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May 02, 2017

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FEM

© All Rights Reserved

- Comparing Numerical Alternatives to Model Jet Grouting in Tunnels
- Calculation of Dynamic Impedance of Foundations
- SAP 2000 Workshop
- ICMM TGZielinski IntroFEM.slides
- FEA Session 01
- 10 04 Intro to Finite Element Methods
- FEM - Ghalli
- Finite Analysis
- FEM for Two-Dimensional Solids (Finite Element Method) Part 2
- EN0175-02
- A New Method for the Coupling of Finite Element and Boundary Element Discretized Subdomains of Elastic Bodies - Hong-Bao Et Al
- 1 Intro
- A_Calculation_Method_for_the_Study_of_Gr(1).pdf
- 7056-24559-1-SM
- Variational Iteration Method for a Class of Nonlinear Differential Equations
- Conductor Short Ckt Cal
- (2014) Gasch - Construction Loads Using a Shoringclearingstriking Process (Publicado) (2)
- Evaluation of 6-Noded Quareter Point Element for Crack Analysis by Analytical Method
- ESCO2018 Book of Abstracts
- Index

Sei sulla pagina 1di 16

Course Outline

1. Introduction (1 wk)

CE 6504 2. Preliminaries (1 wk)

Finite Elements Method in Structures 3. 1D (2-Node) Line Elements (3 wks)

Part I Bar, Truss, Beam-elements, Shape functions

4. 2D Elements (3 wks)

Plane Stress and Plane Strain Problems

5. 3D Elements (2 wks)

Tetrahedral, Hexahedral Elements

6. Plate Bending & Shells (1 wk.)

2nd Semester AY 2011/12

7. Further Issues (2 wk.)

Bedilu Habte Modeling, Errors, Non-linearity

Finite Element Analysis Introduction to Finite Element Methods

By: S.S. BHAVIKATTI Department of Aerospace Engineering Sciences

Concepts and Applications of Finite Element Analysis University of Colorado at Boulder

By: Robert D. Cook, David S. Malkus and Michael E. Plesha http://www.colorado.edu/engineering/CAS/courses.d/IFEM.d/Home.html

Finite Element Procedures in Engineering Analysis Advanced Finite Element Methods

By: K.-J. Bathe Department of Aerospace Engineering Sciences

The Finite Element Method University of Colorado at Boulder

O.C. Zienkiewicz http://www.colorado.edu/engineering/CAS/courses.d/AFEM.d/Home.html

An Introduction to the Finite Element Method

By: J. N. Reddy

What is FEM? Use of several materials within the same structure,

Finite element method is a numerical method complicated or discontinuous geometry,

that generates approximate solutions to complicated loading, etc,

engineering problems which are usually expressed

i terms off differential

in diff i l equations.

i makes the closed form (analytical) solution of

structural problems very difficult.

Used for stress analysis, heat transfer, fluid flow,

electromagnetic etc. One resorts to a numerical solution, the best of

which is the FEM.

1

4/28/2012

Structure is partitioned into FINITE

Find the circumference of a circle with a unit

ELEMENTS that are joined to each other at

diameter find the value of .

limited number of NODES

Approximation with polygons:

Behavior of an individual element can be

described with a simple set of equations

set, is supposed to describe the behavior of the

whole structure.

Estimated vs. exact value of = 3.1415926536

Solution: No. of sides Inscribed polygon Error

3 2.5980762114

Let n be the number of sides of the 0.5435164422

4 2.8284271247 0.3131655288

inscribed or circumscribing polygon. 8 3.0614674589 0.0801251947

16 3.1214451523 0.0201475013

i) Inscribed polygon

pol gon 32 3 1365484905

3.1365484905 0.0050441630

Perimeter p = n sin (/n) 64 3.1403311570 0.0012614966

128 3.1412772509 0.0003154027

1000 3.1415874859 0.0000051677

ii) Circumscribing polygon 10000 3.1415926019 0.0000000517

Perimeter p = n tan (/n) 100000 3.1415926531 0.0000000005

1000000 3.1415926536 0.0000000000

A formal mathematical theory for the FEM The Pioneers 1950 to 1962; Clough,

started some 60 years ago Turner, Argyris, etc.; thought structural

The steps in FEA are very similar to the elements as a device to transmit forces

method of the stiffness method in matrix structural (force transducer).

analysis Thee Go

Golden

de Agege 19621972;

96 9 ;

The term finite element was first used by Clough in Zienkiewicz, Cheung, Martin, Carey etc.;

1960. thought discrete elements approximate

The first book on the FEM by Zienkiewicz and Cheung continuum models (displacement

was published in 1967. formulation).

In the late 1960s and early 1970s, the FEM was applied

to a wide variety of engineering problems.

2

4/28/2012

Consolidation 1972 to mid 1980s; The 1970s advances in

Hughes, Bathe Argyris, etc.; variational mathematical treatments, including the

method, mixed formulation, error development of new elements, and

estimation. convergence studies.

Back

ac to o Basics

as cs early

a y 1980s

980 too the Most commercial FEM software

present; Elements are kept simple but packages originated in the 1970s and

should provide answers of engineering

1980s.

accuracy with relatively coarse meshes.

The FEM is one of the most important

developments in computational

methods to occur in the 20th century.

11/01/11 14

ANSYS

MSC/NASTRAN

ABACUS

ADINA

ALGOR

NISA

COSMOS/M

STARDYNE

IMAGES-3D

1. Idealization simplify the structure

2. Discretize, Select Element Type, Select a 1. Idealization

Displacement Function The given structure needs to be idealized based on

3. Define Strain/Displacement and engineering judgment. Identify the governing

Stress/Strain Relationships equation.

4. D i

Derive Element

El t Stiff

Stiffness Matrix

M t i & Eqs.

E

5. Assemble Equations and Introduce B.C.s 2. Discretization

6. Solve for the Primary Unknown Degrees The continuum system is disassembled into a

of Freedoms number of small and manageable parts (finite

7. Solve for Element Stresses and Strains; elements).

Interpret the Results

3

4/28/2012

Common FEA Procedure for Structures Common FEA Procedure for Structures

3. Derivation of Element Stiffness Equations

Derive the relationship between the unknown and

given parameters at the nodes of the element.

f e k e ue U i u12 u12

4. Assembly Vi v12 v12

Assembling the global stiffness matrix from the

Displacement of a node is always

element stiffness matrices based on compatibility

the same for the adjoining elements

of displacements and equilibrium of forces. and for the whole structure.

For example:

Common FEA Procedure for Structures Common FEA Procedure for Structures

Fxi fx12 fx12 5. Introduce Boundary Conditions

After applying prescribed nodal displacements

Fyi fy12 fy12 (and known external forces) to the master stiffness

The sum of the forces on each element equation, the resulting equation becomes the

of a particular node must balance the q

modified master stiffness equation:

external force at that node.

For the whole structure, this process results in the master

stiffness equation:

K U F

K U F

' ' '

6. Solve for the primary unknowns

1. Linear analysis: small deflection and elastic

material properties.

U K 1F

2. Non-linear analysis:

Material non-linearity: small deflection and

non linear material properties.

non-linear properties

Geometric non-linearity: large deflection and

7. Post-processing Compute other values

elastic material properties.

Secondary unknowns are determined using the

Both material and geometric non-linearity.

known nodal displacements.

4

4/28/2012

Models Bodies of Complex Shape

Idealization or Domain Approximation

Can Handle General Loading/Boundary Conditions

Element Interpolation/Approximation

Models Bodies Composed of Composite Materials

Numerical Integration Errors

Model is Easily Refined for Improved Accuracy by

(Including Spatial and Time Integration)

Varying Element Size and Type (Approximation Scheme)

Computer Errors (Round-Off, Etc., )

Time Dependent and Dynamic Effects Can Be Included

Can Handle a Variety Nonlinear Effects

Accuracy

Error = |(Exact Solution)-(FEM Solution)|

Mathematical Preliminaries

Convergence

Limit of Error as:

Number of Elements (h-convergence)

or

Approximation Order (p-convergence)

Increases

Ideally, Error 0 as Number of Elements or Bedilu Habte

Approximation Order 2012

1. Idealization simplify the structure

Matrices & Graphs

2. Discretize, Select Element Type, Select a

Elasticity Displacement Function

3. Define Strain/Displacement and

Variational Methods Stress/Strain Relationships

4. D i

Derive Element

El t Stiff

Stiffness Matrix

M t i & Eqs.

E

5. Assemble Equations and Introduce B.C.s

6. Solve for the Primary Unknown Degrees

of Freedoms

7. Solve for Element Stresses and Strains;

Interpret the Results

5

4/28/2012

For the relationship between a set of which can be written in a compact form

variables of the form: as:

variable x, A is a matrix with m rows and n

columns, aij being its components

Real and complex matrices Scalar multiplication, matrix product

Square matrix; main & cross diagonal Power of square matrices

Null, identity and diagonal matrices Transpose, determinant

Equality, addition and subtraction Inverse of a matrix

Symmetric matrix ==> aij = aji Solution of simultaneous equations

Anti-symmetric (skew) matrix ==> aij = - Cramer's Rule and others

aji (diagonal must be zero) Partitioning

Differentiation

Integration

Labeltheaxesandaddatitle.

Several approaches can be used to transform

x=0:%pi/100:2*%pi;

the physical formulation of the problem to its

y=sin(x); finite element discrete analogue.

plot(x,y)

Galerkin method the physical formulation of

Labeltheaxesandaddatitle. the problem is known as a differential

xlabel('x=0:2\pi') equation.

ylabel('Sineofx') Variational formulation the physical

title('PlotoftheSineFunction','FontSize',12) problem can be formulated as minimization

Multiplegraphs of a functional.

y2=sin(x0.25);plot(x,y,x,y2)

legend('sin(x)','sin(x.25)');

6

4/28/2012

Strong Form (SF): A system of ordinary

or partial differential equations in space

and/or time, complemented by appropriate

boundary conditions.

Weak Form ((WF): ) A weighted

g integral

g

equation that relaxes the strong form

into a domain-averaging statement.

Variational Form (VF): A functional

A mathematical model is a set of whose stationary conditions generate the

mathematical statements which attempts to weak and strong forms.

describe a given physical system.

The WF and VF are of interest because:

4. VFs clarify and systematize the treatment

1. The functional of the VF embodies all

properties of the modeled system, including of boundary and interface conditions,

field equations, natural boundary conditions particularly in connection with

and conservation laws. discretization schemes.

2 VFs and WFs are the basis for technically

2. 5 VFs permit a deeper and more powerful

5.

important computer-based discrete methods mathematical treatment of questions of

of approximation. existence, stability, error bounds,

3. VFs, and to less extent WFs, directly convergence of numerical solutions, etc.

characterizes overall quantities of interest

to engineers.

SFs discretization: the finite difference Example

Example:: Consider the ODE

method, constructed by replacing

derivatives by differences.

WFs discretization: the weighted residual This is SF and called problem domain. To solve

method Galerkin, collocation, subdomain,

finite-volume,

finite volume, leastsquares, collectively this equation, let the BCs are

called trial function methods. y(0) = 1, y(2) = 4 (boundary value problem)

VFs discretization: the Rayleigh-Ritz y(0) = 1, y' (0) = 0 (initial value problem)

method. This was the first trial-function

method, and is a special subclass of the BVPs usually model problems in spatial domains

Galerkin weighted residual method. whereas IVPs model problems in the time

domain.

7

4/28/2012

multiply the ODE residual r (x) by a weight

function w(x) and integrate over [0, 2].

multiply r0 and r2 by weights w0 and w2

add the three terms

above ODE is r(x) = y'' y 2. The SF is statement. It is possible that other functions

equivalent to saying that r(x) = 0. not satisfying the specified BVP may verify

the WF. Thus the qualifier weak.

If w, w0 and w2 are formally written as the Finally, the BVP stated earlier has a

variations of functions v, v0 and v2, solution in variational calculus, given

respectively, then the above WF becomes:

by:

is the variation symbol. The vs are technically which is called the Euler-Lagrange

called test functions. equation; it is an example of a VF.

The resulting equation is called a variational

statement, which leads directly to the

important Galerkin forms.

y

xy

yz

xy

zy

x

zx xz

z

8

4/28/2012

Strain Displacement

Elasticity cont.

3D Stress Strain Relationships

Bedilu Habte

2012

(1) The longitudinal dimension or axial

Bar Elements dimension is much larger that the

Governing Equation transverse dimension(s). The intersection

of a plane normal to the longitudinal

Total Potential Energy dimension and the bar defines the cross

Ritz-Method sections

sections.

Galerkins Method (2) The bar resists an internal axial force

along its longitudinal dimension.

9

4/28/2012

It must be in equilibrium.

It must satisfy the elastic stressstrain law

(Hookes law)

The displacement field must be compatible.

It must satisfy the straindisplacement equation.

The governing differential equation of the bar Admissible displacement function is

element is given by continuous over the length and satisfies any

boundary condition:

d du

AE q 0

dx dx

boundary conditions

u x0

0 Principles of Minimum Potential Energy Of all

kinematically admissible displacement equations,

du those corresponding to equilibrium extermize the

AE P TPE. If the extremum is a minimum, the equilibrium

dx xL

state is stable.

Displacement Functions

p U W

those that satisfy the single-valued nature

of displacements (compatibility) and the dU x x y z d x

boundary conditions Strain Energy dU x d x dV

Usually Polynomials (Internal work)

Continuous within element. x

Inter-element compatibility. Prevent

U

V

x d x dV

0

overlap or gaps.

1

Allow for rigid body displacement and

constant strain.

U

2

V

x x dV

10

4/28/2012

1

p work

External U Wof loads

2

M

W X b u dV Tx u dS fi di

V S i 1

Strain energy 1

2 L

T Adx

1

x AE x dx W

2 L

p 1

2 L

Total potential energy T Adx Pu 2

Ritz-Method Ritz-Method

For continua, the total potential energy, Using the Ritz-method, approximate

p, can be used to finding an displacement function is obtained by:

approximate solution. The Rayleigh-Ritz 1. Assume arbitrary displacement

method involves the construction of an a1 f 1 a 2 f 2 ... a n f n

assumed displacement field [u, v, w]:

2. Introduce this into the TPE functional

3. Performing differentiation and integration

to obtain a function

4.Minimizing the resulting function

d

0 for i 1 , 2 ,..., n

da i

Ritz-Method Ritz-Method

Consider the linear elastic one-dimensional Consider the polynomial function:

rod with a body force shown below

To be kinematically admissible u must

satisfy the boundary conditions u = 0 at

both ((x = 0)) and ((x = 2))

&

Thus:

The potential energy of this system is:

2

2 du

1

2

0

EA dx 2u 1

dx

11

4/28/2012

Ritz-Method Galerkin-Method

TPE of this system becomes: For the one-dimensional rod considered in the

4

a 32 2 a 3 pervious example, the governing equation

3

is:

Minimizing the TPE: 8

a3 2 0

a3 3

a3 3

4

The Galerkin method aims at setting the

Thus, an approximate u is given by: residual relative to a weighting function Wi,

to zero. The weighting functions, Wi, are

Rayleigh-Ritz method assumes trial functions chosen from the basis functions used for

over entire structure constructing (approximate displacement

function).

Galerkin-Method Galerkin-Method

Using the Galerkin-method, approximate Consider the rod shown below

displacement function is obtained by:

1. The governing DE is written in residual form

d du

RES AE

dx dx

into the TPE, and equate to zero

3. Performing differentiation and integration to Multiplying by and integrating gives (parts):

obtain a function

4.Minimizing the resulting function f R dx 0

L

Galerkin-Method Galerkin-Method

The function is zero at (x = 0) and (x = 2) Equating the value in the bracket to zero

and EA(du/dx) is the tension in the rod, and performing the integral:

which equals 2 at (x = 1). Thus:

u1 3

4

u 0 . 75 2 x x 2

In elasticity problems Galerkin

Galerkins

s method

Using the same polynomial function for u and turns out to be the principle of virtual work:

and if u1 and 1 are the values at (x = 1): (A deformable body is in equilibrium when

the total work done by external forces is

Setting these and equal to the total work done by internal

forces).

E=A=1 in the integral:

12

4/28/2012

Bar Element

E

2 Node Line Elements (Bars) Y

y

x, u du

2

dx

L d2 x , f2 x

1

A x T A

Bedilu Habte

d1 x , f1 x

2012 d du

X

AE 0

dx dx

The bar cannot resist shear forces

Functions

Usually Polynomials

That is: f1 y f2 y 0 Continuous within element.

Inter-element compatibility. Prevent

Effects of transverse displacement are overlap

l or voids.

id

ignored

Allow for rigid body displacement

Hookes law applies. and constant strain.

That is:

x E x

a1

x j xi

Assume a linear function. u d d

u a1 a2 x a2 j i

The displacement at any point x j xi

No. of coefficients = No. of DOF in the element is written in

x x

a terms of nodal values d x di j d j x xi

W itt

Written in

i matrix

t i fform: u 1 x 1 x x

j i

x x

j i

a 2

di

Expressed as function of d1 x and d2 x Ni N j

d j

u (0) d1x a1 a2 (0) d1x a1 Shape functions: where :

u ( L) d2 x a1 a2 ( L ) d2 x d1x a2 L x x x xi

N1 j and N2

l l

13

4/28/2012

N1 and N2 are called Shape Functions or

Interpolation Functions. They express the shape

of the assumed displacements. d d1 x f A

N1 =1 N2 =0 at node 1 u 2 x x d1 x

L

N1 =0 N2 =1 at node 2 d d2 x

N1 + N2 =1 at anyy point

p f1x AE 1 x

du d 2 x d1 x

L

1

N1

N2 1

dx L

d d1 x

d d f2 x AE 2 x

E E 2 x 1 x L

1 2 L

L

f1x AE 1 1 d1x p U W

f 2 x L 1 1 d2 x dU x d x dV

K

N

k ( e )

AE 1 1 1

k

L 1 1

e 1 U

2 x x dV

F f (e )

N V

e 1 M

Assemble Global Stiffness Matrix, apply BC

and solve the Master stiffness equation for K d F W X b u dV Tx u dS fix dix

the unknown displacements: V S i 1

x D x

L

1

A x x dx f1x d1x f2 x d2 x u Tx dS u X b dv

2 0

p [D] is the constitutive

D E

S V

matrix

u [ N ] { d } (elasticity property

1

x

1

L

d x DB d matrix)

N 1 x x L

L L B d

x A

L

d

d 1 x B 1 1 p

2 0

x x dx f1x d1x f2 x d2 x u Tx dS u X b dv

d 2 x L

S V

L

14

4/28/2012

P u T dS u X dv U d B D B d

L

A T

x T x dx d

T T T

2 0

*

p T

x

T

b

S V

1

1

1 d1 x

L

A

B D B d dx U d1x

T

p d d 2 x L E

T T

*

20

1

L L d2 x

d P d N T dS d N X dv

T

T T

x

T T

b

L

S V

U*

E 2

d1 x 2d1 x d2 x d22x

p

AL T

2

d B D B d d

T T T

f L2

T T

f { P } N Tx dS N X b dv d f d

T

f d2 x f2 x

S V 1x 1x

Analyse the bar shown below by the finite

p AL E

d1 x

2 L2

2d1x 2d2 x f 1x 0 element method dividing it into five equal

segments.

p AL E

d2 x

2 L2

2d 2 x 2d1 x f 2x 0

AE 1 1 d1 x f1x

L 1 1 d2 x f2 x

k B T D B dV ; D T D

V

d1 x C S 0 0 d1 x f1x

1 0 1 0 d1x

Let

d1 y S C 0 0 d1 y f1 y AE 0 0 0 0d1 y

T f k T d

C cos

d 2 x 0 0 C S d 2 x f2 x L 1 0 1 0d2 x

S sin d2 y 0 0 S C d 2 y f2 y

0d2 y

f T 1 k T d

0 0 0

d T d

f k d

C

S

S 0 0

f T f T 1 T T

0

f T T k T d

C 0

T

0 0 C S

0 0 S C Element stiffness matrix T

15

4/28/2012

For the bar element shown in the figure

below and the accompanying data, 0.25 x 103 m

x 210x 106 1 3 1 3 0.0 m

A = 4 x 10-4 m2

Y E = 210 GPa 2 2 2 2 2 0.50 x 103 m

2 = 60o 0.75 x 103 m

d1x = 0.25 mm

d1y = 0.0 mm 81.32 x 103 kN / m2

d2x = 0.50 mm

60o X d2y = 0.75 mm 81.32 MPa

1

Obtain displacement function for the one-

dimensional quadratic element with three nodes u d1

a2 L a3 L2

x

L d1 a1

shown below. 2 2 4

u x 0 d2 d 2 a1

a2 L a3 L2

u d3 d 3 a1

A quadratic displacement function: x

L 2 4

2

u a1 a2 x a3 x 2 d 3 d1 x 2

u d 2 x 2 d 3 2 d 2 d 1 2

L L

No. of coefficients = No. of DOF

a1 d1

Written in matrix form:

u1 x

x 2 a2 x 2 x 2

2 1

4 x 2 x 2 x 2

2 d 2

a3 L L L2 L L

d3

N1 =1 N2 = N3 =0 at node 1

N2 =1 N1 = N3 =0 at node 2

N3 =1 N1 = N2 =0 at node 3

N1 + N2 + N3 = 1 at any point

16

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