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Ashridge MBTI research into distribution

of type
By Melissa Carr, Judy Curd, Fiona Dent
Alex Davda and Naomi Piper
Second edition

Ashridge Business School http://www.ashridge.org.uk


Ashridge MBTI Research into distribution of type

Contents
Section 1:
Background of the MBTI 1

The data 1

Aims of the research 2

The findings 2

Recommended reading 5

Section 2:
Type Tables 6

Ashridge Business School http://www.ashridge.org.uk


Ashridge MBTI Research into distribution of type

Ashridge Management Type Research

Background of the MBTI


One of the most widely used personality instruments, the Myers-Briggs Type
Indicator provides a useful tool for understanding differences between people.
The instrument offers individuals an insight into where they get their energy from,
how they take in information and make decisions, and the way they prefer to live
their lives.
The tool has many different applications including helping people to understand
why they may find some occupations more rewarding than others and why
certain roles can provide frustrations. Each of the 16 types has its own strengths
and areas for development; however, it does not give an indicator of skills or
abilities. The MBTI only really adds value when used in a developmental setting.
The MBTI has been used world-wide across many different languages and
cultures. Research has suggested that type theory is meaningful across all
cultures but the expression and interpretation of behaviours will vary according
to culture (Kendall, 1998). This means that it is particularly useful in global
management development and can be used with audiences other than the white,
middle class Americans on which the original research was based.
The MBTI has a long history and many people have written and researched
about the development and application of type. Ashridge research aims to build
upon some of these previous studies: specifically, the 1998 research project
carried out by Oxford Psychologists Press (Kendall, 1998), which has been used
as a basis for comparison with the Ashridge data. This research, which was part
of the validation study of the UK form of the MBTI, presented the first type tables
for the UK population. The OPP study aims to provide an important benchmark
for many research initiatives such as exploring similarities and differences with
other countries and cultures (Kendall, 1998, p5). The Ashridge study aims to
develop and build upon some of these research initiatives.

The data
Ashridge, one of the worlds leading business schools, delivers executive
education and development to individuals and organisations. As well as having
a comprehensive portfolio of open programmes, Ashridge provides tailored
programmes to a range of client organisations that span all industry sectors.
Every year, about 5000 managers attend programmes at Ashridge; of these
42% are international programme participants. Many of these programmes have
aspects of individual and team development for which participants complete
a range of psychometric instruments, one of which is the MBTI. The data was
collected from managers who have attended a variety of the programmes.

The research was carried out in January 2011 using the reported types of over
22,000 managers who have attended both open and tailored executive education
programmes in the past ten years. When the data was collected, permission was
sought to use the findings for research purposes, and all data was anonymised.

11

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Ashridge MBTI Research into distribution of type

The sample population


Subjects in this research were all participants on management development
programmes at Ashridge from 2000 to 2010. The participants ranged in age from
20 to 78. Management levels ranged from junior manager to senior executive
and chief executive. The participants in this sample population came from
116 different countries: 96% were European, with 52% of the total population
coming from the UK. The gender split was 76% male and 22% female with 2%
unspecified. The largest individual industry sectors are manufacturing with 24%,
and public sector workers with 25% of the sample population.

Aims of research
The research had the following aims, the findings of which are summarised later:
n to build on previous research and explore further some of the differences that
exist in the distribution of types
n to compare managerial type tables with the UK population and examine
differences that exists. Anecdotal evidence suggested that some types
more than others seemed to appear in management. The research aimed to
discover the extent to which this is true and, if this is the case, which were the
more prevalent
n previous research has suggested that there are some gender differences
in the MBTI, specifically around the dichotomies of Thinking and Feeling
(Kendall, 1998). This research aimed to see if these patterns still held true
when looking at a managerial population
n limited research has examined differences in type distribution within Europe.
This research aimed to see if there were any significant differences in the
distribution of type for European managers
n again, limited research is available about the distribution of managers across
industry sector. This research aimed to go some way to providing this data
n finally, to provide resources for MBTI users to use with their clients both
individually and at an organisational level.

The findings
The MBTI is different from many other psychometric instruments in that it is not
normative; therefore it is more useful to look at whole types and the frequency
with which they appear in different populations. Research has been carried out
on the population distribution of type within the UK (Kendall, 1998) and this
study aimed to extend this by looking at type distributions for managers across
different countries and industries.
To be able to make conclusions on whether a certain group of people differ
significantly in the type distribution to the general population, we used a formula
called the Self Selection Ratio (SSR). This calculates whether a certain type is
more or less likely to self-select into an area than would be suspected. A score
of greater than one means that more of that type than would be expected are
found in this area, a score of less than one shows an under-representation of
this type, while a score of one means you would find as many as the general
population mean.

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Ashridge MBTI Research into distribution of type

n Modal types
The modal type for Ashridges management population is ESTJ (22.5%), followed
by ENTJ, ISTJ and ENTP. The least frequent types are ISFP, INFJ, ESFP and
INFP.
This demonstrates the most pronounced findings; the under-representation of
people with a Feeling preference in management. 86% of Ashridge managers
had a reported Thinking preference compared to the general population where
46% had this reported type. Also pronounced was the difference in Sensing and
Intuition; in the management population, this was split 50/50: however, in a UK
population only 23% of people report a preference for Intuition.
n Gender differences
In the UK population, the Thinking-Feeling dichotomy is the only one that
shows some gender differences, with women being more likely to report a
Feeling preference than men (70% women compared to 35% men). This
pattern does not hold true for a managerial population, where more women
(76%) had a reported preference for Thinking. This is the same pattern that
male managers display. This finding would provide the basis for interesting
research into why this occurs; are women managers more similar to their
male counterparts, or do they adopt behaviours that they see as the norm in a
managerial population?
n European differences
The UK managerial patterns are also true when looking at Europe. Across
the European countries represented in the type tables, the modal types seem
to be ESTJ, ENTJ and ISTJ followed by ENTP. Over half of all European
managers had a TJ preference.
n Industry differences
Industry sector type tables were calculated by breaking down the total
Ashridge type table into industry sectors. Self-selection ratios were used to
look at how specific industry sectors compared to the general managerial
population. For most industries there were no significant differences in type
distribution according to the industry sector. Some differences did occur:
for example, in retail, ENTP was over-represented compared to the general
managerial population. However the modal types still remained the same with
ESTJ, ENTJ and ISTJ dominant.

An accurate reflection
of my type
ISTJ Product Development Manager,
API Group Plc

Ashridge Business School http://www.ashridge.org.uk


Ashridge MBTI Research into distribution of type

Summary of findings
The research showed that there are differences in the type distributions of
managers compared to a UK population, more specifically:
n Some types are more prevalent than others in management and these seem
to be largely focused in the four corners of the type table (ESTJ, ENTJ, ISTJ
and INTJ)
n Gender differences do not appear to exist in a managerial population, with
as many male managers reporting to have a Thinking preference as female
managers. The striking difference though is in the prevalence of managers
generally reporting to have a Thinking preference and the under-representation
of managers with a Feeling preference.
n Type tables for European managers show no significant difference in profiles
across different countries
n There does not appear to be a significant difference in managerial types
across different industry sectors.

Conclusion
The main aim of the research was to provide type practitioners with up-to-date
type tables. The research indicated that there are some significant differences in
the types found in management compared to the general UK population.
The Ashridge study has raised some interesting questions that could form the
basis for further research. For instance, the research was based on reported
types and it would be useful to see how this may differ from their best-fit.
More specifically, looking at some of the biases that seem to occur, it would be
valuable to gain an understanding of whether managers are recognising that in
order to cope with a managerial role, they need to develop the ability to behave
in ways typically reported for ESTJ, ENTJ, ISTJ or ENTP types.

Ashridge Business School http://www.ashridge.org.uk


Ashridge MBTI Research into distribution of type

Recommended reading
n Briggs Myers, Isabel and Myers, Peter B. (1995) Gifts Differing, Understanding
Personality Type,
Davies Black Publishing
n Kendall, Elizabeth. (1998) Myers Briggs Type Indicator European English
Editions Manual Supplement, OPP Ltd.
n Krebs Hirsh, Sandra and Kummerow, Jean M. (1990) Introduction To Type In
Organisations,
CPP Inc, USA
n Kroeger, O and Thuesen, J.M. (1988) Type Talk, Dell Publishing, USA.
n Myers, Katherine D, and Kirby, Linda K. (1994) Introduction to Type Dynamics
and Development,
CPP Inc, USA
n Myers, S. (1995) Influencing People Using Myers Briggs, Team Technology UK
n Rogers, Jenny. (1997) Sixteen Personality Types At Work In Organisations,
Cambridge Management Centres plc and Management Futures Ltd.

Ashridge Business School http://www.ashridge.org.uk


Ashridge MBTI Research into distribution of type

Table 1: Ashridge managerial type:


All data (n = 22,783)

ISTJ ISFJ INFJ INTJ


3229 360 202 1633
14.2% 1.6% 0.9% 7.2%
SSR = 1.03 SSR = .13 SSR = .52 SSR = 5.14

ISTP ISFP INFP INTP


859 133 305 1277
3.8% 0.6% 1.3% 5.6%
SSR = .59 SSR = .09 SSR = .40 SSR = 2.33

ESTP ESFP ENFP ENTP


1354 248 814 2571
5.9% 1.1% 3.6% 11.3%
SSR = 1.01 SSR = .12 SSR = 0.57 SSR = 4.03

ESTJ ESFJ ENFJ ENTJ


5118 639 598 3443
22.5% 2.8% 2.6% 15.0%
SSR = 2.16 SSR = .22 SSR = .92 SSR = 5.20

Very insightful
ESFP HR Manager,
Publishing House

Ashridge Business School http://www.ashridge.org.uk


Ashridge MBTI Research into distribution of type

Dichotomous pairs
E 14785 64.89% S 11940 52.41%
I 7998 35.11% N 10843 47.59%
T 19484 85.52% J 15222 66.81%
F 3299 14.48% P 7561 33.19%

Pairs and temperaments


IJ 5424 23.81% TJ 13423 58.92%
IP 2574 11.30% TP 6061 26.60%
EP 4987 21.89% FP 1500 6.58%
EJ 9798 43.01% FJ 1799 7.90%
ST 10560 46.35% IN 3417 15.00%
SF 1380 6.06% EN 7426 32.59%
NF 1919 8.42% IS 4581 20.11%
NT 8924 39.17% ES 7359 32.30%
SJ 9346 41.02% ET 12486 54.80%
SP 2594 11.39% EF 2299 10.09%
NP 4967 21.80% IF 1000 4.39%
NJ 5876 25.79% IT 6998 30.72%

This table represents the distribution of the 16 MBTI types for 22783 participants
on Ashridge development programmes from 2000 to 2010. The population is made
up of 17272 males and 4968 females, with 543 participants unspecified. The ages
range from 20 to 78 and they come from 116 different countries.

The most common reported types are:


ESTJ 22.5%
ENTJ 15.1%
ISTJ 14.2%
ENTP 11.3%
63.1%

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Ashridge MBTI Research into distribution of type

Table 2: Ashridge managerial type:


Males (n = 17,272)

ISTJ ISFJ INFJ INTJ


2593 219 124 1300
15.0% 1.3% 0.7% 7.5%
SSR = .76 SSR = .19 SSR = .45 SSR = 3.0

ISTP ISFP INFP INTP


715 77 217 1008
4.1% 0.4% 1.3% 5.8%
SSR = .38 SSR = .11 SSR = .36 SSR = 1.41

ESTP ESFP ENFP ENTP


1085 149 524 1950
6.3% 0.9% 3.0% 11.3%
SSR = .77 SSR = .15 SSR = .59 SSR = 3.14

ESTJ ESFJ ENFJ ENTJ


3982 349 346 2634
23.1% 2.0% 2.0% 15.3%
SSR = 1.99 SSR = .33 SSR = 1 SSR = 3.56

I would say that the


MBTI type did provide
an accurate description
ESTJ Research Fellow,
University of Manchester

Ashridge Business School http://www.ashridge.org.uk


Ashridge MBTI Research into distribution of type

Dichotomous pairs
E 11019 63.80% S 9169 53.09%
I 6253 36.20% N 8103 46.91%
T 15267 88.39% J 11547 66.85%
F 2005 11.61% P 5725 33.15%

Pairs and temperaments


IJ 4236 24.53% TJ 10509 60.84%
IP 2017 11.68% TP 4758 27.55%
EP 3708 21.47% FP 967 5.60%
EJ 7311 42.33% FJ 1038 6.01%
ST 8375 48.49% IN 2649 15.34%
SF 794 4.60% EN 5454 31.58%
NF 1211 7.01% IS 3604 20.87%
NT 6892 39.90% ES 5565 32.22%
SJ 7143 41.36% ET 9651 55.88%
SP 2026 11.73% EF 1368 7.92%
NP 3699 21.42% IF 637 3.69%
NJ 4404 25.50% IT 5616 32.52%

This table represents the distribution of the 16 MBTI types for the 17272 male
participants on Ashridge development programmes from 2000 to 2010. They make
up 76% of the sample population. Ages range from 20 to 78 and they come from
113 different countries.

The most common reported types are:


ESTJ 23.1%
ENTJ 15.3%
ISTJ 15.0%
ENTP 11.3%
64.7%

Ashridge Business School http://www.ashridge.org.uk


Ashridge MBTI Research into distribution of type

Table 3: Ashridge managerial type:


Females (n = 4,968)

ISTJ ISFJ INFJ INTJ


538 135 71 299
10.8% 2.7% 1.4% 6.0%
SSR = 1.26 SSR = .15 SSR = .82 SSR = 12

ISTP ISFP INFP INTP


133 52 82 242
2.7% 1.0% 1.7% 4.9%
SSR = 1.08 SSR =.12 SSR = .60 SSR = 4.9

ESTP ESFP ENFP ENTP


239 95 269 559
4.8% 1.9% 5.4% 11.3%
SSR = 1.27 SSR = .17 SSR = .72 SSR = 5.38

ESTJ ESFJ ENFJ ENTJ


1025 268 230 731
20.7% 5.4% 4.6% 14.7%
SSR = 2.17 SSR = .29 SSR = 1.35 SSR = 8.64

Hugely useful for


Putting leadership
qualities in context
ENTP Consultant Surgeon,
University of Liverpool

10

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Ashridge MBTI Research into distribution of type

Dichotomous pairs
E 3416 68.76% S 2485 50.02%
I 1552 31.24% N 2483 49.98%
T 3766 75.81% J 3297 66.36%
F 1202 24.19% P 1671 33.64%

Pairs and temperaments


IJ 1043 20.99% TJ 2593 52.19%
IP 509 10.25% TP 1173 23.61%
EP 1162 23.39% FP 498 10.02%
EJ 2254 45.37% FJ 704 14.17%
ST 1935 38.95% IN 694 13.97%
SF 550 11.07% EN 1789 36.01%
NF 652 13.12% IS 858 17.27%
NT 1831 36.86% ES 1627 32.75%
SJ 1966 39.57% ET 2554 51.41%
SP 519 10.45% EF 862 17.35%
NP 1152 23.19% IF 340 6.84%
NJ 1331 26.79% IT 1212 24.40%

This table represents the distribution of the 16 MBTI types for the 4968 female
participants on Ashridge development programmes from 2000 to 2010. They make
up 20% of the sample population. Ages range from 21 to 62 and they come from
76 different countries.

The most common reported types are:


ESTJ 20.6%
ENTJ 14.7%
ENTP 11.3%
ISTJ 10.8%
57.4%

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Ashridge MBTI Research into distribution of type

Table 4: Ashridge managerial type:


Belgium (n = 278)

ISTJ ISFJ INFJ INTJ


n = 38 n=5 n=1 n = 25
13.8% 1.8% 0.4% 9.0%
SSR = 1.31 SSR = .75 SSR = .4 SSR = 2.4

ISTP ISFP INFP INTP


n=4 n=4 n=0 n = 15
1.4% 1.4% 0.0% 5.4%
SSR = 2.42 SSR = 1.27 SSR = 0 SSR = 1.54

ESTP ESFP ENFP ENTP


n = 25 n=4 n=4 n = 37
9.0% 1.4% 1.4% 13.3%
SSR = 1.23 SSR = .42 SSR = .23 SSR = 1.22

ESTJ ESFJ ENFJ ENTJ


n = 69 n=6 n=5 n = 36
24.8% 2.2% 1.8% 12.9%
SSR = 1.15 SSR = .36 SSR = .45 SSR = .92

MBTI well presented


and consistent
ENFP Director of Specialist lines,
MMA Insurance Group

12

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Ashridge MBTI Research into distribution of type

Dichotomous pairs
E 186 66.91% S 155 55.76%
I 92 33.09% N 123 44.24%
T 249 89.57% J 185 66.55%
F 29 10.43% P 93 33.45%

Pairs and temperaments


IJ 69 24.82% TJ 168 60.43%
IP 23 8.27% TP 81 29.14%
EP 70 25.18% FP 12 4.32%
EJ 116 41.73% FJ 17 6.12%
ST 136 48.92% IN 41 14.75%
SF 19 6.83% EN 82 29.50%
NF 10 3.60% IS 51 18.35%
NT 113 40.65% ES 104 37.41%
SJ 118 42.45% ET 167 60.07%
SP 37 13.31% EF 19 6.83%
NP 56 20.14% IF 10 3.60%
NJ 67 24.10% IT 82 29.50%

This table represents the distribution of the 16 MBTI types for the 278 Belgium
participants on Ashridge development programmes from 2000 to 2010. They make
up 1.2% of the sample population. Ages range from 26 to 58. There were 222
male and 56 female participants.

The most common reported types are:


ESTJ 24.8%
ISTJ 13.7%
ENTP 13.3%
ENTJ 12.9%
64.7%

13

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Ashridge MBTI Research into distribution of type

Table 5: Ashridge managerial type:


Germany (n = 2,132)

ISTJ ISFJ INFJ INTJ


n = 270 n = 12 n=7 n = 102
12.7% 0.6% 0.3% 4.7%
SSR = 1.02 SSR = .35 SSR = .27 SSR = .83

ISTP ISFP INFP INTP


n = 64 n=6 n = 19 n = 76
3.0% 0.3% 0.9% 3.6%
SSR = 1.11 SSR = .43 SSR = 2.64 SSR = 1.16

ESTP ESFP ENFP ENTP


n = 142 n = 12 n = 65 n = 195
6.7% 0.6% 3.0% 9.1%
SSR = 1.31 SSR = .35 SSR = .83 SSR = 1.04

ESTJ ESFJ ENFJ ENTJ


n = 639 n = 39 n = 66 n = 418
30.0% 1.8% 3.1% 19.6%
SSR = 1.20 SSR = .36 SSR = .68 SSR = 1.07

Fascinating and very useful


ISTP Procurement Officer,
Civil Service

14

Ashridge Business School http://www.ashridge.org.uk


Ashridge MBTI Research into distribution of type

Dichotomous pairs
E 1576 73.92% S 1184 55.53%
I 556 26.08% N 948 44.47%
T 1906 89.40% J 1553 72.84%
F 226 10.60% P 579 27.16%

Pairs and temperaments


IJ 391 18.34% TJ 1429 67.03%
IP 165 7.74% TP 477 22.37%
EP 414 19.42% FP 102 4.78%
EJ 1162 54.50% FJ 124 5.82%
ST 1115 52.30% IN 204 9.57%
SF 69 3.24% EN 744 34.90%
NF 157 7.36% IS 352 16.51%
NT 791 37.10% ES 832 39.02%
SJ 960 45.03% ET 1394 65.38%
SP 224 10.51% EF 182 8.54%
NP 355 16.65% IF 44 2.06%
NJ 593 27.81% IT 512 24.02%

This table represents the distribution of the 16 MBTI types for the 2132 German
participants on Ashridge development programmes from 2000 to 2010. They make
up 9.4% of the sample population. Ages range from 24 to 77. There were 1881
male and 233 female participants, with 18 participants unspecified.

The most common reported types are:


ESTJ 30.0%
ENTJ 19.6%
ISTJ 12.7%
ENTP 9.1%
71.4%

15

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Ashridge MBTI Research into distribution of type

Table 6: Ashridge managerial type:


France (n = 542)

ISTJ ISFJ INFJ INTJ


n = 74 n = 10 n=3 n = 46
13.7% 1.8% 0.6% 8.5%
SSR = 1.08 SSR = .46 SSR = .31 SSR = 1.88

ISTP ISFP INFP INTP


n = 26 n=4 n = 14 n = 21
4.8% 0.7% 2.6% 3.9%
SSR = 1.33 SSR = .41 SSR = .92 SSR = .82

ESTP ESFP ENFP ENTP


n = 47 n=8 n = 26 n = 49
8.7% 1.5% 4.7% 9.0%
SSR = 1.58 SSR = .42 SSR = .83 SSR = 1.29

ESTJ ESFJ ENFJ ENTJ


n = 114 n = 23 n = 16 n = 61
21.0% 4.2% 3.0% 11.3%
SSR = .98 SSR = .6 SSR = .73 SSR = 1.08

16

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Ashridge MBTI Research into distribution of type

Dichotomous pairs
E 344 63.47% S 306 56.46%
I 198 36.53% N 236 43.54%
T 438 80.81% J 347 64.02%
F 104 19.19% P 195 35.98%

Pairs and temperaments


IJ 133 24.54% TJ 295 54.43%
IP 65 11.99% TP 143 26.38%
EP 130 23.99% FP 52 9.59%
EJ 214 39.48% FJ 52 9.59%
ST 261 48.15% IN 84 15.50%
SF 45 8.30% EN 152 28.04%
NF 59 10.89% IS 114 21.03%
NT 177 32.66% ES 192 35.42%
SJ 221 40.77% ET 271 50.00%
SP 85 15.68% EF 73 13.47%
NP 110 20.30% IF 31 5.72%
NJ 126 23.25% IT 167 30.81%

This table represents the distribution of the 16 MBTI types for the 542 French
participants on Ashridge development programmes from 2000 to 2010. They make
up 2.4% of the sample population. Ages range from 25 to 59. There were 451
male and 91 female participants.

The most common reported types are:


ESTJ 21.0%
ISTJ 13.7%
ENTJ 11.3%
ENTP 9.0%
55%

17

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Ashridge MBTI Research into distribution of type

Table 7: Ashridge managerial type:


Italy (n = 293)

ISTJ ISFJ INFJ INTJ


n = 38 n=3 n=2 n = 22
13.0% 1.0% 0.7% 7.5%
SSR = .87 SSR = .33 SSR = .39 SSR = 1.33

ISTP ISFP INFP INTP


n = 12 n=2 n=5 n = 10
4.1% 0.7% 1.7% 3.4%
SSR = 1.58 SSR = .63 SSR = 1.21 SSR = .85

ESTP ESFP ENFP ENTP


n = 15 n=5 n = 11 n = 31
5.1% 1.7% 3.8% 10.6%
SSR = 1.30 SSR = 1.13 SSR = .95 SSR = 1.68

ESTJ ESFJ ENFJ ENTJ


n = 69 n=7 n=7 n = 54
23.5% 2.4% 2.4% 18.4%
SSR = .99 SSR = .4 SSR = .48 SSR = 1.18

MBTI is very revealing,


and when one reflects, spot on
INFJ Training Officer,
Civil Service

18

Ashridge Business School http://www.ashridge.org.uk


Ashridge MBTI Research into distribution of type

Dichotomous pairs
E 199 67.92% S 151 51.54%
I 94 32.08% N 142 48.46%
T 251 85.67% J 202 68.94%
F 42 14.33% P 91 31.06%

Pairs and temperaments


IJ 65 22.18% TJ 183 62.46%
IP 29 9.90% TP 68 23.21%
EP 62 21.16% FP 23 7.85%
EJ 137 46.76% FJ 19 6.48%
ST 134 45.73% IN 39 13.31%
SF 17 5.80% EN 103 35.15%
NF 25 8.53% IS 55 18.77%
NT 117 39.93% ES 96 32.76%
SJ 117 39.93% ET 169 57.68%
SP 34 11.60% EF 30 10.24%
NP 57 19.45% IF 12 4.10%
NJ 85 29.01% IT 82 27.99%

This table represents the distribution of the 16 MBTI types for the 293 Italian
participants on Ashridge development programmes from 2000 to 2010. They make
up 1.3% of the sample population. Ages range from 28 to 58. There were 241
male and 46 female participants, with 6 participants unspecified.

The most common reported types are:


ESTJ 23.5%
ENTJ 18.4%
ISTJ 13.0%
ENTP 10.6%
65.5%

19

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Ashridge MBTI Research into distribution of type

Table 8: Ashridge managerial type:


Irish Republic (n = 494)

ISTJ ISFJ INFJ INTJ


n = 81 n = 15 n=8 n = 24
16.4% 3.0% 1.6% 4.9%
SSR = 1.43 SSR = .90 SSR = .68 SSR = 1.02

ISTP ISFP INFP INTP


n = 17 n=4 n=5 n = 33
3.4% 0.8% 1.0% 6.8%
SSR = 1.09 SSR = .88 SSR = .66 SSR = 1.7

ESTP ESFP ENFP ENTP


n = 32 n=8 n = 18 n = 46
6.5% 1.6% 3.7% 9.3%
SSR = 1.03 SSR = .64 SSR = .72 SSR = .99

ESTJ ESFJ ENFJ ENTJ


n = 115 n = 20 n = 10 n = 58
23.3% 4.0% 2.0% 11.7%
SSR = 1.07 SSR = .49 SSR = .43 SSR = .95

My MBTI type is a mirror


of my true self
ESTJ Operations Maintenace Manager,
Shell Nigerian Gas Ltd

20

Ashridge Business School http://www.ashridge.org.uk


Ashridge MBTI Research into distribution of type

Dichotomous pairs
E 307 62.15% S 292 59.11%
I 187 37.85% N 202 40.89%
T 406 82.19% J 331 67.00%
F 88 17.81% P 163 33.00%

Pairs and temperaments


IJ 128 25.91% TJ 278 56.28%
IP 59 11.94% TP 128 25.91%
EP 104 21.05% FP 35 7.09%
EJ 203 41.09% FJ 53 10.73%
ST 245 49.60% IN 70 14.17%
SF 47 9.51% EN 132 26.72%
NF 41 8.30% IS 117 23.68%
NT 161 32.59% ES 175 35.43%
SJ 231 46.76% ET 251 50.81%
SP 61 12.35% EF 56 11.34%
NP 102 20.65% IF 32 6.48%
NJ 100 20.24% IT 155 31.38%

This table represents the distribution of the 16 MBTI types for the 494 Irish
participants on Ashridge development programmes from 2000 to 2010. They make
up 2.2% of the sample population. Ages range from 26 to 58. There were 361
male and 119 female participants, with 14 paricipants unspecified.

The most common reported types are:


ESTJ 23.3%
ISTJ 16.4%
ENTJ 11.7%
ENTP 9.3%
60.7%

21

Ashridge Business School http://www.ashridge.org.uk


Ashridge MBTI Research into distribution of type

Table 9: Ashridge managerial type:


The Netherlands (n = 1,023)

ISTJ ISFJ INFJ INTJ


n = 90 n=7 n=2 n = 42
8.7% 0.7% 0.2% 4.1%
SSR = .96 SSR = .24 SSR = .25 SSR = 1.70

ISTP ISFP INFP INTP


n = 36 n=6 n = 15 n = 48
3.5% 0.6% 1.5% 4.7%
SSR = .87 SSR = .42 SSR = .83 SSR = 1.20

ESTP ESFP ENFP ENTP


n = 106 n = 18 n = 59 n = 191
10.4% 1.8% 5.8% 18.7%
SSR = 1.14 SSR = .4 SSR = .73 SSR = 1.43

ESTJ ESFJ ENFJ ENTJ


n = 215 n = 30 n = 16 n = 142
21.0% 2.9% 1.6% 13.8%
SSR = 1.13 SSR = .41 SSR = .43 SSR = 1.37

MBTI is very useful for me with very


interesting points which I am sure will
be to the benefit of my career

ESTJ Director,
Eureko Sigorta

22

Ashridge Business School http://www.ashridge.org.uk


Ashridge MBTI Research into distribution of type

Dichotomous pairs
E 777 75.95% S 508 49.66%
I 246 24.05% N 515 50.34%
T 870 85.04% J 544 53.18%
F 153 14.96% P 479 46.82%

Pairs and temperaments


IJ 141 13.78% TJ 489 47.80%
IP 105 10.26% TP 381 37.24%
EP 374 36.56% FP 98 9.58%
EJ 403 39.39% FJ 55 5.38%
ST 447 43.70% IN 107 10.46%
SF 61 5.96% EN 408 39.88%
NF 92 8.99% IS 139 13.59%
NT 423 41.35% ES 369 36.07%
SJ 342 33.43% ET 654 63.93%
SP 166 16.23% EF 123 12.02%
NP 313 30.60% IF 30 2.93%
NJ 202 19.75% IT 216 21.11%

This table represents the distribution of the 16 MBTI types for the 1023 Dutch
participants on Ashridge development programmes from 2000 to 2010. They make
up 4.5% of the sample population. Ages range from 23 to 58. There were 838
male and 185 female participants.

The most common reported types are:


ESTJ 21.0%
ENTP 18.7%
ENTJ 13.9%
ESTP 10.4%
64%

23

Ashridge Business School http://www.ashridge.org.uk


Ashridge MBTI Research into distribution of type

Table 10: Ashridge managerial type:


Spain (n = 242)

ISTJ ISFJ INFJ INTJ


n = 43 n=1 n=3 n = 10
17.8% 0.4% 1.2% 4.1%
SSR = 1.47 SSR = .4 SSR = 2.4 SSR = .91

ISTP ISFP INFP INTP


n=9 n=2 n=2 n=9
3.7% 0.8% 0.8% 3.7%
SSR = 1.54 SSR = .4 SSR = 1.6 SSR = .97

ESTP ESFP ENFP ENTP


n = 17 n=2 n=4 n = 20
7.0% 0.8% 1.7% 8.3%
SSR = 1.07 SSR = .88 SSR = 1.21 SSR = .91

ESTJ ESFJ ENFJ ENTJ


n = 81 n=4 n=7 n = 28
33.5% 1.7% 2.9% 11.6%
SSR = .91 SSR = .89 SSR = 2.07 SSR = .65

24

Ashridge Business School http://www.ashridge.org.uk


Ashridge MBTI Research into distribution of type

Dichotomous pairs
E 163 67.36% S 159 65.70%
I 79 32.64% N 83 34.30%
T 217 89.67% J 177 73.14%
F 25 10.33% P 65 26.86%

Pairs and temperaments


IJ 57 23.55% TJ 162 66.94%
IP 22 9.09% TP 55 22.73%
EP 43 17.77% FP 10 4.13%
EJ 120 49.59% FJ 15 6.20%
ST 150 61.98% IN 24 9.92%
SF 9 3.72% EN 59 24.38%
NF 16 6.61% IS 55 22.73%
NT 67 27.69% ES 104 42.98%
SJ 129 53.31% ET 146 60.33%
SP 30 12.40% EF 17 7.02%
NP 35 14.46% IF 8 3.31%
NJ 48 19.83% IT 71 29.34%

This table represents the distribution of the 16 MBTI types for the 242 Spanish
participants on Ashridge development programmes from 2000 to 2010. They make
up 1.1% of the sample population. Ages range from 23 to 58. There were 197
male and 43 female participants, with 2 participants unspecified.

The most common reported types are:


ESTJ 33.5%
ISTJ 17.8%
ENTJ 11.6%
ENTP 8.3%
71.2%

25

Ashridge Business School http://www.ashridge.org.uk


Ashridge MBTI Research into distribution of type

Table 11: Ashridge managerial type:


Sweden (n = 586)

ISTJ ISFJ INFJ INTJ


n = 60 n = 11 n=6 n = 11
10.2% 1.9% 1.0% 1.9%
SSR = .89 SSR = .28 SSR = .41 SSR = 1.9

ISTP ISFP INFP INTP


n = 19 n=4 n=6 n = 20
3.2% 0.7% 1.0% 3.4%
SSR = .58 SSR = .22 SSR = .25 SSR = 1.06

ESTP ESFP ENFP ENTP


n = 58 n = 11 n = 35 n = 66
9.9% 1.9% 6.0% 11.3%
SSR = 2.2 SSR = .32 SSR = .51 SSR = 1.9

ESTJ ESFJ ENFJ ENTJ


n = 129 n = 28 n = 29 n = 93
22.0% 4.8% 4.9% 15.9%
SSR = 1.56 SSR = .4 SSR = .81 SSR = 6.11

I found the MBTI


remarkably accurate.
Its given me some very
useful insights
INTJ Stroke Rehabilitation
Research Fellow,
University of Manchester

26

Ashridge Business School http://www.ashridge.org.uk


Ashridge MBTI Research into distribution of type

Dichotomous pairs
E 449 76.62% S 320 54.61%
I 137 23.38% N 266 45.39%
T 456 77.82% J 367 62.63%
F 130 22.18% P 219 37.37%

Pairs and temperaments


IJ 88 15.02% TJ 293 50.00%
IP 49 8.36% TP 163 27.82%
EP 170 29.01% FP 56 9.56%
EJ 279 47.61% FJ 74 12.63%
ST 266 45.39% IN 43 7.34%
SF 54 9.22% EN 223 38.05%
NF 76 12.97% IS 94 16.04%
NT 190 32.42% ES 226 38.57%
SJ 228 38.91% ET 346 59.04%
SP 92 15.70% EF 103 17.58%
NP 127 21.67% IF 27 4.61%
NJ 139 23.72% IT 110 18.77%

This table represents the distribution of the 16 MBTI types for the 586 Swedish
participants on Ashridge development programmes from 2000 to 2010. They make
up 2.6% of the sample population. Ages range from 24 to 63. There were 457
male and 121 female participants, with 8 participants unspecified.

The most common reported types are:


ESTJ 22.0%
ENTJ 15.9%
ENTP 11.3%
ISTJ 10.2%
59.4%

27

Ashridge Business School http://www.ashridge.org.uk


Ashridge MBTI Research into distribution of type

Table 12: Ashridge managerial type:


United Kingdom (n = 11,886)

ISTJ ISFJ INFJ INTJ


n = 1735 n = 215 n = 125 n = 979
14.6% 1.8% 1.1% 8.2%
SSR = 1.06 SSR = .14 SSR = .65 SSR = 5.86

ISTP ISFP INFP INTP


n = 480 n = 81 n = 182 n = 825
4.0% 0.7% 1.5% 6.9%
SSR = .62 SSR = .11 SSR = .47 SSR = 2.88

ESTP ESFP ENFP ENTP


n = 618 n = 126 n = 427 n = 1420
5.2% 1.1% 3.6% 11.9%
SSR = 5.2 SSR = .12 SSR = .57 SSR = 4.25

ESTJ ESFJ ENFJ ENTJ


n = 2288 n = 347 n = 310 n = 1728
19.2% 2.9% 2.6% 14.5%
SSR = 1.85 SSR = .23 SSR = .93 SSR = 5.00

I guessed there would be a


MBTI that summed me up
and indeed there was
ISFJ Senior Lecturer,
Kings College London

28

Ashridge Business School http://www.ashridge.org.uk


Ashridge MBTI Research into distribution of type

Dichotomous pairs
E 7264 61.11% S 5890 49.55%
I 4622 38.89% N 5996 50.45%
T 10073 84.75% J 7727 65.01%
F 1813 15.25% P 4159 34.99%

Pairs and temperaments


IJ 3054 25.69% TJ 6730 56.62%
IP 1568 13.19% TP 3343 28.13%
EP 2591 21.80% FP 816 6.87%
EJ 4673 39.32% FJ 997 8.39%
ST 5121 43.08% IN 2111 17.76%
SF 769 6.47% EN 3885 32.69%
NF 1044 8.78% IS 2511 21.13%
NT 4952 41.66% ES 3379 28.43%
SJ 4585 38.57% ET 6054 50.93%
SP 1305 10.98% EF 1210 10.18%
NP 2854 24.01% IF 603 5.07%
NJ 3142 26.43% IT 4019 33.81%

This table represents the distribution of the 16 MBTI types for the 11886 UK
participants on Ashridge development programmes from 2000 to 2010. They make
up 52% of the sample population. Ages range from 20 to 72. There were 8581
male and 3115 female participants, with 190 participants unspecified.

The most common reported types are:


ESTJ 19.2%
ISTJ 14.6%
ENTJ 14.5%
ENTP 11.9%
60.2%

29

Ashridge Business School http://www.ashridge.org.uk


Ashridge MBTI Research into distribution of type

Table 13: Ashridge managerial type:


United States (n = 785)

ISTJ ISFJ INFJ INTJ


n = 148 n = 11 n=6 n = 46
18.9% 1.4% 0.8% 5.9%
SSR = .61 SSR = .10 SSR = .53 SSR = 2.8

ISTP ISFP INFP INTP


n = 35 n=3 n=9 n = 34
4.5% 0.4% 1.1% 4.3%
SSR = .88 SSR = .04 SSR = .25 SSR = 1.3

ESTP ESFP ENFP ENTP


n = 40 n = 11 n = 24 n = 93
5.1% 1.4% 3.1% 11.8%
SSR = 1.18 SSR = .16 SSR = .38 SSR = 3.7

ESTJ ESFJ ENFJ ENTJ


n = 177 n = 21 n = 23 n = 104
22.5% 2.7% 2.9% 13.2%
SSR = 2.59 SSR = .21 SSR = 1.16 SSR = 7.33

I found it very accurate


and even predicted my
response to stress
INTP Clinical Scientist,
University College London

30

Ashridge Business School http://www.ashridge.org.uk


Ashridge MBTI Research into distribution of type

Dichotomous pairs
E 493 62.80% S 446 56.82%
I 292 37.20% N 339 43.18%
T 677 86.24% J 536 68.28%
F 108 13.76% P 249 31.72%

Pairs and temperaments


IJ 211 26.88% TJ 475 60.51%
IP 81 10.32% TP 202 25.73%
EP 168 21.40% FP 47 5.99%
EJ 325 41.40% FJ 61 7.77%
ST 400 50.96% IN 95 12.10%
SF 46 5.86% EN 244 31.08%
NF 62 7.90% IS 197 25.10%
NT 277 35.29% ES 249 31.72%
SJ 357 45.48% ET 414 52.74%
SP 89 11.34% EF 79 10.06%
NP 160 20.38% IF 29 3.69%
NJ 179 22.80% IT 263 33.50%

This table represents the distribution of the 16 MBTI types for the 785 USA
participants on Ashridge development programmes from 2000 to 2010. They make
up 3.4% of the sample population. Ages range from 23 to 64. There were 618
male and 154 female participants, with 13 participants unspecified.

The most common reported types are:


ESTJ 22.5%
ISTJ 18.9%
ENTJ 13.2%
ENTP 11.8%
66.4%

31

Ashridge Business School http://www.ashridge.org.uk


Ashridge MBTI Research into distribution of type

Table 14: Ashridge managerial type:


Industry sectors: Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing (n = 119)

ISTJ ISFJ INFJ INTJ


n = 27 n=1 n=0 n=8
22.7% 0.8% 0.0% 6.7%
SSR = 1.66 SSR = .06 SSR = 0 SSR = 4.79

ISTP ISFP INFP INTP


n = 10 n=1 n=3 n=8
8.4% 0.8% 2.5% 6.7%
SSR = 1.31 SSR = .13 SSR = .78 SSR = 2.75

ESTP ESFP ENFP ENTP


n=7 n=3 n=4 n = 13
5.9% 2.5% 3.4% 10.9%
SSR = 1.01 SSR = .29 SSR = .54 SSR = 3.89

ESTJ ESFJ ENFJ ENTJ


n = 22 n=1 n=2 n=9
18.5% 0.8% 1.8% 7.6%
SSR = .56 SSR = .06 SSR = .60 SSR = 2.62

I found the MBTI to be very useful


indeed. Hugely insightful and
the practical application of the
information was perfect
ESTJ Regional Sales Manager,
Friend First Life
Assurance Company Ltd

32

Ashridge Business School http://www.ashridge.org.uk


Ashridge MBTI Research into distribution of type

Dichotomous pairs
E 61 51.26% S 72 60.50%
I 58 48.74% N 47 39.50%
T 104 87.39% J 70 58.82%
F 15 12.61% P 49 41.18%

Pairs and temperaments


IJ 36 30.25% TJ 66 55.46%
IP 22 18.49% TP 38 31.93%
EP 27 22.69% FP 11 9.24%
EJ 34 28.57% FJ 4 3.36%
ST 66 55.46% IN 19 15.97%
SF 6 5.04% EN 28 23.53%
NF 9 7.56% IS 39 32.77%
NT 38 31.93% ES 33 27.73%
SJ 51 42.86% ET 51 42.86%
SP 21 17.65% EF 10 8.40%
NP 28 23.53% IF 5 4.20%
NJ 19 15.97% IT 53 44.54%

This table represents the distribution of the 16 MBTI types for the 119 participants
on Ashridge development programmes from the Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing
industries from 2000 to 2010. They make up 0.5% of the sample population. Ages
range from 24 to 61. There were 100 male and 19 female participants.

The most common reported types are:


ISTJ 22.7%
ESTJ 18.5%
ENTP 10.9%
ISTP 8.4%
60.5%

33

Ashridge Business School http://www.ashridge.org.uk


Ashridge MBTI Research into distribution of type

Table 15: Ashridge managerial type:


Industry sectors: Energy, Water Suppliers (n = 1,286)

ISTJ ISFJ INFJ INTJ


n = 193 n = 27 n = 19 n = 80
15.0% 2.1% 1.5% 6.2%
SSR = 1.16 SSR = .16 SSR = .88 SSR = 4.42

ISTP ISFP INFP INTP


n = 49 n=3 n = 11 n = 69
3.8% 0.2% 0.9% 5.4%
SSR = .59 SSR = .03 SSR = .28 SSR = 2.25

ESTP ESFP ENFP ENTP


n = 78 n = 22 n = 37 n = 135
6.1% 1.7% 2.9% 10.5%
SSR = 1.05 SSR = .19 SSR = .46 SSR = 3.75

ESTJ ESFJ ENFJ ENTJ


n = 310 n = 36 n = 37 n = 180
24.1% 2.7% 2.9% 14.0%
SSR = 2.31 SSR = .22 SSR = 1.03 SSR = 4.83

34

Ashridge Business School http://www.ashridge.org.uk


Ashridge MBTI Research into distribution of type

Dichotomous pairs
E 835 64.93% S 718 55.83%
I 451 35.07% N 568 44.17%
T 1094 85.07% J 882 68.58%
F 192 14.93% P 404 31.42%

Pairs and temperaments


IJ 319 24.81% TJ 763 59.33%
IP 132 10.26% TP 331 25.74%
EP 272 21.15% FP 73 5.68%
EJ 563 43.78% FJ 119 9.25%
ST 630 48.99% IN 179 13.92%
SF 88 6.84% EN 389 30.25%
NF 104 8.09% IS 272 21.15%
NT 464 36.08% ES 446 34.68%
SJ 566 44.01% ET 703 54.67%
SP 152 11.82% EF 132 10.26%
NP 252 19.60% IF 60 4.67%
NJ 316 24.57% IT 391 30.40%

This table represents the distribution of the 16 MBTI types for the 1286
participants on Ashridge development programmes from the Utility industries from
2000 to 2010. They make up 5.6% of the sample population. Ages range from
24 to 61. There were 1092 male and 183 female participants, with 11 participants
unspecified.

The most common reported types are:


ESTJ 24.1%
ISTJ 15.0%
ENTJ 14.0%
ENTP 10.5%
63.6%

35

Ashridge Business School http://www.ashridge.org.uk


Ashridge MBTI Research into distribution of type

Table 16: Ashridge managerial type:


Industry sectors: Chemical and Pharmaceutical (n = 1,622)

ISTJ ISFJ INFJ INTJ


n = 213 n = 24 n = 13 n = 92
13.1% 1.5% 0.8% 5.7%
SSR = .96 SSR = .12 SSR = .47 SSR = 4.07

ISTP ISFP INFP INTP


n = 56 n = 13 n = 15 n = 81
3.5% 0.8% 0.9% 5.0%
SSR = .54 SSR = .13 SSR = .28 SSR = 2.08

ESTP ESFP ENFP ENTP


n = 113 n = 16 n = 53 n = 183
7.0% 1.0% 3.3% 11.3%
SSR = 1.21 SSR = .11 SSR = .52 SSR = 4.04

ESTJ ESFJ ENFJ ENTJ


n = 385 n = 44 n = 43 n = 278
23.7% 2.7% 2.6% 17.1%
SSR = 2.28 SSR = .21 SSR = .96 SSR = 5.89

My profile reflects me well,


particularly my response
to stressful situations

ENTJ Senior Manager,


HSBC Bank Plc

36

Ashridge Business School http://www.ashridge.org.uk


Ashridge MBTI Research into distribution of type

Dichotomous pairs
E 1115 68.74% S 864 53.27%
I 507 31.26% N 758 46.73%
T 1401 86.37% J 1092 67.32%
F 221 13.63% P 530 32.68%

Pairs and temperaments


IJ 342 21.09% TJ 968 59.68%
IP 165 10.17% TP 433 26.70%
EP 365 22.50% FP 97 5.98%
EJ 750 46.24% FJ 124 7.64%
ST 767 47.29% IN 201 12.39%
SF 97 5.98% EN 557 34.34%
NF 124 7.64% IS 306 18.87%
NT 634 39.09% ES 558 34.40%
SJ 666 41.06% ET 959 59.12%
SP 198 12.21% EF 156 9.62%
NP 332 20.47% IF 65 4.01%
NJ 426 26.26% IT 442 27.25%

This table represents the distribution of the 16 MBTI types for the 1622
participants on Ashridge development programmes from the Chemical and
Pharmaceutical industries from 2000 to 2010. They make up 7.1% of the sample
population. Ages range from 24 to 63. There were 1270 male and 335 female
participants, with 17 unspecified.

The most common reported types are:


ESTJ 23.7%
ENTJ 17.1%
ISTJ 13.1%
ENTP 11.3%
65.2%

37

Ashridge Business School http://www.ashridge.org.uk


Ashridge MBTI Research into distribution of type

Table 17: Ashridge managerial type:


Industry sector: Manufacturing (n = 5,563)

ISTJ ISFJ INFJ INTJ


n = 755 n = 44 n = 25 n = 314
13.7% 0.8% 0.4% 5.6%
SSR = 1.01 SSR = .06 SSR = .24 SSR = 4.0

ISTP ISFP INFP INTP


n = 182 n = 18 n = 47 n = 237
3.3% 0.3% 0.8% 4.3%
SSR = 5.16 SSR = .04 SSR = .25 SSR = 1.80

ESTP ESFP ENFP ENTP


n = 391 n = 46 n = 180 n = 609
7.0% 0.8% 3.2% 10.9%
SSR = 1.20 SSR = .09 SSR = .51 SSR = 3.89

ESTJ ESFJ ENFJ ENTJ


n = 1541 n = 132 n = 121 n = 921
27.7% 2.4% 2.2% 16.6%
SSR = 2.66 SSR = .19 SSR = .79 SSR = 5.2

Understanding being an INFP has


helped me to realise my own abilities
and understand my interactions and
relationships within the team

INFP Store Manager,


Long Tall Sally

38

Ashridge Business School http://www.ashridge.org.uk


Ashridge MBTI Research into distribution of type

Dichotomous pairs
E 3941 70.84 S 3109 55.89
I 1622 29.16 N 2454 44.11
T 4950 88.98 J 3853 69.26
F 613 11.02 P 1710 30.74

Pairs and temperaments


IJ 1138 20.46 TJ 3531 63.47
IP 484 8.70 TP 1419 25.51
EP 1226 22.04 FP 291 5.23
EJ 2715 48.80 FJ 322 5.79
ST 2869 51.57 IN 623 11.20
SF 240 4.31 EN 1831 32.91
NF 373 6.71 IS 999 17.96
NT 2081 37.41 ES 2110 37.93
SJ 2472 44.44 ET 3462 62.23
SP 637 11.45 EF 479 8.61
NP 1073 19.29 IF 134 2.41
NJ 1381 24.82 IT 1488 26.75

This table represents the distribution of the 16 MBTI types for the 5563
participants on Ashridge development programmes from the Manufacturing
industries from 2000 to 2010. They make up 24.4% of the sample population.
Ages range from 23 to 78. There were 4610 male and 820 female participants,
with 133 unspecified.

The most common reported types are:


ESTJ 27.7%
ENTJ 16.6%
ISTJ 13.6%
ENTP 10.9%
68.8%

39

Ashridge Business School http://www.ashridge.org.uk


Ashridge MBTI Research into distribution of type

Table 18: Ashridge managerial type:


Industry sector: Construction (n = 1,469)

ISTJ ISFJ INFJ INTJ


n = 269 n = 29 n = 11 n = 127
18.3% 2.0% 0.7% 8.6%
SSR = 1.34 SSR = .16 SSR = .41 SSR = 6.14

ISTP ISFP INFP INTP


n = 68 n=7 n = 16 n = 85
4.6% 0.5% 1.1% 5.8%
SSR = .72 SSR = .08 SSR = .34 SSR = 2.42

ESTP ESFP ENFP ENTP


n = 78 n = 11 n = 42 n = 133
5.3% 0.7% 2.9% 9.1%
SSR = .91 SSR = .08 SSR = .46 SSR = .30

ESTJ ESFJ ENFJ ENTJ


n = 346 n = 31 n = 27 n = 189
23.6% 2.1% 1.8% 12.9%
SSR = 2.36 SSR = .17 SSR = .64 SSR = 4.44

40

Ashridge Business School http://www.ashridge.org.uk


Ashridge MBTI Research into distribution of type

Dichotomous pairs
E 857 58.34% S 839 57.11%
I 612 41.66% N 630 42.89%
T 1295 88.16% J 1029 70.05%
F 174 11.84% P 440 29.95%

Pairs and temperaments


IJ 436 29.68% TJ 931 63.38%
IP 176 11.98% TP 364 24.78%
EP 264 17.97% FP 76 5.17%
EJ 593 40.37% FJ 98 6.67%
ST 761 51.80% IN 239 16.27%
SF 78 5.31% EN 391 26.62%
NF 96 6.54% IS 373 25.39%
NT 534 36.35% ES 466 31.72%
SJ 675 45.95% ET 746 50.78%
SP 164 11.16% EF 111 7.56%
NP 276 18.79% IF 63 4.29%
NJ 354 24.10% IT 549 37.37%

This table represents the distribution of the 16 MBTI types for the 1469
participants on Ashridge development programmes from the Construction
industries from 2000 to 2010. They make up 6.4 % of the sample population. Ages
range from 24 to 64. There were 1309 male and 150 female participants, with 10
participants unspecified.

The most common reported types are:


ESTJ 23.6%
ISTJ 18.3%
ENTJ 12.9%
ENTP 9.1%
63.9%

41

Ashridge Business School http://www.ashridge.org.uk


Ashridge MBTI Research into distribution of type

Table 19: Ashridge managerial type:


Industry sector: Retail (n = 202)

ISTJ ISFJ INFJ INTJ


n = 30 n=2 n=0 n=9
14.8% 1.0% 0.0% 4.5%
SSR = 1.09 SSR = .07 SSR = 0 SSR = 3.21

ISTP ISFP INFP INTP


n=9 n=0 n=1 n = 19
4.5% 0.0% 0.5% 9.4%
SSR = .70 SSR = 0 SSR = .16 SSR = 3.92

ESTP ESFP ENFP ENTP


n=7 n=0 n=4 n = 36
3.5% 0.0% 2.0% 17.7%
SSR = 1.66 SSR = 0 SSR = .32 SSR = 6.36

ESTJ ESFJ ENFJ ENTJ


n = 45 n=3 n=2 n = 35
22.3% 1.5% 1.0% 17.3%
SSR = 2.14 SSR = .12 SSR = .36 SSR = 5.97

42

Ashridge Business School http://www.ashridge.org.uk


Ashridge MBTI Research into distribution of type

Dichotomous pairs
E 132 65.35% S 96 47.52%
I 70 34.65% N 106 52.48%
T 190 94.06% J 126 62.38%
F 12 5.94% P 76 37.62%

Pairs and temperaments


IJ 41 20.30% TJ 119 58.91%
IP 29 14.36% TP 71 35.15%
EP 47 23.27% FP 5 2.48%
EJ 85 42.08% FJ 7 3.47%
ST 91 45.05% IN 29 14.36%
SF 5 2.48% EN 77 38.12%
NF 7 3.47% IS 41 20.30%
NT 99 49.01% ES 55 27.23%
SJ 80 39.60% ET 123 60.89%
SP 16 7.92% EF 9 4.46%
NP 60 29.70% IF 3 1.49%
NJ 46 22.77% IT 67 33.17%

This table represents the distribution of the 16 MBTI types for the 202 participants
on Ashridge development programmes from the Retailing industry from 2000 to
2010. They make up .89% of the sample population. Ages range from 27 to 57.
There were 153 male and 48 female participants and 1 participant unspecified.

The most common reported types are:


ESTJ 22.3%
ENTP 17.8%
ENTJ 17.3%
ISTJ 14.9%
72.3%

43

Ashridge Business School http://www.ashridge.org.uk


Ashridge MBTI Research into distribution of type

Table 20: Ashridge managerial type:


Industry sectors: Transport, Communications (n = 1699)

ISTJ ISFJ INFJ INTJ


n = 209 n = 20 n=7 n = 112
12.3% 1.2% 0.4% 6.6%
SSR = .89 SSR = .09 SSR = .23 SSR = 4.71

ISTP ISFP INFP INTP


n = 63 n=9 n = 29 n = 81
3.7% 0.5% 1.7% 4.8%
SSR = .59 SSR = .08 SSR = .53 SSR = 2.00

ESTP ESFP ENFP ENTP


n = 116 n = 27 n = 67 n = 208
6.8% 1.6% 3.9% 12.2%
SSR = 1.17 SSR = .18 SSR = .61 SSR = 4.36

ESTJ ESFJ ENFJ ENTJ


n = 421 n = 40 n = 39 n = 251
24.8% 2.4% 2.3% 14.8%
SSR = 2.39 SSR = .19 SSR = .82 SSR = 5.10

MBTI is a very powerful tool to


make transparent the different
behaviours of team members
ESFJ General Manager,
EUREKO

44

Ashridge Business School http://www.ashridge.org.uk


Ashridge MBTI Research into distribution of type

Dichotomous pairs
E 1169 68.81% S 905 53.27%
I 530 31.19% N 794 46.73%
T 1461 85.99% J 1099 64.69%
F 238 14.01% P 600 35.31%

Pairs and temperaments


IJ 348 20.48% TJ 993 58.45%
IP 182 10.71% TP 468 27.55%
EP 418 24.60% FP 132 7.77%
EJ 751 44.20% FJ 106 6.24%
ST 809 47.62% IN 229 13.48%
SF 96 5.65% EN 565 33.25%
NF 142 8.36% IS 301 17.72%
NT 652 38.38% ES 604 35.55%
SJ 690 40.61% ET 996 58.62%
SP 215 12.65% EF 173 10.18%
NP 385 22.66% IF 65 3.83%
NJ 409 24.07% IT 465 27.37%

This table represents the distribution of the 16 MBTI types for the 1699
participants on Ashridge development programmes from the Transport and
Communications industries from 2000 to 2010. They make up 7.5% of the sample
population. Ages range from 24 to 59. There were 1397 male and 282 female
participants, with 20 participants unspecified.

The most common reported types are:


ESTJ 24.8%
ENTJ 14.8%
ISTJ 12.3%
ENTP 12.2%
64.1%

45

Ashridge Business School http://www.ashridge.org.uk


Ashridge MBTI Research into distribution of type

Table 21: Ashridge managerial type:


Industry sectors: Finance, Banking, Insurance (n = 2050)

ISTJ ISFJ INFJ INTJ


n = 284 n = 37 n = 19 n = 137
13.9% 1.8% 0.9% 6.7%
SSR = 1.01 SSR = .14 SSR = .53 SSR = 4.79

ISTP ISFP INFP INTP


n = 90 n = 11 n = 23 n = 121
4.4% 0.5% 1.1% 5.9%
SSR = .69 SSR = .08 SSR = .34 SSR = 2.46

ESTP ESFP ENFP ENTP


n = 132 n = 32 n = 76 n = 237
6.4% 1.6% 3.7% 11.6%
SSR = 1.10 SSR = .18 SSR = .59 SSR = .24

ESTJ ESFJ ENFJ ENTJ


n = 464 n = 62 n = 48 n = 277
22.7% 3.0% 2.3% 13.5%
SSR = 2.17 SSR = .24 SSR = .82 SSR = 4.66

Fascinating insight into


personality types
ISFP Marketing Manager,
Pharmaceutical Co

46

Ashridge Business School http://www.ashridge.org.uk


Ashridge MBTI Research into distribution of type

Dichotomous pairs
E 1328 64.78% S 1112 54.24%
I 722 35.22% N 938 45.76%
T 1742 84.98% J 1328 64.78%
F 308 15.02% P 722 35.22%

Pairs and temperaments


IJ 477 23.27% TJ 1162 56.68%
IP 245 11.95% TP 580 28.29%
EP 477 23.27% FP 142 6.93%
EJ 851 41.51% FJ 166 8.10%
ST 970 47.32% IN 300 14.63%
SF 142 6.93% EN 638 31.12%
NF 166 8.10% IS 422 20.59%
NT 772 37.66% ES 690 33.66%
SJ 847 41.32% ET 1110 54.15%
SP 265 12.93% EF 218 10.63%
NP 457 22.29% IF 90 4.39%
NJ 481 23.46% IT 632 30.83%

This table represents the distribution of the 16 MBTI types for the 2050
participants on Ashridge development programmes from the Finance, Banking
and Insurance industries from 2000 to 2010. They make up 9% of the sample
population. Ages range from 23 to 63. There were 1563 male and 438 female
participants, with 49 participants unspecified.

The most common reported types are:


ESTJ 22.6%
ISTJ 13.9%
ENTJ 13.5%
ENTP 11.6%
61.6%

47

Ashridge Business School http://www.ashridge.org.uk


Ashridge MBTI Research into distribution of type

Table 22: Ashridge managerial type:


Industry sectors: Publishing, Entertainment, Leisure (n = 1445)

ISTJ ISFJ INFJ INTJ


n = 164 n = 24 n=7 n = 90
11.3% 1.7% 0.5% 6.2%
SSR = .82 SSR = .13 SSR = .29 SSR = 4.43

ISTP ISFP INFP INTP


n = 51 n = 11 n = 21 n = 79
3.5% 0.8% 1.5% 5.5%
SSR = .55 SSR = .13 SSR = .47 SSR = 2.29

ESTP ESFP ENFP ENTP


n = 94 n = 13 n = 67 n = 192
6.5% 0.9% 4.6% 13.3%
SSR = 1.12 SSR = .10 SSR = .73 SSR = 4.75

ESTJ ESFJ ENFJ ENTJ


n = 289 n = 52 n = 57 n = 234
20.0% 3.6% 3.9% 16.2%
SSR = 1.92 SSR = 2.86 SSR = 1.39 SSR = 5.59

48

Ashridge Business School http://www.ashridge.org.uk


Ashridge MBTI Research into distribution of type

Dichotomous pairs
E 998 69.07% S 698 48.30%
I 447 30.93% N 747 51.70%
T 1193 82.56% J 917 63.46%
F 252 17.44% P 528 36.54%

Pairs and temperaments


IJ 285 19.72% TJ 777 53.77%
IP 162 11.21% TP 416 28.79%
EP 366 25.33% FP 112 7.75%
EJ 632 43.74% FJ 140 9.69%
ST 598 41.38% IN 197 13.63%
SF 100 6.92% EN 550 38.06%
NF 152 10.52% IS 250 17.30%
NT 595 41.18% ES 448 31.00%
SJ 529 36.61% ET 809 55.99%
SP 169 11.70% EF 189 13.08%
NP 359 24.84% IF 63 4.36%
NJ 388 26.85% IT 384 26.57%

This table represents the distribution of the 16 MBTI types for the 1445
participants on Ashridge development programmes from the Publishing,
Entertainment and Leisure industries from 2000 to 2010. They make up 6.3% of
the sample population. Ages range from 21 to 61. There were 975 male and 452
female participants, with 18 participants unspecified.

The most common reported types are:


ESTJ 20.0%
ENTJ 16.2%
ENTP 13.3%
ISTJ 11.3%
60.8%

49

Ashridge Business School http://www.ashridge.org.uk


Ashridge MBTI Research into distribution of type

Table 23: Ashridge managerial type:


Industry sector: Public Sector (n = 5702)

ISTJ ISFJ INFJ INTJ


n = 904 n = 126 n = 72 n = 531
15.9% 2.2% 1.3% 9.3%
SSR = 1.16 SSR = .17 SSR = .76 SSR= 6.64

ISTP ISFP INFP INTP


n = 228 n = 45 n = 98 n = 384
4.0% 0.8% 1.7% 6.7%
SSR = .63 SSR = .13 SSR = .53 SSR = 2.79

ESTP ESFP ENFP ENTP


n = 263 n = 66 n = 205 n = 639
4.6% 1.2% 3.6% 11.2%
SSR = .79 SSR = .13 SSR = .57 SSR = .25

ESTJ ESFJ ENFJ ENTJ


n = 1011 n = 189 n = 151 n = 790
17.7% 3.3% 2.6% 13.9%
SSR = 1.70 SSR = .26 SSR = .93 SSR = 4.79

Having completed MBTT


assessment 3 times, I found it
reassuring to know that I have
been consistent in my result
and I feel it is a very accurate
reflection of my prefence
ENFJ Innovation Manager,
E. ON UK Plc

50

Ashridge Business School http://www.ashridge.org.uk


Ashridge MBTI Research into distribution of type

Dichotomous pairs
E 3314 58.12% S 2832 49.67%
I 2388 41.88% N 2870 50.33%
T 4750 83.30% J 3774 66.19%
F 952 16.70% P 1928 33.81%

Pairs and temperaments


IJ 1633 28.64% TJ 3236 56.75%
IP 755 13.24% TP 1514 26.55%
EP 1173 20.57% FP 414 7.26%
EJ 2141 37.55% FJ 538 9.44%
ST 2406 42.20% IN 1085 19.03%
SF 426 7.47% EN 1785 31.30%
NF 526 9.22% IS 1303 22.85%
NT 2344 41.11% ES 1529 26.82%
SJ 2230 39.11% ET 2703 47.40%
SP 602 10.56% EF 611 10.72%
NP 1326 23.25% IF 341 5.98%
NJ 1544 27.08% IT 2047 35.90%

This table represents the distribution of the 16 MBTI types for the 5702
participants on Ashridge development programmes from Public Sector industries
from 2000 to 2010. They make up 25% of the sample population. Ages range
from 21 to 64. There were 3757 male and 1789 female participants, with 156
participants unspecified.

The most common reported types are:


ESTJ 17.7%
ISTJ 15.9%
ENTJ 13.9%
ENTP 11.2%
58.7%

51

Ashridge Business School http://www.ashridge.org.uk


Ashridge, Berkhamsted, Hertfordshire HP4 1NS, UK

Psychometric Services
Tel: +44 (0)1442 841030
Fax: +44 (0)1442 841415
psychometric.services@ashridge.org.uk
www.ashridge.org.uk

Ashridge

First edition 2004


Updated January 2011

All rights reserved. Except for the quotation of short passages for the purpose of criticism
and review, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or
transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording
or otherwise, without the prior permission of Ashridge.

ISBN 0903542 51X

Ashridge Business School http://www.ashridge.org.uk