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Australian Journal of Basic & Applied Sciences, 1(3): 193-207, 2007

ISSN 1991-8178

Efficiency of Some Natural Substitutes of Peatmoss as


Growing Media for Tomato Seedlings Production
1
Nadia, M. Badran, 2 O.H. El-Hussieny and 3E.H. Allam

1
Department of Plant Nutrition, National Research Centre, Dokki, Egypt.
2
Department of Soil, Faculty of Agric., Benha Univ., Egypt.
3
Soils, Water and Environ. Res. Ins., Agric Res. Centre, Giza, Egypt.

Abstract: A greenhouse trail was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of some types of prepared
compost as growing media for tomato seedling production. Four types of compost were prepared by
composting rice straw (RS), poultry manure (PM) and banana wastes (BW )as ground materials. The
prepared growing media were derived by composting the above raw wastes pile compost mixtures
(comp. mix. No. 1), and the other three piles with some additional materials i.e. microbial inoculation
(comp. mix. No. 2), microbial inoculation + rock phosphate + feldspar (comp. mix. No. 3) and tea
compost (compost mix. No. 4). The four compost mixtures along with peat moss (control) were
subjected to either compost washing or unwashing, to compost enriched with nutrients or no and
to compost mixing with either vermiculite or sand (ratio of 1:1 for both materials), comprising 54
treatments. Tomato seeds were sown on those growing media for 45 days. The fresh and dry weights
of the growing seedlings as well as macro and micro nutrients uptake were determined. The obtained
results could be briefly summarized in the following: Effect of compost type (A): The highest
values of fresh and dry weights of tomato seedlings as well as macro (N, P and K) and
micronutrients (Fe, Mn. Zn and Cu)uptake were recorded under growing media of peat
moss (control) and compost type No. 4 (RS+BW +PM + tea compost). Effect of mixing components
(B): T he values of fresh and dry weights and N, P, K, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu uptake by tomato
seedlings were significantly higher when mixing component of 50 % vermiculite + 50% compost or
peat moss was added than both (50% sand + 50 % compost) and 100 % compost or peat moss.
Effect of nutrients enrichment (C): The non-enriched treatments gave significantly higher values
of fresh and dry weights of tomato seedlings as well as N, p, K, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu uptake as
compared with those enriched treatments. Moreover, the enriched peatmoss (control) gave significantly
higher values of macro and micronutrients uptake by tomato seedlings as compared with those non-
enriched treatments. W ashing effect (D): All the compost types which were subjected to washing
gave significantly higher increases in fresh and dry weights of tomato seedlings as well as macro and
micro nutrients uptake than those treatments which were not washed. Effect of interaction between
A and B: The interaction between the compost mixture (A) and mixing component (B) significantly
affected all the parameters under study i.e. fresh and dry weights of tomato seedlings as well as N,
P, K, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu uptake. The highest significant values of fresh and dry weights of
tomato seedlings were obtained by using compost mixture No.1 and mixing component of 50%
vermiculite +50%compost or peat moss. The highest values of N, P, K, Fe, Zn and Cu were found
when the compost mixture No.3 and the mixing component 50% vermiculite +50% compost or peat
moss were used, while the highest values of Mn uptake were found under compost mixture No.4 and
the same mixing component. Effect of interaction between A and C: The highest significant values
of fresh and dry weights as well as N, P, K, Fe, Mn and Zn uptake by tomato seedlings were
found under non-enriched treatments and using compost mixture No. 4, while the highest values of
Cu uptake were found under non-enriched treatments and compost mixture No. 3. Effect of
interaction between B and C: The highest significant values of fresh and dry weights as well as N,

Corresponding Author: Nadia, M. Badran, Department of Plant Nutrition, National Research Centre, Dokki, Egypt.

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P, K, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu uptake by tomato seedlings were found when the mixing component of 50%
vermiculite + 50% compost or peat moss and non-enriched treatments were used. The lowest values
of fresh and dry weights as well as N uptake by tomato seedlings were found under mixing
components of 100 % compost or peat moss and enriched treatments. M oreover, the lowest values
of Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu uptake by tomato seedlings were obtained by using 50% sand + 50% compost
or peat moss under non-enriched treatments. Effect of interaction between A, B,C and D: The
interaction between the main factors of A, B, C and D, significantly affect the fresh and dry weights
as well as all the studied macro and micro nutrients uptake by tomato seedlings. The highest values
of fresh and dry weights as well as N, p and K uptake by tomato seedlings were found under non-
enriched, washing treatments and using compost mixture No. 4 and mixing component of 50 %
vermiculite + 50 % compost or peat moss. The highest values of Fe and Mn uptake by tomato
seedlings were found when non-enriched and washed treatments, the mixing component of 50%
vermiculite + 50% compost or peat moss and compost mixture No.1 were used, while the highest
values of Zn and Cu were attained when non-enriched and washed treatments, mixing component of
50% vermiculite + 50% compost or peat moss and compost mix. No. 3 were used.

Key words: Compost, microbial inoculation, growing media, nutrients enrichment.

INTRODUCTION

Nowadays peat moss, represents a major source of organic matter used in formulating growing media for
different plant seedlings. In spit of its high cost, Egypt imports high amounts of such substrate. Accordingly
it seems more economic if we could find out some local and efficient substitutes of peat moss for this purpose.
The local production of such materials particularly, if they were efficient and dependent essentially on the
natural and local resources do not only saves a part of the national income but also leads to reduction of the
environmental pollution and found out suitable jobs for many labors hands. Moreover, organic residues in peat
moss preparation is considered as one of the most suitable media for production of plant seedlings. The
preparation of peat moss needs individual organic materials mixed with some other materials such as bentonite
and/or sand in different ratios.
Supplementation of raw materials with natural rocks (such as rock phosphate and feldspar) and microbial
inoculants (such as Trichoderma viridie, or Streptomyces aurcofaciens, Aspergillus awanori, Polyporus
veriscoler, Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Azotobacter chroococcum) developed a new technology for the
production of rapid compost with good quality (Biswa and Narayanasamy, 2002).
Several authors reported that compost application to growing media can improve their physical and
chemical properties as well as increasing the availability of macro and micronutrients needed for seedlings to
be grown (Hellal et al., 1996, Ozores-Hampton et al., 1998 and Abdallah et al., 2000).
The present work was conducted to evaluate the suitability and efficiency of some prepared types of
compost as media for growing tomato seedlings under green house conditions.

M ATERIALS AND M ETHODS

This experiment was conducted to evaluate the suitability of some prepared types of compost mixtures,
as media for growing tomato seedlings under green house conditions. The experiment was undertaken in The
Protected Cultivation, M inistry of Agriculture, Dokki, Giza.
Four types of compost were represented by four compost piles, all of which were prepared by composting
rice straw (RS), banana wastes (BW ) and poultry manure (PM) as a ground materials. T he growing media were
prepared by composting the above raw ground wastes (Pile or compost mixture No.1). The other three piles
were treated with some additional materials i.e. microbial inoculation (pile 2), microbial inoculation + 5kg from
each of rock phosphate and feldspar (pile 3) and tea compost (pile 4). The four types of compost along with
the peat moss as a control treatment, were subjected to either washed or not, enriched (enrichment with
nutrients) or not and mixed with either vermiculite or sand at volumetric ratio (1:1) for both mixtures,
comprising 54 treatments (Table 1 and 2). T he composting process was conducted as described by Allam
(2005).

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Table 1: Types and amounts of agricultural wastes, additive materials and inoculums used for building the different compost piles under
study.
Raw materials amounts
comprising the pile Pile Comp. Mix
Agricultural wastes
Rice straw (RS) 50 kg 1 2 3 4
Poultry manure (PM) 100 kg --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Banana wastes (BW) 50 kg Basic materials used for building up all the compost piles
Additive materials:
Phosphate rocks (5kg) - - + -
Feldspar (5kg) - - + -
Microbial inoculation:
Trichoderma harizium (1%) - + + -
Phanerochaet chrysosporium ( 1%) - + + -
Compost tea (20 L) - - - +

Table 2: Experimental design evaluation of prepared compost types as media for tomato seedling growth
Treatment No. Treatments Mixing ratio V/V Treatment No. Treatments Mixing ratio V/V
1 P 100%
2 P+V 50:50
3 P + S 50:50
4 Unw. Comp. Mix. (1) 100% 16 W. Comp. Mix. (1) 100%
5 Unw. Comp.Mix. (1) + V 50:50 17 W. Comp. Mix. (1) + V 50:50
6 Unw. Comp.Mix. (1) + S 50:50 18 W. Comp.Mix. (1) + S 50:50
7 Unw. Comp.Mix. (2) 100% 19 W. Comp.Mix. (2) 100%
8 Unw. Comp.Mix. (2) + V 50:50 20 W. Comp.Mix. (2) + V 50:50
9 Unw. Comp.Mix. (2) + S 50:50 21 W. Comp.Mix. (2) + S 50:50
10 Unw. Comp.Mix. (3) 100% 22 W. Comp.Mix. (3) 100%
11 Unw. Comp.Mix. (3) + V 50:50 23 W. Comp.Mix. (3) + V 50:50
12 Unw. Comp.Mix. (3) + S 50:50 24 W. Comp.Mix. (3) + S 50:50
13 Unw. Comp.Mix. (4) 100% 25 W. Comp.Mix. (4) 100%
14 Unw. Comp.Mix. (4) + V 50:50 26 W. Comp.Mix. (4) + V 50:50
15 Unw. Comp.Mix. (4) + S 50:50 27 W. Comp.Mix. (4) + S 50:50
These (27) treatments (Table 2) were subjected to nutrients enrichment or not comprise 54 as total used treatments:
P = Peat moss , V = vermiculite, S= sand, Unw. = unwashed, W. = washed, RS= Rice straw, BW = Banana wastes, PM = Poultry
manure.
Comp.Mix. 1 = (RS + BW + PM).
Comp.Mix. 2 = (RS + BW + PM) + microbial inoculation
Comp.Mix. 3 = (RS + BW + PM) + microbial inoculation + Rock phosphate + Feldspar
Comp. Mix. 4 = (RS + BW + PM) + Tea compost

Tomato seeds of cv. Castal rock var. (Lycopersicom esculentum) were sown on those growing media
for 45 days. Nutrient solutions (per 50 kg growth media) were used and prepared from: Ammonium nitrate
250 g, potassium sulphate 50 g, magnesium sulphate 50 g, copper phosphate 400 g, Tobcin 50 g; Kristalon
75 g and calcium carbonate 400 g.
The fresh and dry weights of tomato seedlings from each treatment were recorded after 45 days from
sowing. Total N in seedlings were determined by the kjeldhal method described by Bremener and
Mulvaney (1982). Phosphorous, potassium, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu were determined according to the method
described by Cottenie et al. (1982).
Analysis variances of the obtained data were performed as recommended by Snedecor and Cochran (1980)
and significant differences among the means of various treatments were established using Duncan and multiple
range tests according to W aller and Duncan (1969).

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

To evaluate the efficiency of prepared compost types as growing media for tomato seedlings, a green
house trial was undertaken.

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Aust. J. Basic & Appl. Sci., 1(3): 193-207, 2007

Fresh and Dry W eights of Tom ato Seedlings:


Effect of Main Factors:
This study includes four main factors i.e. compost types (A), mixed components (B), nutrients enrichment
(C) and washing (D).

Effect of Com post Type (A):


Peat moss (P) as well as the four prepared compost types were evaluated as growing
media for tomato seedlings.
Irrespective of the effect of mixed components (B), nutrients enrichment (C) and washing effect (D), the
effects of compost type (A) on fresh and dry weights of tomato seedlings grown for 45 days are presented in
Table (3). Data reveal that all the prepared compost types positively and significantly affected both fresh and
dry weights of tomato seedlings. Using the compost mix. No. 4 (RS + BW + PM + tea compost) significantly
increased both fresh and dry weights of tomato seedlings which averaged 2.37 g/seedling for fresh and 223.45
mg/seedling for dry weights, respectively, when compared with all the other compost mixs. under study (No.
1, 2 and 3) including the imported peat moss (control). However, the imported peat moss (control) significantly
increased both fresh and dry weights of tomato seedlings more than the compost types (mixs of No. 1, 2 and
3). This result may be due to the special characteristics of the imported peat moss i.e. as pH (1:10) 4.15,
EC (1:10) 0.144 dS/m, OM 94.71 %, W HC, 403.50 % and CEC (mol.ckg -1 ) 141.7. Also peat is relatively
a sterile medium i.e. as it was produced under anaerobic decomposition of water loving plants. In this
concern, W ilson (1986) and Urrestarazu et al., (2001) found that different treatments and controls (peat moss
and perlite) were significant for root and stem dry weights and they revealed that peat moss control treatment
was more efficient than the investigated composts. Also, data presented in Table (3) show that the
compost mix. No. 3 significantly increased both fresh and dry weights of tomato seedlings when
compared with compost mixs No. 1 and No. 2, probably because of the microbial inoculation in addition of
the rock phosphate and feldspar of compost mix No. 3. In this concern, Inbar et al., (1986) suggested that
high activity of the microbial population may increase growth response. Also, Martin and Gershung (1992)
revealed that there are two ways in which these substances may influence a compost heap i.e. 1- by introducing
strains of microorganisms that are effective in breaking down organic materials and 2- by increasing the
nitrogen and nutrients content of organic materials, which increase both fresh and dry weights of tomato
seedlings.

Table 3: Effect of compost Type (A), mixing components (B), nutrients enrichment (C) and washing (D) on fresh and dry weights
of tomato seedlings grown on different prepared compost types as growing media.
Fresh weight g/seedling
Compost types (A) Mixing components (B) nutrients enrichment (C) Washing (D)
-------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------- ------------------------------
Peat moss (control) 2.30 100 % Compost or p 1.96 Non-enriched 2.610 Unwashed 2.12
Comp. mix 1 2.07
Comp. mix 2 2.05 50%Vermiculite+ 50% comp. or p 2.71
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Comp. mix 3 2.25
Comp. mix 4 2.37 50 % Sand+ 50% comp.or p 2.01 Enriched 1.84 Washed 2.73
LSD 5%
A = 0.03 B = 0.04 C = 0.066 D = 0.26
Dry weight mg/seedling
(A) (B) (C) (D)
------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------- ------------------------------
Peat moss (control) 204.27 100 % Compost or P 164.88 Non-enriched 234.34 Unwashed 165.70
Comp. mix 1 177.62
Comp. mix 2 174.99 50%Verm+50% comp. or p 230.09
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Comp. mix 3 197.91
Comp. mix 4 223.45 50 % Sand+50% comp. or p 196.24 Enriched 159.80 Washed 173.36
LSD 5%
A = 3.621 B = 3.912 C = 4.781 D = 5.11
RS= Rice straw, BW= Banana wastes, PM= Poultry manure, Unw= unwashed, W= washed, P= peat moss
Comp. mix. 1 = (RS + BW + PM).
Comp. mix. 2 = (RS + BW + PM) + microbial inoculation
Comp. mix. 3 = (RS + BW + PM) + microbial inoculation + Rock phosphate + Feldspar
Comp. mix. 4 = (RS + BW + PM) + Tea compost

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Generally, it is profitable to observe that the control media (peat moss) and the tested growing media
according to their inducing effect on both fresh and dry weights of tomato seedlings could be arranged in
descending order of: compost mix. No. 4 > peat moss > compost mix. No. 3 > compost mix. No.1> compost
mix. No.2

Effect of Mixing Com ponents (B):


Regardless, the effect of compost type (A), nutrients enrichment (C) and washing effect (D), data presented
in Table (3) show that the most effective mixing component was that containing 50 % vermiculite + 50 %
compost or peat, which showed average fresh and dry weights of 2.71 g / seedling and 230.09 mg/ seedling,
respectively. These results may be because vermiculite could be more satisfactory for rooting medium and a
good yield of tomato. Also vermiculite has a high base exchange capacity and appreciable quantities of
magnesium (W ilson, 1986). The obtained results are in accordance with the finding of El-Beltagy et
al. (1986), Abou-Hadid et al. (1994) and Hellal et al. (1996) who found that peat moss with vermiculite (1:1)
gave the best growth of tomato and cucumber seedlings.
Data in Table (3) show that the mixing component of 50% sand + 50 compost or peat significantly
increased the fresh and dry weights of tomato seedlings as compared with those obtained by using 100 %
compost or peat, which agrees with Omar and Helmy (2001) who found satisfactory effect by (Sand +
Compost 1:1 v/v) compared to the other tested root media.
Generally, the highest values of fresh and dry weights of tomato seedlings were attained by using 50%
vermiculite + 50% compost or peat followed by 50% sand + 50% compost or peat and 100 % compost or
peat moss in decreasing order. Came to the same results Hellal et al. (1996) and M oursy (2001) who stated
that the highest net assimilation rate was observed with the peat moss + vermiculite followed by peat moss
+ sand treatments. They added that mixing of different organic media with vermiculite and sand significantly
increased the dry weight of banana seedlings than using organic media alone in most growth period of plant.

Effect of Nutrients Enrichm ent (C):


Results in Table (3) indicate that on average and individual values scale, the fresh and dry weights of
tomato seedlings under non-enrichment treatments (2.61 g/seedling and 234.34 mg/seedling, respectively)
surpassed all the corresponding values under enrichment treatments (1.84 g/ seedling and 159.80 mg/ seedling,
respectively). This may be probably due to the higher values of EC and pH of enriched media than the non-
enriched ones.

Washing Effect (D):


Data presented in Table (3) show that all the compost piles which were subjected to washing gave
significantly higher increases in fresh and dry weights of tomato seedlings (2.73g/seedling and 173.30
mg/seedling, respectively) than the treatments which were not washed (2.12 g/seedling and 165.70 mg/seedling,
respectively). In this concern, several research workers have actually wash the alkalinity out the vermiculite
before using it (Went, 1957 and W ilson, 1983). Furthermore, Inbar et al. (1986) and Urrestarazu et al. (2001)
stated that it can be deduced that in order to utilize the evaluated compost for seedling production, it would
be necessary to correct pH and reduce salinity by leaching. T hey added that the compost separated manure
(CSM ) contains initially very high NPK levels and hence high salinity and therefore requires leaching perior
to its use. The substrates were leached by 3 volumes of water perior to planting.

Interaction Effects:
The interactions between the main factors under study are presented in Table (4).

A X B Iteraction:
The interactions between the compost type (A) and the mixing components (B) significantly affected the
fresh and dry weights of tomato seedlings. The highest values of both fresh and dry weights of tomato
seedlings average 2.96 g/seedling and 267.88 mg/seedling, respectively occurred under vermiculite component
mixture (50% vermiculite + 50 % compost mix No. 1). The lowest values were 1.19 g/seedling and 101.75
mg/seedling for fresh and dry weights occurred under compost mix. No. 1 without any mixing neither with
vermiculite nor with sand (100% compost mix. No. 1) as shown in Table (4).

A X C Interaction:
The interaction between compost type (A) and nutrients enrichment (C) significantly affected both fresh
and dry weights of tomato seedlings. The highest values (3.19 g/ seedling and 308.43 mg/ seedling,
respectively) were occurred under non-enriched treatments and compost mix. No.4, while the lowest values of
fresh and dry weights (1.36 g/ seedling and 116.25 mg/ seedling, respectively) were found under the enriched

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treatments and compost mix. No. 1 (Table 4).

B X C Interaction:
Data in Table (4) show the highest values of fresh and dry weights of tomato seedlings ( 3.3 g/seedling
and 269.2 mg/seedling ) were occurred under non-enriched treatment and 50 % vermiculite + 50 % compost
or peat. Moreover, the lowest values (1.69 g/seedling and 134.29 mg/seedling) were attained under enriched
treatment and 100 % compost or peat.

A X B X C X D Interactions:
Both the highest values of fresh and dry weights of tomato seedlings (4.96 g/seedling and 476.10
mg/seedling, respectively) were attained when non-enriched, washed treatments and the mixing components of
50 % vermiculite + 50 % compost or peat were used (Table 4).

Nutrients Status of Tom ato Seedlings:


It is well established that the use of organic media as substrates for plant growth depends on physical,
chemical properties and nutrients availability in such media.

Macronutrients (N, P and K) Uptake:


Effect of the M ain Factors:
Data in Table (5, 6 and 7) show the behaviour of the main factors effects, compost type (A), mixing
components (B), nutrients enrichment (C) and pile washing (D) on N, P and K uptake by tomato seedlings.

Table 4: Interaction effect between each different pairs of the factors: compost types (A), mixing components (B), nutrients enrichment
(C) and washing (D) on both fresh and dry weights of tomato seedlings grown on different prepared compost as growing
media.
AXB
Fresh weight of tomato seedling g/seedling Dry weight of tomato seedling mg/seedling
-------------------------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------------------------------------------
Mixing components (B) Mixing components (B)
-------------------------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------------------------------------------
100 % 50 % vermiculite 50 % sand+ 100 % 50 % vermiculite 50 % sand+
(A) Compost types compost or p +50% comp. or p 50% comp.or p compost or p +50% comp. or p 50% comp.or p
Control(Peat moss) 2.05 2.63 2.23 167.00 234.00 211.00
Comp. mix 1 1.19 2.96 2.01 101.75 367.88 163.37
Comp. mix 2 2.04 2.72 1.66 174.75 214.44 155.06
Comp. mix 3 2.01 2.86 1.98 189.02 201.13 231.68
Comp. mix 4 2.40 2.72 1.98 218.61 227.88 223.88
AXC
Fresh weight of tomato seedling g/seedling Dry weight of tomato seedling mg/seedling
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
nutrients enrichment ( C )
-------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------------
(A) Compost types Non-enriched Enriched Non-enriched Enriched
Control(Peat moss) 2.10 2.16 227.10 181.41
Comp. mix 1 2.75 1.36 239.18 116.25
Comp. mix 2 2.60 1.52 232.58 117.42
Comp. mix 3 2.90 1.66 263.13 132.69
Comp. mix 4 3.19 1.54 308.43 138.47
BXC
(B) Mixing components Fresh weight of tomato seedling g/seedling Dry weight of tomato seedling mg/seedling
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
nutrients enrichment (C)
--------------------------------------------------- -----------------------------------------------------
Non-enriched Enriched Non-enriched Enriched
100 % compost or P 2.22 1.69 195.46 134.29
50 %vermiculite + 50% comp. or P 3.30 2.12 269.20 190.98
50 % sand + 50% comp. or P 2.30 1.72 238.36 154.17
RS= Rice straw, BW= Banana wastes, PM= Poultry manure, Unw= unwashed, W= washed, p= peat moss
Comp. Mix. 1 = (RS + BW + PM).
Comp. Mix. 2 = (RS + BW + PM) + microbial inoculation
Comp. Mix. 3 = (RS + BW + PM) + microbial inoculation + Rock phosphate + Feldspar
Compost Mix. 4 = (RS + BW + PM) + Tea compost
AX B X C X D
Fresh weight g/seedlings
4.969 g/seedling-compost mix.4 50% vermic.+ 50% compost non-enriched washed.
Dry weight mg/seedling
476.1 mg/seedling-compost mix.4 50% vermic.+ 50% compost non-enriched washed.

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Effect of Com post Type (A):


Data in Table (5, 6 and 7) show that the compost types (A) significantly affected N, P and K uptake by
tomato seedlings. The hiughest N, P and K values were occurred with comp. mix. No. 4 (6.79, 1.24 and 5.09)
followed by comp. mix.No. 3 (6.27, 1.19 and 4.94 mg/seedling for N, P and K , respectively). The N, P and
K values of comp. mix. No. 1, 2 and peat moss were lower than those of comp. mix. No. 4 and 3. The
significant differences among different media may suggest that media could play an important role on the
assimilation of nutrients on the growth (W ang et al., 1984).
The superiority of comp. mix. No. 3 over those of No. 1 and 2 with respect to NPK content of tomato
seedling may be due to the bacterial inoculation as well as the addition of rock phosphate and feldspar. These
results are in consonance with the findings of Biswas and Narayanasamy (2002) and Tengerdy and Szakacs
(2003) who reported that mixing rock phosphate with the compost prepared from rice straw significantly
increased its content of available N, P and K compared to control. They added also that enrichment the
compost with Aspergillus and Trichoderma strains greatly increased the availability of different nutrients as
compared with non-inoculated treatment.
Generally, data in Table (5, 6 and 7) reveal that the highest values of N, P and K uptake by tomato
seedlings occurred with comp. mix. No. 4 followed by comp. mix. N o. 3 but the lowest values of P and K
uptake were found by using comp. mix. No. 2, while the lowest N values occurred with comp. mix. No.1.

Table 5: Effect of compost type (A), mixing components (B), nutrients enrichment (C) and washing (D) on N uptake by tomato
seedlings grown on different prepared compost types as growing media.
Mixing components (B)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
100 % compost or p 50 % vermiculite+50% comp. or p 5 0 % san d +5 0 %
comp. or p
------------------------------------ --------------------------------------- ----------------------------------
Nutrients enrichment (C)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Compost types (A) Non-enriched Enriched Non-enriched Enriched Non-enriched Enriched Mean
Total N uptake mg/seedling
Peat moss (control) 2.43 3.07 6.97 7.49 5.93 8.12 5.66
Comp. mix 1 Unw 4.31 2.34 9.35 4.79 6.43 2.58 4.97
Comp. mix 2 Unw 6.87 2.59 6.58 3.25 6.86 2.69 4.81
Comp. mix 3 Unw 6.23 4.18 7.91 3.91 5.29 2.38 4.98
Comp. mix 4 Unw 12.91 3.38 7.12 5.13 9.12 2.71 6.73
Comp. mix. 1 W 3.68 2.05 12.81 3.79 6.39 6.49 5.84
Comp. mix. 2 W 7.07 5.51 11.39 5.03 6.66 2.99 6.44
Comp. mix. 3 W 5.52 4.94 15.67 5.56 9.00 4.78 7.56
Comp. mix. 4 W 6.59 5.50 13.10 6.35 5.89 3.68 6.85
Main effects
(A) compost types (B) mixing components (C) Enrichment (D) washing effect
mg/seedling mg/seedling mg/seedling mg/seedling
---------------------------------------- ----------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------- -------------------------------
Peat moss (control) 5.66 100% compost or p 5.25 Non-enriched 8.03 Unwashed 5.37
Comp. mix 1 5.41
Comp. mix 2 5.63 50 % vermiculite+ 50% comp. or p 7.61

Comp. mix 3 6.27


Comp. mix 4 6.79 50 % sand+ 50% comp. or p 5.23 Enriched 4.03 Washed 6.68
LSD 5% A=0.093 B=0.116 C=0.200 D=0.301
RS= Rice straw, BW= Banana wastes, PM= Poultry manure, Unw= unwashed, W= washed, P= peat moss
Comp. Mix. 1 = (RS + BW + PM).
Comp. Mix. 2 = (RS + BW + PM) + microbial inoculation
Comp. Mix. 3 = (RS + BW + PM) + microbial inoculation + Rock phosphate + Feldspar
Comp. Mix. 4 = (RS + BW + PM) + Tea compost

Table 6: Effect of compost type (A), mixing components (B), nutrients enrichment (C) and washing (D) on P uptake by tomato
seedlings grown on different prepared compost types as growing media.
Mixing components (B)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
100 % compost or p 50 % vermiculite+50% comp. or p 50 % sand+50% comp. or p
------------------------------------ ---------------------------------------- ----------------------------------
Nutrients enrichment (C)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Compost types (A) Non-enriched Enriched Non-enriched Enriched Non-enriched Enriched Mean
Total P uptake mg/seedling
Peat moss (control) 0.68 1.19 0.98 2.01 1.00 1.36 1.22
Comp. mix1 Unw 0.96 0.42 2.08 1.11 1.13 0.41 1.01

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Table 6: Continued.
Comp. mix2 Unw 1.33 0.56 1.44 0.67 0.96 0.49 0.91
Comp. mix3 Unw 1.05 0.84 1.52 0.83 0.99 0.45 0.94
Comp. mix 4 Unw 2.42 0.56 1.76 1.02 1.21 0.46 1.24
Comp. mix 1 W 0.74 0.45 2.69 0.80 0.68 1.16 1.09
Comp. mix 2 W 1.44 1.04 1.85 1.13 0.95 0.54 1.16
Comp. mix 3 W 1.30 0.88 2.94 1.29 1.35 0.84 1.43
Comp. mix 4 W 1.33 1.02 1.97 1.41 0.92 0.74 1.22
Main effects
(A) compost types (B) mixing components (C) Enrichment (D) washing effect
mg/seedling mg/seedling mg/seedling mg/seedling
---------------------------------------- ----------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------- -------------------------------
Peat moss (control) 1.22 100% compost or p 1.03 Non-enriched 1.46 Unwashed 1.03
Comp. mix 1 1.07
Comp. mix 2 1.04 50% verm.+50% comp. or p 1.54
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Comp. mix 3 1.19
Comp. mix 4 1.24 50 % sand +50% comp. or p 0.83 Enriched 0.80 Washed 1.23
LSD 5% A=0.019 B=0.023 C=0.040 D=0.062
RS= Rice straw, BW= Banana wastes, PM= Poultry manure, Unw= unwashed, W= washed
Comp. Mix. 1 = (RS + BW + PM).
Comp. Mix. 2 = (RS + BW + PM) + microbial inoculation
Comp. Mix. 3 = (RS + BW + PM) + microbial inoculation + Rock phosphate + Feldspar
Compost Mix. 4 = (RS + BW + PM) + Tea compost

Table 7: Effect of compost type (A), mixing components (B), nutrients enrichment (C) and washing (D) on K uptake by tomato
seedlings grown on different prepared compost types as growing media.
Mixing components (B)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
100 % compost or p 50 % vermiculite+50% comp. or p 50 % sand+50% comp. or p
------------------------------------ ---------------------------------------- ----------------------------------
Nutrients enrichment (C)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Compost types (A) Non-enriched Enriched Non-enriched Enriched Non-enriched Enriched Mean
Total K uptake mg/seedling
Peatmoss(control) 3.33 4.13 4.10 6.58 4.09 4.84 4.51
Comp. mix 1 Unw 3.70 1.51 7.11 4.22 5.24 1.62 3.90
Comp. mix 2 Unw 3.63 2.06 5.75 2.72 4.58 2.12 3.80
Comp. mix 3 Unw 4.25 3.22 7.48 3.31 4.43 1.87 4.09
Compost 4 Unw 9.07 2.21 6.34 4.07 5.99 1.91 4.94
Comp. mix 1 W 3.27 1.63 11.16 3.15 4.29 4.64 4.52
Comp. mix 2 W 5.54 4.11 5.69 2.03 6.68 3.42 4.58
Comp. mix 3 W 5.79 3.40 10.93 4.79 6.64 3.20 5.79
Comp. mix 4 W 6.61 4.01 8.68 5.08 4.35 2.65 5.24
Main effects
(A) compost types (B) mixing components (C) Enrichment (D) washing effect
mg/seedling mg/seedling mg/seedling mg/seedling
---------------------------------------- ----------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------- -------------------------------
Peat moss (control) 4.51 100% compost or p 4.13 Non-enriched 6.22 Unwashed 4.18
Comp. mix 1 4.21
Comp. mix 2 4.19 50 % vermiculite +50% comp. or p 5.79

Comp. mix 3 4.94


Comp. mix 4 5.09 50 % sand +50% comp. or p 3.98 Enriched 3.04 Washed 5.07
LSD 5% A=0.083 B = 0.102 C = 0.176 D = 0.321
RS= Rice straw, BW= Banana wastes, PM= Poultry manure, Unw= unwashed, W= washed, p = peat moss
Comp. Mix. 1 = (RS + BW + PM).
Comp. Mix. 2 = (RS + BW + PM) + microbial inoculation
Comp. Mix. 3 = (RS + BW + PM) + microbial inoculation + Rock phosphate + Feldspar
Comp. Mix. 4 = (RS + BW + PM) + Tea compost

Effect of Mixing Com ponents (B):


Data in Tables (5, 6 and 7) show that the values of N, P and K uptake by tomato seedlings were
significantly higher when the mixing components of 50%vermiculite + 50% compost or peat moss was used
(7.61, 1.54 and 5.79 mg/seedling for N, P and K, respectively), followed by 100 % compost without mixing
with neither vermiculite nor sand (5.25, 1.03 and 4.13 mg/seedling for N, P and K, respectively), and 50 %
sand + 50 % compost or peat moss (5.23, 0.83 and 3.98 mg NPK/seedling, respectively). These results may
be due to the effect of added components (vermiculite) on pH and CEC of the mixture as suggested by
Jesperesen and W illumsen (1993) who showed that, the composted agricultural wastes might improve pH values

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Aust. J. Basic & Appl. Sci., 1(3): 193-207, 2007

when peat and composted agricultural wastes together were used as soil substrates. They found that pH
values for peat, mixture of peat and compost (70:30 v/v) and mixture of peat and compost (80:20 v/v) were
4.7, 5.6 and 5.1, respectively, while the recorded pH value for compost was 6.6. They added also that CEC
of compost, peat, mixture of peat + compost (70:30 v/v) were 106.6, 165.4 and 178.8 meq/100 g, which means
that the CEC of the mixture was better than that of peat moss and compost due to the volume percentage of
the mixture. These obtained results are confirmed by Hellal et al. (1996) and M oursy (2001) who reported that
seedlings grown in peat moss + vermiculite gave high N, P and K concentrations as well as chlorophyll
content.

Effect of Nutrients Enrichment (C):


Data in Tables (5, 6 and 7) reveal that while the nutrients enrichment of compost soundly decreased NPK
uptake by tomato seedlings, the revers was true with all peat moss control treatments, probably because of the
high nutrient content of prepared compost than the peat moss.

Effect of Washing (D):


Data in Tables (5, 6 and 7) show a positive significant effect on N PK uptake by tomato seedlings due
to washing of all the tested media as compared with the unwashed ones. Such trend could be attributed
to the reduction of all media salinity and lowering the high analysis of prepared compost, just suggested
before under the effect of nutrient enrichment effect. Noteworthy referring that almost similar trends were
obtained with Urrestarazu et al. (2001).

Interaction Effects:
The obtained results in Table (8) show significant positive interactions between all the tested main factors
combination on the N, P and K uptake by tomato seedlings as follows:

Table 8: Interactions effect between each different pairs of the factors: compost type (A), mixing components (B), nutrients
enrichment (C) and washing (D) on the uptake of N, P and K (mg/seedling) by tomato seedlings grown on
different prepared composts as growing media.
AXB
Mixing components (B)
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
100 % compost or p 50 % vermiculite+50% comp. or p 50 % sand+50% comp. or p
---------------------------------------- -------------------------------------------- ----------------------------------------
N, P and K uptake by tomato seedlings mg/seedling
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Compost types (A) N P K N P K N P K
Peat noss (control) 2.75 0.94 3.73 7.23 1.49 5.34 7.03 1.18 4.46
Comp. mix 1 3.16 0.65 2.53 7.69 1.65 6.42 5.47 0.85 3.95
Comp. mix 2 5.51 1.10 4.34 6.56 1.28 4.05 4.80 0.74 4.20
Comp. mix 3 5.22 1.02 4.17 8.26 1.68 6.63 5.36 0.91 4.04
Comp. mix 4 7.10 1.34 4.48 7.92 1.54 6.05 3.35 1.08 3.73
LSD 5% 0.211 0.042 0.191 0.211 0.042 0.191 0.211 0.042 0.191
AXC
Nutrients enrichment (C)
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Uptake mg/seedling
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Non-enriched Enriched
---------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------
Compost types (A) N P K N P K
Peat noss (control) 5.32 0.89 4.09 6.10 1.52 4.93
Comp. mix 1 7.16 1.38 5.80 3.67 0.73 2.80
Comp. mix 2 7.57 1.33 5.65 3.67 0.74 2.74
Comp. mix 3 8.27 1.53 6.59 4.29 0.86 3.36
Comp. mix 4 9.12 1.60 6.84 4.45 0.87 3.32
LSD 5% 0.212 0.059 0.262 0.212 0.059 0.262
BXC
Nutrients enrichment (C)
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Uptake mg/seedling
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Non-enriched Enriched
----------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------
Mixing components (B) N P K N P K
100% comp. or p 5.46 1.11 4.76 3.35 0.88 3.22
50 % vermiculite+50 % comp. or p 9.32 1.68 6.63 5.65 1.36 4.64
50 % sand+50% comp. or p 6.62 1.02 5.13 5.07 0.88 3.15
LSD 5% 0.321 0.063 0.281 0.321 0.063 0.281

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Aust. J. Basic & Appl. Sci., 1(3): 193-207, 2007

A X B Interaction:
The interaction between compost types (A) and the mixing components (B) showed significant effect
on N, P and K uptake by tomato seedlings. The highest values of N, P and K were occurred under
50 % vermiculite + 50% compost or peat moss (8.26, 1.68 and 6.63 mg/seedling, respectively) and using
the compost type No.3, while the lowest values for the previous nutrients were recorded under 100 %
compost or peat moss (3.16, 0.65 and 2.53 mg/seedling, respectively) without mixing with neither vermiculite
nor sand and using the compost type No.1.

A X C Interaction:
The interaction between compost types (A) and nutrients enrichment (C) positively and significantly
affected the uptake of N, P and K by tomato seedlings. The highest values of N, P and K were occurred under
non-enriched treatments and compost mix. No. 4 (9.12, 1.60 and 6.84 mg/seedling, respectively), while the
lowest ones (3.67, 0.73 and 2.80 mg/seedling) were found under enriched treatments and compost mix. No.1.

B X C Interaction:
The highest values for each of N, P and K uptake by tomato seedlings (9.32, 1.68 and 6.63 mg/seedling,
respectively) were occurred under 50% vermiculite + 50% compost or peat moss in absence of nutrients
enrichment. Moreover, the lowest value of N uptake was found under 100 % compost or peat moss, while
those of P and K uptake under 100% compost and 50% sand + 50% compost did not significantly differ.

A X B X C X D Interactions:
The interactions between all the main factors (A, B, C and D ) significantly affected N, P and K uptake
by tomato seedlings. Generally, the highest values of N, P and K (476.1, 2.94 and 11.16 mg/seedling
respectively) were occurred under 50 % vermiculite + 50 % compost or peat moss and compost type No. 4
which was non-enriched but washed.

Micronutrients Uptake (Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu):


Effect of the Main Factor (A, B, C and D):
Effect of Compost Type (A):
Regardless the effect of mixing components (B), nutrients enrichment (C) and washing effect (D), data
in Tables 9, 10, 11 and 12 show that the compost type No.4 significantly increased the uptake of Fe, Mn, Zn
and Cu by tomato seedlings as compared with the other compost types i.e. compost types No. 1, 2 and peat
moss (control). Data also show that the lowest values of Fe and Zn were occurred under compost type No.
2 while for Mn and Cu were attained under the peat moss (control). Moreover, data reveal that the compost
types No. 3 significantly increased the uptake of all micronutrients under study (Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu) as
compared with compost types No.1, 2 and the control treatment (peat moss). This may be due to the addition
of rock phosphate and feldspar as well as microbial inoculation to the compost type No. 3. In this concern,
Urrestarazu et al. (2001) and El-Haggar et al. (2004) stated that microbial enrichment occurred correct and
rapid maturity of compost and therefore removal of phytotoxic substances were occurred. They added that
addition of natural minerals (rock phosphate and feldspar) enriches the degradation rate of organic matter,
reduces nitrogen volatization, increases the percentage of humic substances in the end product and releases
some macro and micronutrients and transfers them to the soluble form available to plants.

Effect of Mixing Com ponents (B):


Irrespective of the effect of compost type (A), nutrients enrichment (C) and washing effect (D), data
presented in Tables (9-12) reveal that the mixing components (B) factor significantly affected the uptake of
Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu by tomato seedlings. The mixing component of 50 % vermiculite + 50 % compost or peat
moss gave the highest significant effect on the uptake of the micronutrients under study as compared with the
other two mixing components i.e. 100 % compost or peat moss without any mixng and 50 % sand + 50 %
compost or peat moss. The highest uptake values of Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu were occurred by using 50 %
vermiculite + 50 % compost or peat moss followed by 100 % compost or peat moss and 50 % sand + 50 %
compost or peat moss in descending order. The surpassed dramatically effect of 50 % vermiculite + 50 %
compost may be due to the importance of the water movement from the surrounding soil and the availability
of water and nutrients to seedling roots as reported by Moursy (2001). Also, Ingelma et al. (1998) stated that
all peat-alternative substrates showed higher micro-porosities and this fact is particularly interesting, since

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Aust. J. Basic & Appl. Sci., 1(3): 193-207, 2007

increases in micro porosity improve rewettability of substrates due to both an increase in their water-holding
capacity and also a reduction of drainage (Beardsell and Nichols, 1982).

Nutrients Enrichm ent (C):


Data presented in Tables (9-12) showed that the non-enriched treatments gave significantly higher values
of Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu uptake by tomato seedlings as compared with those enriched treatments. These results
are true under all the compost types No.1, 2, 3 and 4. These obtained results were in against with those
obtained by peat moss (control), where the enriched treatments gave significantly higher values as compared
with those non- enriched treatments.

Washing Effect (D):


Data in Tables (9-12) show that the washed treatments significantly increased Fe, M n, Zn and Cu uptake
by tomato seedlings as compared with those unwashed treatments. This effect may be due to the leaching of
the excess salts and the decreasing effect of washing on pH values.

Table 9: Effect of compost type (A), mixing components (B), nutrients enrichment (C) and washing (D) on Fe uptake by tomato
seedlings grown on different prepared compost types as growing media.
Mixing components (B)
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
100 % compost or p 50 % vermiculite+50% comp. or p 50 % sand+50% comp. or p
------------------------------------ ---------------------------------------- ----------------------------------
Nutrients enrichment (C)
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Compost types (A) Non-enriched Enriched Non-enriched Enriched Non-enriched Enriched Mean
Total Fe uptake g/seedling
Peat moss(control) 37.25 55.11 61.33 75.20 42.23 60.60 63.64
Comp. mix. 1 Unw 66.80 33.80 153.05 90.68 56.28 32.93 72.26
Comp. mix. 2 Unw 94.50 43.53 104.03 58.23 53.15 42.00 65.90
Comp. mix. 3 Unw 76.88 66.18 137.47 73.63 48.05 36.50 73.64
Comp. mix. 4 Unw 156.55 45.68 130.55 88.05 68.38 37.88 87.64
Comp. mix. 1 W 43.30 31.18 177.55 61.90 37.05 90.03 73.50
Comp. mix. 2 W 84.70 80.55 132.60 80.30 41.05 40.18 76.56
Comp. mix. 3 W 74.85 70.60 174.67 97.40 61.63 62.93 90.34
Comp. mix. 4 W 81.08 78.98 127.40 102.95 38.70 53.80 80.48
Main effects
(A) compost types (B) mixing components (C) Nutrients Enrichment (D) washing effect
g/seedling g/seedling g/seedling g/seedling
---------------------------------------- ----------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------- -------------------------------
Peat moss (control) 74.56 100% compost or p 70.58 Non-enriched 92.51 Unwashed 74.79
Comp. mix. 1 72.88
Comp. mix. 2 71.34 50% verm. + 50 % comp. or p 111.91
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Comp. mix. 3 81.99 Enriched 62.50 Washed 80.22
Comp. mix.4 84.06 50 % sand + 50 % comp. or p 50.04
LSD 5% A= 2.135 B= 2.615 C= 4.529 D= 5.110
RS= Rice straw, BW= Banana wastes, PM= Poultry manure, Unw= unwashed, W= washed, P= peat moss
Comp. Mix. 1 = (RS + BW + PM).
Comp. Mix. 2 = (RS + BW + PM) + microbial inoculation
Comp. Mix. 3 = (RS + BW + PM) + microbial inoculation + Rock phosphate + Feldspar
Comp. Mix. 4 = (RS + BW + PM) + Tea compost

Table 10: Effect of compost type (A), mixing components (B), nutrients enrichment (C) and washing (D) on Mn uptake by tomato
seedlings grown on different prepared composts types as growing media.
Mixing components (B)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
100% compost or p 50 % verm.+50% comp. or p 50% sand+50% comp. or p
------------------------------------ ---------------------------------------- ----------------------------------
Nutrients enrichment (C)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Compost types (A) Non-enriched Enriched Non-enriched Enriched Non-enriched Enriched Mean
Total Mn uptake g/seedling
Peat moss (control) 8.93 26.38 16.11 42.95 11.03 23.65 21.51
Comp. mix 1 Unw 19.15 10.93 49.70 31.58 20.03 10.25 23.60
Comp. mix 2 Unw 27.98 13.75 33.70 20.00 17.55 12.48 20.91
Comp. mix 3 Unw 25.67 22.18 42.77 23.35 20.50 11.68 24.35
Comp. mix 4 Unw 53.13 15.58 39.13 31.35 23.90 12.38 29.25

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Aust. J. Basic & Appl. Sci., 1(3): 193-207, 2007

Table 10: Continue


Comp. mix 1 W 14.43 10.17 53.38 19.88 12.40 26.20 22.74
Comp. mix 2 W 26.03 26.98 41.73 27.25 13.45 11.04 24.41
Comp. mix 3 W 23.78 23.00 56.38 31.78 10.75 19.05 27.45
Comp. mix. 4 W 31.35 25.55 42.45 32.60 13.10 14.73 26.63
Main effects
(A) compost types (B) mixing components (C) Enrichment (D) washing effect
g/seedling g/seedling g/seedling g/seedling
---------------------------------------- ----------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------- -------------------------------
Peat moss (control) 21.51 100% compost or p 23.11 Non-enriched 30.94 Unwashed 24.53
Comp. mix 1 23.17
Comp. mix 2 22.66 50 % vermiculite+ 50 % comp. or p 36.07

Comp. mix 3 25.90 Enriched 20.16 Washed 25.31


Comp. mix 4 27.94 50 % sand + 50 % comp. or p 17.47
LSD 5% A=0.379 B=0.464 C=0.804 D=0.680
RS= Rice straw, BW= Banana wastes, PM= Poultry manure, Unw= unwashed, W= washed, P = peat moss
Comp. mix . 1 = (RS + BW + PM).
Comp. mix . 2 = (RS + BW + PM) + microbial inoculation
Comp. mix 3 = (RS + BW + PM) + microbial inoculation + Rock phosphate + Feldspar
Comp. mix . 4 = (RS + BW + PM) + Tea compost

Table 11: Effect of compost type (A), mixing components (B), nutrients enrichment (C) and washing (D) on Zn uptake by
tomato seedlings grown on different types of prepared compost as growing media.
Mixing components (B)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
100 % compost or p 50 % vermiculite+50% comp. or p 50 % sand+50% comp. or p
------------------------------------ ---------------------------------------- --------------------------------
Nutrients enrichment (C)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Compost types (A) Non-enriched Enriched Non-enriched Enriched Non-enriched Enriched Mean
Total Zn uptake g/seedling
Peat moss(control) 23.30 44.35 36.00 75.55 24.23 42.68 41.10
Comp. mix 1 Unw 33.70 17.63 83.20 49.13 35.08 16.35 39.31
Comp. mix 2 Unw 49.50 23.53 57.58 32.60 31.20 22.08 36.08
Comp. mix 3 Unw 41.13 25.70 70.38 42.18 32.28 19.10 40.32
Comp. mix 4 Unw 83.65 25.70 70.60 50.15 46.43 19.75 49.39
Comp. mix 1 W 25.73 17.48 91.65 35.63 24.93 47.80 40.53
Comp. mix 2 W 43.63 45.75 75.78 45.40 24.77 20.90 42.71
Comp. mix 3 W 44.73 38.35 105.40 51.80 39.53 35.78 52.60
Comp.mix 4 W 49.57 43.48 80.35 56.18 24.83 27.95 47.06
Main effects
(A) compost types (B) mixing components (C) Nutrients Enrichment (D) washing effect
g/seedling g/seedling g/seedling g/seedling
---------------------------------------- ----------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------- -------------------------------
Peat moss(control) 41.10 100% compost or p 38.78 Non-enriched 52.47 Unwashed 41.24
Comp. mix. 1 39.92
Comp. mix. 2 39.40 50% verm.+ 50 % comp. or p 62.38
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Comp. mix. 3 46.46 Enriched 34.23 Washed 45.75
Comp. mix. 4 48.23 50 % sand + 50 % comp. or p 29.31
LSD 5% A= 0.559 B= 0.685 C= 1.185 D= 2.680
RS= Rice straw, BW= Banana wastes, PM= Poultry manure, Unw= unwashed, W= washed, P= peat moss
Comp. Mix. 1 = (RS + BW + PM).
Comp. Mix. 2 = (RS + BW + PM) + microbial inoculation
Comp. Mix. 3 = (RS + BW + PM) + microbial inoculation + Rock phosphate + Feldspar
Comp. Mix. 4 = (RS + BW + PM) + Tea compost

Table 12: Effect of compost type (A), mixing components (B), Nutrients enrichment (C) and washing (D) on Cu uptake by tomato
seedlings grown on different prepared composts as growing media.
Mixing components (B)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
100 % compost or p 50 % vermiculite+50% comp. or p 50 % sand+50%
comp. or p
------------------------------------ ---------------------------------------- ----------------------------------
Nutrients enrichment (C)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Compost types (A) Non-enriched Enriched Non-enriched Enriched Non-enriched Enriched Mean
Total Cu uptake g/seedling
Peat moss(control) 2.73 6.17 5.46 9.33 2.44 7.27 5.67
Comp. mix 1 Unw 9.46 4.10 17.14 12.08 8.56 3.63 9.16

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Aust. J. Basic & Appl. Sci., 1(3): 193-207, 2007

Table 12: Continued


Comp. mix 2 Unw 12.08 4.81 13.59 7.93 7.93 5.23 8.59
Comp. mix 3 Unw 8.54 8.18 15.74 9.96 7.79 4.05 9.05
Comp. mix 4 Unw 20.92 5.80 15.41 11.92 9.49 4.79 11.39
Comp. mix 1 W 4.25 3.63 18.39 8.11 5.17 9.96 8.25
Comp. mix 2 W 8.21 10.40 16.13 10.59 4.79 4.04 9.03
Comp. mix 3 W 8.07 8.55 19.98 11.83 5.87 7.26 10.26
Comp. mix 4 W 8.07 9.18 13.30 13.16 4.46 5.34 8.91
Main effects
(A) compost types (B) mixing components (C) Enrichment (D) washing effect
g/seedling g/seedling g/seedling g/seedling
---------------------------------------- ----------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------- -------------------------------
Peat moss (control) 7.73 100% compost or P 8.39 Non-enriched 10.97 Unwashed 9.11
Comp. mix 1 8.71
Comp. mix 2 8.81 50% verm.+ 50 % comp. or P 13.46
Comp. mix 3 9.66 Enriched 7.69 Washed 9.61
Comp. mix 4 10.15 50 % sand + 50 % comp. or p 6.15
LSD 5% A=0.281 B = 0.344 C = 0.597 D = 0.321
RS= Rice straw, BW= Banana wastes, PM= Poultry manure, Unw= unwashed, W= washed, P= peat moss
Comp. Mix. 1 = (RS + BW + PM).
Comp. Mix. 2 = (RS + BW + PM) + microbial inoculation
Comp. Mix. 3 = (RS + BW + PM) + microbial inoculation + Rock phosphate + Feldspar
Comp. Mix. 4 = (RS + BW + PM) + Tea compost

Effect of the Interaction Between the M ain Factors:


All the interactions between the main factors (A, B, C and D) significantly affected the uptake of Fe, Mn,
Zn and Cu by tomato seedlings grown on different prepared media (Table 13).

A X B Interaction:
Results presented in Table (13) indicate that the interaction between compost types (A) and mixing
components (B) significantly affected the uptake of Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu by tomato seedlings. The highest
values of Fe, Zn and Cu uptake (120.72, 67.49 and 14.38 ug/seedling, respectively) by tomato seedlings
occurred under 50 % vermiculite + 50 % compost or peat moss and using compost mixture N o. 3, while
the highest value of Mn (41.39 ug/seedling) was found under 50 % vermiculite + 50 % compost or peat moss
and using compost mixture No. 4. Moreover, data show that the lowest values of the uptake of Fe, Mn and
Cu by tomato seedlings (43.64, 13.67 and 5.36 ug/seedling, respectively) were occurred under 100 % compost
or peat moss without any mixing with vermiculite or sand and by using compost mixture No. 1, while the
lowest value of Zn (24.74 ug/seedling) was found under 50 % sand + 50 % compost and using compost mix.
No. 2.

A X C Interaction:
The interaction of compost type (A) and nutrients enrichment (C) is illustrated in the highest values
of Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu uptake by tomato seedlings (100.44, 33.84, 59.23 and 11.00 ug/seedling,
respectively) which occurred under non-enriched treatments and compost mixture No. 4 for Fe, Mn and Zn
and compost mix. No. 3 for Cu. Furthermore, data in Table (13) show that the lowest values of
Fe, M n, Zn and Cu uptake (46.94, 12.02, 27.84 and 3.54 ug/seedling, respectively) were attained under non-
enriched treatments and peat moss treatment (control).

Table 13: Interactions effect between each different pairs of the factors: compost type (A), mixing components (B), nutrients
enrichment (C) and washing (D) on the uptake of Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu (ug/seedling) by tomato seedlings grown on different
prepared composts as growing media.
AXB
Mixing components (B)
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Uptake g/seedling
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
100 % compost or p 50 % vermiculite+50% comp. or P 50 % sand+50% comp. or P
------------------------------------------ -------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------
Compost types (A) Fe Mn Zn Cu Fe Mn Zn Cu Fe Mn Zn Cu
Peat moss (control) 61.95 17.66 33.82 5.95 96.74 29.53 55.78 10.90 65.02 17.34 33.46 6.35
Comp. mix. 1 43.64 13.67 30.18 5.36 120.50 38.64 64.91 13.93 54.07 17.22 31.04 6.84

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Aust. J. Basic & Appl. Sci., 1(3): 193-207, 2007

Table 13: Continued


Comp. mix. 2 73.83 23.69 40.62 8.88 93.79 30.67 52.84 12.06 44.10 13.69 24.74 5.50
Comp. mix. 3 72.13 23.62 40.24 8.34 120.72 38.57 67.44 14.38 52.28 15.54 31.68 6.22
Comp. mix. 4 90.57 31.41 50.61 10.99 112.24 41.39 64.32 13.45 49.69 16.03 29.74 6.02
LSD 5% 4.75 0.89 1.25 0.65 4.75 0.89 1.25 0.65 4.75 0.89 1.25 0.65
AX C
Nutrients enrichment (C)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Uptake g/seedling
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Non-enriched Enriched
--------------------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------------------------
Compost types (A) Fe Mn Zn Cu Fe Mn Zn Cu
Peat moss (control) 46.94 12.02 27.84 3.54 63.64 30.99 54.19 7.59
Comp. mix. 1 89.00 28.18 49.05 10.50 56.75 18.17 30.67 4.91
Comp. mix. 2 85.00 26.74 47.09 10.46 57.47 18.58 31.71 7.16
Comp. mix. 3 95.32 29.98 55.58 11.00 67.86 21.84 37.33 6.65
Comp. mix. 4 100.44 33.84 59.23 10.36 67.89 22.03 37.19 8.38
LSD 5% 6.750 1.185 1.754 0.879 6.750 1.185 1.754 0.879
BXC
Nutrients enrichment (C)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Non-enriched Enriched
----------------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------------------
Mixing components (B) Fe Mn Zn Cu Fe Mn Zn Cu
100% comp. or p 68.97 21.44 38.74 7.54 66.43 21.14 35.51 7.61
50 % vermiculite+ 50% comp. or p 115.22 35.34 64.91 12.63 98.48 33.47 55.44 12.57
50 % sand + 50% comp. or p 47.77 14.65 29.67 5.32 62.29 17.70 31.70 7.12
LSD 5% 7.150 1.272 1.880 0.945 7.150 1.272 1.880 0.945

B X C Interaction:
Data presented in Table (13) reveal that the interaction between mixing components (B) and nutrients
enrichment (C) significantly affected the uptake of all micronutrients under study. The highest significantly
values of Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu (115.22, 35.34, 64.91 and 12.63 ug/seedling, respectively) were obtained under
non-enriched treatments and 50 % vermiculite + 50 % compost or peat moss, while the lowest values of the
previous micronutrients were occurred where 50 % sand + 50 % compost or peat moss was used under the
non-enriched treatments (47.77, 14.65, 29.67 and 5.32 ug/seedling, for Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu, respectively). It
could be arrange the three methods of mixing components (B) as follows: 50 % vermiculite + 50 % compost
or peat moss followed by 100 % compost or peat moss without any mixing and 50 % sand + 50 % compost
or peat moss in decreasing order.

A X B X C X D Interaction:
After calculation the interactions between all the main factors results show that the highest values of Fe
and Mn uptake by tomato seedlings (177.55 and 53.38 ug/seedling, respectively) were found under non-
enriched treatments (C), washed (D), 50 vermiculite + 50 % compost (B) and compost mixture No. 1, while
the highest values of Zn and Cu (105.40 and 20.92 ug/seedling, respectively) were occurred under non-
enriched treatments (C), washed (D), 50% vermiculite + 50% compost or peat moss (B) and compost mixtures
No. 3 and No. 4, respectively.

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