15, 2017
ISSN 2331-6055 (print) ISSN 2331-608X (online)
Volume 15 2017
Contents
Mai Mohamed, Mohamed Abdel-Basset, Abdel Nasser Tanushree Mitra Basu, Shyamal Kumar Mondal. Multi-
H Zaied, Florentin Smarandache. Neutrosophic Integer 3 Criteria Assignment Techniques in Multi-Dimensional
49
Programming Problem ........... Neutrosophic Soft Set Theory ....................................
Mridula Sarkar, Samir Dey, Tapan Kumar Roy. Multi- Durga Banerjee, Bibhas C. Giri, Surapati Pramanik, F.
Objective Structural Design Optimization using Neu- 8 Smarandache. GRA for Multi Attribute Decision Mak- 60
trosophic Goal Programming Technique ............... ing in Neutrosophic Cubic Set Environment .
A.A. Salama, Hewayda ElGhawalby, Shimaa Fathi Ali. Surapati Pramanik, Partha Pratim Dey, Bibhas C. Giri,
Topological Manifold Space via Neutrosophic Crisp 18 Florentin Smarandache. Bipolar Neutrosophic Projec- 70
Set Theory ........................................... tion Based Models for Solving Multi-Attribute Deci-
sion-Making Problems ................
T.Chalapathi, R. V M S S Kiran Kumar. Neutrosophic
Graphs of Finite Groups .................................... 22 Mona Gamal, I. El-Henawy. Integrated Framework of
Optimization Technique and Information Theory Meas- 80
Mehmet ahin, Necati Olgun, Vakkas Uluay, Abdul-
ures for Modeling Neutrosophic Variables .........
lah Kargn, F. Smarandache. A New Similarity Meas-
ure Based on Falsity Value between Single Valued F. Smarandache. Neutrosophic Modal Logic . 90
Neutrosophic Sets Based on the Centroid Points of
Transformed Single Valued Neutrosophic Values with 31
Applications to Pattern Recognition ......
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dividual papers published therein for non-commercial, ac- tions must include an appropriate citation of this journal.
Abstract. In this paper, we introduce the integer The Neutrosophic Integer Programming Problem (NIP) is
programming in neutrosophic environment, by consi- transformed into a crisp programming model, using truth
dering coffecients of problem as a triangulare neutros- membership (T), indeterminacy membership (I), and fal-
ophic numbers. The degrees of acceptance, indeterminacy sity membership (F) functions as well as single valued
and rejection of objectives are simultaneously considered. triangular neutrosophic numbers. To measure the effic-
iency of the model, we solved several numerical examples.
Subject to
nj=1 a~n
ij i = 1, , , (1)
0, = 1, ,
integer for {0,1, }.
Where , a~n
ij are neutrosophic numbres.
= = ( ) ()
Where R ,S are predetermined real number in (0,1) ()
The truth membership, indeterminacy membership, falsity
()
membership of objective function as follows:
() = Subject to
1 () ()
() () ()
{ < () (5)
0 () + () + () 3 (11)
0 () >
() , () , () 0
() = 0 , integer.
0 Where () . () , () denotes the degree of acceptance,
() rejection and indeterminacy of respectively.
< () (6)
{ 0 () > The above problem is equivalent to the following:
, ,
Subject to
() = ()
0 ()
() ()
{ < () (7)
1 () >
0 + + 3 (12)
The neutrosophic set of the decision variable is
0 , integer.
defined as: Where denotes the minimal acceptable degree, denote
()
= the maximal degree of rejection and denote maximal de-
1 0 gree of indeterminacy.
The neutrosophic optimization model can be changed
{ 0 < (8) into the following optimization model:
0 > ( )
() Subject to
() (13)
0 0 ()
= 0 < (9) ()
+
{ 1 >
0 + + 3
, , 0
()
0 , integer.
0 0 (10) The previous model can be written as:
(1- )
= 0 < Subject to
+ ()
{ 0 > ()
Where , are integer numbers. ()
4 Neutrosophic Optimization Model of integer pro-
gramming problem 0 + + 3 (14)
In our neutrosophic model we want to maximize the de-
0 , integer.
gree of acceptance and minimize the degree of rejection and
indeterminacy of the neutrosophic objective function and
constraints. Neutrosophic optimization model can be de-
fined as:
5 The Algorithms for Solving Neutrosophic inte- membership, and falsity membership functions and the score and
ger Programming Problem (NIPP) accuracy degrees of a, at equations (15) or (16).
5.1 Neutrosophic Cutting Plane Algorithm Step 2: Create the decision set which include the highest
degree of truth-membership and the least degree of falsity
Step 1: Convert neutrosophic integer programming problem and indeterminacy memberships.
to its crisp model by using the following method:
By defining a method to compare any two single valued triangular Step 3: At the first node let the solution of linear program-
neutrosophic numbers which is based on the score function and the ming model with integer restriction as an upper bound and
accuracy function. Let = (1 , 1 , 1 ), , , be a single the rounded-down integer solution as a lower bound.
valued triangular neutrosophic number, then
1
Step 4: For branching process, we select the variable with
() = 16 [ + + ](2 + ) (15) the largest fractional part. Two constrains are obtained after
and the branching process, one for and the other is con-
1
() = 16 [ + + ](2 + + ) (16) straint.
is called the score and accuracy degrees of , respectively. The Step 5: Create two nodes for the two new constraints.
neutrosophic integer programming NIP can be represented by crisp
programming model using truth membership, indeterminacy Step 6: Solve the model again, after adding new constraints
membership, and falsity membership functions and the score and at each node.
accuracy degrees of a, at equations (15) or (16).
Step 7: The optimal integer solution has been reached, if the
Step 2: Create the decision set which include the highest feasible integer solution has the largest upper bound value
degree of truth-membership and the least degree of falsity of any ending node. Otherwise return to step 4.
and indeterminacy memberships.
The previous algorithm is for a maximization model. For a
Step 3: Solve the problem as a linear programming problem minimization model, the solution of linear programming
and ignore integrality. problem with integer restrictions are rounded up and upper
and lower bounds are reversed.
Step 4: If the optimal solution is integer, then its right.
Otherwise, go to the next step.
6 Numerical Examples
Step 5: Generate a constraint which is satisfied by all inte- To measure the efficiency of our proposed model we
ger solutions and add this constraint to the problem. solved many numerical examples.
Step 6: Go to step 1. 6.1 Illustrative Example #1
51 + 32
5.2 Neutrosophic Branch and Bound Algorithm
41 + 32 12
Step 1: Convert neutrosophic integer programming problem 11 + 32 6
to its crisp model by using the following method: 1 , 2 0
By defining a method to compare any two single valued triangular where
neutrosophic numbers which is based on the score function and the
5 = (4,5,6 ), 0.8, 0.6, 0.4
accuracy function. Let = (1 , 1 , 1 ), , , be a single
3 = (2.5,3,3.5 ), 0.75, 0.5, 0.3
valued triangular neutrosophic number, then
4 = (3.5,4,4.1 ), 1, 0.5, 0.0
1 3 = (2.5,3,3.5 ), 0.75, 0.5, 0.25
() = 16 [ + + ](2 + ) (15)
1 = (0,1,2 ), 1, 0.5, 0
and
1 3 = (2.8,3,3.2 ), 0.75, 0.5, 0.25
() = 16 [ + + ](2 + + ) (16) = (11,12,13 ), 1, 0.5, 0
12
6 = (5.5,6,7.5 ), 0.8, 0.6, 0.4
is called the score and accuracy degrees of , respectively. The
neutrosophic integer programming NIP can be represented by crisp
Then the neutrosophic model converted to the crisp model
programming model using truth membership, indeterminacy
by using Eq.15 , Eq.16.as follows :
1
Department of Mathematics, Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur,P.O.-Botanic Garden, Howrah-711103,
West Bengal, India. E-mail: mridula.sarkar86@yahoo.com
2
Department of Mathematics, Asansol Engineering College,Vivekananda Sarani, Asansol-713305, West Bengal, India.
E-mail: samir_besus@rediffmail.com
3
Department of Mathematics, Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur,P.O.-Botanic Garden, Howrah-711103,
West Bengal. India. E-mail: roy_t_k@yahoo.co.in
Abstract: This paper develops a multi-objective Neutro- The classical three bar truss structure is presented here in
sophic Goal Optimization (NSGO) technique for opti- to demonstrate the efficiency of the neutrosophic goal
mizing the design of three bar truss structure with multi- programming approach. The model is numerically illus-
ple objectives subject to a specified set of constraints. In trated by generalized NSGO technique with different ag-
this optimum design formulation, the objective functions gregation method. The result shows that the Neutrosoph-
are weight and deflection; the design variables are the ic Goal Optimization technique is very efficient in find-
cross-sections of the bar; the constraints are the stress in ing the best optimal solutions.
member.
Keywords: Neutrosophic Set, Single Valued Neutrosophic Set, Generalized Neutrosophic Goal Programming, Arithmetic Ag-
gregation, Geometric Aggregation, Structural Optimization.
Mridula Sarkar,Samir Dey,Tapan Kumar Roy, Multi-Objective Structural Design Optimization using Neutrosophic Goal
Programming Technique
Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017 9
valued neutrosophic environments and its application in where A A1 , A2 ,..., An are the design variables for the
T
Mridula Sarkar,Samir Dey,Tapan Kumar Roy, Multi-Objective Structural Design Optimization using Neutrosophic Goal
Programming Technique
10 Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017
if zi ti ai
zi ti ai , Tzi zi I zi zi Fzi zi w1
0
w1 w1 w2
z t ci
Fi w3 zi w3 i i if ti zi ti ci
ci ai
(as 1 ).
if zi ti ci ci
w3
In the interval zi (ti ai , ti ci ]
ai
when zi ti ai , Tzi zi I zi zi Fzi zi w2 w2 0
ci
ai
(as 1)
ci
and when
zi ti ci , Tzi zi I zi zi Fzi zi w1 w1 w2 w3
for zi ti ci ,
Tzi zi I zi zi Fzi zi w3 w1 w2 w3
and as w2 0 , Tzi zi I zi zi Fzi zi 0 .
Therefore, combining all the cases we get
Fig. 1. Truth membership, Indeterminacy membership and Falsity 0 Tzi zi I zi zi Fzi zi w1 w2 w3
membership function of zi Hence the proof.
From Fig. (1) and definition of generalized single valued 4.2. Solution Procedure of Neutrosophic Goal
neutrosophic set, it is clear that: Programming Technique
0 Tzi zi w1 , 0 I zi zi w2 and 0 Fzi zi w1
In fuzzy goal programming, Zimmermann [18] has
when zi ti given a concept of considering all membership functions
greater than a single value which is to be maximized.
Tzi zi w1 and I zi zi 0 and Fzi zi 0
Previously many researcher like Bharti and Singh [20],
Therefore Tzi zi I zi zi Fzi zi w1 w1 w2 w3 Parvathi and Malathi [19] have followed him in intution-
istic fuzzy optimization. Along with the variable and
and w1 0 implies that Tzi zi I zi zi Fzi zi 0
, is optimized in neutrosophic goal programming
when zi ti , ti ai from fig (A) we see that Tzi zi and problem.
Fzi zi intersects each other and the point whose coordi- With the help of generalized truth, indeterminacy, fal-
sity membership function the generalized neutrosophic
nate is ti di , di ci , goal programming problem (2) can be formulated as:
w1 Maximize Tzi zi , i 1, 2,...., k (3)
where di .
w1 w2
Maximize I zi zi , i 1, 2,...., k
ai ci
Minimize Fzi zi , i 1, 2,...., k
Now in the interval zi ti , ti di we see that
Subject to
z t 0 Tzi zi I zi zi Fzi zi w1 w2 w3 , i 1, 2,...., k
Tzi zi I zi zi Fzi zi w2 i i w2 w1 w2 w3
di Tzi zi 0, I zi zi 0, Fzi zi I 1, 2,..., k
Again, in the interval zi ti di , ti ai we see that
Tzi zi I zi zi , I 1, 2,...., k
t a z
Tzi zi I zi zi Fzi zi w2 i i i w2 w1 w2 w3 . Tzi zi Fzi zi , i 1, 2,..., k
ai di
0 w1 w2 w3 3
Also, for ti zi ti ai
w1 , w2 , w3 0,1
when zi ti , Tzi zi I zi zi Fzi zi w2 0 and
g j x b j , j 1,2,....., m
Tzi zi I zi zi Fzi zi w1 0 and when
xi 0, i 1, 2,....., n
Mridula Sarkar,Samir Dey,Tapan Kumar Roy, Multi-Objective Structural Design Optimization using Neutrosophic Goal
Programming Technique
12 Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017
Now the decision set Dn , a conjunction of Neutrosophic programming, based on geometric aggregation operator
objectives and constraints is defined: can be formulated as:
Minimize 3
1 1 (6)
x,T x , I D x , FD x
k q
D n zin Subjected to the same constraint as (4).
g j
n
Dn n n
zi ti ai 1 , i 1, 2,..., k
w1 cross section, n is the group number of design variables for
d the cross section bar.
zi ti i , i 1, 2,..., k To solve this problem we first calculate truth, indeter-
w2 minacy and falsity membership function of objective as
follows:
zi ti ai ai di , i 1, 2,..., k
w2 w1 if WT A WT0
WT0 aWT WT A
c
zi ti i , i 1, 2,..., k TWTw1 WT A w1
w3 if WT0 WT A WT0 aWT
aWT
zi ti , i 1, 2,....., k
0 if WT A WT0 aWT
0 w1 w2 w3 ;
0, w1 , 0, w2 , 0, w3 ; 0 if WT A WT0
w1 0,1 , w2 0,1 , w3 0,1; WT A WT0
w2 if WT0 WT A WT0 aWT
0 w1 w2 w3 3. d
IWT A WT A
w2 WT
if WT A WT0 c
A 0 , A 0 ,
0
0
w3
FWTw3 A WT A w3
WT A WT
if WT0 WT A WT0 cWT
cWT 0 w1 w2 w3 ;
if WT A WT0 cWT
w3 0, w1 , 0, w2 , 0, w3 ;
and w1 0,1 , w2 0,1 , w3 0,1;
w1 if A 0
0 w1 w2 w3 3;
0 a0 A
Tw1A A w1 if 0 A 0 a0 g j x b j , j 1, 2,....., m
a0
x j 0, j 1, 2,...., n
0 if A 0 a0
With the help of generalized truth, indeterminacy, falsity
0 if A 0 membership function the generalized neutrosophic goal
A 0 programming based on arithmetic aggregation operator can
w2 if 0 A 0 a be formulated as:
d
I A A
w2
Model II
0 a WT A
w2 if 0 d A 0 a 1 1
a d Minimize (9)
0 if A 0 a
3
Subjected to the same constraint as (8)
w1
d With the help of generalized truth, indeterminacy, falsity
w1 w2
membership function the generalized neutrosophic goal
a c programming based on geometric aggregation operator can
be formulated as:
0 if A 0 Model -III
A 0
Minimize 3
1 1 (10)
Fw3A A w3 if 0 A 0 c
c
Subjected to the same constraint as (8)
Now these non-linear programming Model-I, II, III can be
w3 if A 0 c easily solved through an appropriate mathematical pro-
According to generalized neutrosophic goal optimization gramming to give solution of multi-objective non-linear
technique using truth, indeterminacy and falsity member- programming problem (7) by generalized neutrosophic
ship function, MOSOP (7) can be formulated as: goal optimization approach.
Model I
Maximize , Maximize , Minimize (8) 6 Numerical illustration
Mridula Sarkar,Samir Dey,Tapan Kumar Roy, Multi-Objective Structural Design Optimization using Neutrosophic Goal
Programming Technique
14 Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017
E A1 2 A2
Aimin Ai Aimax i 1, 2
Subject to
1 A1 , A2
P 2 A1 A2 1T ;
According to generalized neutrosophic goal optimization
technique using truth, indeterminacy and falsity member-
2 A12 2 A1 A2 ship function ,MOSOP (12) can be formulated as:
Model I
P
2 A1 , A2 2T ; Maximize , Maximize , Minimize (13)
A 2 A2
2
1
2 A1 A2 4 2 1 ,
PA2
3 A1 , A2 3C ; w1
2 A12 2 A1 A2 2 2 A1 A2 4
w1
,
A i
min
Ai A i
max
i 1, 2 w2 0.5w1 0.22 w2
where P applied load ; material density ;
L length ; E Youngs modulus ; A1 Cross section of 2 2 A1 A2 4 2 2
w2
w1
,
0.5w1 0.22w2
bar-1 and bar-3; A2 Cross section of bar-2; is
deflection of loaded joint. and are maximum T
1
T
2
2
2 A1 A2 4
4.5
w3
,
allowable tensile stress for bar 1 and bar 2 respectively,
3C is maximum allowable compressive stress for bar 2 2 A A 4,
1 2
1 2 A2 w2 0.4w1 0.22w2
w1
102 KN and rejection tolerance
0.5w1 0.22w2 20
2.5
4.5
,
4.5 102 KN (12) A 1 2 A2 w3
20
2.5,
Minimize A1 , A2
PL
with target value A 2 A2
1
E A1 2 A2
0 w1 w2 w3 ;
0, w1 , 0, w2 , 0, w3 ;
7 7
2.5 10 m ,truth tolerance 2.5 10 m ,indeterminacy
tolerance
w1
107 m and rejection tolerance w1 0,1 , w2 0,1 , w3 0,1;
0.4w1 0.22w2
0 w1 w2 w3 3;
4.5 107 m
Subject to
20 2 A1 A2 20;
P 2 A1 A2 2A 1
2
2A A 1 2
1 A1 , A2 1T ;
2 A12 2 A1 A2 20
20;
A 1 2 A2
Mridula Sarkar,Samir Dey,Tapan Kumar Roy, Multi-Objective Structural Design Optimization using Neutrosophic Goal
Programming Technique
Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017 15
20 A2 Model III
15;
2 A12 2 A1 A2 Minimize 3
1 1 (15)
Subjected to the same constraint as (13)
0.1 Ai 5 i 1, 2 The above problem can be formulated using Model I,
With the help of generalized truth, indeterminacy, falsity II, III and can be easily solved by an appropriate mathe-
membership function the generalized neutrosophic goal matical programming to give solution of multi-objective
programming problem (12) based on arithmetic aggrega- non-linear programming problem (12) by generalized neu-
tion operator can be formulated as: trosophic goal optimization approach and the results are
Model II shown in the table 2.
1 1
Again, value of membership function in GNGP tech-
Minimize (14) nique for MOSOP (11) based on different Aggregation is
3
given in Table 3.
Subjected to the same constraint as (13)
With the help of generalized truth, indeterminacy, falsity
membership function the generalized neutrosophic goal
programming problem (12) based on geometric aggrega-
tion operator can be formulated as:
A1 WT A1 , A2 A1 , A2
Methods
4
A2
10 m 2
10 KN
2
10 7 m
104 m2
Generalized Fuzzy Goal
programming(GFGP) w1 0.15
0.5392616 4.474738 6 2.912270
Generalized Intuitionistic Fuzzy Goal
programming(GIFGP) 0.5392619 4.474737 6 2.912270
w1 0.15 w3 0.8
Generalized Neutrosophic Goal pro-
gramming (GNGP) 5 0.4321463 4.904282 3.564332
w1 0.4, w2 0.3, w3 0.7
Generalized Intuitionistic Fuzzy optimiza-
tion (GIFGP) based on Arithmetic Aggre-
gation 0.5392619 4.474737 6 2.912270
w1 0.15, w3 0.8
Mridula Sarkar,Samir Dey,Tapan Kumar Roy, Multi-Objective Structural Design Optimization using Neutrosophic Goal
Programming Technique
16 Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017
Generalized Neutosophic
optimization (GNGP) based on Geomet- 5 1.109954 4.462428 3.044273
ric Aggregation
w1 0.4, w2 0.3, w3 0.7
Here we get best solutions for the different value of Moreover it has been seen that more desired value is obtain
w1, w2 , w3 in geometric aggregation method for objective in geometric aggregation method compare to arithmetic
functions. From Table 2 it is clear that Neutrosophic aggregation method in intuitionistic as well as
Optimization technique is more fruitful in optimization of neutrosophic environment in perspective of structural
weight compare to fuzzy and intuitionistic fuzzy optim- engineering.
ization technique.
Table 3: Value of membership function in GNGP technique for MOSOP (11) based on different Aggregation
Generalized Neu-
tosophic optimiza- * .2191435 TWT WT A1 , A2 IWT WT A1 , A2 FWT WT A1 , A2
tion (GNGP) based * .2191435
on Arithmetic .2191435 .1804044 .1406662 .5402141
Aggregation * .6013480 T A1 , A2 I A1 , A2 F A1 , A2
w1 0.4, w2 0.3, w3 0.7
.2297068 .1804044 .1655629 .5756741
From the above table it is clear that all the objective The sum of truth,indeterminacy and falsity membership
functions attained their goals as well as restriction of truth, function for each objective is less than sum of
indeterminacy and falsity membership function in neutros- gradiation w1 w2 w3 . Hence the criteria of generalized
ophic goal programming problem based on different
neutrosophic set is satisfied.
aggregation operator.
Mridula Sarkar,Samir Dey,Tapan Kumar Roy, Multi-Objective Structural Design Optimization using Neutrosophic Goal
Programming Technique
Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017 17
7. Conclusions [10] Ji, P., Wang, J., Zhang, H. Frank prioritized Bonferroni
mean operator with single-valued neutrosophic sets and its
The research study investigates that neutrosophic goal application in selecting third party logistics, Neural
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structural problem. . The results obtained for different 2660-6, (2016).
aggregation method of the undertaken problem show that [11] Yu ,S., Wang, J., Wang, J-q., An extended TODIM approach
the best result is achieved using geometric aggregation with intuitionistic linguistic numbers, International
method. The concept of neutrosophic optimization Transactions in Operational Research, DOI:
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[13] Peng, J-j., Wang, J-q., Yang, W.-E. A multi-valued
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valued trapezoidal neutrosophic information, Neural
Computing and Applications, DOI: 10.1007/s00521-016-
2672-2, (2016).
Received: January 10, 2017. Accepted: February 3, 2017.
Mridula Sarkar,Samir Dey,Tapan Kumar Roy, Multi-Objective Structural Design Optimization using Neutrosophic Goal
Programming Technique
Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017 18
Abstract. In this paper, we introduce and study a neutro- some new topological concepts and some metric distances
sophic crisp manifold as a new topological structure of on a neutrosophic crisp manifold.
manifold via neutrosophic crisp set. Therefore, we study
Keywords: neutrosophic crisp manifold, neutrosophic crisp coordinate chart, neutrosophic crisp Haussdorff, neutrosophic crisp
countable, neutrosophic crisp basis, neutrosophic crisp Homeomorphism, neutrosophic locally compact.
A.A. Salama, Hewayda ElGhawalby and Shimaa Fathi Ali, Topological Manifold Space via Neutrosophic Crisp Set Theory
Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017 19
A.A. Salama, Hewayda ElGhawalby and Shimaa Fathi Ali, Topological Manifold Space via Neutrosophic Crisp Set Theory
20 Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017
A.A. Salama, Hewayda ElGhawalby and Shimaa Fathi Ali, Topological Manifold Space via Neutrosophic Crisp Set Theory
Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017 21
4. A. A Salama and F. Smarandache. Neutrosophic Crisp Set 7. Lee, John M. Smooth Manifolds Introduction to Smooth
Theory. USA Book, Educational. Education Publishing Manifolds, Springer New York, pp.1-29, 2003.
1313 Chesapeake, Avenue, Coiumbus, Ohio, 43212, USA, 8. Jenny Wilson. Manifolds WOMP, 2012.
2015. 9. M., and Jain, A. A Modified Haussdorff Distance for Object
5. A. A Salama, F. Smarandache, S. A Alblowi. New Neutro- Matching Dubuisson,Vol.1, pp. 566568, 1994.
sophic Crisp Topological Concepts, Neutrosophic Sets and 10.Haussdorff, F. Grundzge der Mengenlehre, Leipzig: Veit
Systems, Vol. 4, pp. 50-54, 2014. and Company, 1914.
6. Chow, Bennett, Glickenstein, et al. The Ricci flow: tech-
niques and applications, American Mathematical Society,
No. 135, 2010. Received: January 13, 2017. Accepted: February 5, 2017.
A.A. Salama, Hewayda ElGhawalby and Shimaa Fathi Ali, Topological Manifold Space via Neutrosophic Crisp Set Theory
Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017 22
1
Assistant Professor, Department of Mathematics, Sree Vidyanikethan Eng.College Tirupati,-517502, Andhra Pradesh, India.
Email: chalapathi.tekuri@gmail.com
2
Research Scholar, Department of Mathematics, S.V.University, Tirupati,-517502, Andhra Pradesh, India. Email: kksaisiva@gmail.com
Abstract: Let G be a finite multiplicative group with graph of diameter less than or equal to 2. Moreover, for
identity e and N (G ) be the Neutrosophic group with finite group G , we obtain a formula for enumerating
Keywords: Indeterminacy; Finite Multiplicative group; Neutrosophic Group; Basic Neutrosophic triangle; Neutrosophic group
and graph isomorphism.
given algebraic structure ( N , ) . In particular, the new In the fourth section, we introduced basic
algebraic structure ( N ( I ), ) is called Neutrosophic Neutrosophic triangles in the graph Ne G, I and
algebraic structure which is generated by N and I . obtained a formula for enumerating basic Neutrosophic
In [8], Agboola and others have studied some triangles in Ne G, I to understand the internal
properties of Neutrosophic group and subgroup. mutual relations between the elements in G, I and N
Neutrosophic group denoted by N (G ), and defined (G).
In the last section, all finite isomorphic groups
by N (G ) G I , where G is a group with respect
G and G such that N (G ) N (G) and
to multiplication. These authors also shown that all
Neutrosophic groups generated by the Neutrosophic Ne G, I Ne G, I are characterized with examples.
element I and any group isomorphic to Klein 4-group Throughout this paper, all groups are assumed to
are Lagrange Neutrosophic groups. be finite multiplicative groups with identity e . Let
Recent research in Neutrosophic algebra has N (G ) be a Neutrosophic group generated by G and
concerned developing a graphical representation of the
I . For classical theorems and notations in algebra and
elements of a given finite Neutrosophic set, and then
Neutrosophic algebra, the interest reader is refereed to
graph theoretically developing and analyzing the
[11] and [8].
depiction to research Neutrosophic algebraic
conclusions about the finite Neutrosophic set. The most Let X be a graph with vertex set V ( X ) and edge
well-known of these models is the Neutrosophic graph set E ( X ) . The cardinality of V ( X ) and E ( X ) are
of Neutrosophic set, first it was introduced by
Kandasamy and Smarandache [9]. denoted by V ( X ) and E ( X ) , which are order and
Recently, the authors Kandasamy and size of X , respectively. If X is connected, then there
Smarandache in [9-10] have introduced Neutrosophic
exist a path between any two vertices in X . We denote
graphs, Neutrosophic edge graphs and Neutrosophic
vertex graphs, respectively. If the edge values are from by K n the complete graph of order n . Let u V ( X ) .
the set G I they will termed as Neutrosophic Then degree of u , deg(u ) in X is the number of
graphs, and a Neutrosophic graph is a graph in which at edges incident at u . If deg(u ) 1 then the vertex u is
least one edge is indeterminacy. Let V (G ) be the set called pendent. The girth of X is the length of smallest
of all vertices of G . If the edge set E (G ) , where at cycle in X . The girth of X is infinite if X has no
least one of the edges of G is an indeterminate one. cycle. Let d( x, y ) be the length of the shortest path
Then we call such graphs as a Neutrosophic edge from two vertices x and y in X , and the diameter of
graphs. Further, a Neutrosophic vertex graph GN is a X denoted by
graph G with finite non empty set VN VN (G ) of Diam( X ) max{d ( x, y ) : x, y V ( X )} .
p points where at least one of the point in VN (G ) is For further details about graph theory the reader should
see [12].
indeterminate vertex. Here VN (G ) V (G ) N ,
2 Basic Properties of Neutrosophic set and
where V (G ) are vertices of the graph G and N the
GI
non empty set of vertices which are indeterminate.
In the present paper, indeterminacy of the real This section will present a few basic concepts of
world problems are expressed as mathematical model Neutrosophic set and Neutrosophic group that will then
in the form of new algebraic structure GI , , and its be used repeatedly in further sections, and it will
introduce a convenient notations. A few illustrations
properties are studied in second section, where G is and examples will appear in later sections.
finite group with respect to multiplication and I Neutrosophic set is a mathematical tool for
indeterminacy of the real world problems. handling real world problems involving imprecise,
In the third section, to find the relation between G, inconsistent data and indeterminacy; also it generalizes
I and N (G) we introduced Neutrosophic the concept of the classic set, fuzzy set, rough set etc.
graph Ne G, I of the Neutrosophic group N (G ), , According to authors Vasantha Kandasamy and
Smarandache, the Neutrosophic set is a nice
by studying its important concrete properties of these
graphs. composition of an algebraic set and indeterminate
element of the real world problem.
Let N be a non-empty set and I be an Proof. For any finite group G , we have G GI and
indeterminate. Then the set N ( I ) N I is called GI G . Now define a map f : G GI by the
relation f ( a ) aI for every a I . Let a, b G .
a Neutrosophic set generated by N and I .If is
Then
usual multiplication in N , then I has the following
axioms. a b a b 0 ( a b) I 0 I
1. 0 I 0 aI bI f (a ) f (b) .This shows that f is a
2. 1 I I I 1 well defined one-one function. Further, we have
3. I I
2
Range( f ) f (a) GI : a G
4. a I I a , for every a N .
aI GI : a G GI .
5. I 1 does not exist.
This show that for every aI GI at least one
For the definition, notation and basic properties of a G such that f (a ) aI .
Neutrosophic group, we refer the reader to Agbool [8].
As treated in [8], we shall denote the finite Therefore, f : G GI is one-one correspondence
Neutrosophic group by N (G ) for a group G . and consequently a bijective function. Hence G GI .
Definition 2.1 Let G be any finite group with respect Lemma 2.5 Let G be any finite group with respect to
to multiplication. Then the set GI defined as multiplication and let N (G ) G I . Then the
GI gI : g G Ig : g G . order of N (G ) is 2 G .
Definition 2.2 If a map f from a finite nonempty
Proof: We GI gI : g G .
have
set S into a finite nonempty set S is both one-one and
Obviously, GI G and G GI but GI N (G ) .
onto then there exist a map g from S into S that is
also one-one and onto. In this case we say that the two It is clear that N (G ) is the disjoint union of
sets are equivalent, and, abstractly speaking, these sets G and GI .That is,
can be regarded as the same cardinality. We write N (G ) G GI and G GI .
S ~ S whenever there is a one-one map of a set
S onto S . Therefore, N (G ) G GI 2G ,
Two finite rings R and R are equivalent if since G GI .
there is a one-one correspondence between R and R .
Lemma 2.6 The set GI is not Neutrosophic group with
We write R ~ R .
respect to multiplication of group G .
Definition 2.3 Let G be any finite group with respect
to multiplication and let N (G ) G I .Then
Proof: It is obvious, since GI GI .
Lemma 2.7 The elements in GI satisfies the following
N (G), is called a Neutrosophic group generated properties,
by G and I under the binary operation on G . The 1. e gI gI
Neutrosophic group N (G ) has the following gI g2I
2
2.
properties.
1. N (G ) is not a group. 3. gI gI ... gI g n I for all positive integers
2. G N (G ) . n terms
n.
3. GI N (G ) .
gI
1 1
4. does not exist, since I does not ex-
4. N (G ) is a specific composition of G and I .
ist.
Lemma 2.4 Let G be any finite group with respect to 5. gI g I g g .
multiplication and I I . Then
2
G GI . In Proof: Directly follows from the results of the
particular, G GI . group N (G), .
Theorem 2.8 The structure GI , is a monoid under Definition 3.1 A graph Ne G, I associated with
the operation ( aI )(bI ) abI for all a , b in the group Neutrosophic group N (G), is undirected simple
G, and I 2
I. graph whose vertex set is N (G ) and two vertices
Proof: We know that GI gI : g G . x and y in N (G ) if and only if xy is either x or y .
Let aI , bI and cI be any three elements in GI . Then Theorem 3.2 For any group G, , the Neutrosophic
the binary operation
graph Ne G, I is connected.
(aI )(bI ) abI in GI , satisfies the following
Proof: Let e be the identity element in G .Then
axioms.
e N (G ) , since G N (G ) . Further, xe x , for
1. abI GI (aI )(bI ) GI .
every x e in N (G ) . It is clear that the vertex e is
2. (aI )(bI ) (cI ) (ab) I (cI ) adjacent to all other vertices of the graph Ne G, I .
(ab)c) I a(bc)) I aI (bI )(cI )
Hence Ne G, I is connected.
3. Let e be the identity element in G, .Then
Theorem 3.3 Let G 1 .Then the graph has at least
eI I Ie and
one cycle of length 3.
I (aI ) aI 2 aI (aI ) I .
Proof: Since G 1 implies that N (G) 4 . So
Remark 2.9 The structure GI , is never a group there is at least one vertex gI of N (G ) such that
1
because I does not exist.
gI is adjacent to the vertices e and I in
Here we obtain lower bounds and upper bounds of the Ne G, I ,since eI I , I ( gI ) gI 2 gI and
order of the Neutrosophic group N (G ) . Moreover,
( gI )e geI gI . Hence we have the cycle
these bounds are sharp.
e I gI e of length 3, where g e .
Theorem 2.10 Let G be a finite group with respect to Example 3.4 Since
multiplication. Then, N (G10 ) 2, 4, 6, 8, 2 I , 4 I , 6 I , 8I
1 G n 2 N (G) 2n . is the Neutrosophic group of the group
Proof. We have, G10 2, 4, 6, 8 with respect to multiplication
G 1 G {e} N (G ) G GI {e, I }
modulo 10, where e 6 .The Neutrosophic graph
N (G) 2 . This is one extreme of the required Ne G10 , I contains three cycles of length 3, which
inequality. For other extreme, by the Lemma [2.4], are listed below.
G 1 GI 1 C1 : 6 I 2 I 6 ,
G GI 2 and G GI is not odd C2 : 6 I 4 I 6 ,
G GI is even. C3 6 I 8I 8 .
N (G) G GI 2n . Theorem 3.5 The Neutrosophic graph Ne G, I is
Hence, the theorem. complete if and only if G 1.
3 Basic Properties of Neutrosophic Graph Proof: Necessity. Suppose that Ne G, I is
In this section, our aim is to introduce the notion complete. If possible assume that G 1 , then
and definition of Neutrosophic graph of finite
Neutrosophic group with respect to multiplication and N (G) 4 . So without loss of generality we may
study on its basic and specific properties such as
connectedness, completeness, bipartite, order, size, assume that N (G) 4 and clearly the vertices
number of pendent vertices, girth and diameter.
e, g , I , gI V Ne(G, I ) .Therefore the vertex Theorem [3.7], the total number of edges in
Ne G, I K 2
consider the following cases on GI and G ,
N (G) 2 .Therefore, , since
respectively.
eI I . Hence, Ne G, I is a complete graph. Case 1. If x GI , then x gI for g G . But
N (G ) pendent vertices in Ne G, I is G 1 .
E Ne(G, I ) 2 G 1
2
a bipartite graph. Then there exist a bipartition vertices x, y and z . Without loss of generality we
G, GI , since N (G ) G GI and G GI . may assume that our triangles (e, I , gI ) have vertices
e , I and gI , where g e in G . These triangles are
But e G and I GI , where e I . So there exist
called basic Neutrosophic triangles in Ne G, I , which
at least one vertex gI in Ne G, I such that
are defined as follows.
e I gI e is an odd cycle of length 3 because Definition 4.1 A triangle in the graph Ne G, I is
eI I , I ( gI ) gI and ( gI )e gI . said to be basic Neutrosophic if it has the common
This violates the condition of the Theorem [3.11]. vertices e and I .The set of all basic Neutrosophic
Hence Ne G, I is not a bipartite graph. triangles in Ne G, I denoted by
Theorem 3.13 The girth of a Neutrosophic graph is 3.
TeI (e, I , gI ) : g e in G .
Proof. In view of Theorem [3.3], for G 1 , we
always have a cycle e I gI e of length 3, for each A triangle ( x, y , z ) in Ne G, I is called non-basic
g e in G , which is smallest in Ne G, I . Neutrosophic if ( x, y, z ) TeI .
This completes the proof. The following short table illustrates some
Remark 3.14 Let G be a finite group with respect to finite Neutrosophic graphs and their total number of
basic Neutrosophic triangles.
multiplication. Then gir ( Ne(G, I )) if G 1 ,
since Ne G, I is acyclic graph if and only if G 1 . Ne G, I Ne Z *p , I Ne Cn , I Ne G2 p , I Ne V4 , I
[5] Florentin Smarandache. A unifying field in logics. [10] W.B. Vasantha Kandasamy, F. Smarandache, Some
Neutrosophy: Neutrosophic probability, set and logic. Neutrosophic Algebraic Structures and Neutrosophic N-
Americal research press, Rehoboth (1999). Algebraic Structures, Hexis, Phoenix, Arizona (2006).
[6] Florentin Smarandache, Unmatter, mss. Archives Vlcea [11] David Joyner. Adventures in Group Theory: Rubik's
(1980). Cube, Merlin's Machine, and Other Mathematical. Toys. 2nd
[7] W.B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Florentin Smarandache. edition, JHU Press (2008).
Basic Neutrosophic Algebraic Structures and their [12] I.Vitaly, I. Voloshin. Introduction to graph theory, Nova
Applications to Fuzzy and Neutrosophic Models, Hexis, Science Publishers. Inc. New York (2009).
Church Rock (2004). [13] Kiyosi It.: Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Mathematics,
[8] A.A.A. Agboola, A.O. Akwu, Y.T. Oyebo, Neutrosophic Volume 1. The MIT Press. 2nd edition (2000).
Groups and Neutrosophic Subgroups, Int. J. of Math. Comb.3 [14] Linda Gilbert. Elements of Modern Algebra. 8th edition
(2012)1-9. Cengage Learning, (2014).
[9] W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Ilanthenral K, Florentin
Smarandache . Neutrosophic Graphs: A New Dimension to
Graph Theory. EuropaNova (2015). Received: January 23, 2017. Accepted: February 13, 2017.
1
Department of Mathematics, Gaziantep University, Gaziantep, Turkey. E-mail: mesahin@gantep.edu.tr
2
Department of Mathematics, Gaziantep University, Gaziantep, Turkey. E-mail: olgun@gantep.edu.tr
3
Department of Mathematics, Gaziantep University, Gaziantep, Turkey. E-mail: vulucay27@gmail.com
4
Department of Mathematics, Gaziantep University, Gaziantep, Turkey. E-mail: abdullahkargin27@gmail.com
5
Department of Mathematics, University of New Mexico,705 Gurley Avenue, Gallup, NM 87301, USA
E-mail: fsmarandache@gmail.com
Abstract. In this paper, we propose some transfor- falsity value between single valued neutrosophic sets.
mations based on the centroid points between single Furthermore, we propose similarity measure based on
valued neutrosophic numbers. We introduce these trans- falsity value between single valued neutrosophic sets
formations according to truth, indeterminacy and falsity based on the centroid points of transformed single valued
value of single valued neutrosophic numbers. We neutrosophic numbers. We also apply the proposed
propose a new similarity measure based on falsity value similarity measure between single valued neutrosophic
between single valued neutrosophic sets. Then we prove sets to deal with pattern recognition problems.
some properties on new similarity measure based on
falsity value between
Keywords: Neutrosophic sets, Single Valued Neutrosophic Numbers, Centroid Points.
Memet Sahin et al., A New Similarity Measure Based on Falsity Value between Single Valued Neutrosophic Sets Based
on the Centroid Points of Transformed Single Valued Neutrosophic Numbers with Applications to Pattern Recognition
32 Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017
measure of bipolar neutrosophic sets and their application ship, the degree of indeterminacy and degree of non-
to multiple criteria decision making. membership of the element to the set with the
In this paper, we propose methods to transform be- condition:
tween single valued neutrosophic numbers based on cen-
troid points. Here, as single valued neutrosophic sets are 0 () + () + () 3+
made up of three functions, to make the transformation
functions be applicable to all single valued neutrosophic
numbers, we divide them into four according to their truth, Definition 2.2 [4] Let be a universe of discourse.The
indeterminacy and falsity values. While grouping accord- single valued neutrosophic set is an object having the
ing to the truth values, we take into account whether the farm = {: () , () , () , } where the func-
truth values are greater or smaller than the indeterminancy tions , , : [0,1]respectively the degree of member-
and falsity values. Similarly, while grouping according to
ship, the degree of indeterminacy and degree of non-
the indeterminancy/falsity values, we examine the inde-
terminancy/falsity values and their greatness or smallness membership of the element to the set A with the
with respect to their remaining two values. We also pro- condition:
pose a new method to measure the degree of similarity
based on falsity values between single valued neutrosophic 0 () + () + () 3
sets. Then we prove some properties of new similarity
measure based on falsity value between single valued neu- For convenience we can simply use x = (T,I,F) to represent
trosophic sets. When we take this measure with respect to an element x in SVNS, and element x can be called a sin-
truth or indeterminancy we show that it does not satisfy
gle valued neutrosophic number.
one of the conditions of similarity measure. We also apply
the proposed new similarity measures based on falsity val-
Definition 2.3 [4] A single valued neutrosophic set is
ue between single valued neutrosophic sets to deal with
pattern recognition problems. Later, we define the method equal to another single valued neutrosophic set B, =
based on falsity value to measure the degree of similarity if ,
between single valued neutrosophic set based on centroid
points of transformed single valued neutrosophic numbers () = () , () = () , () = () .
and the similarity measure based on falsity value between
single valued neutrosophic sets. Definition 2.4[4] A single valued neutrosophic set A is
In section 2, we briefly review some concepts of single contained in another single valued neutrosophic set B ,
valued neutrosophic sets [4] and property of similarity
if ,
measure between single valued neutrosophic sets. In sec-
tion 3, we define transformations between the single val-
ued neutrosophic numbers based on centroid points. In sec- () () , () () , () () .
tion 4, we define the new similarity measures based on fal-
sity value between single valued neutrosophic sets and we Definition 2.5[16] (Axiom of similarity measure)
prove some properties of new similarity measure between
single valued neutroshopic sets. We also apply the pro- A mapping(, ): () () [0,1] , where ()
posed method to deal with pattern recognition problems. In denotes the set of all NS in = {1 , , },is said to be the
section 5, we define the method to measure the degree of degree of similarity between and if it satisfies the fol-
similarity based on falsity value between single valued
lowing conditions:
neutrosophicset based on the centroid point of transformed
single valued neutrosophic number and we apply the
s1 ) 0 (, ) 1
measure to deal with pattern recognition problems. Also
we compare the traditional and new methods in pattern
recognition problems. s2 ) (, ) = 1 if and only if = , ,
s3 ) (, ) = (, )
2 Preliminaries
s4 ) If for all , , , then (, )
Definition 2.1[3] Let be a universe of discourse. The (, )and (, ) (, ).
neutrosophic set is an object having the farm =
{: () , () , () , } where the functions
, , : ] 0, 1+ [ respectively the degree of member-
Memet Sahin et al., A New Similarity Measure Based on Falsity Value between Single Valued Neutrosophic Sets Based
on the Centroid Points of Transformed Single Valued Neutrosophic Numbers with Applications to Pattern Recognition
Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017 33
( ) ( ) ( ) = ( ) ,
and we have
( ) ( ) , 2 ( ) + 2 ( ) 2 ( ) + 2 ( )
( ) = ( , , ( ) ).
3 3
as shown in the figure below, we transformed
( ) , () , () into the single valued neutrosophic 2. Second Group
number () , the center of the SKL triangle, where
For the single valued neutrosophic numbers
( ) = (( ) , () , ( ) ) ( ) , () , () , if
( ) = (2 ( ) , ( ) , ( ) )
( ) ( )
() = (( ) , 2 () , ( ) ) .
and
( ) ( ) ,
Memet Sahin et al., A New Similarity Measure Based on Falsity Value between Single Valued Neutrosophic Sets Based
on the Centroid Points of Transformed Single Valued Neutrosophic Numbers with Applications to Pattern Recognition
34 Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017
Here, as
Here, as
(2 ( ) ( ) )
( ) = ( ) + (2 ( ) () )
3 ( ) = ( ) +
2 ( ) + 2 () 3
= 2 ( ) + 2 ()
3 =
3
(2 () ( ) )
( ) = ( ) + (2 () ( ) )
3 ( ) = ( ) +
2 ( ) + 2 ( ) 3
= 2 ( ) + 2 ( )
3 =
3
and
and
( ) = ( ) ,
( ) = ( ) ,
we have
we have
CA( )
2 TA() + 2 FA() 2 TA( ) + 2IA( ) CA( )
=( , , FA( ) ) . 2 FA() + 2 TA( ) 2 TA( ) + 2IA( )
3 3 =( , , FA( ) ) .
3 3
3. Third Group
4. Fourth Group
For the single valued neutrosophic numbers
( ) , () , () , ifIA( ) TA( ) FA() ,as shown For the single valued neutrosophic numbers
in the figure below, we transformed ( ) , () , () ( ) , () , () , ifFA( ) TA() IA() ,as shown in
Memet Sahin et al., A New Similarity Measure Based on Falsity Value between Single Valued Neutrosophic Sets Based
on the Centroid Points of Transformed Single Valued Neutrosophic Numbers with Applications to Pattern Recognition
Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017 35
the figure below, we transformed ( ) , ( ) , ( ) in- . 0.3, 0.2, 0.5single valued neutrosophic number be-
to the single valued neutrosophic number ( ) , the center longs to the third group.
of the SKL triangle, where
The formula for the center of 0.3, 0.2, 0.5 is CA() =
2 FA( ) +2 TA( ) 2 TA( ) + 2IA( )
SA( ) = (FA() , TA( ) , FA() ) (
,
, FA( ) )and therefore we
3 3
have CA(x) = 0.7, 0.7, 0.5.
LA() = (FA() , 2 TA( ) , FA( ) )
. 0.3, 0.2, 0.4single valued neutrosophic number is in
K A() = (2 A( ) , TA( ) , FA( ) ) . the third group and the center is calculated to be CA(x) =
0.733, 0.7, 0.4.
Memet Sahin et al., A New Similarity Measure Based on Falsity Value between Single Valued Neutrosophic Sets Based
on the Centroid Points of Transformed Single Valued Neutrosophic Numbers with Applications to Pattern Recognition
36 Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017
( ) ( ) we have
2 ( ) + 2 ( ) 2 ( ) + 2 ( )
and ( ) = (
,
, ( ) ) .
3 3
( ) () ,
() ()
( ) = (2 ( ) , ( ) , ( ) )
and
( ) = (() , 2 ( ) , () ) .
() () ,
() = (() , () , () )
() = ( () , 2 () , () )
() = (2 () , () , () ) .
( 2 () () )
( ) = ( ) +
3
2 ( ) + 2 ()
=
3
(2 () ( ) )
( ) = ( ) + Here, as
3
2 ( ) + 2 ( )
= ( 2 () () )
3
( ) = ( ) +
3
and 2 ( ) + 2 ()
=
3
( ) = ( ) ,
Memet Sahin et al., A New Similarity Measure Based on Falsity Value between Single Valued Neutrosophic Sets Based
on the Centroid Points of Transformed Single Valued Neutrosophic Numbers with Applications to Pattern Recognition
Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017 37
Here as
(2 () ( ) ) ( 2 () () )
( ) = ( ) + ( ) = ( ) +
3 3
2 () + 2 ( ) 2 ( ) + 2 ()
= =
3 3
and (2 () ( ) )
( ) = ( ) +
3
( ) = ( ) , 2 () + 2 ( )
=
3
we have
and
( )
2 ( ) + 2 () 2 () + 2 ( ) ( ) = ( ) ,
=( , , () ).
3 3
we have
3. Third Group
( )
2 ( ) + 2 () 2 () + 2 ( )
=( , , () ).
For the single valued neutrosophic number 3 3
() , () , () , if TA() IA() FA() ,
4. Fourth Group
as shown in the figure below, we transformed
For the single valued neutrosophic numbers
() , () , () into the single valued neutro- ( ) , () , () , if FA( ) IA( ) TA() ,
sophic number (), the center of the SKL triangle,
where as shown in the figure below, we transformed
( ) , () , () into the single valued neutrosophic
() = (() , () , () ) numbers ( ) , the center of the SKL triangle, where
() = ( () , 2 () , () ) ( ) = (( ) , () , ( ) )
() = (2 () , () , () ) . ( ) = ( ( ) , 2 ( ) , ( ) )
() = (2 ( ) , () , ( ) ) .
Memet Sahin et al., A New Similarity Measure Based on Falsity Value between Single Valued Neutrosophic Sets Based
on the Centroid Points of Transformed Single Valued Neutrosophic Numbers with Applications to Pattern Recognition
38 Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017
Here, as
( 2 () () ) ( )
( ) = ( ) +
3 2 ( ) + 2 () 2 () + 2 ( )
2 ( ) + 2 () =( , , () ),
= 3 3
3
so,CA(x) = 0.633, 0.9, 0.5.
(2 () ( ) )
( ) = ( ) +
3 . 0.3, 0.2, 0.4single valued neutrosophic number is in
2 ( ) + 2 ( ) the first group.
= Using
3
( )
and 2 ( ) + 2 () 2 () + 2 ( )
=( , , () ),
3 3
( ) = ( ) ,
we have CA(x) = 0.666, 0.7, 0.4.
we have
Corollary 3.2.2 The corners of the triangles obtained using
the above method need not be single valued neutrosophic
( )
numbers but by definition, trivially their centers are.
2 ( ) + 2 () 2 () + 2 ( )
=( , , () ).
3 3 Note 3.2.3As for the single valued neutrosophic number
1, 1, 1 there does not exist any transformable triangle in
the above four groups, we take its transformation equal to
itself.
Example3.2.1:Transform the single neutrosophic numbers
of Example 3.1.3 , Corollary 3.2.4 If FA( ) = TA( ) = IA( ) ,the transfor-
0.2, 0.5, 0.7 , 0.9, 0.4, 0.5 , 0.3, 0.2, 0.5 , mation gives the same center in all four groups. Also if
0.3, 0.2, 0.4according to their indeterminancy values. TA() = IA( ) FA( ) , then the center in the first group is
equal to the center in the third group, and if FA()
. 0.2, 0.5, 0.7 single valued neutrosophic number is in TA() = IA( ) , then the center in the second group is the
the third group. The center is given by the formula same as the one in the furth group. Similarly, ifFA( ) =
( ) IA( ) TA() , then the center in the first group is equal to
2 ( ) + 2 () 2 () + 2 ( ) the one in the fourth and in the case that TA( ) FA( ) =
=( , , () ), IA( ) ,the center in the second group is equal to the center
3 3
in the third.
and so CA() = 0.766, 0.633, 0.7.
3.3 Transformation According to the Falsity Value
. 0.9, 0.4, 0.5 single valued neutrosophic number is in
the first group. In this section, we group the single valued neutrosophic
numbers after the examination of their indeterminancy val-
By ues s greatness or smallness against and values.
We will shift the () and ( ) values on the Z axis and
( ) ( ) and () values on the Y axis onto each other. We
2 ( ) + 2 () 2 () + 2 ( ) take the ( ) value on the M axis. The shifting on the Z
=( , , () ),
3 3 and Y planes are made such that we shift the smaller value
to the difference of the greater value and 2, as shown in the
we have CA(x) = 0.733, 0.633, 0.5.
below figures.
. 0.3, 0.2, 0.5single valued neutrosophic number be-
longs to the first group and the center is
Memet Sahin et al., A New Similarity Measure Based on Falsity Value between Single Valued Neutrosophic Sets Based
on the Centroid Points of Transformed Single Valued Neutrosophic Numbers with Applications to Pattern Recognition
Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017 39
1. First Group ( ) = ( ) ,
( ) = (( ) , () , ( ) ) and
() = ( 2 ( ) , () , ( ) ) ( ) ( ) ,
( ) = (( ) , 2 ( ) , () ) . then
( ) = (( ) , ( ) , () )
( ) = (( ) , 2 ( ) , () )
() = (2 () , () , ( ) ) .
Here, as
( 2 () () )
( ) = ( ) +
3
2 ( ) + 2 ()
=
3
(2 ( ) ( ) ) Here, as
( ) = () +
3
2 ( ) + 2 () ( 2 () () )
= ( ) = ( ) +
3 3
2 ( ) + 2 ()
=
and 3
Memet Sahin et al., A New Similarity Measure Based on Falsity Value between Single Valued Neutrosophic Sets Based
on the Centroid Points of Transformed Single Valued Neutrosophic Numbers with Applications to Pattern Recognition
40 Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017
Here, as
(2 ( ) () ) ( 2 () () )
( ) = ( ) + ( ) = ( ) +
3 3
2 ( ) + 2 () 2 ( ) + 2 ()
= =
3 3
and (2 ( ) ( ) )
( ) = () +
3
( ) = ( ) , 2 ( ) + 2 ()
=
3
we have
and
()
2 ( ) + 2 ( ) 2 ( ) + 2 () ( ) = ( ) ,
=( , , ( ) ).
3 3
we have
3. Third Group
( )
For the single valued neutrosophic numbers 2 ( ) + 2 ( ) 2 ( ) + 2 ()
=( , , ( ) ).
( ) , () , () , if IA( ) FA( ) TA( ) then as 3 3
shown in the figure below, we transformed
( ) , () , () into the single valued neutrosophic 4. Fourth Group
numbers ( ) , the center of the SKL triangle, where
For the single valued neutrosophic numbers
( ) , () , () , if TA() FA() IA( ) , then as
( ) = (( ) , () , ( ) )
shown in the figure below, we transformed
( ) = (( ) , 2 ( ) , ( ) ) ( ) , () , () into the single valued neutrosophic
numbers ( ) , the center of the SKL triangle, where
( ) = (2 ( ) , ( ) , () ) .
( ) = (( ) , () , () )
( ) = (( ) , 2 ( ) , () )
() = (2 ( ) , () , ( ) ).
Memet Sahin et al., A New Similarity Measure Based on Falsity Value between Single Valued Neutrosophic Sets Based
on the Centroid Points of Transformed Single Valued Neutrosophic Numbers with Applications to Pattern Recognition
Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017 41
0.2, 0.5, 0.7 , 0.9, 0.4, 0.5 , 0.3, 0.2, 0.5 , FA() TA( ) , then the centers in the first and third
0.3, 0.2, 0.4according to their falsity values. groups are same and lastly, if TA( ) IA( ) = FA() , then
the center in the second group is equal to the one in the
. 0.2, 0.5, 0.7 single valued neutrosophic number be-
fourth group.
longs to the second group. So, the center is
2 ( ) + 2 ( ) 2 ( ) + 2 ( )
() = ( , , ( ) ),
3 3 4. A New Similarity Measure Based on Falsity
Value Between Single Valued Neutrosophic Sets
and we get CA() = 0.766, 0.7, 0.7.
In this section, we propose a new similarity measure
. 0.9, 0.4, 0.5 single valued neutrosophic number is in based on falsity value between single valued neutrosophic
the third group. Using the formula sets.
the center of the triangle is CA(x) = 0.633, 0.7, 0.5. |2(FA( ) FB( ) ) (TA( ) TB() )|
(A( ) , B( ) ) = 1 (
9
. 0.3, 0.2, 0.4single valued neutrosophic number be-
longs to the second group. |2(FA( ) FB( ) ) (IA( ) IB() )|
+
9
2 ( ) + 2 ( ) 2 ( ) + 2 ( )
() = ( , , ( ) ), 3|(FA( ) FB( ) )|
3 3
+ ).
9
and so we have CA(x) = 0.666, 0.733, 0.4.
Here, we use the values
Corollary 3.3.2The corners of the triangles obtained using
the above method need not be single valued neutrosophic 2(FA() FB() ) (TA() TB() ),
numbers but by definition, trivially their centers are single
valued neutrosophic values. 2(FA() FB( ) ) (IA() IB( ) ),
Note 3.3.3 As for the single valued neutrosophic 2(FA() FB() ) + (FA( ) FB() )
ber1, 1, 1 there does not exist any transformable trian- = 3(FA( ) FB( ) ) .
gle in the above four groups, we take its transformation
equal to itself. Since we use the falsity values FA() in all these three val-
ues, we name this formula as similarity measure based on
Corollary 3.3.4 If FA() = TA( ) = IA() , the transfor-
falsity value between single valued neutrosophic num-
mation gives the same center in all four groups. Also, bers.
if TA() = FA() IA( ) , then the center in the first group
is equal to the one in the fourth group, and if IA( )
TA() = FA( ) , then the center in the second group is the
Property4.2 :0 (( ) , ( ) ) 1 .
same as the center in the third. Similarly, if IA( ) =
Memet Sahin et al., A New Similarity Measure Based on Falsity Value between Single Valued Neutrosophic Sets Based
on the Centroid Points of Transformed Single Valued Neutrosophic Numbers with Applications to Pattern Recognition
42 Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017
Proof: By the definition of Single valued neut- |2(FA() FB() ) (IA( ) IB( ) )|
rosophic numbers, as +
9
0 ( ) , () , ( ) , ( ) , ( ) , ( ) 1, 3|(FA( ) FB() )|
+ )=0
9
we have
So,
0 2(( ) ( ) ) (() , ( ) ) 3
|(( ) ( ) )| = 0,
0 2(( ) ( ) ) (() , ( ) ) 3
|2(( ) ( ) ) (( ) ( ) )| = 0,
and
and
0 3(( ) , () ) 3 .
|2(( ) ( ) ) (( ) () )| = 0 .
So,
As |(FA( ) FB() )|=0 , then FA() = FB() .
|2(FA( ) FB( ) ) (TA( ) TB( ) )|
0 1(
9
If FA( ) = FB( ) ,
|2(FA( ) FB( ) ) (IA( ) IB( ) )|
+ |2(FA() FB() ) (TA() TB() )| = 0
9
So,
|2(FA() FB( ) ) (TA( ) TB( ) )|
(
9
Memet Sahin et al., A New Similarity Measure Based on Falsity Value between Single Valued Neutrosophic Sets Based
on the Centroid Points of Transformed Single Valued Neutrosophic Numbers with Applications to Pattern Recognition
Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017 43
Proof:
|2(FA( ) FB( ) ) (TA( ) TB( ) )| i)
(() , () ) = 1 (
9 By the single valued neutrosophic set proper-
ty, if , then
|2(FA() FB( ) ) (IA() IB( ) )| TA( ) TB( ) TC() ,
+
9
IA( ) IB( ) IC( ) ,
3|(FA( ) FB() )|
+ )
9 FA( ) FB() FC() .
So,
0
=1 = 1.
9 TA( ) TB( ) 0,
Property4.4 :(( ) , () ) = (( ) , () ) .
IA() IB( ) 0,
Proof:
FA() FB( ) 0 (1)
|2(FA( ) FB( ) ) (TA( ) TB( ) )|
(() , () ) = 1 ( TA( ) TC( ) 0,
9
Memet Sahin et al., A New Similarity Measure Based on Falsity Value between Single Valued Neutrosophic Sets Based
on the Centroid Points of Transformed Single Valued Neutrosophic Numbers with Applications to Pattern Recognition
44 Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017
|2(FA( ) F( ) ) (TA( ) TC( ) )| ii. The proof of the latter part can be similarly done as the
(() , () ) = 1 (
9 first part.
Corollary 4.6 : Suppose we make similar definitions to
|2(FA() FC( ) ) (IA() IC( ) )| Definition 4.1, but this time based on truth values or inde-
+
9 terminancy values. If we define a truth based similarity
measure, or namely,
3|(FA() FC( ) )|
+ )
9 |2(TA( ) TB( ) ) (FA( ) FB() )|
(( ) , ( ) ) = 1 (
9
7(FA( ) FC( ) )(TA( )TC( ))(IA( ) IC( ))
=1 . (5)
9 |2(TA() TB( ) ) (IA() IB( ) )|
+
Using (4) and (5) together, we get 9
3|(TA( ) B( ) )|
(( ) , () ) (( ) , ( ) ) + ),
9
7(FA() FB( ) ) (TA( ) TB( ) ) (IA( ) IB( ) )
=1 or if we define a measure based on indeterminancy values
9
like
7(FA() FB( ) ) (TA( ) TB( ) ) (IA( ) IB( ) )
1 + |2(IA( ) IB( ) ) (TA( ) TB() )|
9 (( ) , ( ) ) = 1 (
9
7(FA() FB( ) ) (TA( ) TB( ) ) (IA( ) IB( ) )
=
9 9 9 |2(IA( ) IB() ) (FA( ) FB() )|
+
9
7(FA() FC( ) ) (TA( ) TC( ) ) (IA( ) IC( ) )
+
9 9 9 3|(IA( ) IB() )|
+ )
7(FA() FB( ) ) 7(FA( ) FC( ) ) (TA( ) TB( ) ) 9
= +
9 9 9
these two definitions dont provide the conditions of Prop-
(TA() TC( ) ) (IA( ) IB( ) ) (IA( ) IC( ) ) erty 4.5 . For instance, for the truth value
9 9 9
|2(TA( ) TB( ) ) (FA( ) FB() )|
by (1) and (3), (( ) , ( ) ) = 1 (
9
Memet Sahin et al., A New Similarity Measure Based on Falsity Value between Single Valued Neutrosophic Sets Based
on the Centroid Points of Transformed Single Valued Neutrosophic Numbers with Applications to Pattern Recognition
Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017 45
if we take the single valued neurosophic numbers A() = We can see that SNS ( 2 , )is the largest value amongthe
0.1, 0, 1, B() = 0.2, 1, 1and C() = 0.3, 1, 1, we have values of SNS (1 , ) and SNS ( 2 , ) .
(() , () ) = 0.233 and (() , () ) = 0.244.
Therefore, the unknown pattern represented by single val-
These results show that the definition 4.1 is only valid for ued neutrosophic set should be classified into the pat-
the measure based on falsity values. tern P2 .
|2(FA() FB( ) ) (IA() IB( ) )| In this section, we propose a new similarity measure
+
9 based on falsity value between single valued neutrosophic
sets based on the centroid points of transformed single val-
3|(FA() FB() )|
+ ), ued neutrosophic numbers.
9
Definition5.1:
The similarity measure based on the falsity value between
two single valued neutrosophic sets A and B is; |2(FA( ) FB( ) ) (TA( ) TB() )|
(( ) , ( ) ) = 1 (
9
SNS (, ) = =1 ( S (A() , B() )) .
|2(FA() FB( ) ) (IA() IB( ) )|
+
Here,SNS (, ) [0,1]and s are the weights of the s 9
with the property =1 = 1 . Also,
3|(FA() FB() )|
+ ),
= {: ( ) , () , ( ) }, 9
where
Memet Sahin et al., A New Similarity Measure Based on Falsity Value between Single Valued Neutrosophic Sets Based
on the Centroid Points of Transformed Single Valued Neutrosophic Numbers with Applications to Pattern Recognition
46 Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017
P1 = {x1 , 0.2, 0.5, 0.7, x2 , 0.9, 0.4, 0.5} Cx2 = 0.666, 0.6, 0.3(second group)
P2 = {x1 , 0.3, 0.2, 0.5, x2 , 0.3, 0.2, 0.4}. SNSC (P2 , ) = 0.80927
We want to classify an unknown pattern represented by Therefore, the unknown patternQ,represented by a single
single valued neutrosophic set in = {1 , 2 } into one valued neutrosophic set based on truth value is classified
of the patterns P1 , P2 , where into pattern P2 .
= {x1 , 0.4, 0.4, 0.1, x2 , 0.6, 0.2, 0.3}. Example5.3 : Let us consider two patterns P1 and P2 of
example 4.8, represented by single valued neutrosophic
We make the classification using the measure in Definition sets P1 , P2 , in = {1 , 2 } respectively, where
5.1, namely
P1 = {x1 , 0.2, 0.5, 0.7, x2 , 0.9, 0.4, 0.5}
SNSC (, ) = =1 ( S(CA(xi) , CB(xi) )) .
and
Also we find the CA(xi) , CB(xi) centers according to the
P2 = {x1 , 0.3, 0.2, 0.5, x2 , 0.3, 0.2, 0.4}.
truth values.
1 We want to classify an unknown pattern represented by the
Let be the weight of element , = ; 1 2 . single valued neutrosophic set in = {1 , 2 } into one
2
CP1x1 = (0.566, 0.633, 0.7) We make the classification using the measure in Definition
5.1, namely
P1 x2 = 0.9, 0.4, 0.5 transformed based on falsity value
in Example 3.1.1 SNSC (, ) = =1 ( xS(CA(xi) , CB(xi) )).
CP1x2 = (0.7,0.633,0.5)
Also we find the CA(xi) , CB(xi) centers according to the in-
P2 x1 = 0.3, 0.2, 0.5 transformed based on falsity value determinacy values.
in Example 3.1.1 1
Let be the weight of element , = ; 1 2 .
2
CP2x1 = (0.7, 0.7,0.5)
P1 x1 = 0.2, 0.5, 0.7 transformed based on falsity value
P2 x2 = 0.3, 0.2, 0.4 transformed based on falsity value in Example 3.2.1
in Example 3.1.1
CP1x1 = (0.766,0.633, 0.7)
Memet Sahin et al., A New Similarity Measure Based on Falsity Value between Single Valued Neutrosophic Sets Based
on the Centroid Points of Transformed Single Valued Neutrosophic Numbers with Applications to Pattern Recognition
Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017 47
P1 x2 = 0.9, 0.4, 0.5 transformed based on falsity value SNSC (, ) = =1 ( xS(CA(xi) , CB(xi) )).
in Example 3.2.1
Also we find the CA(xi) , CB(xi) centers according to the fal-
CP1x2 = (0.766, 0.633, 0.5)
sity values.
P2 x1 = 0.3, 0.2, 0.5 transformed based on falsity value 1
Let be the weight of element , = ; 1 2 .
in Example 3.2.1 2
CP2 x1 = (0.633, 0.9, 0.5) P1 x1 = 0.2, 0.5, 0.7transformed based on falsity value
in Example 3.3.1
P2 x2 = 0.3, 0.2, 0.4 transformed based on falsity value
in Example 3.2.1 CP1x1 = (0.766,0.7,0.7)
CP2 x2 = (0.666, 0.7, 0.4) P1 x2 = 0.9, 0.4, 0.5 transformed based on falsity value
in Example 3.3.1
x1 = x1 , 0.4, 0.4, 0.1 transformed based on falsity value
CP1x2 = (0.766, 0.7,0.5)
in Section 3.2
Cx1 = 0.6, 0.8, 0.1(second group) P2 x1 = 0.3, 0.2, 0.5 transformed based on falsity value
in Example 3.3.1
x2 = x2 , 0.6, 0.2, 0.3transformed based on truth falsity
CP2x1 = (0.633,0.7,0.5)
in Section 3.2
P2 x2 = 0.3, 0.2, 0.4 transformed based on falsity value
Cx2 = 0.7, 0.666, 0.3 (first group)
in Example 3.3.1
SNSC (P1 , ) = 0.67592
CP2x2 = (0.666, 0.733, 0.4)
SNSC (P2 , ) = 0.80927
x1 = x1 , 0.4, 0.4, 0.1 transformed based on falsity value
Therefore, the unknown patternQ, represented by a single in Section 3.3
valued neutrosophic set based on indeterminacy value is
Cx1 = 0.6, 0.6, 0.1(first group)
classified into pattern P2 .
Example5.4: Let us consider in example 4.8, two patterns x2 = x2 , 0.6, 0.2, 0.3transformed based on truthfalsity
P1 and P2 represented by single valued neutrosophic sets in Section 3.3
P1 , P2 in = {1 , 2 } respectively ,where
Cx2 = 0.7, 0.666, 0.3 (third group)
P1 = {x1 , 0.2, 0.5, 0.7, x2 , 0.9, 0.4, 0.5}
SNSC (P1 , ) = 0.7091
and
SNSC (P2 , ) = 0.8148
P2 = {x1 , 0.3, 0.2, 0.5, x2 , 0.3, 0.2, 0.4}.
Therefore, the unknown pattern Q, represented by a single
We want to classify an unknown pattern represented by valued neutrosophic set based on falsity value is classified
single valued neutrosophic set in = {1 , 2 } into one of into pattern P2 .
the patterns P1 , P2 , where
In Example 5.2, Example 5.3 and Example 5.4, all
= {x1 , 0.4, 0.4, 0.1, x2 , 0.6, 0.2, 0.3}. measures according to truth, indeterminancy and falsity
values give the same exact result.
We make the classification using the measure in Definition
5.1, namely
Memet Sahin et al., A New Similarity Measure Based on Falsity Value between Single Valued Neutrosophic Sets Based
on the Centroid Points of Transformed Single Valued Neutrosophic Numbers with Applications to Pattern Recognition
48 Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017
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Received: January 30, 2017. Accepted: February 15, 2017.
Memet Sahin et al., A New Similarity Measure Based on Falsity Value between Single Valued Neutrosophic Sets Based
on the Centroid Points of Transformed Single Valued Neutrosophic Numbers with Applications to Pattern Recognition
Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017 49
Department of Applied Mathematics with Oceanology and Computer Programming, Vidyasagar University,
Midnapore, W.B., India. E-mail : tanushreemitra13@gmail.com, shyamal_260180@yahoo.com
Abstract: In this paper, we have introduced a new concept theory. For presence of vagueness Maji et al.[9, 10]
of multi-dimensional neutrosophic soft sets together with have introduced the concept of Fuzzy Soft Set. Then
various operations, properties and theorems on them. Then Mitra Basu et al. [14] proposed the mean potentiality
we have proposed an algorithm named 2 DNS based approach to get a balanced solution of a fuzzy soft set
on our proposed two-dimensional neutrosophic soft set for based decision making problem.
solving neutrosophic multi-criteria assignment problems
with multiple decision makers. At last, we have applied the But the intuitionistic fuzzy sets can only handle the
2 DNS Algorithm for solving neutrosophic multi- incomplete information considering both the truth-
criteria assignment problem in medical science to evaluate membership ( or simply membership ) and falsity-
the effectiveness of different modalities of treatment of a membership ( or non-membership ) values. It does not
disease.
handle the indeterminate and inconsistent information
Keywords: Assignment, Neutrosophic Multi-Criteria, which exists in belief system. Smarandache [13]
introduced the concept of neutrosophic set(NS)
Multi-Dimensional Neutrosophic Soft Set, 2 DNS
which is a mathematical tool for handling problems
Algorithm, Application.
involving imprecise, indeterminacy and inconsistent
data. He showed that NS is a generalization of the
1 Introduction classical sets, conventional fuzzy sets, Intuitionistic
Most of the recent mathematical methods meant for Fuzzy Sets (IFS) and Interval Valued Fuzzy Sets
formal modeling,reasoning and computing are crisp, (IVFS). Then considering the fact that the parameters
accurate and deterministic in nature. But in ground or criteria ( which are words or sentences ) are mostly
reality, crisp data is not always the part and parcel of neutrosophic set, Maji [11, 12] has combined the
the problems encountered in different fields like concept of soft set and neutrosophic set to make the
economics, engineering, social science, medical mathematical model neutrosophic soft set and also
science, environment etc. As a consequence various given an algorithm to solve a decision making
theories viz. theory of probability, theory of fuzzy sets problem. But till now there does not exist any method
introduced by Zadeh [1], theory of intuitionistic fuzzy for solving neutrosophic soft set based assignment
sets by Atanassov[2], theory of vague sets by Gau[3], problem.
theory of interval mathematics by Gorzalczany[4], In several real life situations we are encountered with
theory of rough sets by Pawlak[5] have been evolved a type of problem which includes in assigning men to
in process. But difficulties present in all these theories offices, jobs to machines, classes in a school to rooms,
have been shown by Molodtsov [6]. The cause of these drivers to trucks, delivery trucks to different routs or
problems is possibly related to the inadequacy of the problems to different research teams etc in which the
parametrization tool of the theories. As a result assignees depend on some criteria which posses
Molodtsov proposed the concept of soft theory as a varying degree of efficiency, called cost or
new mathematical tool for solving the uncertainties effectiveness. The basic assumption of this type of
which is free from the above difficulties. Maji et al. [7, problem is that one person can perform one job at a
8] have further done various research works on soft set time. An assignment plan is optimal if it is able to
Tanushree Mitra Basu, Shyamal Kumar Mondal, Multi-Criteria Assignment Techniques in Multi-Dimensional
Neutrosophic Soft Set Theory
50 Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017
Tanushree Mitra Basu, Shyamal Kumar Mondal, Multi-Criteria Assignment Techniques in Multi-Dimensional
Neutrosophic Soft Set Theory
Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017 51
JOBS
B 12 27 3 25
IFS; we can call it intuitionistic set (from
intuitionistic logic, which deals with incomplete
C 37 18 17 14
information). D 18 25 23 9
Remarkably, in a NS one can have elements which
have paraconsistent information (sum of
components > 1 ), or incomplete information (sum 3 Neutrosophic Multi-Criteria Assignment
Problems With Multiple Decision Makers
of components < 1 ), or consistent information (in
the case when the sum of components = 1 ). Normally in traditional assignment problems one
person is assigned for one job with respect to a single
2.4 Definition: Complement of a criterion but in real life there are different problems in
Neutrosophic Set [18] which one person can be assigned for one job with
The complement of a neutrosophic set S is denoted respect to more than one criteria. Such type of
by c (S ) and is defined by problems is known as Multi-Criteria Assignment
Tc( S ) ( x) = FS ( x), I c( S ) ( x) = 1 I S ( x), Fc( S ) ( x) = TS ( x)x X Problem(MCAP). Moreover in such MCAP if atleast
one criterion be neutrosophic in nature then the
2.5 Definition: Neutrosophic Soft Set [12] problems will be called Neutrosophic Multi-Criteria
Let U be an initial universe set and E be a set of Assignment Problem(NMCAP). Now there may be
parameters. Consider A E . Let P (U ) denotes such type of NMCAP in which the criteria matrices are
the set of all neutrosophic sets of U . The collection determined by more than one decision makers
according to their own opinions. In such type of
( F , A) is termed to be the neutrosophic soft set problems there may be more than one matrices
over U , where F is a mapping given by associated with a single criterion as the criteria are
F : A P (U ) . determined by multiple decision makers. Now we will
discuss these new type of NMCAP with more than one
decision makers and develop an algorithm to solve
2.6 Traditional Assignment Problems [15]
Sometimes we are faced with a type of problem which such type of problems.
consists in assigning men to offices, jobs to machines,
classes in a school to rooms, drivers to trucks, delivery
trucks to different routs or problems to different 3.1 General Formulation of a Neutrosophic
research teams etc in which the assignees posses Multi-Criteria Assignment Problem With
varying degree of efficiency, called cost or Multiple Decision Makers
effectiveness. The basic assumption of this type of
problem is that one person can perform one job at a Let m jobs have to be performed by m number of
time with respect to one criterion. An assignment plan machines depending on p number of criteria (each
is optimal if it optimizes the total effectiveness of criterion is neutrosophic in nature) according to q
performing all the jobs. number of decision makers. Now suppose that to
Example 2.1
perform j -th job by i -th machine it will take the
Let us consider the assignment problem represented by
the following cost matrix (Table- 1 ) in which the degree of efficiency qk for the k -th criterion
elements represent the cost in lacs required by a
machine to perform the corresponding job. The
according to the q -th decision maker. Then the k-
problem is to allocate the jobs to the machines so as to th ( k = 1,2,...., p ) criteria matrix according to q -th
minimize the total cost. decision maker will be as given in Table- 2 .
Tanushree Mitra Basu, Shyamal Kumar Mondal, Multi-Criteria Assignment Techniques in Multi-Dimensional
Neutrosophic Soft Set Theory
52 Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017
J1 q11
k
q12
k
q13
k k
q1m
(0.3,0.5,0.8) (0.7,0.2,0.4) (0.5,0.2,0.6)
J3 k
JOBS
k k k
q31 q32 q33 q3 m
JOBS
J2 (0.2,0.5,0.9) (0.5,0.3,0.7)
(0.8,0.3,0.3)
J m qm1 qm2 qm3
k k k
qmm
k
Tanushree Mitra Basu, Shyamal Kumar Mondal, Multi-Criteria Assignment Techniques in Multi-Dimensional
Neutrosophic Soft Set Theory
Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017 53
Tanushree Mitra Basu, Shyamal Kumar Mondal, Multi-Criteria Assignment Techniques in Multi-Dimensional
Neutrosophic Soft Set Theory
54 Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017
parameter set of that problem are known as choice defined by ( F , A)C = ( F C , A) where
parameters.
Choice value of an object is the sum of the true- F : A N
C U
where A is the NOT set of the
membership values of that object corresponding to all parameter set A .
the choice parameters associated with a decision
making problem. 4.9 Definition: Union
The union of two two-dimensional neutrosophic soft
4.4 Definition: Rejection Value: sets ( F , A) and (G , B ) over the same universe
Rejection value of an object is the sum of the falsity-
membership values of that object corresponding to all U
the choice parameters associated with a decision where U = U 1 U 2 ;U 1 = {O1 , O2 ,....., Oi },
making problem. )
U 2 = {O1' , O2' ,...., O 'j }; i, j N
4.5 Definition: Confusion Value: and over the parameter set E (where A, B E
Confusion value of an object is the sum of the
and each parameter is a neutrosophic word or
indeterminacy-membership values of that object
neutrosophic sentence involving neutrosophic
corresponding to all the choice parameters associated ~
with a decision making problem. words)is denoted by ( F , A) (G, B) and is
~
defined by ( F , A) (G, B) = ( H , C )
4.6 Definition: Null Two-dimensional
where
Neutrosophic Soft Set:
Let U1 U 2 be the initial universe set, E be the
F ( e ), if e( A B )
H ( e ) = G ( e ), if e( B A)
universe set of parameters and A E . Then a two- ' ' ' '
{(Oi ,O j )/ max{ F ( e ) (Oi ,O j ), G ( e ) (Oi ,O j )}(Oi ,O j )U1U 2 }, if eA B
U 2 = {O1' , O2' ,...., O 'j }; i, j N where F ( e ) (Oi , O 'j ) and G ( e ) (Oi , O 'j ) denote
'
over the parameter set E (where each parameter is a the membership values of (Oi , O ) w.r.t the
j
neutrosophic word or neutrosophic sentence involving functions F and G respectively associated with
C
neutrosophic words)is denoted by ( F , A) and is the parameter e .
Tanushree Mitra Basu, Shyamal Kumar Mondal, Multi-Criteria Assignment Techniques in Multi-Dimensional
Neutrosophic Soft Set Theory
Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017 55
In many real life problems we have to assign each assign M j machine for J i job and put a tick
object of a set of objects to another object in a different
set of objects such as assigning men to offices, jobs to mark( ) beside the choice values corresponding to
machines, classes in a school to rooms, drivers to M j to indicate that already M j machine has been
trucks, delivery trucks to different routs or problems to
different research teams etc. in which the assignees assigned.
posses varying degree of efficiency, depending on Step 8: If for more than one i , C(max
J ,M hold for
i j)
neutrosophic multiple criteria such as cost, time etc.
The basic assumption of this type of problem is that the same j , ie., if there is a tie for the assignment of
one person can perform one job at a time. To solve M j machine in more than one job then we have to
such type of problems our aim is to make such
assignment that optimize the criteria i.e., minimize the consider the difference value ( Vd ) between the
( Ji ,M j )
degree of cost and time or maximizes the degree of
Tanushree Mitra Basu, Shyamal Kumar Mondal, Multi-Criteria Assignment Techniques in Multi-Dimensional
Neutrosophic Soft Set Theory
56 Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017
maximum and the next to maximum choice 2 DNS Algorithm for solving those problems.
values(corresponding to those machines which are not Now we will discuss a such type of problem with its
yet assigned). If Vd < Vd then M j solution.
( Ji ,M j ) ( Ji ,M j )
1 2 Problem 1: In medical science[19] there are different
machine will be assigned for the job J i . Now if the types of diseases and various modalities of treatments
2 in respect to them. On the basis of different aspects of
difference values also be same, i.e., the treatment procedure (such as degree of pain relief,
Vd = Vd then go to the next step. cost and time requirements for treatment etc.) we may
( Ji ,M j ) ( Ji ,M j ) measure the degree of effectiveness of the treatment
1 2
Step 9: Now for i -th job, consider the rejection for the disease. Here we consider three common
diseases of oral cavity such as dental caries, gum
values R( J , M ) , j and point out the minimum disease and oral ulcer. Now medicinal treatment,
i j
extraction and scaling that are commonly executed,
rejection value R(min
J ,M with a . have more or less impacts on the treatment of these
i j)
three diseases. According to the statistics,
Step 10: If for more than one i , R(min
J ,M hold for ( true-membership value, indeterminacy-membership
i j)
the same j , consider the difference value ( value, falsity-membership value ) of pain relief in case
of medicinal treatment on the basis of pain score for
VdR ) between the minimum and the next to dental caries, gum disease, oral ulcer are
( Ji ,M j )
(0.7,0.7,0.5), (0.6,0.8,0.5) and (0.9,0.5,0.2)
minimum rejection values(corresponding to those
respectively; by extraction the degrees of pain relief
machines which are not yet assigned). If
for dental caries, gum disease and oral ulcer are
VdR < VdR then M j machine will (0.8,0.5,0.3) , (0.8,0.7,0.4) and (0.5,0.7,0.6)
( Ji ,M j ) ( Ji ,M j )
1 2
respectively and by scaling the degrees of pain relief
be assigned for the job J i . Now if the difference for dental caries, gum disease and oral ulcer are
2
values also be same then go to the final step. (0.3,0.8,0.8), (0.9,0.4,0.2) and (0.6,0.7,0.5)
Step 11: Now for i -th job, consider the confusion respectively. Now the degree of cost to avail the
values ( J , M ) , j and point out the minimum medicinal treatment, extraction and scaling for both
i j the diseases dental caries, gum disease are
confusion value (min
Ji ,M j ) with a . (0.4,0.3,0.8), (0.3,0.2,0.7) and (0.5,0.4,0.6)
respectively and that for oral ulcer are
Step 12: If for more than one i , (min
Ji ,M j ) hold for (0.3,0.2,0.8), (0.2,0.3,0.9) and (0.4,0.4,0.7)
the same j , consider the difference value ( respectively. Moreover the degree of time taken to the
medicinal treatment, extraction and scaling for gum
Vd ) between the minimum and the next to disease are
( Ji ,M j )
(0.6,0.3,0.5), (0.4,0.2,0.8), (0.5,0.5,0.6) and
minimum confusion values(corresponding to those
for oral ulcer are
machines which are not yet assigned). If
(0.6,0.4,0.7), (0.4,0.3,0.8), (0.5,0.5,0.5)
Vd < Vd then M j machine will
( Ji ,M j ) ( Ji ,M j ) respectively and that of for dental caries are
1 2
(0.6,0.2,0.3), (0.5,0.4,0.7) and (0.3,0.2,0.9)
be assigned for the job J i . Now if the difference
2 respectively. Now the problem is to assign a
values also be same i.e., Vd = Vd treatment for each disease so that to maximize the
( Ji ,M j ) ( Ji ,M j ) pain relief and minimize the cost and time
1 2
simultaneously as much as possible.
then M j machine may be assigned to any one of the
Solution By 2 DNS Algorithm
jobs J i or J i .
1 2 The set of universe U = U1 U 2 where
U 1 = {dental caries, gum disease, oral ulcer}
6 Application of 2 DNS Algorithm For
= {d1 , d 2 , d 3 },
Solving Neutrosophic Multi-Criteria Assignment
Problems in Medical Science U 2 = {medicinal treatment, extraction, scaling}
In medical science there also exist neutrosophic multi- = {t1 , t 2 , t 3 }
criteria assignment problems and we may apply the
Tanushree Mitra Basu, Shyamal Kumar Mondal, Multi-Criteria Assignment Techniques in Multi-Dimensional
Neutrosophic Soft Set Theory
Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017 57
Tanushree Mitra Basu, Shyamal Kumar Mondal, Multi-Criteria Assignment Techniques in Multi-
Dimensional Neutrosophic Soft Set Theory
58 Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017
Table-10
c
Tabular Representation of ( F , E ) with choice
rejection and confusion values
(C( d ,t ) , R ( di ,t j ) , ( di ,t j ) )
i j
e1 e2 e3 C R( d ,t ) ( d ,t
( d ,t i j) i j i j)
1.8 1.5 2.2
(d1 , t1 ) (0.7,0.7,0.5), (0.8,0.7,0.4) (0.3,0.8,0.6)
*2.1 1.1 2.2
(d1 , t2 ) (0.7,0.8,0.3) (0.7,0.8,0.3) (0.7,0.6,0.5)
1.8 1.6
( d1 , t3 ) (0.3,0.8,0.8) (0.6,0.6,0.5) (0.9,0.8,0.3) 2.2
1.8 1.5 2.3
(d 2 , t1 ) (0.6,0.8,0.5) (0.7,0.8,0.4) (0.5,0.7,0.6)
*2.4 1.1
(d 2 , t2 ) (0.8,0.2,0.4) (0.8,0.7,0.3) (0.8,0.8,0.4) 1.7 Figure 1: Block Diagram of 2DNS -Algorithm to
2.1 1.2 1.5
(d 2 , t3 ) (0.9,0.4,0.2) (0.6,0.6,0.5) (0.6,0.5,0.5) Assign a Treatment for a Disease
1.2 2.2
( d 3 , t1 ) (0.8,0.8,0.3) (0.8,0.8,0.3) (0.7,0.6,0.6)
*2.3
2.2 1.2 2.1
(d 3 , t 2 ) (0.5,0.7,0.6) (0.9,0.7,0.2) (0.8,0.7,0.4) 7 Conclusion:
1.8 1.4 1.8 In this paper, we have introduced a new concept of
( d 3 , t3 ) (0.6,0.7,0.5) (0.7,0.6,0.4) (0.5,0.5,0.5)
multi-dimensional neutrosophic soft set. Using this
new idea, an algorithm named 2 DNS has been
Now among the choice values C( d ; j = 1,2,3 , proposed to solve neutrosophic multi-criteria
3 ,t j )
assignment problems with multiple decision makers.
C( d
3 ,t1 )
is maximum( 2.3 ), which implies that t1 Finally, our newly proposed 2 DNS algorithm
has been applied to solve an assignment problem in
treatment has to be assigned for the disease d 3 .
medical science.
But for both the diseases d1 and d2 ,
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Neutrosophic Soft Set Theory
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[12] P. K. Maji. A neutrosophic soft set approach to a [16] P. K. De and Y.Bharti. An Algorithm to Solve Multi-
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Tanushree Mitra Basu, Shyamal Kumar Mondal, Multi-Criteria Assignment Techniques in Multi-
Dimensional Neutrosophic Soft Set Theory
Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017 60
Abstract. In this paper, multi attribute decision making Hamming distances for weighted GRA coefficients and
problem based on grey relational analysis in neutrosophic standard (ideal) GRA coefficients are determined. The
cubic set environment is investigated. In the decision relative closeness coefficients are derived in order to rank
making situation, the attribute weights are considered as the alternatives. The relative closeness coefficients are
single valued neutrosophic sets. The neutrosophic weights designed in ascending order. Finally, a numerical example
are converted into crisp weights. Both positve and neg- is solved to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed
ative GRA coefficients, and weighted GRA coefficients approach.
are determined.
Keywords: Grey relational coefficient, interval valued neutrosophic set, multi attribute decision making, neutrosophic set,
neutrosophic cubic set, relative closeness coefficient
Durga Banerjee, Bibhas C. Giri, Surapati Pramanik, Florentin Smarandache, GRA for Multi Attribute Decision Making
in Neutrosophic Cubic Set Environment
Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017 61
maximizing deviation method for neutrosophic MADM environment. The ranking of alternatives is made in
with incomplete weight information. Ye [27] studied descending order.
bidirectional projection method for MADM with neutr- The rest of the paper is designed as follows: In Section
osophic numbers of the form a + bI, where I is characterized 2, some relevant definitions and properties are recalled.
by indeterminacy. Biswas et al. [28] presented value and Section 3 presents MADM in neutrosophic cubic set
ambiguity index based ranking method of single-valued environment based on GRA. In Section 4, a numerical
trapezoidal neutrosophic numbers and its application to example is solved to illustrate the proposed approach.
MADM. Dey et al. [29] studied extended projection-based Section 5 presents conclusions and future scope of research.
models for solving MADM problems with interval-valued
neutrosophic information. 2 Preliminaries
Deng [30, 31] studied grey relational analysis (GRA).
Pramanik and Mukhopadhyaya [32] developed GRA based In this section, we recall some established definitions
intuitionistic fuzzy multi criteria decision making (MCDM) and properties which are connected in the present article.
approach for teacher selection in higher education. Dey et al. 2.1 Denition (Fuzzy set) [6]
[33] established MCDM in intuitionistic fuzzy environment
based on GRA for weaver selection in Khadi institution. Let W be a universal set. Then a fuzzy set F over W can
Rao, and Singh [34] established modified GRA method for be dened by F={<w, F ( w) : w W} where F ( w ) : W
decision making in manufacturing situation. Wei [35] [0, 1]is called membership function of F and F ( w ) is
presented GRA method for intuitionistic fuzzy MCDM. the degree of membership to which w F.
Biswas et al. [36] studied GRA method for MADM under
single valued neutrosophic assessment based on entropy. 2.2 Denition (Interval valued fuzzy set) [52]
Dey et al. [37] presented extended GRA based neutrosophic Let W be a universal set. Then, an interval valued fuzzy
MADM in interval uncertain linguistic setting. Pramanik set F over W is dened by F = {[ F (w), F (w)] / w : w W},
and K. Mondal [38] employed GRA for interval neutros- where F (w ) and F ( w ) are referred to as the lower and
ophic MADM and presented numerical examples. upper degrees of membership w W where
Several neutrosophic hybrid sets have been recently
proposed in the literature, such as neutrosophic soft set 0 F (w ) + F ( w ) 1, respectively.
proposed by Maji [39], single valued soft expert set pro-
posed by Broumi and Smarandache [40], rough neutros- 2.3 Denition (Cubic set) [46]
ophic set proposed by Broumi, et al. [41], neutrosophic bi- Let W be a non-empty set. A cubic set C in W is of the
polar set proposed by Deli et al. [42], rough bipolar neutro- form c = { w, F(w ), ( w )) / w W} where F is an interval
sophic set proposed by Pramanik and Mondal [43], neutro- valued fuzzy set in W and is a fuzzy set in W.
sophic cubic set proposed by Jun et al. [44] and Ali et al.
[45]. Jun et al. [44] presented the concept of neut-rosophic 2.4 Denition (Neutrosophic set (NS)) [10]
cubic set by extending the concept of cubic set proposed by
Jun et al. [46] and introduced the notions of truth-internal Let W be a space of points (objects) with generic
(indeterminacy-internal, falsity-internal) neut-rosophic element w in W. A neutrosophic set N in W is denoted by
cubic sets and truth-external (indeterminacy-external, N= {< w: TN(w), IN(w), FN(w)>: w W} where TN, IN, FN
falsity-external) and investigated related properties. Ali et al. represent membership, indeterminacy and non-membership
[45] presented concept of neutrosophic cubic set by function respectively. TN, IN, FN can be defined as follows:
extending the concept of cubic set [46] and defined internal
neutrosophic cubic set (INCS) and external neutrosophic TN : W ] 0, 1+ [
cubic set (ENCS). In their study, Ali et al.[45] also
introduced an adjustable approach to neutrosophic cubic set I N : W ] 0, 1+ [
based decision making.
GRA based MADM/ MCDM problems have been pro- FA : W ] 0, 1+ [
posed for various neutrosophic hybrid environments [47, 48,
49, 50]. MADM with neutrosophic cubic set is yet to appear Here, TN(w), IN(w), FN(w) are the real standard and non-
in the literature. It is an open area of research in standard subset of ] 0, 1+ [ and
neutrosophic cubic set environment.
The present paper is devoted to develop GRA method 0 TN(w)+IN(w)+FN(w) 3+.
for MADM in neutrosophic cubic set environment. The
attribute weights are described by single valued neutros- 2.5 Definition (Complement of neutrosophic set)
ophic sets. Positive and negative grey relational coefficients [10]
are determined. We define ideal grey relational coefficients The complement of a neutrosophic set N is denoted by
and relative closeness coefficients in neutrosophic cubic set Nand defined as
Durga Banerjee, Bibhas C. Giri, Surapati Pramanik, Florentin Smarandache, GRA for Multi Attribute Decision Making
in Neutrosophic Cubic Set Environment
62 Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017
A (aij )r s
2.9 Denition (Hamming distance) [20, 53]
C1 C2 ... Cs
Let P w i : TP ( w i ), I P (w i ), FP (w i ), i 1, 2, ...,n and A1 (A11 , 11 ) (A12 , 12 ) ... (A1s , 1s )
A 2 (A 21 , 21 ) (A 22 , 22 ) ... (A 2s , 2s )
Q w i : TP ( w i ), I Q ( w i ), FQ ( w i ) , i 1, 2, ...,n be any two . . . . .
. . . . .
neutrosophgic sets. Then the Hamming distance between P . . . . .
and Q can be defined as follows: A ... (A rs , rs ) r s
r (A r1 , r1 ) (A r 2 , r 2 )
d (P, Q) =
Here a ij ( A ij , ij ) , A ij [TijL , TijU ],[I ijL , I ijU ],[FijL , FijU ] ,
(1)
n
( TP ( w i ) TQ ( w i ) I P ( w i ) I Q ( w i ) FP ( w i ) FQ ( w i ) ) ij (Tij , I ij , Fij ) , a i j means the rating of alternative Ai with
i 1
respect to the attribute Cj. Each weight component w j of
2.10 Denition (Normalized Hamming distance) attribute C j has been taken as neutrosophic set and
Durga Banerjee, Bibhas C. Giri, Surapati Pramanik, Florentin Smarandache, GRA for Multi Attribute Decision Making
in Neutrosophic Cubic Set Environment
Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017 63
Let w j T j , I j , Fj be the j th neutrosophic weight I mj max I ijm , Fjm max Fijm and (T , I , F ) where
j j j j
for the attribute C j . The equivalent crisp weight of C j is i i
mid value of each interval the decision matrix reduces to min min ij max max ij min min ij max max ij
i
j i j i j i j
single valued neutrosophic decision matrix (See Table 2). ,
max max ij
max max ij
ij ij
i j i j
Step 4.4 Definition:
Step 4 Some definitions of GRA method for MADM with The grey relational coefficient of each alternative from
NCS INEURS can be defined as:
The GRA method for MADM with NCS can be pre-
sented in the following steps:
ij
, ij
min min ij max max ij min min ij max max ij
i j i j
,
i j i j
Step 4.1 Definition: ij max max ij
max max ij
The ideal neutrosophic estimates reliability solution i j
ij
i j
(INERS) can be denoted as Here,
M
, [M1 , 1 , M2 , 2 , ...,Mq , q ] r
ij d (M j , M ij ) Tjm Tijm I mj I ijm Fjm Fijm
i 1
and defined as M j
Tj , I j , Fj , where Tj max Tijm , i and:
m
min I , F m m
min F and m
, i = 1,
I (T , I , F )
ij dj , ij Tj Tij I j I ij Fj Fij
j ij j ij j j j j r
i i
i 1
where T max Tij , I min I ij , F min Fij in the neutro-
j
i
j
i
j
i 2,..., r and j = 1, 2, ..., s, [ 0,1] .
sophic cubic decision matrix M (m ij )pq
, i = 1,2,...,r and j We call ij , ij as negative grey relational coefficient.
= 1, 2, ..., s. is called distinguishable coefficient or identification coef-
ficient and it is used to reflect the range of comparison en-
Step 4.2 Definition: vironment that controls the level of differences of the grey
The ideal neutrosophic estimates unreliability solution relational coefficient. 0 indicates comparison environ-
(INEURS) can be denoted as
M
, M1 , 1 , M2 , 2 , ..., Ms , s ment disappears and 1 indicates comparison environ-
ment is unaltered. Generally, 0.5 is assumed for decision
making.
Durga Banerjee, Bibhas C. Giri, Surapati Pramanik, Florentin Smarandache, GRA for Multi Attribute Decision Making
in Neutrosophic Cubic Set Environment
64 Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017
M GR Now, min min
w , w ~ , ~
W i j
c c
W
M GR j ij j ij rs ij ij rs min min ij max max ij ij max max ij
M w , w ,
i j i j i j
~ ~c c
and W
GR j ij j ij rs ij ij rs min min max max
ij
ij
ij
i j i j
ij max max ij
Step 4.6 i j
ij max max ij
ij
Theorem 1 i j
i j i j
max max ij
ij
ij max max ij
ij
i j
1 .
i j
ij
i j of order r s
min min ij max max ij ij max max ij 1,1 1,1... 1,1
1,1 1,1... 1,1
i j i j i j
ij max max ij I
min min .......... .........
i j i j
1,1 1,1... 1,1
ij
ij max max ij rs
i j
1 .
ij Step 5 Determination of Hamming distances
We find the distance d i between the corresponding el-
Theorem 2 ements of i-th row of I and W M GR by employing Hamming
Durga Banerjee, Bibhas C. Giri, Surapati Pramanik, Florentin Smarandache, GRA for Multi Attribute Decision Making
in Neutrosophic Cubic Set Environment
Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017 65
distance. Similarly, d i can be determined between I and 0.85 0.95 0.05 0.15
M GR by employing Hamming distance as follows:
0.65 0 0.7 0.25
] , i = 1, 2, , r.
W
d i
1 s ~ 1 ~
[ 1 ij
ij 0.05 0.15 0.25 0.45
2s j1
1 s
~ 1 ~
d i [ 1
2s j1
ij ij ] , i = 1, 2, , r. The ( ij ) ( dj , ij ) i, j is presented as below:
is made according to descending order of relative closeness 1.05 0.65 0.6 0.25
coefficients.
The ( ij ) ( dj , ij ) i, j is presented as:
4 Numerical example
Consider a hypothetical MADM problem. The prob- The positive grey relational coefficient M GR
lem consists of single decision maker, three alternatives , ij 34 is presented in the Table 7, at the end of article.
ij
with three alternatives {A1, A2, A3} and four attributes {C1,
C2, C3, C4}. The solution of the problem is presented using The negative grey relational coefficient M GR
ij , ij 34 is
the following steps: presented in the Table 8, at the end of article.
Now, we multiply the crisp weight with the corresponding
Step 1. Construction of neutrosophic cubic decision ma-
elements of M GR and M GR to get weighted matrices W M GR
trix
and W M GR and which are described in the Table 9 and 10
The decison maker forms the decision matrix which is
respectively, at the end of article.
displayed in the Table 4, at the end of article.
The neutrosophic weights of the attributes are taken as: Hamming distances are calculated as follows:
W (0.5, 0.2, 0.1), (0.6, 0.1, 0.1), (0.9, 0.2, 0.1), (0.6, 0.3, 0.4) d 1 0.84496, d 1 0.83845625,
T
with NCS d 3
3 0.49132
The ideal neutrosophic estimates reliability solution (IN- d d 3
bility solution (INEURS) M , are presented in the Ta- Step 7 Ranking the alternatives
ble 6, at the end of article. The ranking of alternatives is made according to de-
scending order of relative closeness coefficients. The rank-
( ij ) ( d (M j , M ij )) i, j is presented as below: ing order is shown in the Table 11 below.
Durga Banerjee, Bibhas C. Giri, Surapati Pramanik, Florentin Smarandache, GRA for Multi Attribute Decision Making
in Neutrosophic Cubic Set Environment
66 Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017
Durga Banerjee, Bibhas C. Giri, Surapati Pramanik, Florentin Smarandache, GRA for Multi Attribute Decision Making
in Neutrosophic Cubic Set Environment
Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017 67
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Journal of New Theory, 3 (2015), 67 88. Received: February 1, 2017. Accepted: February 20, 2017.
Durga Banerjee, Bibhas C. Giri, Surapati Pramanik, Florentin Smarandache, GRA for Multi Attribute Decision Making
in Neutrosophic Cubic Set Environment
68 Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017
A (aij )34
C1 C2 C3 C4
(([0.2, 0.3], [0.3, 0.5], [0.2, 0.5]), ([0.1, 0.3], [0.2, 0.4], [0.3, 0.6]), (([0.6, 0.9], [0.1, 0.2], [0, 0.2]), (([0.4, 0.7], [0.1, 0.3], [0.2, 0.3]),
A
1 (0.3, 0.2, 0.3)) (0.2, 0.5, 0.4)) (0.4, 0.5, 0.1)) (0.7, 0.3, 0.2))
([0.6, 0.8], [0.4, 0.6], [0.3, 0.7]), ([0.7, 0.9], [0.2, 0.3], [0.1, 0.3]), (([0.5, 0.7], [0.4, 0.6], [0.3, 0.5]),
A2 (([0.4, 0.5], [0.1, 0.3], [0.2, 0.3]),
(0.5, 0.2, 0.1)) (0.7, 0.3, 0.3)) (0.4, 0.1, 0.2))
(0.6, 0.2, 0.1))
.
(([0.4, 0.9], [0.1, 0.4], [0, 0.2]), (([0.8, 0.9], [0.4, 0.7], [0.4, 0.6]), (([0.6, 0.9], [0.1, 0.3], [0, 0.3]), (([0.6, 0.8], [0.5, 0.7], [0.2, 0.4]),
A3
(0.25, 0.15, 0.1)) (0.8, 0.1, 0.2)) (0.5, 0.4, 0.3)) (0.5, 0.1, 0.4))
M (mij )34
C1 C2 C3 C4
A1 ((0.25, 0.4, 0.35), (0.3, 0.2, 0.3)) ((0.2, 0.3, 0.45), (0.2, 0.5, 0.4)) ((0.55, 0.2, 0.25), (0.7, 0.3, 0.2))
((0.75, 0.15, 0.1), (0.4, 0.5, 0.1))
A2 ((0.7,0.5, 0.5), (0.5, 0.2, 0.1)) ((0.8, 0.25, 0.2), (0.7, 0.3, 0.3)) ((0.6, 0.5, 0.4), (0.4, 0.1, 0.2))
((0.45, 0.2, 0.25), (0.6, 0.2, 0.1))
.
A ((0.7, 0.6, 0.3), (0.5, 0.1, 0.4))
3 ((0.65, 0.25, 0.1), (0.25, 0.15, 0.1)) ((0.85, 0.55, 0.5), (0.8, 0.1, 0.2)) ((0.75, 0.2, 0.15), (0.5, 0.4, 0.3))
Table 7: The positive grey relational coefficient M GR ij , ij 34
Durga Banerjee, Bibhas C. Giri, Surapati Pramanik, Florentin Smarandache, GRA for Multi Attribute Decision Making
in Neutrosophic Cubic Set Environment
Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017 69
Table 8: The negative grey relational coefficient M GR ij , ij 34
Table 10: Weighted matrix W M GR
(0.13461, 0.10401) (0.14307, 0.2146) (0.14897, 0.2421) (0.14185, 0.16314)
W
M GR ( 0.10896, 0.10896) (0.07153, 0.08173) (0.3228,0.17606) (0.15536, 0.14829)
(0.06934, 0.13461) (0.10301, 0.07153) (0.1614, 0.2421) (0.19193, 0.20392)
Durga Banerjee, Bibhas C. Giri, Surapati Pramanik, Florentin Smarandache, GRA for Multi Attribute Decision Making
in Neutrosophic Cubic Set Environment
Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017 70
Abstract. Bipolar neutrosophic sets are the extension of of bipolar neutrosophic values. We calculate projection,
neutrosophic sets and are based on the idea of positive and bidirectional projection, and hybrid projection measures
negative preferences of information. Projection measure is between each alternative and ideal alternative with bipolar
a useful apparatus for modelling real life decision making neutrosophic information. All the alternatives are ranked
problems. In the paper, we define projection, bidirectional to identify the best alternative. Finally, a numerical exam-
projection and hybrid projection measures between bipo- ple is provided to demonstrate the applicability and effec-
lar neutrosophic sets. Three new methods based on the tiveness of the developed methods. Comparison analysis
proposed projection measures are developed for solving with the existing methods in the literature in bipolar neu-
multi-attribute decision making problems. In the solution trosophic environment is also performed.
process, the ratings of performance values of the alterna-
tives with respect to the attributes are expressed in terms
Keywords: Bipolar neutrosophic sets; projection measure; bidirectional projection measure; hybrid projection measure; multi-
attribute decision making.
Surapati Pramanik, Partha Pratim Dey, Bibhas C. Giri, Florentin Smarandache, Bipolar Neutrosophic Projection Based
Models for Solving Multi-attribute Decision Making Problems
Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017 71
preference information. Wei [12] discussed a MADM et al. [5] also proposed a MCDM approach on the basis of
method based on the projection technique, in which the score, accuracy, and certainty functions and BNWA,
attribute values are presented in terms of intuitionistic fuzzy BNWG operators. Deli and Subas [25] presented a single
numbers. Zhang et al. [13] proposed a grey relational valued bipolar neutrosophic MCDM through correlation
projection method for MADM based on intuitionistic coefficient similarity measure. ahin et al. [26] provided a
trapezoidal fuzzy number. Zeng et al. [14] investigated MCDM method based on Jaccard similarity measure of
projections on interval valued intuitionistic fuzzy numbers BNS. Uluay et al. [27] defined Dice similarity, weighted
and developed algorithm to the MAGDM problems with Dice similarity, hybrid vector similarity, weighted hybrid
interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy information. Xu and Hu vector similarity measures under BNSs and developed
[15] developed two projection based models for MADM in MCDM methods based on the proposed similarity measures.
intuitionistic fuzzy environment and interval valued Dey et al. [28] defined Hamming and Euclidean distance
intuitionistic fuzzy environment. Sun [16] presented a group measures to compute the distance between BNSs and
decision making method based on projection method and investigated a TOPSIS approach to derive the most
score function under interval valued intuitionistic fuzzy desirable alternative.
environment. Tsao and Chen [17] developed a novel In this study, we define projection, bidirectional pro-
projection based compromising method for multi-criteria jection and hybrid projection measures under bipolar neu-
decision making (MCDM) method in interval valued trosophic information. Then, we develop three methods for
intuitionistic fuzzy environment. solving MADM problems with bipolar neutrosophic assess-
In neutrosophic environment, Chen and Ye [18] ments. We organize the rest of the paper in the following
developed projection based model of neutrosophic numbers way. In Section 2, we recall several useful definitions con-
and presented MADM method to select clay-bricks in cerning SVNSs and BNSs. Section 3 defines projection, bi-
construction field. Bidirectional projection measure [19, 20] directional projection and hybrid projection measures be-
considers the distance and included angle between two tween BNSs. Section 4 is devoted to present three models
vectors x, y. Ye [19] defined bidirectional projection for solving MADM under bipolar neutrosophic environment.
measure as an improvement of the general projection In Section 5, we solve a decision making problem with bi-
measure of SVNSs to overcome the drawback of the general polar neutrosophic information on the basis of the proposed
projection measure. In the same study, Ye [19] developed measures. Comparison analysis is provided to demonstrate
MADM method for selecting problems of mechanical the feasibility and flexibility of the proposed methods in
design schemes under a single-valued neutrosophic Section 6. Finally, Section 7 provides conclusions and
environment. Ye [20] also presented bidirectional projection future scope of research.
method for MAGDM with neutrosophic numbers.
Ye [21] defined credibility induced interval 2 Basic Concepts Regarding SVNSs and BNSs
neutrosophic weighted arithmetic averaging operator and
credibility induced interval neutrosophic weighted In this Section, we provide some basic definitions regarding
geometric averaging operator and developed the projection SVNSs, BNSs which are useful for the construction of the
measure based ranking method for MADM problems with paper.
interval neutrosophic information and credibility 2.1 Single valued neutrosophic sets [2]
information. Dey et al. [22] proposed a new approach to
neutrosophic soft MADM using grey relational projection Let X be a universal space of points with a generic element
method. Dey et al. [23] defined weighted projection of X denoted by x, then a SVNS P is characterized by a truth
measure with interval neutrosophic assessments and applied membership function TP (x) , an indeterminate membership
the proposed concept to solve MADM problems with inter- function I P (x) and a falsity membership function FP (x) . A
val valued neutrosophic information. Pramanik et al. [24] SVNS P is expressed in the following way.
defined projection and bidirectional projection measures
between rough neutrosophic sets and proposed two new P = {x, TP ( x), I P ( x), FP ( x) xX}
multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) methods based on where, TP (x) , I P (x) , FP (x) : X [0, 1] and 0 T P (x) +
projection and bidirectional projection measures in rough I P (x) + FP (x) 3 for each point x X.
neutrosophic set environment.
In the field of bipolar neutrosophic environment, Deli 2.2 Bipolar neutrosophic set [5]
et al. [5] defined score, accuracy, and certainty functions in
Consider X be a universal space of objects, then a BNS Q in
order to compare BNSs and developed bipolar neutrosophic
X is presented as follows:
weighted average (BNWA) and bipolar neutrosophic
weighted geometric (BNWG) operators to obtain collective Q = {x, TQ ( x), I Q ( x), FQ ( x), TQ ( x), I Q ( x), FQ ( x) x
bipolar neutrosophic information. In the same study, Deli X},
Surapati Pramanik, Partha Pratim Dey, Bibhas C. Giri, Florentin Smarandache, Bipolar Neutrosophic Projection Based
Models for Solving Multi-attribute Decision Making Problems
72 Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017
where TQ (x) , I Q (x ) , FQ (x) : X [0, 1] and TQ (x) , I Q (x ) , TQ ( x), I Q ( x), FQ ( x), TQ ( x), I Q ( x), FQ ( x)
2 2 2 2 2 2
x X} be
F (x) : X [-1, 0].The positive membership degrees
Q any two BNSs. Their union Q1 Q2 is defined as follows:
TQ (x) , I Q (x ) , FQ (x) denote the truth membership, Q1 Q2 = {Max ( TQ ( x ) , TQ ( x ) ), Min ( I Q ( x) , I Q ( x ) ),
1 2 1 2
indeterminate membership, and falsity membership Min ( F ( x) , F ( x) ), Min ( T ( x ) , T ( x) ), Max ( I Q ( x) ,
Q1
Q2
Q1 Q2 1
and Q2 = {x,
TQ ( x), I Q ( x), FQ ( x), TQ ( x), I Q ( x), FQ ( x) x X} be i. . q~1 = < 1 (1 - TQ ) , ( I Q ) , ( FQ1 ) , - (- TQ1 ) , - 1 1
2 2 2 2 2 2
any two BNSs. Then Q1 Q2 if and only if (- I ) , - (1 - (1 - (- F )) ) >;
Q1 Q1
~ ) = < ( T ) , 1 - (1 - I ) , 1 - (1 - F ) , - (1
T ( x ) T ( x ) , I ( x ) I ( x ) , F ( x ) F ( x) ;
Q1 Q2 Q1 Q2 Q1 Q2 ii. ( q1 Q1 Q1 Q1
TQ1 ( x ) TQ2 ( x ) , I Q1 ( x ) I Q2 ( x) , FQ1 ( x) FQ2 ( x) for all
(1 - (- TQ1 )) ), - (- I Q1 ) , (- FQ1 ) ) >;
x X.
iii. q~1 + q~2 = < TQ + TQ - TQ . TQ , 1 2 1 2
I Q1 . I Q2 , FQ1 . FQ2 , -
Definition 2 [5] TQ1 . TQ2 , - (- I Q1 - I Q2 - I Q1 . I Q2 ), -
Let, Q1 = {x, TQ ( x), I Q ( x), FQ ( x), TQ ( x), I Q ( x), FQ ( x)
1 1 1 1 1 1
(- FQ1 - FQ2 - FQ1 . FQ2 ) >;
x X} and Q2 =
iv. q~1 . q~2 = < TQ . TQ , I Q1 + I Q2 - I Q1 . I Q2 , FQ1 + FQ2 -
{x, TQ ( x), I Q ( x), FQ ( x), TQ ( x), I Q ( x), FQ ( x) x X} 1 2
= TQ ( x ) , I Q ( x ) = I Q ( x) , FQ ( x) = FQ ( x) for all x X.
2 1 2 1 2
3 Projection, bidirectional projection and hybrid
projection measures of BNSs
Definition 3 [5]
This Section proposes a general projection, a bidirectional
Let, Q = {x, TQ ( x), I Q ( x), FQ ( x), TQ ( x), I Q ( x), FQ ( x)
projection and a hybrid projection measures for BNSs.
x X} be a BNS. The complement of Q is represented by Qc
and is defined as follows: Definition 6
TQ ( x) = {1+} - TQ (x) , I Q ( x) = {1+} - I Q (x ) , FQ ( x) = Assume that X = (x1, x2, , xm) be a finite universe of
c c c
discourse and Q be a BNS in X, then modulus of Q is defined
+
{1 } - F (x) ; Q as follows:
m 2
TQ ( x) = {1-} - TQ (x) , I Q ( x) = {1-} - I Q (x ) , FQ ( x) =
c c c || Q || =
j =
j1
{1-} - F (x) . Q m
[(TQ ) 2 ( I Q ) 2 ( FQ ) 2 (TQ ) 2 ( I Q ) 2 ( FQ ) 2 ] (1)
j1 j j j j j j
Surapati Pramanik, Partha Pratim Dey, Bibhas C. Giri, Florentin Smarandache, Bipolar Neutrosophic Projection Based
Models for Solving Multi-attribute Decision Making Problems
Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017 73
1 ,
Proj ( R) S = (R.S) =
|| S || ||S|| =
m
(0.5)(0.7) (0.3)(0.3) (0.2)(0.1) (0.2)(0.4) (0.1)(0.2) (0.05)(0.3) [(TS ) 2 ( x i ) ( I S ) 2 ( x i ) ( FS ) 2 ( x i ) (TS ) 2 ( x i ) ( I S ) 2 ( x i ) ( FS ) 2 ( x i )]
i 1
(0.7) (0.3) (0.1) (0.4) (0.2) (0.3)
2 2 2 2 2 2
and R.S =
= 0.612952 [TR ( xi )TS ( x) I R ( xi ) I S ( xi ) FR ( xi ) FS ( xi ) TR ( xi )TS ( xi ) I R ( xi ) I S ( xi )
m
The bigger value of Proj ( R) S reflects that R and S are
i 1
FR ( xi ) FS ( xi )].
closer to each other.
However, in single valued neutrosophic environment, Ye Proposition 1. Let B-Proj ( R) S be a bidirectional
[20] observed that the general projection measure cannot projection measure between any two BNSs R and S, then
describe accurately the degree of close to . We also 1. 0 B-Proj (R, S) 1;
notice that the general projection incorporated by Xu [11] is 2. B-Proj (R, S) = B-Proj (S, R);
not reasonable in several cases under bipolar neutrosophic 3. B-Proj (R, S) = 1 for R = S.
setting, for example let, = = < a, a, a, -a, -a, -a > and
Proof.
= < 2a, 2a, 2a, -2a, -2a, -2a >, then Proj ( ) = 2.44949 ||a|| 1. For any two non-zero vectors R and S,
and Proj ( ) = 4.898979 ||a||. This shows that is much
1
closer to than which is not true because = . Ye [20] 1 0, 0, when x 0
R.S R.S 1 x
opined that is equal to whenever Proj ( ) and Proj 1 | |
|| R || || S ||
Surapati Pramanik, Partha Pratim Dey, Bibhas C. Giri, Florentin Smarandache, Bipolar Neutrosophic Projection Based
Models for Solving Multi-attribute Decision Making Problems
74 Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017
Surapati Pramanik, Partha Pratim Dey, Bibhas C. Giri, Florentin Smarandache, Bipolar Neutrosophic Projection Based
Models for Solving Multi-attribute Decision Making Problems
Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017 75
where qij = < ( Tij , I ij , Fij , Tij , I ij , Fij ) > with Tij , I ij , Fij , 4.2. Method 2
- Tij , - I ij , - Fij [0, 1] and 0 Tij + I ij + Fij - Tij - I ij - Fij Step 1. Give the bipolar neutrosophic decision matrix
6 for i = 1, 2, , m; j = 1, 2, , n. qij , i = 1, 2, , m; j = 1, 2, , n.
mn
z P IS e j , f j , g j , e j , f j , g j = < [{ Max ( ij ) |j };
[ijej ij f j ij g j ijej ij f j ij g j ] , i =
n
i
Z i .z PIS =
j1
where and are benefit and cost type attributes Step 1. Construct the bipolar neutrosophic decision matrix
respectively. q ij , i = 1, 2, , m; j = 1, 2, , n.
m n
Step 4. Determine the projection measure between z P IS and Step 2. Formulate the weighted bipolar neutrosophic
Zi = z ij for all i = 1, 2, , m; j = 1, 2, , n by using the
mn
following Eq. decision matrix z ij , i = 1, 2, , m; j = 1, 2, , n.
m n
Proj ( Z i ) z P IS
[ e j ij f j ij g j ij e j ij f j ij g j ] Step 3. Identify z P IS e j , f j , g j , e j , f j , g j
n
ij , j = 1, 2, ,
= j1 (7)
n n.
[(e j ) 2 ( f j ) 2 ( g j ) 2 (e j ) 2 ( f j ) 2 ( g j ) 2 ]
j 1 Step 4. By combining projection measure Proj ( Z i ) z P IS and
Step 5. Rank the alternatives in a descending order based on P IS
bidirectional projection measure B-Proj (Zi, z ), we
the projection measure Proj ( Z i ) z for i = 1, 2, , m and P IS
calculate the hybrid projection measure between z P IS and Zi
bigger value of Proj ( Z i ) z determines the best alternative. P IS = z ij for all i = 1, 2, , m; j = 1, 2, , n as follows.
mn
Surapati Pramanik, Partha Pratim Dey, Bibhas C. Giri, Florentin Smarandache, Bipolar Neutrosophic Projection Based
Models for Solving Multi-attribute Decision Making Problems
76 Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017
z P IS ) = F1 F2 F3 F4
Z i .z PIS + (1 - ) || Zi || || z PIS ||
|| z PIS ||| E1 <0.5, 0.7, 0.2, - <0.4, 0.5, 0.4, - <0.7, 0.7, 0.5, -0.8, <0.1, 0.5, 0.7, -
|| Zi || || z PIS || | || Zi || || z PIS || | Zi .z PIS 0.7, -0.3, -0.6> 0.7, -0.8, -0.4> -0.7, -0.6> 0.5, -0.2, -0.8>
(9) E2 <0.9, 0.7, 0.5, - <0.7, 0.6, 0.8, - <0.9, 0.4, 0.6, -0.1, <0.5, 0.2, 0.7, -
0.7, -0.7, -0.1> 0.7, -0.5, -0.1> -0.7, -0.5> 0.5, -0.1, -0.9>
i
where || Z || =
E3 <0.3, 0.4, 0.2, - <0.2, 0.2, 0.2, - <0.9, 0.5, 0.5, -0.6, <0.7, 0.5, 0.3, -
[( ij ) 2 ( ij ) 2 (ij ) 2 ( ij ) 2 ( ij ) 2 (ij ) 2 ] , i = 1, 2, ,
n 0.6, -0.3, -0.7> 0.4, -0.7, -0.4> -0.5, -0.2> 0.4, -0.2, -0.2>
j 1 E4 <0.9, 0.7, 0.2, - <0.3, 0.5, 0.2, - <0.5, 0.4, 0.5, -0.1, <0.2, 0.4, 0.8, -
0.8, -0.6, -0.1> 0.5, -0.5, -0.2> -0.7, -0.2> 0.5, -0.5, -0.6>
m,
|| z PIS || =
n Step 2. Construction of weighted bipolar neutrosophic
[(e j ) 2 ( f j ) 2 ( g j ) 2 (e j ) 2 ( f j ) 2 ( g j ) 2 ] ,
j 1 decision matrix
Z i .z PIS = The weighted decision matrix z ij is obtained by
m n
Method 1: The proposed projection measure based decision Step 3. Selection of BNPIS
making with bipolar neutrosophic information for car The BNRPIS ( z P IS ) = e j , f j , g j , e j , f j , g j , (j = 1, 2, 3,
selection is presented in the following steps:
4) is computed from the weighted decision matrix as
Step 1: Construct the bipolar neutrosophic decision matrix follows:
The bipolar neutrosophic decision matrix qij presented e1 , f 1 , g 1 , e1 , f 1 , g 1 = < 0.684, 0.632, 0.447, -0.894, -
mn
by the decision maker as given below (see Table 1) 0.548, -0.051 >;
e2 , f 2 , g 2 , e2 , f 2 , g 2 = < 0.26, 0.669, 0.669, -0.915, -
0.841, -0.026 >;
e3 , f 3 , g 3 , e3 , f 3 , g 3 = < 0.25, 0.892, 0.917, -0.972, -
0.917, -0.028 >;
e4 , f 4 , g 4 , e4 , f 4 , g 4 = < 0.14, 0.818, 0.86, -0.917, -0.75,
-0.028 >.
Surapati Pramanik, Partha Pratim Dey, Bibhas C. Giri, Florentin Smarandache, Bipolar Neutrosophic Projection Based
Models for Solving Multi-attribute Decision Making Problems
Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017 77
Step 4. Determination of weighted projection measure Table 3. Results of hybrid projection measure for differ-
The projection measure between positive ideal bipolar ent valus of
neutrosophic solution z P IS and each weighted decision Similarity Measure values
Ranking order
measure
matrix z ij can be obtained as follows: Hyb-Proj 0.25
mn
Hyb-Proj (Z1, z P IS) = 1.4573 E4 > E3 > E1 > E2
1 2
Proj ( Z ) z P IS = 3.4214, Proj ( Z ) z PIS = 3.4972, Proj (Zi, z P IS) Hyb-Proj (Z2, z
P IS
) = 1.4551
P IS
( Z 3 ) z P IS = 3.1821, Proj ( Z 4 ) z PIS = 3.3904. Hyb-Proj (Z3, z ) = 1.5297
P IS
Hyb-Proj (Z , z
4
) = 1.5622
Hyb-Proj 0.50 P IS
Step 5. Rank the alternatives Hyb-Proj (Z1, z ) = 2.1034 E4 > E1 > E2 > E3
(Zi, z P IS) Hyb-Proj (Z2, z
P IS
We observe that Proj ( Z 2 ) z PIS > Proj ( Z 1 ) z P IS > Proj ) = 2.0991
P IS
Hyb-Proj (Z , z
3
) = 2.0740
( Z 4 ) z PIS > Proj ( Z 3 ) z P IS . Therefore, the ranking order of the P IS
Hyb-Proj (Z4, z ) = 2.1270
cars is E2 E1 E4 E3. Hence, E2 is the best alternative Hyb-Proj 0.75
Hyb-Proj (Z , z
1 P IS
) = 2.4940
E2 > E4 > E3 > E1
P IS
for the customer. i
(Z , z ) P IS
Hyb-Proj (Z2, z ) = 2.7432
P IS
Method 2: The proposed bidirectional projection measure Hyb-Proj (Z3, z ) = 2.6182
P IS
based decision making for car selection is presented as Hyb-Proj (Z , z
4
) = 2.6919
follows: Hyb-Proj 0.90 P IS
Hyb-Proj (Z1, z ) = 3.1370 E1 > E2 > E4 > E3
Step 1. Same as Method 1 (Zi, z P IS) Hyb-Proj (Z , z
2 P IS
) = 3.1296
Step 2. Same as Method 1 P IS
Hyb-Proj (Z3, z ) = 2.9448
Step 3. Same as Method 1 P IS
Step 4. Calculation of bidirectional projection measure Hyb-Proj (Z4, z ) = 3.0308
Surapati Pramanik, Partha Pratim Dey, Bibhas C. Giri, Florentin Smarandache, Bipolar Neutrosophic Projection Based
Models for Solving Multi-attribute Decision Making Problems
78 Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017
order of the four alternatives is given by E4 E3 E1 Table 4. Results of hybrid projection measure for differ-
E2. Hence, E4 is the best option for the customer. ent values of
Also, by taking w = (0.2585, 0.2552, 0.2278, 0.2585), the Similarity Measure values
Ranking order
measure
proposed hybrid projection measures for different values of
[0, 1] and the ranking order are revealed in the Table 4. Hyb-Proj 0.25
Hyb-Proj (Z1, z P IS) = 1.4970 E4 > E3 > E1 > E2
Deli et al. [5] assume the weight vector of the (Zi, z P IS) Hyb-Proj (Z2, z
P IS
) = 1.4819
attributes as w = (0.5, 0.25, 0.125, 0.125) and the ranking P IS
Hyb-Proj (Z , z
3
) = 1.5082
order based on score values is presented as follows: P IS
E3 E4 E2 E1 Hyb-Proj (Z4, z ) = 1.5203
Hyb-Proj 0.50 P IS E4 > E1 > E2 > E3
Thus, E3 was the most desirable alternative. Hyb-Proj (Z , z
1
) = 2.1385
Dey et al. [28] employed maximizing deviation (Zi, z P IS) Hyb-Proj (Z2, z
P IS
) = 2.1536
method to find unknown attribute weights as w = (0.2585, Hyb-Proj (Z , z
3 P IS
) = 2.0662
0.2552, 0.2278, 0.2585). The ranking order of the P IS
Hyb-Proj (Z4, z ) = 2.1436
alternatives is presented based on the relative closeness Hyb-Proj 0.75 P IS E2 > E4 > E3 > E1
coefficient as given below. P IS
Hyb-Proj (Z , z
1
) = 2.7800
E3 E2 E4 E1.
i
(Z , z )
Hyb-Proj (Z2, z
P IS
) = 2.8254
Obviously, E3 is the most suitable option for the customer. Hyb-Proj (Z3, z
P IS
) = 2.6241
Dey et al. [28] also consider the weight vector of Hyb-Proj (Z , z
4 P IS
) = 2.7670
the attributes as w = (0.5, 0.25, 0.125, 0.125), then using Hyb-Proj 0.90 P IS E2 > E1 > E4 > E3
Hyb-Proj (Z1, z ) = 3.1648
TOPSIS method, the ranking order of the cars is represented (Zi, z P IS) P IS
as follows: Hyb-Proj (Z , z
2
) = 3.2285
E4 E2 E3 E1. Hyb-Proj (Z3, z
P IS
) = 2.9589
P IS
Hyb-Proj (Z4, z ) = 3.1410
So, E4 is the most preferable alternative for the buyer. We
observe that different projection measure provides different
ranking order and the projection measure is weight sensi- References
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Received: February 3, 2017. Accepted: February 21, 2017.
Surapati Pramanik, Partha Pratim Dey, Bibhas C. Giri, Florentin Smarandache, Bipolar Neutrosophic Projection Based
Models for Solving Multi-attribute Decision Making Problems
Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017 80
Abstract
Uncertainty and indeterminacy are two major problems in Ant Colony Optimization is an efficient search algorithm
data analysis these days. Neutrosophy is a generalization of presented to define parameters of membership,
the fuzzy theory. Neutrosophic system is based on indeterminacy and non-membership functions. The
indeterminism and falsity of concepts in addition to truth integrated framework of information theory measures and
degrees. Any neutrosophy variable or concept is defined by Ant Colony Optimization is proposed. Experimental
membership, indeterminacy and non-membership results contain graphical representation of the
membership, indeterminacy and non-membership
functions. Finding efficient and accurate definition for
functions for the temperature variable of the forest fires
neutrosophic variables is a challenging process. This paper
data set. The graphs demonstrate the effectiveness of the
presents a framework of Ant Colony Optimization and proposed framework.
entropy theory to define a neutrosophic variable from
concrete data.
Keywords
Neutrosophic set, Ant Colony Optimization, Information Theory Measures, Entropy function.
1. Introduction
These days, Indeterminacy is the key idea of principles of neutrosophic data. Neutrosophy
the information in reality issues. This term creates the main basics for a new mathematics
alludes to the obscure some portion of the field through adding indeterminacy concept to
information representation. The fuzzy traditional and fuzzy theories[1][2][3][15].
logic[1][2][3]] serves the piece of information
Handling neutrosophic system is a new,
participation degree. Thus, the indeterminacy
moving and appealing field for scientists. In
and non-participation ideas of the information
literature, neutrosophic toolbox
ought to be fittingly characterized and served.
implementation using object oriented
The neutrosophic [4][16] theory characterizes
programming operations and formulation is
the informational index in mix with their
introduced in[18]. Moreover, a data warehouse
membership, indeterminacy and non-
utilizing neutrosophic methodologies and sets
membership degrees. Thus, the decisions could
is applied in [17]. Also, the problem of
be practically figured out from these well
optimizing membership functions using
defined information.
Particle Swarm Optimization was introduced
in [24]. This same mechanism could be
Smarandache in [5][13][14], and Salama et al.
generalized to model neutrosophic variable.
in[4], [9],[10][11][12][12][16] present the
mathematical base of neutrosophic system and
Mona Gamal Gafar, Ibrahim El-Henawy, Integrated Framework of Optimization Technique and Information Theory
Measures for Modeling Neutrosophic Variables
Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017 81
The neutrosophic framework depends actually from the membership and non-membership
on the factors or variables as basics. The capacities.
neutrosophic variable definition is without a
doubt the base in building a precise and This paper exhibits an incorporated hybrid
productive framework. The neutroshophic search model amongst ACO and information
variable is made out of a tuple of value, theory measures to demonstrate a neutrosophic
membership, indeterminacy and non- variable. The rest of this paper is organized as
membership. Pronouncing the elements of follows. Section 2 shows the hypotheses and
participation, indeterminacy and non- algorithms. Section 3 announces the proposed
enrollment and map those to the variable integrated framework. Section 4 talks about the
values would be an attainable arrangement or exploratory outcomes of applying the
solution for neutroshophic variable framework on a general variable and
formulation. demonstrating the membership, indeterminacy
and non-membership capacities. Conclusion
Finding the subsets boundary points of and future work is displayed in section 5.
membership and non-membership functions
within a variable data would be an interesting 2. Theory overview
optimization problem. Ant Colony
2.1 Parameters of a neutrosophic variable
Optimization (ACO)[19][20] is a meta-
heuristic optimization and search In the neutrosophy theory[5][13][14], every
procedure[22] inspired by ants lifestyle in
concept is determined by rates of truth ( )
searching for food. ACO initializes a
, indeterminacy ( ), and negation ( ) in
population of ants in the search space
various partitions. Neutrosophy is a
traversing for their food according to some
generalization of the fuzzy
probabilistic transition rule. Ants follow each
hypothesis[1][2][3]] and an extension of the
other basing on rode pheromone level and ant
desirability to go through a specific path. The regular set. Neutrosophic is connected to
main issue is finding suitable heuristic concepts identified with indeterminacy.
desirability which should be based on the Neutrosophic data is defined by three main
information conveyed from the variable itself. concepts to manage uncertainty. These
concepts are joined together in the triple:
Information theory measures [6][20][21], [23]
collect information from concrete data. The = ( ), ( ), ( ) (1)
entropy definition is the measure of
information conveyed in a variable. Whereas, Where
the mutual information is the measure of data
inside a crossing point between two nearby ( ) is the membership degree,
subsets of a variable. These definitions may
( ) is the indeterminacy degree,
help in finding limits of a membership function
of neutrosophic variable subsets depending on ( ) is the falsity degree.
the probability distribution of the data as the
heuristic desirability of ants. These three terms form the fundamental
concepts and they are independent and
In a similar philosophy, the non- membership explicitly quantified. In neutrosophic set [7],
of a neutrosophic variable might be each value in set A defined by Eq. 1 is
characterized utilizing the entropy and mutual constrained by the following conditions:
information basing on the data probability
distribution complement. Taking the upsides of 0 ( ), ( ), ( ) 1
(2)
the neutrosophic set definition; the
indeterminacy capacity could be characterized
Mona Gamal Gafar, Ibrahim El-Henawy, Integrated Framework of Optimization Technique and Information Theory
Measures for Modeling Neutrosophic Variables
82 Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017
0 ( ), ( ), ( ) 1 (4)
Where 0< <1 is a decay constant used to
( ) ( ) ( ) 0.5 (5)
estimate the evaporation of the pheromone
0 ( )+ ( )+ ( ) 3 (6)
from the edges. (t) is the amount of
Neutrosophic intuitionistic set of type 2 [5] is pheromone deposited by the ant.
obliged by to the following conditions:
The heuristic desirability describes the
0.5 ( ), ( ), ( ) (7)
association between a node j and the problem
solution or the fitness function of the search. If
( ) ( ) 0.5 , ( ) ( )
0.5, ( ) ( ) 0.5 (8) a node has a heuristic value for a certain path
then the ACO will use this node in the solution
0 ( )+ ( )+ ( ) 2 (9)
of the problem. The algorithm of ACO is
2.2 Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) illustrated in figure 1.
Mona Gamal Gafar, Ibrahim El-Henawy, Integrated Framework of Optimization Technique and Information Theory
Measures for Modeling Neutrosophic Variables
Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017 83
Information theory measures [6][20][23] Finding best values of L and U for all
collect information from raw data. The entropy partitions would optimize the membership
of a random variable is a function which (non-membership) function definition. Figure
characterizes the unexpected events of a 3 give a view of the ant with n partitions for
random variable. Consider a random variable each fuzzy variable.
X expressing the number on a roulette wheel
or the number on a fair 6-sided die.
Mona Gamal Gafar, Ibrahim El-Henawy, Integrated Framework of Optimization Technique and Information Theory
Measures for Modeling Neutrosophic Variables
84 Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017
Start
Get Ant positions for non-membership Get Ant positions for membership
Select Ant with the best objective Select Ant with the best objective
function function
No
End of
Iterations?
Yes
End
Figure 4: Flow chart for the modelling neuotrosophic variable using ACO
Mona Gamal Gafar, Ibrahim El-Henawy, Integrated Framework of Optimization Technique and Information Theory
Measures for Modeling Neutrosophic Variables
Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017 85
5: While (num_of_Iterations<Max_iter)
% membership generation
6: foreach Ant
7: = ( ) ( , + 1)
( )
8: ( ) [ ] ( )
9: ( + 1) = (1 ). ( ) + ( )
10:end foreach
11: Best_sol_mem max( ) % Best found value until iteration t
% non-membership generation
12: foreach Ant
13 = ( ) ( , + 1)
( )
14: ( ) [ ] ( )
15: ( + 1) = (1 ). ( ) + ( )
16:end foreach
17: Best_sol_non-mem max( ) % Best found value until iteration t
18: End While
18: Best _mem Best_sol_mem
19: Best _non-mem Best_sol_non-mem
20: indeterminacy calculate-ind(Best _mem, Best _non-mem);
21: Draw(Best _mem, Best _non-mem, indetrminancy)
22: Draw_conversions_rate()
23: Output membership, non-membership and indeterminacy function, conversion rate.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Function calculate-ind( ( ), ( ))
1: Input:( ( ), ( ))
2: Output: indeterminacy
3: 0 [ ( ) + ( )] ( ) 3 [ ( )+ ( )]
4: indeterminacy Normalize( ( ));
5: Return indeterminacy
5: End Fun
Mona Gamal Gafar, Ibrahim El-Henawy, Integrated Framework of Optimization Technique and Information Theory
Measures for Modeling Neutrosophic Variables
86 Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017
Mona Gamal Gafar, Ibrahim El-Henawy, Integrated Framework of Optimization Technique and Information Theory
Measures for Modeling Neutrosophic Variables
Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017 87
the membership degree. Finding the start and heuristic desirability of the ants in designing
closure of a support over the universe of a the non-membership function Eq. 13, 14 and
variable could be an intriguing search issue 15.
suitable for optimization. Meta-heuristic search
methodologies [22] give a intelligent The indeterminacy capacity of variable data is
procedure for finding ideal arrangement of created by both membership and non-
solutions is any universe. ACO is a well membership capacities of the same data using
defined search procedure that mimics ants in neutrosophic set declaration in section 2 and
discovering their sustenance. Figure 3 presents Eq. 16 or 17. Afterwards, Eq. 18 is used to
the ant as an individual in a population for normalize the indeterminacy capacity of the
upgrading a triangle membership function data. Through simulation, the ACO is applied
through the ACO procedure. The ACO utilizes by MATLAB , PC with Intel(R) Core (TM)
the initial ant population and emphasizes to CPU and 4 GB RAM. The simulation are
achieve ideal arrangement. implemented on the temperature variable from
the Forest Fires data set created by: Paulo
Table 1:Parameters of ACO Cortez and Anbal Morais (Univ. Minho) [25].
The histogram of a random collection of the
Maximum Number of Iterations 50 temperature data is shown in figure 7.
Population Size (number of 10
ants)
Decaying rate 0.1
Indeterminacy
Membership
Mona Gamal Gafar, Ibrahim El-Henawy, Integrated Framework of Optimization Technique and Information Theory
Measures for Modeling Neutrosophic Variables
88 Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017
Mona Gamal Gafar, Ibrahim El-Henawy, Integrated Framework of Optimization Technique and Information Theory
Measures for Modeling Neutrosophic Variables
Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017 89
Mona Gamal Gafar, Ibrahim El-Henawy, Integrated Framework of Optimization Technique and Information Theory
Measures for Modeling Neutrosophic Variables
Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017 90
Abstract: We introduce now for the first time the Applications of neutrosophic modal logic are to
neutrosophic modal logic. The Neutrosophic Modal Logic neutrosophic modal metaphysics. Similarly to classical
includes the neutrosophic operators that express the modal logic, there is a plethora of neutrosophic modal
modalities. It is an extension of neutrosophic predicate logics. Neutrosophic modal logics is governed by a set of
logic and of neutrosophic propositional logic. neutrosophic axioms and neutrosophic rules.
Keywords: neutrosophic operators, neutrosophic predicate logic, neutrosophic propositional logic, neutrosophic epistemology,
neutrosophic mereology.
1 Introduction.
A) Neutrosophic Alethic Modalities (related to
The paper extends the fuzzy modal logic [1, 2, and truth) has three neutrosophic operators:
4], fuzzy environment [3] and neutrosophic sets, i. Neutrosophic Possibility: It is neutrosophic-
numbers and operators [5 12], together with the last ally possible that .
developments of the neutrosophic environment ii. Neutrosophic Necessity: It is neutrosophic-
{including (t, i, f)-neutrosophic algebraic structures, ally necessary that .
neutrosophic triplet structures, and neutrosophic iii. Neutrosophic Impossibility: It is neutrosoph-
overset / underset / offset} [13 - 15] passing through ically impossible that .
the symbolic neutrosophic logic [16], ultimately to B) Neutrosophic Temporal Modalities (related
neutrosophic modal logic. to time)
All definitions, sections, and notions introduced in It was the neutrosophic case that .
this paper were never done before, neither in my It will neutrosophically be that .
previous work nor in other researchers. And similarly:
Therefore, we introduce now the Neutrosophic It has always neutrosophically been that .
Modal Logic and the Refined Neutrosophic Modal It will always neutrosophically be that .
Logic. C) Neutrosophic Epistemic Modalities (related
Then we can extend them to Symbolic to knowledge):
Neutrosophic Modal Logic and Refined Symbolic It is neutrosophically known that .
Neutrosophic Modal Logic, using labels instead of D) Neutrosophic Doxastic Modalities (related
numerical values. to belief):
There is a large variety of neutrosophic modal It is neutrosophically believed that .
logics, as actually happens in classical modal logic too. E) Neutrosophic Deontic Modalities:
Similarly, the neutrosophic accessibility relation and It is neutrosophically obligatory that .
possible neutrosophic worlds have many It is neutrosophically permissible that .
interpretations, depending on each particular
application. Several neutrosophic modal applications 2 Neutrosophic Alethic Modal Operators
are also listed.
Due to numerous applications of neutrosophic The modalities used in classical (alethic) modal
modal logic (see the examples throughout the paper), logic can be neutrosophicated by inserting the indeter-
the introduction of the neutrosophic modal logic was minacy. We insert the degrees of possibility and
needed. degrees of necessity, as refinement of classical modal
operators.
Neutrosophic Modal Logic is a logic where some
neutrosophic modalities have been included. 3 Neutrosophic Possibility Operator
Let be a neutrosophic proposition. We have the The classical Possibility Modal Operator
following types of neutrosophic modalities: meaning It is possible that P is extended to
Neutrosophic Possibility Operator: meaning
2
4. ( ; , , ) = It is a little bigger necessity (degree of
= (,,)
[ (; , , )] [ (; , , )] necessity +2 ) that , i.e. +1 < +2 ,
+2 > +1 , +2 > +1 ;
5. ( ; , , )
=
[ (; , , )] [ (; , , )] and so on;
6.
( ; , , ) = It is a very high necessity (degree of
= (,,)
sup, inf, inf{ (; , , ), and }.
necessity + ) that , i.e. +1 < + = 1,
+ > +1 , + > +1 .
7. ( ; , , )
=
inf, sup, sup{ (; , , ), and }.
17 Application of the Neutrosophic
8.
if and only if (a formula is Threshold
neutrosophically deducible if and only if is We have introduced the term of (t, i, f)-physical law,
neutrosophically deducible in the actual neutrosophic meaning that a physical law has a degree of truth (t), a
world). degree of indeterminacy (i), and a degree of falsehood
We should remark that has a degree of truth (f). A physical law is 100% true, 0% indeterminate,
( ), a degree of indeterminacy ( ), and a degree and 0% false in perfect (ideal) conditions only, maybe
in laboratory.
of falsehood ( ) , which are in the general case
But our actual world ( ) is not perfect and not
subsets of the interval [0, 1]. steady, but continously changing, varying, fluctuating.
Applying sup, inf, inf to is equivalent to For example, there are physicists that have proved a
calculating: universal constant (c) is not quite universal (i.e. there
sup( ), inf( ), inf( ), are special conditions where it does not apply, or its
value varies between ( , + ), for > 0 that can
and similarly be a tiny or even a bigger number).
inf, sup, sup = Thus, we can say that a proposition is
inf( ), sup( ), sup( ). neutrosophically nomological necessary, if is
neutrosophically true at all possible neutrosophic
worlds that obey the (t, i, f)-physical laws of the actual
16 Refined Neutrosophic Modal Single- neutrosophic world .
Valued Logic In other words, at each possible neutrosophic world
Using neutrosophic (t, i, f) - thresholds, we refine , neutrosophically accesible from , one has:
for the first time the neutrosophic modal logic as:
( , , ) ( , , ),
a) Refined Neutrosophic Possibility Operator.
i.e. , , and .
1
= It is very little possible (degree of
(,,)
possibility 1 ) that , corresponding to the threshold 18 Neutrosophic Mereology
(1 , 1 , 1 ), i.e. 0 1 , 1 , 1 , for 1 a very Neutrosophic Mereology means the theory of the
little number in [0, 1]; neutrosophic relations among the parts of a whole, and
2 the neutrosophic relations between the parts and the
= It is little possible (degree of whole.
(,,)
possibility 2 ) that , corresponding to the threshold A neutrosophic relation between two parts, and
(2 , 2 , 2 ), i.e. 1 < 2 , 2 > 1 , 2 > 1 ; similarly a neutrosophic relation between a part and
the whole, has a degree of connectibility (t), a degree
of indeterminacy (i), and a degree of disconnectibility
and so on; (f).
19 Neutrosophic Mereological Threshold
= It is possible (with a degree of
(,,)
possibility ) that , corresponding to the threshold Neutrosophic Mereological Threshold is defined
( , , ), i.e. 1 < , > 1 , as:
> 1 .
TH M (min(tM ), max(iM ), max( f M ))
b) Refined Neutrosophic Necessity Operator.
where is the set of all degrees of connectibility
1
= It is a small necessity (degree of between the parts, and between the parts and the
(,,)
necessity +1 ) that , i.e. < +1 , whole;
+1 , +1 > ;
[10] Peide Liu, Guolin Tang, Multi-criteria group decision- [14] F. Smarandache, M. Ali, Neutrosophic Triplet as
making based on interval neutrosophic uncertain extension of Matter Plasma, Unmatter Plasma, and
linguistic variables and Choquet integral, Cognitive Antimatter Plasma, 69th Annual Gaseous Electronics
Computation, 8(6) (2016) 1036-1056. Conference, Bochum, Germany, Volume 61, Number
[11] Peide Liu, Lili Zhang, Xi Liu, Peng Wang, Multi-valued 9, Monday-Friday, October 10-14, 2016;
Neutrosophic Number Bonferroni mean Operators and http://meetings.aps.org/Meeting/GEC16/Session/HT6.
Their Application in Multiple Attribute Group 111
Decision Making, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF [15] Florentin Smarandache, Neutrosophic Overset,
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY & DECISION Neutrosophic Underset, and Neutrosophic Offset.
MAKING 15(5) (2016) 11811210. Similarly for Neutrosophic Over-/Under-/Off- Logic,
[12] Peide Liu, The aggregation operators based on Probability, and Statistics, 168 p., Pons Editions,
Archimedean t-conorm and t-norm for the single Brussels, 2016; https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-
valued neutrosophic numbers and their application to 01340830;
Decision Making, Int. J. Fuzzy Syst., 2016,18(5):849 https://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/1607/1607.00234.pdf
863. [16] Florentin Smarandache, Symbolic Neutrosophic Theory,
[13] F. Smarandache, (t, i, f)-Physical Laws and (t, i, f)- EuropaNova, Brussels, 2015;
Physical Constants, 47th Annual Meeting of the APS https://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/1512/1512.00047.pdf
Division of Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics,
Providence, Rhode Island, Volume 61, Number 8,
Monday-Friday, May 23-27, 2016;
http://meetings.aps.org/Meeting/DAMOP16/Session/
Q1.197
Received: February 10, 2017. Accepted: February 24, 2017.
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