miya, as at Miajinja dedicated to Hiruko, the

leech child of Izanaji and Izanami?

carried at funerals, and in those about Miya, as at Miajinja dedicated to Hiruko, the leech

CH INA

BY

JOHN L. STODDARD

ILLUSTRATED AND EMBELLISHED WITH ()NE II UNI) REI)

ANI) TWENTY-TW () RE PR () I.) UCTIONS () F PH ()T() (, RAPHS

CHICAGO

BELFORD, MIDDLEBROOK & COMPANY

MDCCCXCVII

REI) ANI) TWENTY-TW () RE PR () I.) UCTIONS () F PH ()T() (, RAPHS CHICAGO

COPYRIGHT, 1897 BY JOHN L. STODDARD

ENTERED At STATIONERs'

HAll, LoNDoN

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

COPYRIGHT, 1897 BY JOHN L. STODDARD ENTERED At STATIONERs' HAll, LoNDoN ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
C HINA defies the world to equal her in three important As for respects: age,

C HINA defies the world to equal her in three important

As for

respects: age, population, and industries.

the first, she undoubtedly has the oldest Government on earth. Even the Papacy is young compared with it; and as for our republic, it is a thing of yesterday. A Chinaman once said to an American: Wait till your Government has

been tried before you boast of it. What is a hundred years? Ours has stood the test of forty centuries. When you did not exist, we were. When you shall have passed away, we still shall be." -

When you shall have passed away, we still shall be." - EMPEROR OF CHINA, In point

EMPEROR OF CHINA,

In point of numbers, too, the Chinese

empire leads the world. Its area is nearly twice as large as that of the United States,

and it has six times as many people. The

governor of one Chinese province rules over sixty million souls. Have we a defi nite conception of what four hundred million human beings are? Arrange the inhabitants of our globe in one long line, and every fourth man will be a Chinaman. As for her industries, Musa, the Saracen conqueror of Spain, once aptly said that Wisdom, when she came from heaven to earth, was lodged in the head of the Greeks, the tongue of the Arabs, and the hands of the Chinese. China

from heaven to earth, was lodged in the head of the Greeks, the tongue of the

4

CHINA

was once what the United States is now the birthplace of

inventions. Paper was manufactured there in the third cen tury of our era. Tea was produced a century later. If

Europe had enjoyed communication with China, it would

If Europe had enjoyed communication with China, it would A ChiNESE TEMPLE. have learned the art

A ChiNESE TEMPLE.

have learned the art of printing many centuries before it did;

and who can say what might have been the result? A thou

sand years ago the Chinese made designs on wood. Print ing from stone was a still earlier industry among them. In China, also, gunpowder was first invented a thought by

which, alas! so many thoughts have been destroyed. This same astonishing race produced the mariner's compass in the

fourth century, porcelain in the third, chess and playing

cards in the twelfth, and silk embroideries in almost prehis

An empire, therefore, of such vast antiquity,

toric times.

cards in the twelfth, and silk embroideries in almost prehis An empire, therefore, of such vast

CHINA

5

overwhelming population, and great achievements must be, despite its faults, a country of absorbing interest.

The most delightful portion of the voyage from Japan to China lies in the Japanese Mediterranean, known as the

Inland Sea. It is a miniature ocean, practically land-locked

for three hundred miles, with both shores constantly in sight, yet strewn with islands of all shapes and sizes, from small and

uninhabited rocks to wave-encircled hills, terraced and culti

vated to their very summits.

It seems as if volcanic action

here had caused the land to sink, until the ocean rushed in

and submerged it, leaving only the highest peaks above the

WalVCS.

We lingered here all day upon the steamer's deck, like

passengers on the Rhine, fearing to lose a single feature of the varied panorama gliding by on either side. By night it was more glorious even than by day; for then, from every danger

more glorious even than by day; for then, from every danger THE JAPANESE MEDITERRANEAN. ous cliff

THE JAPANESE MEDITERRANEAN.

ous cliff flashed forth a beacon light; the villages along the

shore displayed a line of glittering points, like constellations rising from the sea; and, best of all, at a later hour, moon light lent enchantment to the scene, drawing a crystal edge

rising from the sea; and, best of all, at a later hour, moon light lent enchantment

6

CHINA

6 CHINA WAVE - ENCIRCLED HILLS. along each mountain crest, and making every island seem a

WAVE - ENCIRCLED HILLS.

along each mountain crest, and making every island seem a

jewel on a silver thread. When we emerged from these inland waters, we saw be tween us and the setting sun the stretch of ocean called the China Sea. At certain seasons of the year this is the favorite pathway of typhoons; and the Formosa Channel, in particu

lar, has been sels. Indeed,

a graveyard for countless ves only three weeks before, a sister

HUGE SAILS LIKE THE WINGS OF BATS,
HUGE SAILS LIKE THE WINGS OF BATS,
has been sels. Indeed, a graveyard for countless ves only three weeks before, a sister HUGE

CHINA

7

ship of ours the Bokhara," had gone down here in a ter rific cyclone. Yet when we sailed its waters nothing could

have been more beautiful. Day after day this sea of evil omen rested motionless, like a sleek tigress gorged with food and basking in the sun.

After a three-days' voyage from the Japanese coast, we

began to meet, in constantly increasing numbers, large, pointed boats, propelled by huge sails ribbed with cross-bars,

Upon the bow of each was painted an

like the wings of bats.

T
T

THE HARBOR OF HONG-KONG.

enormous eye; for of their sailing craft the mariners of China,

in elementary English, say: If boat no have eye, how can boat see go? We were assured that these were Chinese sail

ing craft, and that our destination was not far away; but it

was difficult to realize this, and I remember looking off beyond those ships and trying to convince myself that we were actu

ally on the opposite side of the globe from home and friends,

and in a few brief hours were to land in that vast Eastern

empire so full of mystery in its exclusiveness, antiquity, and changeless calm.

hours were to land in that vast Eastern empire so full of mystery in its exclusiveness,

8

CHINA

That night the agitation that precedes one's first arrival in a foreign land made sleep almost impossible. It seemed to me that I had not closed my eyes when suddenly the steamer stopped. To my astonishment, the morning light had already found its way into my state-room. We had arrived ! Hurry ing to the deck, therefore, I looked upon the glorious harbor of Hong-Kong. A hundred ships and steamers lay at anchor here, displaying flags of every

country on the globe. Al though the day had hardly dawned, these waters - itfittitt
country on the globe. Al
though the day had hardly
dawned, these waters
-
itfittitt
£ *III:
*III:
---

THE CITY OF VICTORIA.

showed great animation. Steam-launches, covered with white awnings, were darting to and fro like flying-fish. Innumerable

smaller boats, called sampans, propelled by Chinese men and women, surrounded each incoming steamer, like porpoises around a whale. On one side rose some barren-looking moun tains, which were a part of the mainland of China; but for the moment they presented little to attract us. It was the other shore of this magnificent harbor that awoke our interest; for there we saw an island twenty-seven miles in circumfer ence, covered with mountains rising boldly from the sea.

for there we saw an island twenty-seven miles in circumfer ence, covered with mountains rising boldly

CHINA

I I

Along the base of one of these elevations, and built in terraces

far up on its precipitous slopes, was a handsome city.

What is this? we inquired eagerly. The town itself, was the reply, is called Victoria, but

this imposing island to whose flank it clings, is, as you may suppose, Hong-Kong." The first impression made upon me here was that of mild

astonishment at the architecture. Almost without exception,

the prominent buildings of Victoria have on every story deep porticoes divided by columns into large, square spaces, which

divided by columns into large, square spaces, which A STREET IN HONG - Kong. from a

A STREET IN HONG - Kong.

from a distance look like letter-boxes in a post-office. We soon discovered that such deep, shadowy verandas are essen tial here, for as late as November it was imprudent not to carry

a white umbrella, and even before our boat had brought us from the steamer to the pier, we perceived that the solar rays

were not to be trifled with.

As soon as possible after landing, we started to explore

this British settlement. I was delighted with its streets and

buildings.

The former are broad, smooth and clean; the lat

ter, three or four stories high, are built of granite, and even on a curve have sidewalks shielded from the sun or rain by

ter, three or four stories high, are built of granite, and even on a curve have

I2

CHINA

the projection of the roof above. Truly, the touch of Eng

land has wrought astounding changes in the fifty-five years

that she has held this island as her own.

Before she came

it was the resort of poverty-stricken fishermen and pirates.

it was the resort of poverty-stricken fishermen and pirates. DEEP PORTICOEs AND COLONNADEs. But now the

DEEP PORTICOEs AND COLONNADEs.

But now the city of Victoria alone contains two hundred thousand souls, while the grand aqueducts and roads which cross the mountains of Hong-Kong are worthy to be com

pared with some of the monumental works of ancient Rome. Along the principal thoroughfare in Victoria, the banks, shops, hotels, and club-houses, which succeed each other rap

idly, are built of the fine gray granite of the adjacent moun

tains, and show handsome architectural designs. Everything looks as trim and spotless as the appointments of a man-of war. Even the district of the town inhabited by Chinamen is kept by constant watchfulness immeasurably cleaner than

a Chinese city; although if one desires to see the world-wide

difference that exists between the British and Mongolian races,

city; although if one desires to see the world-wide difference that exists between the British and

CHINA

I3

he merely needs to take a short walk through the Chinese quarter of Victoria. But such comparisons may well be de ferred until one reaches Canton. There one beholds the gen

uine native article.

The police who guard the lives and property of the resi dents of Hong-Kong, are for the most part picked men of English birth, and are considered as trustworthy as regular

But several hundred of these guardians of the peace

are Sikhs a race imported hither from India renowned for bravery, loyal to the British government, and having no sym pathy with the Chinese. These Sikhs have handsome faces,

troops.

brilliant eyes, and dark complexions, the effect of which is

wonderfully en-

hanced by their

immense red turbans, con
immense red
turbans, con

THE BANK, HONG-KONG.

spicuous two or three blocks away, not only by their startling

color, but because their wearers exceed in stature all other

races in Hong-Kong.

Strolling one morning through the outskirts of the city, I

came upon some troops engaged in military manoeuvres, and

Strolling one morning through the outskirts of the city, I came upon some troops engaged in

I4

CHINA

attired in white from head to foot, to shield them from the

sun. What traveler in the East can forget the ever-present

soldiers of Great Britain, of whom there are nearly three

-
-

POLICEMEN.

thousand

in

the garrison of

Hong-Kong? I

know it is fre

quently the

fashion to sneer at them and to

question their

efficiency in

case of war.

I

know, too, that

in certain ways the vast extent of England's empire constitutes her weakness. But I must say that in a tour around our planet I was impressed as never before with what the British had ac complished in the way of conquest, and with the number of strategic points they hold in every quarter of the globe. We had but recently left the western terminus of England's North American pos

sessions, yet in a few days we

North American pos sessions, yet in a few days we SoLDIERS DRILLING. discerned the flag of

SoLDIERS DRILLING.

discerned

the

flag of England

flying at Hong

Kong.

Next

we beheld the

Union Jack at

Singapore, then at Penang, then

at Ceylon, and after that throughout the length and breadth

of the vast empire of India, as well as the enormous area of Burma. Leaving Rangoon, if we sail southward, we are

of the vast empire of India, as well as the enormous area of Burma. Leaving Rangoon,

- ---

CHINA

17

reminded that the southernmost portion of Africa is entirely

in English hands, as well as the huge continent of Australia.

Returning northward, we find the same great colonizing power

stationed at the Red Sea, in mouth of the the British - - - citadel
stationed at the
Red Sea, in
mouth of the
the British
-
-
-
citadel of
.
Aden.
Again
a
trifling journey,
and
we reach

Egypt, via the Suez

tually controlled to-

land. Then, like the three stars in Orion's belt, across the

Mediterranean lie Cyprus, Malta, and Gibraltar; in fact, we

find one mighty girdle of imposing strongholds all the way, bristling with cannon, guarded by leviathans in armor, and

Canal, both vir

day by Eng

A BiT OF CHINATOWN IN HONG-KONG.

bristling with cannon, guarded by leviathans in armor, and Canal, both vir day by Eng A

I8

CHINA

garrisoned by thousands of such soldiers as were drilling at Hong-Kong. One of the first desires of the visitor to Hong-Kong is to explore the mountain which towers above the city of Victoria

to a height of nearly two thousand feet.

To do this with the

least exertion, each of our party took a canvas-covered bam

boo chair, supported by long poles, which Chinese coolies

carry on their shoulders. On level ground, two of these

bearers were enough, but on the mountain roads three or

bearers were enough, but on the mountain roads three or CHAIR-COOLIES AT HONG - KONG. four

CHAIR-COOLIES AT HONG - KONG.

four men were usually needed. To my surprise, I found the motion of these chairs agreeable. The poles possess such elasticity that, leaning back, I was rocked lightly up and down without the least unpleasant jar. In fact, at times the rhythm of that oscillation gave me a sense of drowsiness diffi

cult to resist.

But, alas! we had not here for carriers the cleanly natives of Japan. It may be, as some residents of Hong-Kong assert, that Chinamen are more trustworthy and honest than the Japanese, but certainly in point of personal attractiveness

the contrast between these races is remarkable.

the Japanese, but certainly in point of personal attractiveness the contrast between these races is remarkable.

The bodies

CHINA

I9

of the lower classes of Chinese reveal no evidence of that care

so characteristic of the natives of Japan. Their teeth are

often yellow tusks; their nails resemble eagle's claws; and

their unbecoming clothes seem glazed by perspiration. Nor is there usually anything in their manner to redeem all this. Where the light-hearted Japs enjoy their work, and laugh and talk, the Chinese coolies labor painfully, and rarely smile,

talk, the Chinese coolies labor painfully, and rarely smile, THE MOUNTAIN ABOVE VICTOR1A. regarding you meantime

THE MOUNTAIN ABOVE VICTOR1A.

regarding you meantime with a supercilious air, as if despising you for being what they call a foreign devil. Nevertheless, despite the repulsive appearance of our bearers, we thoroughly enjoyed our excursion up the moun tain. At every step our admiration was increased for the

magnificent roads which wind about the cliffs in massive ter

races, arched over by majestic trees, bordered by parapets of stone, lighted with gas, and lined with broad, deep aqueducts, through which at times the copious rainfall rushes like a mountain stream. It will be seen that such a comparison is

through which at times the copious rainfall rushes like a mountain stream. It will be seen

2O

CHINA

not an exaggeration, when I add that not many years ago,

thirty-two inches of rain fell here in thirty hours.