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Final Project Report

Mortar is a workable paste used to bind construction blocks together and fill
the gaps between them. The blocks may be stone, brick, cinder blocks, etc. Mortar becomes
hard when it sets, resulting in a rigid aggregate structure. Modern mortars are typically made
from a mixture of sand, a binder such as cement or lime, and water. Mortar can also be used
to fix, or point, masonry when the original mortar has washed away.

Types of Mortar:
There are many types of Mortar
1. Ancient mortar
2. Portland cement mortar
3. Polymer cement mortar
4. Lime mortar
5. Pozzolana mortar

Ancient Mortar:

The first mortars were made of mud and clay. Because of a lack of stone and
an abundance of clay, Babylonian constructions were of baked brick, using lime or pitch for
mortar. According to Roman Ghirshman, the first evidence of humans using a form of mortar
was at the ziggurat of Sialk in Iran, built of sun-dried bricks in 2900 BC. The Chogha Zanbil
Temple in Iran was built in about 1250 BC with kiln-fired bricks and a strong mortar of

In early Egyptian pyramids constructed about 26002500 BC, the limestone blocks
were bound by mortar of mud and clay, or clay and sand. In later Egyptian pyramids, the
mortar was made of either gypsum or lime. Gypsum mortar was essentially a mixture of
plaster and sand and was quite soft.

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In the Indian subcontinent, multiple cement types have been observed in the sites of
the Indus Valley Civilization, such as the Mohenjo-Daro city-settlement that dates to earlier
than 2600 BC. Gypsum cement that was "light grey and contained sand, clay, traces of
calcium carbonate, and a high percentage of lime" was used in the construction of wells,
drains and on the exteriors of "important looking buildings." Bitumen mortar was also used at
a lower-frequency, including in the Great Bath at Mohenjo-Daro.

Historically, building with concrete and mortar next appeared in Greece. The
excavation of the underground aqueduct of Megara revealed that a reservoir was coated with
a pozzolanic mortar 12 mm thick. This aqueduct dates back to c. 500 BC. Pozzolanic mortar
is a lime based mortar, but is made with an additive of volcanic ash that allows it to be
hardened underwater; thus it is known as hydraulic cement. The Greeks obtained the volcanic
ash from the Greek islands Thira and Nisiros, or from the then Greek colony of Dicaearchia
(Pozzuoli) near Naples, Italy. The Romans later improved the use and methods of making
what became known as pozzolanic mortar and cement. Even later, the Romans used a mortar
without pozzolana using crushed terra cotta, introducing aluminum oxide and silicon dioxide
into the mix. This mortar was not as strong as pozzolanic mortar, but, because it was denser,
it better resisted penetration by water.

Hydraulic mortar was not available in ancient China, possibly due to a lack of
volcanic ash. Around AD 500, sticky rice soup was mixed with slaked lime to make an
inorganicorganic composite mortar that had more strength and water resistance than lime

Portland cement mortar:

Portland cement mortar (often known simply as cement mortar) is created by
mixing Ordinary Portland cement (OPC), hydrated lime, and aggregate (or sand) with water.
It was invented in 1794 by Joseph Aspdin and patented on 18 December 1824, largely as a
result of various scientific efforts to develop stronger mortars than existed at the time.
Portland cement sets hard and quickly, allowing a faster pace of construction, and requires
fewer skilled workers.

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Polymer cements mortar:

Polymer cement mortars (PCM) are the materials which are
made by partially replacing the cement hydrate binders of conventional cement mortar with
polymers. The polymeric admixtures include latexes or emulsions, redispersible polymer
powders, water-soluble polymers, liquid resins and monomers. It has low permeability, and it
reduces the incidence of drying shrinkage cracking, mainly designed for repairing concrete
structures. For an example see MagneLine

Lime mortar:

The speed of set can be increased by using impure limestone in the kiln, to form a
hydraulic lime that will set on contact with water. Such a lime must be stored as a dry
powder. Alternatively, a pozzolanic material such as calcined clay or brick dust may be added
to the mortar mix. This will have a similar effect of making the mortar set reasonably quickly
by reaction with the water in the mortar.

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Using Portland cement mortars in repairs to older buildings originally constructed

using lime mortar can be problematic. This is because lime mortar is softer than cement
mortar, allowing brickwork a certain degree of flexibility to move to adapt to shifting ground
or other changing conditions. Cement mortar is harder and allows less flexibility. The contrast
can cause brickwork to crack where the two mortars are present in a single wall.

Lime mortar is considered breathable in that it will allow moisture to freely move
through it and evaporate from its surface. In old buildings with walls that shift over time,
there are often cracks which allow rain water into the structure. The lime mortar allows this
moisture to escape through evaporation and keeps the wall dry. Repointing or rendering an
old wall with cement mortar stops this evaporation and can cause problems associated with
moisture behind the cement.

Pozzolana mortar:

Pozzolana is a fine, sandy volcanic ash, originally discovered and dug in Italy at
Pozzuoli in the region around Mount Vesuvius, but later at a number of other sites. The
ancient Roman architect Vitruvius speaks of four types of pozzolana. It is found in all the
volcanic areas of Italy in various colours: black, white, grey and red.

Finely ground and mixed with lime it acts like Portland cement and makes a strong mortar
that will also set under wate

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Mixing of Mortar:
There are many types of mixing. These are explained following.
Mechanical Mixing
Site Mixed Mortar
Hand Mixing
Pre-mixed Mortar

1. Mechanical Mixing:
This is usually done in a concrete mixer. A small amount of mixing water is
placed in the mixer followed by the sand, cement and then lime. More water is then slowly
added to create a thick creamy mortar. Each batch should be thoroughly mixed for three
minutes to ensure that a uniform consistency is obtained

2. Site Mixed Mortar:

When site mixing, it is important to carefully measure the material by volume in
a suitable container (i.e. a bucket) not by shovelfuls

3. Hand Mixing:
Mixing should be done in a clean wheelbarrow or on a mixing board to avoid
contamination. The raw materials should be combined and mixed to an even colour prior to
adding water. Water is then slowly added with the continuous turning of the mix until a thick
creamy mortar is obtained. It is important that mortars are used within an hour of mixing and
should not be retempered by the addition of water.

4. Pre-mixed Mortar:
Adelaide Brighton Cement manufactures a range of premium grade packaged
mortars which are available in 20kg bags for ease of handling. These are available at your
local hardware store or landscape supplies outlet and require only the addition of clean water

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and mixing prior to use. On a clean surface, slowly add the water whilst mixing until a
uniform, workable consistency is obtained.

Materials which are used in mortar:

There are three main components which are required for mortar.

Preferred cement types are:
o Common cement complying with SANS 50197-1
o Masonry cement complying with SANS 50413-1;

Strength class 22,5XCement is sold in 50 kg bags and in bulk. Cement must be kept in
dry storage. If there are hard lumps in the cement that cannot be crumbled by hand, it is not
fresh and Should not be used. The performance of products claiming Conformance with
SANS 50413 strength class 12,5X is not supported by independently published data.

Use only type A2P building lime complying with SANS 523: 2007. Do not use quick-
lime, lime wash or Agricultural lime. Lime is sold in 25 kg bags. Lime should be used if the
sand lacks fine material or is single Sized; as such sands tend to produce mortar with poor
Workability unless lime is included in the mix. Lime also helps the fresh mortar to retain
water when it is placed against dry cement bricks or blocks and helps to prevent Cracking of
the hardened mortar. For Class I mortar, a maximum of 10 kg of lime is permitted per 50 kg
of cement. For Class II mortar, a maximum of 25 kg of lime Is permitted per 50 kg of cement.
Do not use lime with masonry cement.

Sand shall either comply with all of the following requirements or, If required in
terms of the specification, the requirements of SANS 1090 for mortar sand (natural or
Sand shall contain no organic material (material produced by Animal or plant
Sand shall not contain any particles which are retained on a Sieve of nominal aperture
size 5 mm.
When 2,5 kg of cement is mixed with 12,5 kg of air-dry sand, The mixture shall not
require more than 3,0l of water to be Added to reach a consistency suitable for the
laying of Masonry units.
When mixed with the cement in accordance with the mix Proportions, the sand shall
have workability suitable for the Layingof masonry units.

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Supplying the mortar:

Mortars are supplied to the job site in three ways:
Site mixed the mortar is prepared on site by the mason.

Pre-mixed wet the mortar is commercially prepared off-site and shipped in tubs
ready to use. A retarder is added to the mixture to ensure the mortar in tubs does not
set up before being placed in the wall.
Pre-mixed dry the mortar is commercially prepared off-site. Water is added to the
mix by the mason on site. The supply of mortar is not typically specified but rather
determined by the mason based on site conditions.

To bind masonry units like stones, bricks and hollow cement blocks.
To give impervious surface to roof slab and walls (plastering).
To give neat finishing to concrete works.
For pointing masonry joints.
For preparing hollow blocks.
As a filler material in ferro-cement works.

Quantity of Mortar in a wall:

Dimension of wall,
length of wall= 60 ft
height of wall= 12 ft
width of wall = 0.75 ft
volume of wall= 60*12*0.75
= 540 cft
Volume of 1 window= 4.5*7*0.75=23.625 cft
Volume of 6 window= 23.625*6 = 141.75 cft
Net volume = 540 141.75 = 398.25 cft
Dry mortar =398.25* 0.3
=119.475 cft
Mortar Ratio=1:6
sum of ratio= 1+6= 7

As we know that;
Formula= (dry material*material required)/sum of ratio

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=(119.475*1)/7=17.06 cft
=17.06/1.25=13.65 Bags
=(119.475*6)/7= 102.41 cft
VOLUME OF 1 TROWLY = 120 cft
But in our case;
=102.41/120= 0.85 trolley

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Damp-proof course (DPC)

A damp-proof course (often abbreviated to DPC) is a horizontal barrier in a wall
designed to resist moisture rising through the structure by capillary action - a phenomenon
known as rising damp. A damp-proof membrane (DPM) performs a similar function for a
solid floor. The provision of a DPC in a building, or a free standing wall, is intended to
provide a barrier
to the passage of water from:
The exterior to the interior of the building.
The ground to the structure.
One part of the structure to another.
This passage of water may be horizontal, upwards or downwards and, if measures to
Counteract it are not taken with care, dampness may result and the effectiveness of thermal
Insulation may be reduced.

There are two main types of DPC material:
Flexible DPCs:
The most common types used are:
Bitumen felt.
Pitch polymer.
These are supplied in rolls ranging from 8m to 30m in length and in a range of widths
including 110, 220 and 300mm.
Rolls of bitumen-based flexible DPC should be stored on end to avoid any distortion.
They should be stored in a warm place, especially in cold weather, to prevent any cracking
as they are unrolled.
There are other specialist types of flexible DPC available such as lead and copper coated
with bitumen to prevent any corrosion or possible staining of the brickwork, but these are
more costly and are less often used.

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Rigid DPCs:
Rigid DPCs are suitable to resist the passage of rising damp but not
the downward flow of water. The most common types of rigid DPC are:
Two courses of engineering bricks bedded in a designated mortar.
Two courses of slate bonded and bedded in a designated mortar.

Location and Positioning DPCs:

The Building Regulations require that no wall or pier shall permit the passage of
moisture from the ground to the inner surface or to any part of the building that would be

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harmfully affected by such moisture. The regulations also give specific guidelines as to where
and how DPCs should be positioned, such as:
At the base of external walls, not less than 150mm above ground level.
Similarly at the base of internal walls that are built off foundations rather than a ground
floor slab.
Vertically at jambs to openings in external cavity walls.
Horizontally over openings in external cavity walls (in this position they are usually
referred to as cavity trays).
Horizontally at window cills and door thresholds.
Below copings and copings to free-standing, retaining and parapet walls and chimney

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Cavity Trays:
A horizontal DPC bridging over an opening in an external cavity wall is usually called
a cavity tray. Any water penetrating the outer leaf of the brickwork above the DPC will
drain down the inside face of the wall and be shed via weep holes usually in the form of

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open vertical joints in the outer leaf. These may be fi tted with a proprietary fi lter to reduce
cementitious staining.


concrete is a
commonly used
in construction

projects such as road surfaces,

parking lots, and airports. Asphalt concrete consists of asphalt (used as
a binder) mixed with mineral aggregate and then laid down in layers
and compacted. Asphalt concrete was refined and enhanced to its current
state by Belgian inventor and U.S.
immigrant Edward de Smedt. It is
increasingly being used as the core of embankment dams.

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Components of Asphalt:
Asphalt consists of following components.
Fine stone

Manufacturing of Asphalt:

Manufacturing of Asphalt is done in Asphalt plant. An asphalt plant is a plant used for
the manufacture of asphalt, macadam and other forms of coated roadstone, sometimes
collectively known as blacktop.

The manufacture of coated roadstone demands the combination of a number of

aggregates, sand and a filler (such as stone dust), in the correct proportions, heated, and
finally coated with a binder, usually bitumen based or, in some cases, tar,although tar was
removed from BS4987 in 2001 and is not referred to in BSEN 13108/1 . The temperature of
the finished product must be sufficient to be workable after transport to the final destination.
A temperature in the range of 100 - 200 degrees Celsius is normal.

Increasingly, recycled asphalt pavement (RAP) is used as part of the mix. The binder
used is flammable, and the heaters are large liquid or gas fired burners. RAP is introduced
after the heating process and must be accounted for in the overall mix temperature

There are three main classes of plant: batch heater, semi-continuous (or "asphalt
plant"), and continuous (or "drum mix"). The batch heater has the lowest throughput, the
continuous plant the highest at up to around 500 Tons per hour.

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Paving of Asphalt:
ntering of road with Total Station
Leveling with Auto

Paving with Paver machine
Prime coat
Bitumen & kerosene oil
Mc / medium coring coat

Paver Machine:
A paver (paver finisher, asphalt finisher, paving machine) is a piece of construction
equipment used to lay asphalt on roads, bridges, parking lots and other such places. It lays the
asphalt flat and providing minor compaction before it is rolled by a roller
The asphalt is added from a dump truck or a material transfer unit into the paver's
hopper. The conveyor then carries the asphalt from the hopper to the auger. The auger places
a stockpile of material in front of the screed. The screed takes the stockpile of material and
spreads it over the width of the road and provides initial compaction.

The paver should provide a smooth uniform surface behind the screed. In order to
provide a smooth surface the a free floating screen is used. It is towed at the end of a long
arm which reduces the base topology effect on the final surface. The height of the screen is
controlled by a number of factors including: the attack angle of the screed, weight and
vibration of the screed, the material head and the towing force.

To conform to the elevation changes for the final grade of the road modern pavers use
automatic screed controls, which generally control the screed's angle of attack from

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information gathered from a grade sensor. Additional controls are used to correct the slope,
crown or superelevation of the finished pavement.

In order to provide a smooth surface the paver should proceed at a constant speed and
have a consistent stockpile of material in front of the screed. Increase in material stockpile or
paver speed will cause the screed to rise resulting in more asphalt being placed therefore a
thicker mat of asphalt and an uneven final surface. Alternatively a decrease in material or a
drop in speed will cause the screed to fall and the mat to be thinner.

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