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Course Outline
1. Introduction (1 wk)
CE 6504 2. Preliminaries (1 wk)
Finite Elements Method in Structures 3. 1D (2-Node) Line Elements (3 wks)
Part I Bar, Truss, Beam-elements, Shape functions
4. 2D Elements (3 wks)
Plane Stress and Plane Strain Problems
5. 3D Elements (2 wks)
Tetrahedral, Hexahedral Elements
6. Plate Bending & Shells (1 wk.)
2nd Semester AY 2011/12
7. Further Issues (2 wk.)
Bedilu Habte Modeling, Errors, Non-linearity

References Internet References:


Finite Element Analysis Introduction to Finite Element Methods
By: S.S. BHAVIKATTI Department of Aerospace Engineering Sciences
Concepts and Applications of Finite Element Analysis University of Colorado at Boulder
By: Robert D. Cook, David S. Malkus and Michael E. Plesha http://www.colorado.edu/engineering/CAS/courses.d/IFEM.d/Home.html
Finite Element Procedures in Engineering Analysis Advanced Finite Element Methods
By: K.-J. Bathe Department of Aerospace Engineering Sciences
The Finite Element Method University of Colorado at Boulder
O.C. Zienkiewicz http://www.colorado.edu/engineering/CAS/courses.d/AFEM.d/Home.html
An Introduction to the Finite Element Method
By: J. N. Reddy

I Introduction What is FEM?


What is FEM? Use of several materials within the same structure,
Finite element method is a numerical method complicated or discontinuous geometry,
that generates approximate solutions to complicated loading, etc,
engineering problems which are usually expressed
i terms off differential
in diff i l equations.
i makes the closed form (analytical) solution of
structural problems very difficult.
Used for stress analysis, heat transfer, fluid flow,
electromagnetic etc. One resorts to a numerical solution, the best of
which is the FEM.

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What is FEM? Discretization Example


Structure is partitioned into FINITE
Find the circumference of a circle with a unit
ELEMENTS that are joined to each other at
diameter find the value of .
limited number of NODES
Approximation with polygons:
Behavior of an individual element can be
described with a simple set of equations

Assembling the element equations, to a large


set, is supposed to describe the behavior of the
whole structure.

Discretization Example Discretization Example


Estimated vs. exact value of = 3.1415926536
Solution: No. of sides Inscribed polygon Error
3 2.5980762114
Let n be the number of sides of the 0.5435164422
4 2.8284271247 0.3131655288
inscribed or circumscribing polygon. 8 3.0614674589 0.0801251947
16 3.1214451523 0.0201475013
i) Inscribed polygon
pol gon 32 3 1365484905
3.1365484905 0.0050441630
Perimeter p = n sin (/n) 64 3.1403311570 0.0012614966
128 3.1412772509 0.0003154027
1000 3.1415874859 0.0000051677
ii) Circumscribing polygon 10000 3.1415926019 0.0000000517
Perimeter p = n tan (/n) 100000 3.1415926531 0.0000000005
1000000 3.1415926536 0.0000000000

Brief History Brief History


A formal mathematical theory for the FEM The Pioneers 1950 to 1962; Clough,
started some 60 years ago Turner, Argyris, etc.; thought structural
The steps in FEA are very similar to the elements as a device to transmit forces
method of the stiffness method in matrix structural (force transducer).
analysis Thee Go
Golden
de Agege 19621972;
96 9 ;
The term finite element was first used by Clough in Zienkiewicz, Cheung, Martin, Carey etc.;
1960. thought discrete elements approximate
The first book on the FEM by Zienkiewicz and Cheung continuum models (displacement
was published in 1967. formulation).
In the late 1960s and early 1970s, the FEM was applied
to a wide variety of engineering problems.

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Brief History Brief History


Consolidation 1972 to mid 1980s; The 1970s advances in
Hughes, Bathe Argyris, etc.; variational mathematical treatments, including the
method, mixed formulation, error development of new elements, and
estimation. convergence studies.
Back
ac to o Basics
as cs early
a y 1980s
980 too the Most commercial FEM software
present; Elements are kept simple but packages originated in the 1970s and
should provide answers of engineering
1980s.
accuracy with relatively coarse meshes.
The FEM is one of the most important
developments in computational
methods to occur in the 20th century.
11/01/11 14

Brief History Proprietary Software


ANSYS
MSC/NASTRAN
ABACUS
ADINA
ALGOR
NISA
COSMOS/M
STARDYNE
IMAGES-3D

Steps in FEA Process Common FEA Procedure for Structures


1. Idealization simplify the structure
2. Discretize, Select Element Type, Select a 1. Idealization
Displacement Function The given structure needs to be idealized based on
3. Define Strain/Displacement and engineering judgment. Identify the governing
Stress/Strain Relationships equation.
4. D i
Derive Element
El t Stiff
Stiffness Matrix
M t i & Eqs.
E
5. Assemble Equations and Introduce B.C.s 2. Discretization
6. Solve for the Primary Unknown Degrees The continuum system is disassembled into a
of Freedoms number of small and manageable parts (finite
7. Solve for Element Stresses and Strains; elements).
Interpret the Results

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Common FEA Procedure for Structures Common FEA Procedure for Structures
3. Derivation of Element Stiffness Equations
Derive the relationship between the unknown and
given parameters at the nodes of the element.

f e k e ue U i u12 u12
4. Assembly Vi v12 v12
Assembling the global stiffness matrix from the
Displacement of a node is always
element stiffness matrices based on compatibility
the same for the adjoining elements
of displacements and equilibrium of forces. and for the whole structure.
For example:

Common FEA Procedure for Structures Common FEA Procedure for Structures
Fxi fx12 fx12 5. Introduce Boundary Conditions
After applying prescribed nodal displacements
Fyi fy12 fy12 (and known external forces) to the master stiffness
The sum of the forces on each element equation, the resulting equation becomes the
of a particular node must balance the q
modified master stiffness equation:
external force at that node.
For the whole structure, this process results in the master
stiffness equation:
K U F
K U F
' ' '

Common FEA Procedure for Structures Types of FEA in Structures


6. Solve for the primary unknowns
1. Linear analysis: small deflection and elastic
material properties.

U K 1F
2. Non-linear analysis:
Material non-linearity: small deflection and
non linear material properties.
non-linear properties
Geometric non-linearity: large deflection and
7. Post-processing Compute other values
elastic material properties.
Secondary unknowns are determined using the
Both material and geometric non-linearity.
known nodal displacements.

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Advantages of Finite Element Analysis Common Sources of Error in FEA


Models Bodies of Complex Shape
Idealization or Domain Approximation
Can Handle General Loading/Boundary Conditions
Element Interpolation/Approximation
Models Bodies Composed of Composite Materials
Numerical Integration Errors
Model is Easily Refined for Improved Accuracy by
(Including Spatial and Time Integration)
Varying Element Size and Type (Approximation Scheme)
Computer Errors (Round-Off, Etc., )
Time Dependent and Dynamic Effects Can Be Included
Can Handle a Variety Nonlinear Effects

Measures of Accuracy in FEA


Accuracy
Error = |(Exact Solution)-(FEM Solution)|
Mathematical Preliminaries
Convergence
Limit of Error as:
Number of Elements (h-convergence)
or
Approximation Order (p-convergence)
Increases
Ideally, Error 0 as Number of Elements or Bedilu Habte
Approximation Order 2012

Content Steps in FEA Process


1. Idealization simplify the structure
Matrices & Graphs
2. Discretize, Select Element Type, Select a
Elasticity Displacement Function
3. Define Strain/Displacement and
Variational Methods Stress/Strain Relationships
4. D i
Derive Element
El t Stiff
Stiffness Matrix
M t i & Eqs.
E
5. Assemble Equations and Introduce B.C.s
6. Solve for the Primary Unknown Degrees
of Freedoms
7. Solve for Element Stresses and Strains;
Interpret the Results

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Matrix Matrix cont.


For the relationship between a set of which can be written in a compact form
variables of the form: as:

with aij the coefficients of the dependent or Ax = y


variable x, A is a matrix with m rows and n
columns, aij being its components

Matrix cont. Matrix cont.


Real and complex matrices Scalar multiplication, matrix product
Square matrix; main & cross diagonal Power of square matrices
Null, identity and diagonal matrices Transpose, determinant
Equality, addition and subtraction Inverse of a matrix
Symmetric matrix ==> aij = aji Solution of simultaneous equations
Anti-symmetric (skew) matrix ==> aij = - Cramer's Rule and others
aji (diagonal must be zero) Partitioning
Differentiation
Integration

PlottingGraphs Scilab Numerical Methods


Labeltheaxesandaddatitle.
Several approaches can be used to transform
x=0:%pi/100:2*%pi;
the physical formulation of the problem to its
y=sin(x); finite element discrete analogue.
plot(x,y)
Galerkin method the physical formulation of
Labeltheaxesandaddatitle. the problem is known as a differential
xlabel('x=0:2\pi') equation.
ylabel('Sineofx') Variational formulation the physical
title('PlotoftheSineFunction','FontSize',12) problem can be formulated as minimization
Multiplegraphs of a functional.
y2=sin(x0.25);plot(x,y,x,y2)
legend('sin(x)','sin(x.25)');

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Variational Method cont. Variational Method cont.


Strong Form (SF): A system of ordinary
or partial differential equations in space
and/or time, complemented by appropriate
boundary conditions.
Weak Form ((WF): ) A weighted
g integral
g
equation that relaxes the strong form
into a domain-averaging statement.
Variational Form (VF): A functional
A mathematical model is a set of whose stationary conditions generate the
mathematical statements which attempts to weak and strong forms.
describe a given physical system.

Variational Method cont. Variational Method cont.


The WF and VF are of interest because:
4. VFs clarify and systematize the treatment
1. The functional of the VF embodies all
properties of the modeled system, including of boundary and interface conditions,
field equations, natural boundary conditions particularly in connection with
and conservation laws. discretization schemes.
2 VFs and WFs are the basis for technically
2. 5 VFs permit a deeper and more powerful
5.
important computer-based discrete methods mathematical treatment of questions of
of approximation. existence, stability, error bounds,
3. VFs, and to less extent WFs, directly convergence of numerical solutions, etc.
characterizes overall quantities of interest
to engineers.

Variational Method cont. Variational Method cont.


SFs discretization: the finite difference Example
Example:: Consider the ODE
method, constructed by replacing
derivatives by differences.
WFs discretization: the weighted residual This is SF and called problem domain. To solve
method Galerkin, collocation, subdomain,
finite-volume,
finite volume, leastsquares, collectively this equation, let the BCs are
called trial function methods. y(0) = 1, y(2) = 4 (boundary value problem)
VFs discretization: the Rayleigh-Ritz y(0) = 1, y' (0) = 0 (initial value problem)
method. This was the first trial-function
method, and is a special subclass of the BVPs usually model problems in spatial domains
Galerkin weighted residual method. whereas IVPs model problems in the time
domain.

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Variational Method cont. Variational Method cont.


multiply the ODE residual r (x) by a weight
function w(x) and integrate over [0, 2].
multiply r0 and r2 by weights w0 and w2
add the three terms

A residual function associated to the This is a weighted integral form; WF


above ODE is r(x) = y'' y 2. The SF is statement. It is possible that other functions
equivalent to saying that r(x) = 0. not satisfying the specified BVP may verify
the WF. Thus the qualifier weak.

Variational Method cont. Variational Method cont.


If w, w0 and w2 are formally written as the Finally, the BVP stated earlier has a
variations of functions v, v0 and v2, solution in variational calculus, given
respectively, then the above WF becomes:
by:

is the variation symbol. The vs are technically which is called the Euler-Lagrange
called test functions. equation; it is an example of a VF.
The resulting equation is called a variational
statement, which leads directly to the
important Galerkin forms.

Elasticity Elasticity cont.

3D Stress block Stress Equilibrium Equations


y
xy
yz
xy
zy
x
zx xz
z

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Elasticity cont. Elasticity cont.


Strain Displacement

Elasticity cont.
3D Stress Strain Relationships

2 Node Line Elements (Bars)

Bedilu Habte
2012

Content Bar Elements


(1) The longitudinal dimension or axial
Bar Elements dimension is much larger that the
Governing Equation transverse dimension(s). The intersection
of a plane normal to the longitudinal
Total Potential Energy dimension and the bar defines the cross
Ritz-Method sections
sections.
Galerkins Method (2) The bar resists an internal axial force
along its longitudinal dimension.

2 Node Line Elements 54

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Bar Elements cont. Bar Elements cont.

It must be in equilibrium.
It must satisfy the elastic stressstrain law
(Hookes law)
The displacement field must be compatible.
It must satisfy the straindisplacement equation.

Governing Equation Approximate Solution


The governing differential equation of the bar Admissible displacement function is
element is given by continuous over the length and satisfies any
boundary condition:
d du
AE q 0
dx dx
boundary conditions
u x0
0 Principles of Minimum Potential Energy Of all
kinematically admissible displacement equations,
du those corresponding to equilibrium extermize the
AE P TPE. If the extremum is a minimum, the equilibrium
dx xL
state is stable.

Kinematically Admissible Total Potential Energy (TPE)


Displacement Functions
p U W
those that satisfy the single-valued nature
of displacements (compatibility) and the dU x x y z d x
boundary conditions Strain Energy dU x d x dV
Usually Polynomials (Internal work)
Continuous within element. x
Inter-element compatibility. Prevent
U
V
x d x dV
0
overlap or gaps.
1
Allow for rigid body displacement and
constant strain.
U
2
V
x x dV

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Total Potential Energy Total Potential Energy


1
p work
External U Wof loads
2
M
W X b u dV Tx u dS fi di
V S i 1
Strain energy 1
2 L
T Adx

TPE External energy Pu 2


1
x AE x dx W
2 L
p 1
2 L
Total potential energy T Adx Pu 2

Ritz-Method Ritz-Method
For continua, the total potential energy, Using the Ritz-method, approximate
p, can be used to finding an displacement function is obtained by:
approximate solution. The Rayleigh-Ritz 1. Assume arbitrary displacement
method involves the construction of an a1 f 1 a 2 f 2 ... a n f n
assumed displacement field [u, v, w]:
2. Introduce this into the TPE functional
3. Performing differentiation and integration
to obtain a function
4.Minimizing the resulting function
d
0 for i 1 , 2 ,..., n
da i

Ritz-Method Ritz-Method
Consider the linear elastic one-dimensional Consider the polynomial function:
rod with a body force shown below
To be kinematically admissible u must
satisfy the boundary conditions u = 0 at
both ((x = 0)) and ((x = 2))

&
Thus:
The potential energy of this system is:
2
2 du
1
2
0
EA dx 2u 1
dx

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Ritz-Method Galerkin-Method
TPE of this system becomes: For the one-dimensional rod considered in the
4
a 32 2 a 3 pervious example, the governing equation
3
is:
Minimizing the TPE: 8
a3 2 0
a3 3
a3 3
4
The Galerkin method aims at setting the
Thus, an approximate u is given by: residual relative to a weighting function Wi,
to zero. The weighting functions, Wi, are
Rayleigh-Ritz method assumes trial functions chosen from the basis functions used for
over entire structure constructing (approximate displacement
function).

Galerkin-Method Galerkin-Method
Using the Galerkin-method, approximate Consider the rod shown below
displacement function is obtained by:
1. The governing DE is written in residual form
d du
RES AE
dx dx

2. Multiply this by weight function f introduce


into the TPE, and equate to zero
3. Performing differentiation and integration to Multiplying by and integrating gives (parts):
obtain a function
4.Minimizing the resulting function f R dx 0
L

Galerkin-Method Galerkin-Method
The function is zero at (x = 0) and (x = 2) Equating the value in the bracket to zero
and EA(du/dx) is the tension in the rod, and performing the integral:
which equals 2 at (x = 1). Thus:
u1 3
4

u 0 . 75 2 x x 2
In elasticity problems Galerkin
Galerkins
s method
Using the same polynomial function for u and turns out to be the principle of virtual work:
and if u1 and 1 are the values at (x = 1): (A deformable body is in equilibrium when
the total work done by external forces is
Setting these and equal to the total work done by internal
forces).
E=A=1 in the integral:

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Bar Element

E
2 Node Line Elements (Bars) Y
y
x, u du

2
dx
L d2 x , f2 x
1
A x T A
Bedilu Habte
d1 x , f1 x
2012 d du
X
AE 0
dx dx

Assumptions Appropriate Displacement


The bar cannot resist shear forces
Functions
Usually Polynomials
That is: f1 y f2 y 0 Continuous within element.
Inter-element compatibility. Prevent
Effects of transverse displacement are overlap
l or voids.
id
ignored
Allow for rigid body displacement
Hookes law applies. and constant strain.
That is:
x E x

Select a Displacement Function Shape Functions di x j d j xi


a1
x j xi
Assume a linear function. u d d
u a1 a2 x a2 j i
The displacement at any point x j xi
No. of coefficients = No. of DOF in the element is written in
x x
a terms of nodal values d x di j d j x xi
W itt
Written in
i matrix
t i fform: u 1 x 1 x x
j i
x x
j i
a 2
di
Expressed as function of d1 x and d2 x Ni N j
d j
u (0) d1x a1 a2 (0) d1x a1 Shape functions: where :
u ( L) d2 x a1 a2 ( L ) d2 x d1x a2 L x x x xi
N1 j and N2
l l

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Shape Functions Strain/Disp. & Stress/Strain Relationships


N1 and N2 are called Shape Functions or
Interpolation Functions. They express the shape
of the assumed displacements. d d1 x f A
N1 =1 N2 =0 at node 1 u 2 x x d1 x
L
N1 =0 N2 =1 at node 2 d d2 x
N1 + N2 =1 at anyy point
p f1x AE 1 x

du d 2 x d1 x

L
1
N1
N2 1
dx L
d d1 x
d d f2 x AE 2 x

E E 2 x 1 x L
1 2 L
L

Element Stiffness Matrix and Equations Potential Energy Approach

f1x AE 1 1 d1x p U W

f 2 x L 1 1 d2 x dU x d x dV
K
N
k ( e )
AE 1 1 1
k
L 1 1
e 1 U
2 x x dV
F f (e )
N V

e 1 M
Assemble Global Stiffness Matrix, apply BC
and solve the Master stiffness equation for K d F W X b u dV Tx u dS fix dix
the unknown displacements: V S i 1

Potential Energy Approach Potential Energy Approach

x D x
L
1
A x x dx f1x d1x f2 x d2 x u Tx dS u X b dv
2 0
p [D] is the constitutive

D E
S V
matrix
u [ N ] { d } (elasticity property
1
x

1
L
d x DB d matrix)

N 1 x x L
L L B d
x A
L


d
d 1 x B 1 1 p
2 0
x x dx f1x d1x f2 x d2 x u Tx dS u X b dv
d 2 x L
S V
L

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Potential Energy Approach Potential Energy Approach


P u T dS u X dv U d B D B d
L
A T
x T x dx d
T T T
2 0
*
p T
x
T
b
S V
1
1
1 d1 x
L
A
B D B d dx U d1x
T
p d d 2 x L E
T T
*
20

1
L L d2 x
d P d N T dS d N X dv
T
T T
x
T T
b
L
S V
U*
E 2

d1 x 2d1 x d2 x d22x
p
AL T
2

d B D B d d
T T T
f L2

T T

f { P } N Tx dS N X b dv d f d
T
f d2 x f2 x
S V 1x 1x

Potential Energy Approach Example


Analyse the bar shown below by the finite
p AL E
d1 x

2 L2
2d1x 2d2 x f 1x 0 element method dividing it into five equal
segments.
p AL E
d2 x

2 L2
2d 2 x 2d1 x f 2x 0

AE 1 1 d1 x f1x

L 1 1 d2 x f2 x
k B T D B dV ; D T D
V

Transformation Matrix (Local Global) Element stiffness equation


d1 x C S 0 0 d1 x f1x
1 0 1 0 d1x
Let
d1 y S C 0 0 d1 y f1 y AE 0 0 0 0d1 y

T f k T d
C cos
d 2 x 0 0 C S d 2 x f2 x L 1 0 1 0d2 x
S sin d2 y 0 0 S C d 2 y f2 y
0d2 y
f T 1 k T d
0 0 0
d T d
f k d
C
S
S 0 0
f T f T 1 T T
0
f T T k T d
C 0
T
0 0 C S

in the global coordinate: k T k T



0 0 S C Element stiffness matrix T

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Example Stress Computation


For the bar element shown in the figure
below and the accompanying data, 0.25 x 103 m

x 210x 106 1 3 1 3 0.0 m
A = 4 x 10-4 m2
Y E = 210 GPa 2 2 2 2 2 0.50 x 103 m
2 = 60o 0.75 x 103 m
d1x = 0.25 mm
d1y = 0.0 mm 81.32 x 103 kN / m2
d2x = 0.50 mm
60o X d2y = 0.75 mm 81.32 MPa
1

Compute the stress in the bar.

Quadratic Bar Element Quadratic Element Shape Functions


Obtain displacement function for the one-
dimensional quadratic element with three nodes u d1
a2 L a3 L2
x
L d1 a1
shown below. 2 2 4
u x 0 d2 d 2 a1
a2 L a3 L2
u d3 d 3 a1
A quadratic displacement function: x
L 2 4
2

u a1 a2 x a3 x 2 d 3 d1 x 2
u d 2 x 2 d 3 2 d 2 d 1 2
L L
No. of coefficients = No. of DOF
a1 d1
Written in matrix form:
u1 x
x 2 a2 x 2 x 2
2 1
4 x 2 x 2 x 2
2 d 2
a3 L L L2 L L
d3

Quadratic Shape Functions


N1 =1 N2 = N3 =0 at node 1
N2 =1 N1 = N3 =0 at node 2
N3 =1 N1 = N2 =0 at node 3

N1 + N2 + N3 = 1 at any point

16