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Vol.

15, 2017
ISSN 2331-6055 (print) ISSN 2331-608X (online)

Neutrosophic Sets and Systems


A Quarterly International Journal in Information Science and Engineering

Editor-in-Chief: Associate Editors:


Prof. FLORENTIN SMARANDACHE W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Indian Institute of Technology, Chennai, Tamil Nadu,
India. Said Broumi, Univ. of Hassan II Mohammedia, Casablanca, Morocco.
A. A. Salama, Faculty of Science, Port Said University, Egypt.
Address:
Yanhui Guo, School of Science, St. Thomas University, Miami, USA.
Neutrosophic Sets and Systems Francisco Gallego Lupiaez, Universidad Complutense, Madrid, Spain.
(An International Journal in Information Peide Liu, Shandong University of Finance and Economics, China.
Science and Engineering) Pabitra Kumar Maji, Math Department, K. N. University, WB, India.
Department of Mathematics and Science S. A. Albolwi, King Abdulaziz Univ., Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
University of New Mexico Jun Ye, Shaoxing University, China.
tefan Vlduescu, University of Craiova, Romania.
705 Gurley Avenue
Valeri Kroumov, Okayama University of Science, Japan.
Gallup, NM 87301, USA Dmitri Rabounski and Larissa Borissova, independent researchers.
E-mail: smarand@unm.edu Surapati Pramanik, Nandalal Ghosh B.T. College, Panpur, West Bengal, India.
Home page: http://fs.gallup.unm.edu/NSS Irfan Deli, Kilis 7 Aralk University, 79000 Kilis, Turkey.
Rdvan ahin, Faculty of Science, Ataturk University, Erzurum, Turkey.
Associate Editor-in-Chief: Luige Vladareanu, Romanian Academy, Bucharest, Romania.
Mohamed Abdel-Baset,Faculty of computers and informatics,Zagazig university,
Mumtaz Ali Egypt. A. A. A. Agboola, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria.
Department of Mathematics, Southern Queensland Le Hoang Son, VNU Univ. of Science, Vietnam National Univ. Hanoi, Vietnam.
University, Australia. Huda E. Khalid, University of Telafer, College of Basic Education, Telafer - Mosul,
Iraq. Maikel Leyva-Vzquez, Universidad de Guayaquil, Guayaquil, Ecuador.
Muhammad Akram, University of the Punjab, New Campus, Lahore, Pakistan.
Paul Wang, Pratt School of Engineering, Duke University, Durham, USA.
Darjan Karabasevic, University Business Academy, Novi Sad, Serbia.
Dragisa Stanujkic, John Naisbitt University, Belgrade, Serbia.
Edmundas K. Zavadskas, Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Vilnius, Lithuania.

Volume 15 2017
Contents

Mai Mohamed, Mohamed Abdel-Basset, Abdel Nasser Tanushree Mitra Basu, Shyamal Kumar Mondal. Multi-
H Zaied, Florentin Smarandache. Neutrosophic Integer 3 Criteria Assignment Techniques in Multi-Dimensional
49
Programming Problem ........... Neutrosophic Soft Set Theory ....................................
Mridula Sarkar, Samir Dey, Tapan Kumar Roy. Multi- Durga Banerjee, Bibhas C. Giri, Surapati Pramanik, F.
Objective Structural Design Optimization using Neu- 8 Smarandache. GRA for Multi Attribute Decision Mak- 60
trosophic Goal Programming Technique ............... ing in Neutrosophic Cubic Set Environment .
A.A. Salama, Hewayda ElGhawalby, Shimaa Fathi Ali. Surapati Pramanik, Partha Pratim Dey, Bibhas C. Giri,
Topological Manifold Space via Neutrosophic Crisp 18 Florentin Smarandache. Bipolar Neutrosophic Projec- 70
Set Theory ........................................... tion Based Models for Solving Multi-Attribute Deci-
sion-Making Problems ................
T.Chalapathi, R. V M S S Kiran Kumar. Neutrosophic
Graphs of Finite Groups .................................... 22 Mona Gamal, I. El-Henawy. Integrated Framework of
Optimization Technique and Information Theory Meas- 80
Mehmet ahin, Necati Olgun, Vakkas Uluay, Abdul-
ures for Modeling Neutrosophic Variables .........
lah Kargn, F. Smarandache. A New Similarity Meas-
ure Based on Falsity Value between Single Valued F. Smarandache. Neutrosophic Modal Logic . 90
Neutrosophic Sets Based on the Centroid Points of
Transformed Single Valued Neutrosophic Values with 31
Applications to Pattern Recognition ......

Copyright Neutrosophic Sets and Systems


Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017

Neutrosophic Sets and Systems


An International Journal in Information Science and Engineering

Copyright Notice
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All rights reserved. The authors of the articles do hereby ademic or individual use can be made by any user without
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Information for Authors and Subscribers


Neutrosophic Sets and Systems has been created for pub- Neutrosophic Probability is a generalization of the classical
lications on advanced studies in neutrosophy, neutrosophic set, probability and imprecise probability.
neutrosophic logic, neutrosophic probability, neutrosophic statis- Neutrosophic Statistics is a generalization of the classical
tics that started in 1995 and their applications in any field, such statistics.
as the neutrosophic structures developed in algebra, geometry, What distinguishes the neutrosophics from other fields is the
topology, etc. <neutA>, which means neither <A> nor <antiA>.
The submitted papers should be professional, in good Eng- <neutA>, which of course depends on <A>, can be indeter-
lish, containing a brief review of a problem and obtained results. minacy, neutrality, tie game, unknown, contradiction, ignorance,
Neutrosophy is a new branch of philosophy that studies the imprecision, etc.
origin, nature, and scope of neutralities, as well as their interac-
tions with different ideational spectra. All submissions should be designed in MS Word format using
This theory considers every notion or idea <A> together with our template file:
its opposite or negation <antiA> and with their spectrum of neu- http://fs.gallup.unm.edu/NSS/NSS-paper-template.doc.
tralities <neutA> in between them (i.e. notions or ideas support-
ing neither <A> nor <antiA>). The <neutA> and <antiA> ideas
A variety of scientific books in many languages can be down-
together are referred to as <nonA>.
loaded freely from the Digital Library of Science:
Neutrosophy is a generalization of Hegel's dialectics (the last
http://fs.gallup.unm.edu/eBooks-otherformats.htm.
one is based on <A> and <antiA> only).
According to this theory every idea <A> tends to be neutral-
To submit a paper, mail the file to the Editor-in-Chief. To order
ized and balanced by <antiA> and <nonA> ideas - as a state of
printed issues, contact the Editor-in-Chief. This journal is non-
equilibrium.
commercial, academic edition. It is printed from private dona-
In a classical way <A>, <neutA>, <antiA> are disjoint two
tions.
by two. But, since in many cases the borders between notions are
vague, imprecise, Sorites, it is possible that <A>, <neutA>, <an-
Information about the neutrosophics you get from the UNM
tiA> (and <nonA> of course) have common parts two by two, or
website:
even all three of them as well.
http://fs.gallup.unm.edu/neutrosophy.htm.
Neutrosophic Set and Neutrosophic Logic are generalizations
of the fuzzy set and respectively fuzzy logic (especially of intui-
The home page of the journal is accessed on
tionistic fuzzy set and respectively intuitionistic fuzzy logic). In
http://fs.gallup.unm.edu/NSS.
neutrosophic logic a proposition has a degree of truth (T), a de-
gree of indeterminacy (I), and a degree of falsity (F), where T, I,
F are standard or non-standard subsets of ] -0, 1+[.

Copyright Neutrosophic Sets and Systems


Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017 3

University of New Mexico

Neutrosophic Integer Programming Problem


Mai Mohamed1, Mohamed Abdel-Basset1, Abdel Nasser H Zaied2 and Florentin Smarandache3
1
Department of Operations Research, Faculty of Computers and Informatics, Zagazig University, Sharqiyah, Egypt.
E-mail: analyst_mohamed@yahoo.com
2
Department of information system, Faculty of Computers and Informatics, Zagazig University, Egypt. E-mail:nasserhr@gmail.com
3
Math & Science Department, University of New Mexico, Gallup, NM 87301, USA. E-mail: smarand@unm.edu

Abstract. In this paper, we introduce the integer The Neutrosophic Integer Programming Problem (NIP) is
programming in neutrosophic environment, by consi- transformed into a crisp programming model, using truth
dering coffecients of problem as a triangulare neutros- membership (T), indeterminacy membership (I), and fal-
ophic numbers. The degrees of acceptance, indeterminacy sity membership (F) functions as well as single valued
and rejection of objectives are simultaneously considered. triangular neutrosophic numbers. To measure the effic-
iency of the model, we solved several numerical examples.

Keywords: Neutrosophic; integer programming; single valued triangular neutrosophic number.

1 Introduction where T,I,F are standard or non-standard subsets of ]-0, 1+[.


The decision makers in neutrosophic set want to increase the
In linear programming models, decision variables are al- degree of truth-membership and decrease the degree of in-
lowed to be fractional. For example, it is reasonable to ac- determinacy and falsity membership.
cept a solution giving an hourly production of automobiles
1 The structure of the paper is as follows: the next section is a
at 64 , if the model were based upon average hourly pro-
2 preliminary discussion; the third section describes the
duction. However, fractional solutions are not realistic in formulation of integer programing problem using the
many situations and to deal with this matter, integer pro- proposed model; the fourth section presents some
gramming problems are introduced. We can define integer illustrative examples to put on view how the approach can
programming problem as a linear programming problem be applied; the last section summarizes the conclusions and
with integer restrictions on decision variables. When some, gives an outlook for future research.
but not all decision variables are restricted to be integer, this
problem called a mixed integer problem and when all deci- 2 Some Preliminaries
sion variables are integers, its a pure integer program. Inte-
ger programming plays an important role in supporting 2.1 Neutrosophic Set [4]
managerial decisions. In integer programming problems the
Let be a space of points (objects) and . A neutro-
decision maker may not be able to specify the objective sophic set in is defined by a truth-membership function
function and/or constraints functions precisely. In 1995, (), an indeterminacy-membership function () and a fal-
Smarandache [1-3] introduce neutrosophy which is the sity-membership function (). (), () and () are real
study of neutralities as an extension of dialectics. Neutro- standard or real nonstandard subsets of ]0,1+[. That is
sophic is the derivative of neutrosophy and it includes neu- ():]0,1+[, I():]0,1+[ and F():]0,1+[.
trosophic set, neutrosophic probability, neutrosophic statis- There is no restriction on the sum of (), () and (), so
tics and neutrosophic logic. Neutrosophic theory means 0sup()sup()()3+.
neutrosophy applied in many fields of sciences, in order to
solve problems related to indeterminacy. Although intui- 2.2 Single Valued Neutrosophic Sets (SVNS) [3-4]
tionistic fuzzy sets can only handle incomplete information
Let be a universe of discourse. A single valued neu-
not indeterminate, the neutrosophic set can handle both in-
trosophic set over is an object having the form
complete and indeterminate information.[4] Neutrosophic
= {, T(), I(),F():},
sets characterized by three independent degrees as in Fig.1.,
where T():[0,1], I():[0,1] and F():[0,1]
namely truth-membership degree (T), indeterminacy-mem- with 0T()+ I()+F()3 for all . The intervals T(),
bership degree(I), and falsity-membership degree (F),

Mohamed Abdel-Basset et al., Neutrosophic Integer Programming Problem


4 Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017

2.5 Intersection [5]


I() and F() denote the truth-membership degree, the in- The intersection of two single valued neutrosophic sets
determinacy-membership degree and the falsity member- A and B is a single valued neutrosophic set C, written as
ship degree of to , respectively. C = AB, whose truth-membership, indeterminacy mem-
In the following, we write SVN numbers instead of sin- bership and falsity-membership functions are given by
gle valued neutrosophic numbers. For convenience, a SVN ()() = ( ()() ,()() ) ,
number is denoted by = (,b,), where ,,[0,1] and ()() = ( ()() ,()() ) ,
++3. ()() = (()() ,()() ) for all in

3 Neutrosophic Integer Programming Problems


Integer programming problem with neutrosophic coef-
ficients (NIPP) is defined as the following:
Maximize Z= =1

Subject to
nj=1 a~n
ij i = 1, , , (1)
0, = 1, ,
integer for {0,1, }.
Where , a~n
ij are neutrosophic numbres.

The single valued neutrosophic number (a~n


ij ) is donated by

A=(a,b,c) where a,b,c [0,1] And a,b,c 3


The truth- membership function of neutrosophic number
a~n
ij is defined as:
1
1 2
2 1
T a~n
ij (x)={
2
2 3 (2)
32
0
Figure 1: Neutrosophication process
The indeterminacy- membership function of neutrosophic
2.3 Complement [5]
number is defined as:
1
The complement of a single valued neutrosophic set 1 2
2 1
is denoted by C () and is defined by I a~n
ij (x)=
2
2 3 (3)
32
()() = ()() , { 0
()() = 1 ()() , And its falsity- membership function of neutrosophic
~
number is defined as:
()() = ()() for all in 1
1 2
2 1
F a~n
ij (x)=
2
2 3 (4)
2.4 Union [5] 32
{1
The union of two single valued neutrosophic sets A and
B is a single valued neutrosophic set C, written as C = AUB, Then we find the maximum and minimum values of the
whose truth-membership, indeterminacy membership and objective function for truth-membership, indeterminacand
falsity-membership functions are given by falsity membership as follows:
()() = ( ()() ,()() ) ,
()() = ( ()() ,()() ) , = max{( )} and =min{( )} where 1
()() = (()() ,()() ) for all in

= and = ( )

Mohamed Abdel-Basset et al., Neutrosophic Integer Programming Problem


Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017 5


= = ( ) ()
Where R ,S are predetermined real number in (0,1) ()
The truth membership, indeterminacy membership, falsity
()
membership of objective function as follows:
() = Subject to
1 () ()
() () ()
{ < () (5)

0 () + () + () 3 (11)
0 () >
() , () , () 0
() = 0 , integer.
0 Where () . () , () denotes the degree of acceptance,
() rejection and indeterminacy of respectively.
< () (6)

{ 0 () > The above problem is equivalent to the following:
, ,
Subject to
() = ()
0 ()
() ()
{ < () (7)


1 () >

0 + + 3 (12)
The neutrosophic set of the decision variable is
0 , integer.
defined as: Where denotes the minimal acceptable degree, denote
()
= the maximal degree of rejection and denote maximal de-
1 0 gree of indeterminacy.
The neutrosophic optimization model can be changed
{ 0 < (8) into the following optimization model:

0 > ( )
() Subject to

() (13)
0 0 ()

= 0 < (9) ()
+
{ 1 >
0 + + 3
, , 0
()
0 , integer.
0 0 (10) The previous model can be written as:
(1- )
= 0 < Subject to
+ ()
{ 0 > ()
Where , are integer numbers. ()

4 Neutrosophic Optimization Model of integer pro-
gramming problem 0 + + 3 (14)
In our neutrosophic model we want to maximize the de-
0 , integer.
gree of acceptance and minimize the degree of rejection and
indeterminacy of the neutrosophic objective function and
constraints. Neutrosophic optimization model can be de-
fined as:

Mohamed Abdel-Basset et al., Neutrosophic Integer Programming Problem


6 Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017

5 The Algorithms for Solving Neutrosophic inte- membership, and falsity membership functions and the score and
ger Programming Problem (NIPP) accuracy degrees of a, at equations (15) or (16).

5.1 Neutrosophic Cutting Plane Algorithm Step 2: Create the decision set which include the highest
degree of truth-membership and the least degree of falsity
Step 1: Convert neutrosophic integer programming problem and indeterminacy memberships.
to its crisp model by using the following method:
By defining a method to compare any two single valued triangular Step 3: At the first node let the solution of linear program-
neutrosophic numbers which is based on the score function and the ming model with integer restriction as an upper bound and
accuracy function. Let = (1 , 1 , 1 ), , , be a single the rounded-down integer solution as a lower bound.
valued triangular neutrosophic number, then

1
Step 4: For branching process, we select the variable with
() = 16 [ + + ](2 + ) (15) the largest fractional part. Two constrains are obtained after
and the branching process, one for and the other is con-
1
() = 16 [ + + ](2 + + ) (16) straint.

is called the score and accuracy degrees of , respectively. The Step 5: Create two nodes for the two new constraints.
neutrosophic integer programming NIP can be represented by crisp
programming model using truth membership, indeterminacy Step 6: Solve the model again, after adding new constraints
membership, and falsity membership functions and the score and at each node.
accuracy degrees of a, at equations (15) or (16).
Step 7: The optimal integer solution has been reached, if the
Step 2: Create the decision set which include the highest feasible integer solution has the largest upper bound value
degree of truth-membership and the least degree of falsity of any ending node. Otherwise return to step 4.
and indeterminacy memberships.
The previous algorithm is for a maximization model. For a
Step 3: Solve the problem as a linear programming problem minimization model, the solution of linear programming
and ignore integrality. problem with integer restrictions are rounded up and upper
and lower bounds are reversed.
Step 4: If the optimal solution is integer, then its right.
Otherwise, go to the next step.
6 Numerical Examples
Step 5: Generate a constraint which is satisfied by all inte- To measure the efficiency of our proposed model we
ger solutions and add this constraint to the problem. solved many numerical examples.
Step 6: Go to step 1. 6.1 Illustrative Example #1

51 + 32
5.2 Neutrosophic Branch and Bound Algorithm
41 + 32 12

Step 1: Convert neutrosophic integer programming problem 11 + 32 6
to its crisp model by using the following method: 1 , 2 0
By defining a method to compare any two single valued triangular where
neutrosophic numbers which is based on the score function and the
5 = (4,5,6 ), 0.8, 0.6, 0.4
accuracy function. Let = (1 , 1 , 1 ), , , be a single
3 = (2.5,3,3.5 ), 0.75, 0.5, 0.3
valued triangular neutrosophic number, then
4 = (3.5,4,4.1 ), 1, 0.5, 0.0
1 3 = (2.5,3,3.5 ), 0.75, 0.5, 0.25
() = 16 [ + + ](2 + ) (15)
1 = (0,1,2 ), 1, 0.5, 0
and
1 3 = (2.8,3,3.2 ), 0.75, 0.5, 0.25
() = 16 [ + + ](2 + + ) (16) = (11,12,13 ), 1, 0.5, 0
12
6 = (5.5,6,7.5 ), 0.8, 0.6, 0.4
is called the score and accuracy degrees of , respectively. The
neutrosophic integer programming NIP can be represented by crisp
Then the neutrosophic model converted to the crisp model
programming model using truth membership, indeterminacy
by using Eq.15 , Eq.16.as follows :

Mohamed Abdel-Basset et al., Neutrosophic Integer Programming Problem


Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017 7

max 5.68751 + 3.59682 7 Conclusions and Future Work


4.31251 + 3.6252 14.375
In this paper, we proposed an integer programming
subject to 0.28151 + 3.9252 7.6375
model based on neutrosophic environment, simultaneously
1 , 2 0
considering the degrees of acceptance, indeterminacy and
rejection of objectives, by proposed model for solving
The optimal solution of the problem is = (3,0) with neutrosophic integer programming problems (NIPP). In the
optimal objective value 17.06250. model, we maximize the degrees of acceptance and
minimize indeterminacy and rejection of objectives. NIPP
6.2 Illustrative Example #2 was transformed into a crisp programming model using
25 1 + 48
2 truth membership, indeterminacy membership, falsity
151 + 302 45000 membership and score functions. We also give numerical
241 + 62 24000 examples to show the efficiency of the proposed method.
Future research directs to studying the duality theory of
211 + 142 28000
1 , 2 0 integer programming problems based on Neutrosophic.
where
= (19,25,33 ), 0.8,0.5,0 ;
25 References
= (44,48,54 ), 0.9,0.5,0
48 [1] Smarandache, F. A Unifying Field in Logics:Neutrosophic
Logic. Neutrosophy, Neutrosophic Set, Neutrosophic Proba-
Then the neutrosophic model converted to the crisp model bility: Neutrosophic Logic.Neutrosophy, Neutrosophic Set,
as : Neutrosophic Probability. Infinite Study, 2005.
[2] I. M. Hezam, M. Abdel-Baset, F. Smarandache 2015 Taylor
max 27.88751 + 55.32
Series Approximation to Solve Neutrosophic Multiobjective
151 + 302 45000
Programming Problem Neutrosophic Sets and Systems An
241 + 62 24000 International Journal in Information Science and Engineering
subject to
211 + 142 28000 Vol.10 pp.39-45.
1 , 2 0 [3] Abdel-Baset, M., Hezam, I. M., & Smarandache, F. (2016).
Neutrosophic Goal Programming. Neutrosophic Sets & Sys-
The optimal solution of the problem is = (500,1250) tems, 11.
with optimal objective value 83068.75. [4] Smarandache, F. "A Geometric Interpretation of the Neu-
trosophic Set-A Generalization of the Intuitionistic Fuzzy
Set." arXiv preprint math/0404520(2004).
[5] R. ahin, and Muhammed Y. "A Multi-criteria neutrosophic
group decision making metod based TOPSIS for supplier se-
lection." arXiv preprint arXiv:1412.5077 (2014).

Received: January 6, 2017. Accepted: January 30, 2017.

Mohamed Abdel-Basset et al., Neutrosophic Integer Programming Problem


Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017 8

University of New Mexico

Multi-Objective Structural Design Optimization


using Neutrosophic Goal Programming Technique

Mridula Sarkar1,Samir Dey2 and Tapan Kumar Roy3

1
Department of Mathematics, Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur,P.O.-Botanic Garden, Howrah-711103,
West Bengal, India. E-mail: mridula.sarkar86@yahoo.com
2
Department of Mathematics, Asansol Engineering College,Vivekananda Sarani, Asansol-713305, West Bengal, India.
E-mail: samir_besus@rediffmail.com
3
Department of Mathematics, Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur,P.O.-Botanic Garden, Howrah-711103,
West Bengal. India. E-mail: roy_t_k@yahoo.co.in

Abstract: This paper develops a multi-objective Neutro- The classical three bar truss structure is presented here in
sophic Goal Optimization (NSGO) technique for opti- to demonstrate the efficiency of the neutrosophic goal
mizing the design of three bar truss structure with multi- programming approach. The model is numerically illus-
ple objectives subject to a specified set of constraints. In trated by generalized NSGO technique with different ag-
this optimum design formulation, the objective functions gregation method. The result shows that the Neutrosoph-
are weight and deflection; the design variables are the ic Goal Optimization technique is very efficient in find-
cross-sections of the bar; the constraints are the stress in ing the best optimal solutions.
member.

Keywords: Neutrosophic Set, Single Valued Neutrosophic Set, Generalized Neutrosophic Goal Programming, Arithmetic Ag-
gregation, Geometric Aggregation, Structural Optimization.

1 Introduction In such extension, Intuitionistic fuzzy set which is one


of the generalizations of fuzzy set theory and was charac-
The research area of optimal structural design has been
terized by a membership, a non- membership and a hesi-
receiving increasing attention from both academia and
tancy function was first introduced by Atanassov [21]
industry over the past four decades in order to improve
(IFS). In fuzzy set theory the degree of acceptance is only
structural performance and to reduce design costs. In the
considered but in case of IFS it is characterized by degree
real world, uncertainty or vagueness is prevalent in the
of membership and non-membership in such a way that
Engineering Computations. In the context of structural
their sum is less or equal to one. Dey et al. [7] solved two
design the uncertainty is connected with lack of accurate
bar truss non-linear problem by using intuitionistic fuzzy
data of design factors. This tendency has been changing
optimization problem.Again Dey et al. [8] used intuition-
due to the increase in the use of fuzzy mathematical
istic fuzzy optimization technique to solve multi objective
algorithm for dealing with such kind of problems.
structural design. R-x Liang et al. [9] applied interdepend-
Fuzzy set (FS) theory has long been introduced to deal
ent inputs of single valued trapezoidal neutrosophic infor-
with inexact and imprecise data by Zadeh [1], Later on the
mation on Multi-criteria group decision making problem. P
fuzzy set theory was used by Bellman and Zadeh [2] to the
Ji et al. [10], S Yu et al. [11] did so many research study on
decision making problem. A few work has been done as
application based neutosophic sets and intuitionistic lin-
an application of fuzzy set theory on structural design.
guistic number. Z-p Tian et al. [12] Simplified neutrosoph-
Several researchers like Wang et al. [3] first applied -cut
ic linguistic multi-criteria group decision-making approach
method to structural designs where various design levels
to green product development. Again J-j Peng et al. [13]
were used to solve the non-linear problems. In this
introduced multi-valued neutrosophic qualitative flexible
regard ,a generalized fuzzy number has been used Dey et al.
approach based on likelihood for multi-criteria decision-
[4] in context of a non-linear structural design optimiza-
making problems. Also, H Zhang et. al. [22] investigates a
tion. Dey et al. [5] used basic t-norm based fuzzy optimiza-
case study on a novel decision support model for satisfac-
tion technique for optimization of structure and Dey et al.
tory restaurants utilizing social information. P Ji et al. [14]
[6] developed parameterized t-norm based fuzzy optimiza-
developed a projection-based TODIM method under multi-
tion method for optimum structural design.

Mridula Sarkar,Samir Dey,Tapan Kumar Roy, Multi-Objective Structural Design Optimization using Neutrosophic Goal
Programming Technique
Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017 9

valued neutrosophic environments and its application in where A A1 , A2 ,..., An are the design variables for the
T

personnel selection.Intuitionistic fuzzy sets consider both


truth and falsity membership and can only handle incom- cross section, n is the group number of design variables for
n
plete information but not the information which is con- the cross section bar , WT A i Ai Li is the total
nected with indeterminacy or inconsistency. i 1
In neutrosophic sets indeterminacy or inconsistency is weight of the structure , A is the deflection of the load-
quantified explicitly by indeterminacy membership func-
tion. Neutrosophic Set (NS), introduced by Smarandache ed joint ,where Li , Ai and i are the bar length, cross sec-
[15] was characterized by truth, falsity and indeterminacy th
tion area and density of the i group bars respective-
membership so that in case of single valued NS set their ly. A is the stress constraint and is allowable stress
sum is less or equal to three. In early [17] Charnes and
Cooper first introduced Goal programming problem for a of the group bars under various conditions, Amin and Amax
linear model. Usually conflicting goal are presented in a are the lower and upper bounds of cross section area A re-
multi-objective goal programming problem. Dey et al. [16] spectively.
used intuitionistic goal programming on nonlinear struc-
tural model. This is the first time NSGO technique is in 3 Mathematical preliminaries
application to multi-objective structural design. Usually 3.1 Fuzzy set
objective goals of existing structural model are considered
to be deterministic and a fixed quantity. In a situation, the Let X be a fixed set. A fuzzy set A set of X is an ob-
decision maker can be doubtful with regard to accom-
plishment of the goal. The DM may include the idea of
ject having the form A x, TA x : x X where the
truth, indeterminacy and falsity bound on objectives function TA : X 0,1 defined the truth membership of
goal.The goal may have a target value with degree of the element x X to the set A .
truth,indeterminacy as well as degree of falsity.Precisely
,we can say a human being that express degree of truth 3.2 Intuitionistic fuzzy set
membership of a given element in a fuzzy set,truth and fal-
Let a set X be fixed. An intuitionistic fuzzy set or IFS
sity membership in a intuitionistic fuzzy set,very often
Ai in X is an object of the form
does not express the corresponding degree of falsity mem-
bership as complement to 3. This fact seems to take the ob- Ai X , TA x , FA x x X where
jective goal as a neutrosophic set. The present study inves-
tigates computational algorithm for solving multi-objective TA : X 0,1 and FA : X 0,1
structural problem by single valued generalized NSGO
technique. The results are compared numerically for dif- define the truth membership and falsity membership re-
ferent aggregation method of NSGO technique. From our spectively, for every element of x X 0 TA FA 1 .
numerical result, it has been seen the best result obtained
for geometric aggregation method for NSGO technique in 3.3 Neutrosophic set
the perspective of structural optimization technique. Let a set X be a space of points (objects) and x X .A
neutrosophic set An in X is defined by a truth membership
2 Multi-objective structural model
function TA x , an indeterminacy-membership function
In the design problem of the structure i.e. lightest
weight of the structure and minimum deflection of the I A x and a falsity membership function FA x ,and de-
loaded joint that satisfies all stress constraints in members noted by An x, TA x , I A x , FA x x X .
of the structure. In truss structure system, the basic
parameters (including allowable stress,etc.) are known and TA x I A x and FA x are real standard or non-standard
the optimizations target is that identify the optimal bar subsets of ]0 ,1 [ .That is
truss cross-section area so that the structure is of the TA x : X ]0 ,1 [ , I A x : X ]0 ,1 [ , and

smallest total weight with minimum nodes displacement in


a given load conditions . FA x : X ]0 ,1 [ , . There is no restriction on the sum
The multi-objective structural model can be expressed as of TA x , I A x and
Minimize WT A
FA x so 0 sup TA x I A x sup FA x 3 .
(1)
minimize A 3.4 Single valued neutrosophic set
subject to A Let a set X be the universe of discourse. A single val-
A min
A A
max ued neutrosophic set An over X is an object having the

Mridula Sarkar,Samir Dey,Tapan Kumar Roy, Multi-Objective Structural Design Optimization using Neutrosophic Goal
Programming Technique
10 Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017

form An x, TA x , I A x , FA x x X where The nonlinear goal programming problem can be writ-


ten as
TA : X 0,1 , I A : X 0,1 , and FA : X 0,1 with Find
0 TA x I A x FA x 3 for all x X . x x1 , x2 ,..., xn
T
(2)
So as to
3.5 Complement of neutrosophic Set
Minimize zi with target value ti ,acceptance tolerance
Complement of a single valued neutrosophic set A is ai ,indeterminacy tolerance di rejection tolerance ci
denoted by c A and is defined by Tc A x FA x ,
x X
I c A x 1 FA x , Fc A x TA x g j x b j , j 1,2,....., m
xi 0, i 1, 2,....., n
3.6 Union of neutrosophic sets
This neutrosophic goal programming can be trans-
The union of two single valued neutrosophic sets formed into crisp programming and can be transformed in-
A and B is a single valued neutrosophic set C , written as to crisp programming problem model by maximizing the
C A B ,whose truth membership, indeterminacy- degree of truth and indeterminacy and minimizing the de-
membership and falsity-membership functions are given gree of falsity of neutrosophic objectives and constraints.
by In the above problem (2), multiple objectives are consid-
Tc A x max TA x , TB x , ered as neutrosophic with some relaxed target. This repre-
sentation demonstrates that decision maker (DM) is not
I c A x max I A x , I B x , sure about minimum value of zi , i 1, 2,.., k . DM has
Fc A x min FA x , FB x for all x X . some illusive ideas of some optimum values of
zi , i 1, 2,.., k . Hence it is quite natural to have desirable
3.7 Intersection of neutrosophic sets values violating the set target. Then question arises that
how much bigger the optimum values may be .DM has al-
The intersection of two single valued neutrosophic sets so specified it with the use of tolerances. The tolerances
A and B is a single valued neutrosophic set C , written as are set in such a manner that the sum of truth, indetermina-
C A B ,whose truth membership, indeterminacy- cy and falsity membership of objectives zi , i 1, 2,.., k will
membership and falsity-membership functions are given lie between 0 and 3 . Let us consider the following theo-
by rem on membership function:
Tc A x min TA x , TB x ,
Theorem 1.
I c A x min I A x , I B x , For a generalized neutrosophic goal programming
Fc A x max FA x , FB x for all x X .
problem (2)
The sum of truth, indeterminacy and falsity member-
ship function will lie between 0 and w1 w2 w3
4 Mathematical analysis Proof:
Let the truth, indeterminacy and falsity membership func-
4.1 Neutrosophic Goal Programming tions be defined as membership functions
Neutrosophic Goal Programming problem is an exten- w1 if zi ti
sion of intuitionistic fuzzy as well as fuzzy goal program-
t ai zi
ming problem in which the degree of indeterminacy of ob- Ti w1 zi w1 i if ti zi ti ai
jective(s) and constraints are considered with degree of ai
truth and falsity membership degree. if zi ti ai
0
Goal programming can be written as
Find 0 if zi ti

x x1 , x2 ,..., xn
T
(1) z t
w2 i i if ti zi ti ai

di
to achieve:
zi ti i 1,2,..., k
I i
w2
zi
ti ai zi
w2 a d if ti d i zi ti ai
Subject to x X where ti are scalars and represent the
i i
target achievement levels of the objective functions that 0 if zi ti ai
the decision maker wishes to attain provided, X is feasible
set of constraints.
Mridula Sarkar,Samir Dey,Tapan Kumar Roy, Multi-Objective Structural Design Optimization using Neutrosophic Goal
Programming Technique
Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017 11

if zi ti ai
zi ti ai , Tzi zi I zi zi Fzi zi w1
0
w1 w1 w2
z t ci
Fi w3 zi w3 i i if ti zi ti ci
ci ai
(as 1 ).
if zi ti ci ci
w3
In the interval zi (ti ai , ti ci ]
ai
when zi ti ai , Tzi zi I zi zi Fzi zi w2 w2 0
ci
ai
(as 1)
ci
and when
zi ti ci , Tzi zi I zi zi Fzi zi w1 w1 w2 w3
for zi ti ci ,
Tzi zi I zi zi Fzi zi w3 w1 w2 w3
and as w2 0 , Tzi zi I zi zi Fzi zi 0 .
Therefore, combining all the cases we get
Fig. 1. Truth membership, Indeterminacy membership and Falsity 0 Tzi zi I zi zi Fzi zi w1 w2 w3
membership function of zi Hence the proof.

From Fig. (1) and definition of generalized single valued 4.2. Solution Procedure of Neutrosophic Goal
neutrosophic set, it is clear that: Programming Technique
0 Tzi zi w1 , 0 I zi zi w2 and 0 Fzi zi w1
In fuzzy goal programming, Zimmermann [18] has
when zi ti given a concept of considering all membership functions
greater than a single value which is to be maximized.
Tzi zi w1 and I zi zi 0 and Fzi zi 0
Previously many researcher like Bharti and Singh [20],
Therefore Tzi zi I zi zi Fzi zi w1 w1 w2 w3 Parvathi and Malathi [19] have followed him in intution-
istic fuzzy optimization. Along with the variable and
and w1 0 implies that Tzi zi I zi zi Fzi zi 0
, is optimized in neutrosophic goal programming
when zi ti , ti ai from fig (A) we see that Tzi zi and problem.
Fzi zi intersects each other and the point whose coordi- With the help of generalized truth, indeterminacy, fal-
sity membership function the generalized neutrosophic
nate is ti di , di ci , goal programming problem (2) can be formulated as:
w1 Maximize Tzi zi , i 1, 2,...., k (3)
where di .
w1 w2
Maximize I zi zi , i 1, 2,...., k
ai ci
Minimize Fzi zi , i 1, 2,...., k
Now in the interval zi ti , ti di we see that
Subject to
z t 0 Tzi zi I zi zi Fzi zi w1 w2 w3 , i 1, 2,...., k
Tzi zi I zi zi Fzi zi w2 i i w2 w1 w2 w3
di Tzi zi 0, I zi zi 0, Fzi zi I 1, 2,..., k
Again, in the interval zi ti di , ti ai we see that
Tzi zi I zi zi , I 1, 2,...., k
t a z
Tzi zi I zi zi Fzi zi w2 i i i w2 w1 w2 w3 . Tzi zi Fzi zi , i 1, 2,..., k
ai di
0 w1 w2 w3 3
Also, for ti zi ti ai
w1 , w2 , w3 0,1
when zi ti , Tzi zi I zi zi Fzi zi w2 0 and
g j x b j , j 1,2,....., m
Tzi zi I zi zi Fzi zi w1 0 and when
xi 0, i 1, 2,....., n

Mridula Sarkar,Samir Dey,Tapan Kumar Roy, Multi-Objective Structural Design Optimization using Neutrosophic Goal
Programming Technique
12 Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017

Now the decision set Dn , a conjunction of Neutrosophic programming, based on geometric aggregation operator
objectives and constraints is defined: can be formulated as:
Minimize 3
1 1 (6)


x,T x , I D x , FD x
k q
D n zin Subjected to the same constraint as (4).
g j
n
Dn n n

i 1 j 1 Now this non-linear programming problem (4 or 5 or 6)


can be easily solved by an appropriate mathematical pro-
Tzn x , Tzn x , Tzn x ,...........Tzn x ;
1 gramming to give solution of multi-objective non-linear
Here TDn x min
2 3 p
programming problem (1) by generalized neutrosophic
Tg1n x , Tg2n x , Tg3n x ,...........Tgqn x goal optimization approach.
forall x
X 5. Solution of Multi-Objective Structural
I zn x , I zn x , I zn x ,...........I zn x ; Optimization Problem (MOSOP) by Generalized
1 Neutrosophic Goal Programming Technique
I Dn x min
2 3 p

I g n x , I g n x , I g n x ,...........I g n x The multi-objective neutrosophic fuzzy structural model
for all x X 1 2 3 q can be expressed as :
Minimize WT A with target value WT0 ,truth tolerance
Fzn x , Fzn x , Fzn x ,...........Fzn x ;
1
FDn x min aWT ,indeterminacy tolerance dWT and rejection tolerance
2 3 p

Fg n x , Fg n x , Fg n x ,...........Fg n x cWT (7)
for all x X 1 2 3 q
minimize A with target value 0 ,truth tolerance
where TDn x , I Dn x , FDn x are truth-membership func- a ,indeterminacy tolerance d and rejection tolerance
0 0
tion, indeterminacy membership function,falsity member-
ship function of neutrosophic decision set respectively c0
.Now using the neutrosophic optimization, problem (2) is
transformed to the non-linear programming problem as subject to A

Maximize , Maximize , Minimize (4) Amin A Amax

where A A1 , A2 ,...., An are the design variables for the


T

zi ti ai 1 , i 1, 2,..., k
w1 cross section, n is the group number of design variables for
d the cross section bar.
zi ti i , i 1, 2,..., k To solve this problem we first calculate truth, indeter-
w2 minacy and falsity membership function of objective as
follows:
zi ti ai ai di , i 1, 2,..., k
w2 w1 if WT A WT0

WT0 aWT WT A
c
zi ti i , i 1, 2,..., k TWTw1 WT A w1
w3 if WT0 WT A WT0 aWT
aWT
zi ti , i 1, 2,....., k
0 if WT A WT0 aWT
0 w1 w2 w3 ;
0, w1 , 0, w2 , 0, w3 ; 0 if WT A WT0

w1 0,1 , w2 0,1 , w3 0,1; WT A WT0
w2 if WT0 WT A WT0 aWT

0 w1 w2 w3 3. d
IWT A WT A
w2 WT

Now, based on arithmetic aggregation operator above WT0 aWT WT A



w2 if WT0 dWT WT A WT0 aWT
problem can be formulated as aWT dWT

1 1

0 if WT A WT0 aWT
Minimize (5)

3
w1
where dWT
Subjected to the same constraint as (4). w1 w
2
With the help of generalized truth, indeterminacy, falsity aWT cWT
membership function the generalized neutrosophic goal
Mridula Sarkar,Samir Dey,Tapan Kumar Roy, Multi-Objective Structural Design Optimization using Neutrosophic Goal
Programming Technique
Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017 13

if WT A WT0 c
A 0 , A 0 ,
0

0
w3
FWTw3 A WT A w3
WT A WT
if WT0 WT A WT0 cWT
cWT 0 w1 w2 w3 ;
if WT A WT0 cWT
w3 0, w1 , 0, w2 , 0, w3 ;
and w1 0,1 , w2 0,1 , w3 0,1;
w1 if A 0
0 w1 w2 w3 3;
0 a0 A
Tw1A A w1 if 0 A 0 a0 g j x b j , j 1, 2,....., m
a0
x j 0, j 1, 2,...., n
0 if A 0 a0
With the help of generalized truth, indeterminacy, falsity
0 if A 0 membership function the generalized neutrosophic goal

A 0 programming based on arithmetic aggregation operator can
w2 if 0 A 0 a be formulated as:
d

I A A
w2
Model II
0 a WT A
w2 if 0 d A 0 a 1 1

a d Minimize (9)

0 if A 0 a
3


Subjected to the same constraint as (8)
w1
d With the help of generalized truth, indeterminacy, falsity
w1 w2
membership function the generalized neutrosophic goal
a c programming based on geometric aggregation operator can
be formulated as:
0 if A 0 Model -III

A 0
Minimize 3
1 1 (10)
Fw3A A w3 if 0 A 0 c
c
Subjected to the same constraint as (8)
Now these non-linear programming Model-I, II, III can be
w3 if A 0 c easily solved through an appropriate mathematical pro-

According to generalized neutrosophic goal optimization gramming to give solution of multi-objective non-linear
technique using truth, indeterminacy and falsity member- programming problem (7) by generalized neutrosophic
ship function, MOSOP (7) can be formulated as: goal optimization approach.
Model I
Maximize , Maximize , Minimize (8) 6 Numerical illustration

A well-known three bar planer truss is considered in Fig.2


WT A WT0 aWT 1 , to minimize weight of the structure WT A1 , A2 and
w1
minimize the deflection A1 , A2 at a loading point of a
d
WT A WT0 WT , statistically loaded three bar planer truss subject to stress
w2
constraints on each of the truss members.

WT A WT0 aWT aWT dWT ,
w2
cWT
WT A WT0 ,
w3
WT A WT0 ,

A 0 a 1 ,
w1
d
A 0 ,
w2

A 0 a a d ,
w2
Fig. 2 Design of three bar planar truss

Mridula Sarkar,Samir Dey,Tapan Kumar Roy, Multi-Objective Structural Design Optimization using Neutrosophic Goal
Programming Technique
14 Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017

The multi-objective optimization problem can be stated as P


2 A1 , A2 2T ;
follows:
A 1 2 A2
Minimize WT A1 , A2 L 2 2 A1 A2 (11)
3 A1 , A2
PA2
3C ;
Minimize A1 , A2
PL 2 A 2 A1 A2
2


1

E A1 2 A2
Aimin Ai Aimax i 1, 2
Subject to

1 A1 , A2
P 2 A1 A2 1T ;
According to generalized neutrosophic goal optimization
technique using truth, indeterminacy and falsity member-
2 A12 2 A1 A2 ship function ,MOSOP (12) can be formulated as:
Model I
P
2 A1 , A2 2T ; Maximize , Maximize , Minimize (13)
A 2 A2
2
1
2 A1 A2 4 2 1 ,
PA2
3 A1 , A2 3C ; w1
2 A12 2 A1 A2 2 2 A1 A2 4
w1
,
A i
min
Ai A i
max
i 1, 2 w2 0.5w1 0.22 w2
where P applied load ; material density ;
L length ; E Youngs modulus ; A1 Cross section of 2 2 A1 A2 4 2 2
w2
w1
,
0.5w1 0.22w2
bar-1 and bar-3; A2 Cross section of bar-2; is
deflection of loaded joint. and are maximum T
1
T
2
2
2 A1 A2 4
4.5
w3
,
allowable tensile stress for bar 1 and bar 2 respectively,
3C is maximum allowable compressive stress for bar 2 2 A A 4,
1 2

3.The input data is given in table1. 20


2.5 2.5 1 ,
This multi objective structural model can be expressed as A1 2 A2
w1
neutrosophic fuzzy model as
20 w1
2.5 ,
Minimize WT A1 , A2 L 2 2 A1 A2 with target A 1 2 A2 w2 0.4w1 0.22w2
value 4 10 KN 2
truth tolerance
20 w1
2 10 KN indeterminacy tolerance 2.5 2.5 2.5 ,
A
2

1 2 A2 w2 0.4w1 0.22w2
w1
102 KN and rejection tolerance
0.5w1 0.22w2 20
2.5
4.5
,
4.5 102 KN (12) A 1 2 A2 w3

20
2.5,
Minimize A1 , A2
PL
with target value A 2 A2

1
E A1 2 A2
0 w1 w2 w3 ;
0, w1 , 0, w2 , 0, w3 ;
7 7
2.5 10 m ,truth tolerance 2.5 10 m ,indeterminacy
tolerance
w1
107 m and rejection tolerance w1 0,1 , w2 0,1 , w3 0,1;
0.4w1 0.22w2
0 w1 w2 w3 3;
4.5 107 m
Subject to
20 2 A1 A2 20;
P 2 A1 A2 2A 1
2
2A A 1 2

1 A1 , A2 1T ;
2 A12 2 A1 A2 20
20;
A 1 2 A2
Mridula Sarkar,Samir Dey,Tapan Kumar Roy, Multi-Objective Structural Design Optimization using Neutrosophic Goal
Programming Technique
Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017 15

20 A2 Model III
15;
2 A12 2 A1 A2 Minimize 3
1 1 (15)
Subjected to the same constraint as (13)
0.1 Ai 5 i 1, 2 The above problem can be formulated using Model I,
With the help of generalized truth, indeterminacy, falsity II, III and can be easily solved by an appropriate mathe-
membership function the generalized neutrosophic goal matical programming to give solution of multi-objective
programming problem (12) based on arithmetic aggrega- non-linear programming problem (12) by generalized neu-
tion operator can be formulated as: trosophic goal optimization approach and the results are
Model II shown in the table 2.
1 1
Again, value of membership function in GNGP tech-

Minimize (14) nique for MOSOP (11) based on different Aggregation is

3
given in Table 3.
Subjected to the same constraint as (13)
With the help of generalized truth, indeterminacy, falsity
membership function the generalized neutrosophic goal
programming problem (12) based on geometric aggrega-
tion operator can be formulated as:

Table 1: Input data for crisp model (11)

Maximum al- Maximum al- Aimin


Volume lowable ten- lowable com-
Applied Youngs and
load P density Length L sile pressive
modulus E Aimax
m stress T stress C
KN / m
KN KN / m 3 2
of cross section of bars
KN / m 2
KN / m 2
10 4
m2
A1min 0.1
20 100 1 20 15 2 107 A1max 5
A2min 0.1 A2max 5

Table 2: Comparison of GNGP solution of MOSOP (11) based on different Aggregation

A1 WT A1 , A2 A1 , A2
Methods
4
A2
10 m 2
10 KN
2
10 7 m
104 m2
Generalized Fuzzy Goal
programming(GFGP) w1 0.15
0.5392616 4.474738 6 2.912270
Generalized Intuitionistic Fuzzy Goal
programming(GIFGP) 0.5392619 4.474737 6 2.912270
w1 0.15 w3 0.8
Generalized Neutrosophic Goal pro-
gramming (GNGP) 5 0.4321463 4.904282 3.564332
w1 0.4, w2 0.3, w3 0.7
Generalized Intuitionistic Fuzzy optimiza-
tion (GIFGP) based on Arithmetic Aggre-
gation 0.5392619 4.474737 6 2.912270
w1 0.15, w3 0.8

Mridula Sarkar,Samir Dey,Tapan Kumar Roy, Multi-Objective Structural Design Optimization using Neutrosophic Goal
Programming Technique
16 Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017

Generalized Neutosophic optimization


(GNGP) based on Arithmetic Aggrega- 5 0.4321468 4.904282 3.564333
tion
w1 0.4, w2 0.3, w3 0.7
Generalized Intuitionistic Fuzzy optimiza-
tion (GIFGP) based on Geometric Ag-
gregation 0.5727008 2.380158 4 5.077751
w1 0.15, w3 0.8

Generalized Neutosophic
optimization (GNGP) based on Geomet- 5 1.109954 4.462428 3.044273
ric Aggregation
w1 0.4, w2 0.3, w3 0.7

Here we get best solutions for the different value of Moreover it has been seen that more desired value is obtain
w1, w2 , w3 in geometric aggregation method for objective in geometric aggregation method compare to arithmetic
functions. From Table 2 it is clear that Neutrosophic aggregation method in intuitionistic as well as
Optimization technique is more fruitful in optimization of neutrosophic environment in perspective of structural
weight compare to fuzzy and intuitionistic fuzzy optim- engineering.
ization technique.

Table 3: Value of membership function in GNGP technique for MOSOP (11) based on different Aggregation

Methods *, *, * Sum of Truth, Indeterminacy and Falsity Membership Function

Neutrosophic Goal TWT WT A1 , A2 IWT WT A1 , A2 FWT WT A1 , A2


programming * .1814422
(GNGP) * .2191435 .2191435 .1804043 .1406661 .5402139
w1 0.4, w2 0.3, w3 0.7 * .6013477 T A1 , A2 I A1 , A2 F A1 , A2
.2297068 .1804043 .1655628 .5756739

Generalized Neu-
tosophic optimiza- * .2191435 TWT WT A1 , A2 IWT WT A1 , A2 FWT WT A1 , A2
tion (GNGP) based * .2191435
on Arithmetic .2191435 .1804044 .1406662 .5402141
Aggregation * .6013480 T A1 , A2 I A1 , A2 F A1 , A2
w1 0.4, w2 0.3, w3 0.7
.2297068 .1804044 .1655629 .5756741

Generalized Neu- * .3075145 TWT WT A1 , A2 IWT WT A1 , A2 FWT WT A1 , A2


tosophic optimiza- * .3075145
tion (GNGP) based .3075145 .0922543 .07193320 .471702
on Geometric Ag- * .3075145 T A1 , A2 I A1 , A2 F A1 , A2
gregation
w1 0.4, w2 0.3, w2 0.7 .3129163 .09225434 .08466475 .48983539

From the above table it is clear that all the objective The sum of truth,indeterminacy and falsity membership
functions attained their goals as well as restriction of truth, function for each objective is less than sum of
indeterminacy and falsity membership function in neutros- gradiation w1 w2 w3 . Hence the criteria of generalized
ophic goal programming problem based on different
neutrosophic set is satisfied.
aggregation operator.

Mridula Sarkar,Samir Dey,Tapan Kumar Roy, Multi-Objective Structural Design Optimization using Neutrosophic Goal
Programming Technique
Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017 17

7. Conclusions [10] Ji, P., Wang, J., Zhang, H. Frank prioritized Bonferroni
mean operator with single-valued neutrosophic sets and its
The research study investigates that neutrosophic goal application in selecting third party logistics, Neural
programming can be utilized to optimize a nonlinear Computing and Applications, DOI: 10.1007/s00521-016-
structural problem. . The results obtained for different 2660-6, (2016).
aggregation method of the undertaken problem show that [11] Yu ,S., Wang, J., Wang, J-q., An extended TODIM approach
the best result is achieved using geometric aggregation with intuitionistic linguistic numbers, International
method. The concept of neutrosophic optimization Transactions in Operational Research, DOI:
technique allows one to define a degree of truth 10.1111/itor.12363, (2016).
membership, which is not a complement of degree of [12] Tian ,Z-p., Wang ,J., Wang ,J-q., Zhang ,H-y., Simplified
falsity; rather, they are independent with degree of neutrosophic linguistic multi-criteria group decision-making
indeterminacy. As we have considered a non-linear three approach to green product development, Group Decision and
Negotiation, DOI: 10.1007/s10726-016-9479-5, (2016)..
bar truss design problem and find out minimum weight of
[13] Peng, J-j., Wang, J-q., Yang, W.-E. A multi-valued
the structure as well as minimum deflection of loaded joint, neutrosophic qualitative flexible approach based on
the results of this study may lead to the development of likelihood for multi-criteria decision-making problems,
effective neutrosophic technique for solving other model of International Journal of Systems Science, Vol. 48, Issue 2,
nonlinear programming problem in different field. (2017), 425-435.
[14] Zhang, H., Ji, P., Wang, J., Chen, X., A novel decision sup-
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Solving Multi-objective Structural Problem. International Industrial Application of Linear Programming. (1961).
Journal of Engineering and Manufacturing, Vol.4,Issue.5, [18] Zimmermann, H.L., Fuzzy Programming and Linear
(2014), 24. Programming with several Objective Function. Fuzzy Sets
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model with imprecise coefficient by parametric geometric [19] Parvathi, R., & Malathi, C. Intuitionistic Fuzzy Linear
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(2015), 407-418. Journal, Vol. 17, Issue.2, (2012), 1802-1807.
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2672-2, (2016).
Received: January 10, 2017. Accepted: February 3, 2017.

Mridula Sarkar,Samir Dey,Tapan Kumar Roy, Multi-Objective Structural Design Optimization using Neutrosophic Goal
Programming Technique
Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017 18

University of New Mexico

Topological Manifold Space via Neutrosophic Crisp Set


Theory
A.A. Salama1 Hewayda, ElGhawalby2 and Shimaa Fathi Ali3
1
Port Said University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Egypt. drsalama44@gmail.com
2
Port Said University, Faculty of Engineering, Physics and Engineering Mathematics Department , Egypt . hewayda2011@eng.psu.edu.eg
3
Port Said University, Faculty of Engineering, Physics and Engineering Mathematics Department , Egypt . Shaimaa_ f_a@eng.psu.edu.eg

Abstract. In this paper, we introduce and study a neutro- some new topological concepts and some metric distances
sophic crisp manifold as a new topological structure of on a neutrosophic crisp manifold.
manifold via neutrosophic crisp set. Therefore, we study

Keywords: neutrosophic crisp manifold, neutrosophic crisp coordinate chart, neutrosophic crisp Haussdorff, neutrosophic crisp
countable, neutrosophic crisp basis, neutrosophic crisp Homeomorphism, neutrosophic locally compact.

1 Introduction Definition 2.1:


Neutrosophics found their places into contemporary
Let =< 1 , 2 , 3 > be a neutrosophic crisp set on a set
research; we have introduced the notions of neutrosophic
crisp sets, neutrosophic crisp point and neutrosophic X, then
topology on crisp sets.
p =< {1 }, {2 }, {3 } > , 1 2 3 is called a
We presented some new topological concepts and
properties on neutrosophic crisp topology. A manifold is neutrosophic crisp point.
a topological space that is locally Euclidean and around
every point there is a neighborhood that is topologically the A NCP p =< {1 }, {2 }, {3 } > belongs to a neutrosophic
same as the open unit in . crisp set
The aim of this paper is to build a new manifold
topological structure called neutrosophic crisp manifold as =< 1 , 2 , 3 > of X denoted by if it defined by:
a generalization of manifold topological space by {1 } 1 , {2 } 2 and{3 } 3 .
neutrosophic crisp point and neutrosophic crisp topology
and present some new topological concepts on a neutro- Definition 2.2:
sophic crisp manifold space.
Also, we study some metric distances on a neutrosophic A neutrosophic crisp topology (NCT) on a non empty set X
crisp manifold. is a family of of neutrosophic crisp subsets in X satisfying
The paper is structured as follows: in Section 2, we
introduce preliminary definitions of the neutrosophic crisp the following axioms:
point and neutrosophic crisp topology; in Section 3, some i. , X
new topological concepts on neutrosophic crisp topology
are presented and defined; in Section 4, we propose some ii. 1 2 1 , 2
topological concepts on neutrosophic crisp manifold space;
Section 5 introduces some metric distances on a iii. { }
neutrosophic crisp manifold. Finally, our future work is
presented in conclusion. Then (, ) is called a neutrosophic crisp topological
space (NCTS) in X and the elements in are called
2 Terminologies [1, 2, 4] neutrosophic crisp open sets (NCOSs).
We recollect some relevant basic preliminaries.

A.A. Salama, Hewayda ElGhawalby and Shimaa Fathi Ali, Topological Manifold Space via Neutrosophic Crisp Set Theory
Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017 19

3 Neutrosophic Crisp Topological Manifold 4. (NCM) is neutrosophic crisp Locally Euclidean of


dimension n.
Spaces [2, 5, 4, 7]
We give the terminology ( ) to mean that it is a
We present and study the following new topological
neutrosophic crisp manifold of dimension .
concepts about the new neutrosophic crisp topological
manifold Space.
The following graph represents the neutrosophic
Definition 3.1: crisp topological manifold space as a
generalization of topological manifold space:
A neutrosophic crisp topological space (, ) is a
neutrosophic crisp Haussdorff (NCH ) if for each two

neutrosophic crisp points p =< {1 }, {2 }, {3 } > and

q =< {1 }, {2 }, {3 } > in X such that there exist
Haussdorff Second Countable Locally Euclidean
neutrosophic crisp open sets U =< 1 , 2 , 3 > and V =<

1 , 2 , 3 > such that p in U, q in V and = .
Definition 3.2: Neutrosophic crisp Haussdorff Neutrosophic crisp Countable
Neutrosophic crisp Locally Euclidean
is collection of neutrosophic crisp open sets in (, )
is said to be neutrosophic crisp base of neutrosophic crisp
topology (NCT) if = .
Figure 3.1 A graph of generalization of topological manifold space
Definition 3.3:
Neutrosophic crisp topology (, ) is countable if it
4 Some New Topological Concepts on NCM
has neutrosophic crisp countable basis for neutrosophic
crisp topology, i.e. there exist a countable collection of Space [2, 3, 4, 6, 8]
neutrosophic crisp open set { } =< 11 , 12 , 13 >, <
The neutrosophic crisp set U and map () in the
21 , 22 , 23 >, . . , < 1 , 2 , 3 > such that for any
Definition 3.5 of neutrosophic crisp Locally Euclidean is
neutrosophic crisp open set U containing a crisp
called a neutrosophic crisp coordinate chart.
neutrosophic point p in U, there exist a such that
.
Definition 4.1:
Definition 3.4:
A neutrosophic crisp coordinate chart on ( ) is a pair
Neutrosophic crisp homeomorphism is a bijective (, ())where U in ( ) is open and : ()
mapping of NCTs (, 1 ) onto NCTs (, 2 ) is called a is a neutrosophic crisp homeomorphism, and then the
neutrosophic crisp homeomorphism if it is neutrosophic neutrosophic crisp set U is called a neutrosophic crisp
crisp continuous and neutrosophic crisp open. coordinate domain or a neutrosophic crisp coordinate
neighborhood.
Definition 3.5: A neutrosophic crisp coordinate chart (, ()) is centered
Neutrosophic crisp topology is neutrosophic crisp at if
Locally Euclidean of dimension if for each neutrosophic () = 0
crisp point p =< {1 }, {2 }, {3 } > in X, there exist a crisp ()
neutrosophic crisp open set U =< 1 , 2 , 3 > and a map is a ball in .
: such that : () () =< Definition 4.1.1:
(1 ), (2 ), (3 ) > is a homeomorphism; in particular
() is neutrosophic crisp open set of . A Ball in neutrosophic crisp topology is an open ball
We define a neutrosophic crisp topological manifold (, , ) , r is radius
(NCM) as follows: 0 1 , 0 < < .

Definition 3.6: Theorem 4.1:


(NCM) is a neutrosophic crisp topological manifold Every NCM has a countable basis of .
space if the following conditions together satisfied Theorem 4.2:
1. (NCM) is satisfying neutrosophic crisp topology In ( ) every neutrosophic crisp point = (<
axioms. {1 }, {2 }, {3 } >) ( ) is contained in neutrosophic
2. (NCM) is neutrosophic crisp Haussdorff. coordinate ball centered at if:
3. (NCM) is countable neutrosophic crisp topology.

A.A. Salama, Hewayda ElGhawalby and Shimaa Fathi Ali, Topological Manifold Space via Neutrosophic Crisp Set Theory
20 Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017

( 1 (()), ( 1 (()))) Definition 4.4:


and then if we compose with a translating we must get Every neutrosophic point has a neutrosophic neigh-
= () = 0. borhood contained in a neutrosophic compact set is called
neutrosophic locally compact set.
Proof: Since ( ) neutrosophic crisp Locally Euclidean,
p must be contained in a coordinate chart(, ()). Since Corollary:
() is a neutrosophic crisp open set containing(), by Every NCM is neutrosophic locally compact set.
the NCT of there must be an open ball B containing
() and contained in(). The appropriate coordinate
ball is ( 1 (()), ( 1 (()))) . Compose with a 5 Some Metric Distances on a Neutrosophic Crisp
Manifold [10, 9]
translation taking () to 0 , then = () = 0, we have
completed the proof. 5.1. Haussdorff Distance between Two Neutrosophic Crisp
Sets on NCM:
Theorem 4. 3:
Let =< 1 , 2 , 3 > and =< 1 , 2 , 3 > two
The neutrosophic crisp graph () of a continuous neutrosophic crisp sets on NCM then the Haussdorff
function: , distance between A and B is
where , is NCM. (, ) = (( , ), ( , ))
() = {(, ()) : } ( , ) =
Proof: Obvious. | | , ,
Example: Spheres are NCM. An n-sphere is defined as: 5.2. Modified Haussdorff Distance between Two
2
= { +1 : ||2 = 1 2 + 2 2 + 3 2 = 1} . Neutrosophic Crisp Sets on NCM:
Definition 4.2: Let =< 1 , 2 , 3 > and =< 1 , 2 , 3 > two neu-
trosophic crisp sets on NCM then the Haussdorff distance
Every neutrosophic crisp point p has a neutrosophic crisp between A and B is
neighborhood point NCbd contained in an open ball B.
(, ) =
Definition 4.3: 1
[(( , ), ( , ))],
Here come the basic definitions first.
Let (, ) be a NCTS. ( , ) = | | , , .
a) If a family{< 1 , 2 , 3 >: } of NCOSs in
Conclusion and Future Work
X satisfies the condition {< 1 , 2 , 3 >:
} = then it is called a neutrosophic open cover In this paper, we introduced and studied the neutrosophic
of X. crisp manifold as a new topological structure of manifold
b) A finite subfamily of an open cover {< via neutrosophic crisp set, and some new topological con-
1 , 2 , 3 >: } on X, which is also a neutro- cepts on a neutrosophic crisp manifold space via neutro-
sophic open cover of X is called a neutrosophic finite sophic crisp set, and also some metric distances on a neutro-
sophic crisp manifold. Future work will approach neutro-
subcover { < 1 , 2 , 3 >: }.
sophic fuzzy manifold, a new topological structure of man-
c) A family {< 1 , 2 , 3 >: } of NCOSs in X ifold via neutrosophic fuzzy set, and some new topological
satisfies the finite intersection property [FIP] iff concepts on a neutrosophic fuzzy manifold space via neu-
every finite subfamily {< 1 , 2 , 3 >: = trosophic fuzzy set.
1, 2, , } of the family satisfies the condition:
{< 1 , 2 , 3 >: } .
d) A NCTS (, ) is called a neutrosophic crisp com- References
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a finite subcover. Crisp Ideals Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 1, pp. 50-
54, 2013.
Corollary: 2. A.A Salama, F. Smarandache, V. Kroumov. Neutrosophic
Crisp Sets & Neutrosophic Crisp Topological Spaces, Neu-
A NCTS (, ) is a neutrosophic crisp compact iff every trosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 2, pp. 25-30, 2014.
family { < 1 , 2 , 3 >: } of NCCS in X having the 3. A. A Salama, S. Broumi, F. Smarandache. Neutrosophic
FIP has non-empty intersection. Crisp Open Sets and Neutrosophic Crisp Continuity via
Neutrosophic Crisp Ideals, I.j. Information Engineering and
Electronic Business, Vol. 6, pp.1-8, 2014.

A.A. Salama, Hewayda ElGhawalby and Shimaa Fathi Ali, Topological Manifold Space via Neutrosophic Crisp Set Theory
Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017 21

4. A. A Salama and F. Smarandache. Neutrosophic Crisp Set 7. Lee, John M. Smooth Manifolds Introduction to Smooth
Theory. USA Book, Educational. Education Publishing Manifolds, Springer New York, pp.1-29, 2003.
1313 Chesapeake, Avenue, Coiumbus, Ohio, 43212, USA, 8. Jenny Wilson. Manifolds WOMP, 2012.
2015. 9. M., and Jain, A. A Modified Haussdorff Distance for Object
5. A. A Salama, F. Smarandache, S. A Alblowi. New Neutro- Matching Dubuisson,Vol.1, pp. 566568, 1994.
sophic Crisp Topological Concepts, Neutrosophic Sets and 10.Haussdorff, F. Grundzge der Mengenlehre, Leipzig: Veit
Systems, Vol. 4, pp. 50-54, 2014. and Company, 1914.
6. Chow, Bennett, Glickenstein, et al. The Ricci flow: tech-
niques and applications, American Mathematical Society,
No. 135, 2010. Received: January 13, 2017. Accepted: February 5, 2017.

A.A. Salama, Hewayda ElGhawalby and Shimaa Fathi Ali, Topological Manifold Space via Neutrosophic Crisp Set Theory
Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017 22

University of New Mexico

Neutrosophic Graphs of Finite Groups


T.Chalapathi 1 and R. V M S S Kiran Kumar 2

1
Assistant Professor, Department of Mathematics, Sree Vidyanikethan Eng.College Tirupati,-517502, Andhra Pradesh, India.
Email: chalapathi.tekuri@gmail.com
2
Research Scholar, Department of Mathematics, S.V.University, Tirupati,-517502, Andhra Pradesh, India. Email: kksaisiva@gmail.com

Abstract: Let G be a finite multiplicative group with graph of diameter less than or equal to 2. Moreover, for
identity e and N (G ) be the Neutrosophic group with finite group G , we obtain a formula for enumerating

Ne G, I , the basic Neutrosophic triangles Ne G, I .


in
indeterminate I . We denote by
Furthermore, for every finite groups G and G , we
Neutrosophic graph of G , N (G ) and I . In this paper,
show that G G if and only if N (G ) N (G ) ,
we study the graph Ne G, I and its properties.
and if N (G ) N (G) , then Ne G, I Ne G, I .
Among the results, it is shown that for any finite
multiplicative group G , Ne G, I is a connected

Keywords: Indeterminacy; Finite Multiplicative group; Neutrosophic Group; Basic Neutrosophic triangle; Neutrosophic group
and graph isomorphism.

1 Introduction intuitionistic Fuzzy set theory, rough set theory,


paradoxist set theory [2-5]. Finally, all above theories
Most of the real world problems in the fields of
contributed to explained uncertainty and inconsistency
philosophy, physics, statistics, finance, robotics, design
up to certain extent in real world problems. None of the
theory, coding theory, knot theory, engineering, and
above theories were not studied the properties of
information science contain subtle uncertainty and
indeterminacy of the real world problems in our daily
inconsistent, which causes complexity and difficulty in
life. To analyze and determine the existence of
solving these problems. Conventional methods failed
indeterminacy in various real world problems, the
to handle and estimate uncertainty in the real world
author Smarandache [6] introduced philosophical
problems with near tendency of the exact value. The
theory such as Neutrosophic theory in 1990.
determinacy of uncertainty in the real world problems
Neutrosophic theory is a specific branch of
have been great challenge for the scientific community,
philosophy, which investigates percentage of
technological people, and quality control of products in
Truthfulness, falsehood and neutrality of the real world
the industry for several years. However, different
problem. It is a generalization of Fuzzy set theory and
models or methods were presented systematically to
intuitionistic Fuzzy set theory. This theory is
estimate the uncertainty of the problems by various
considered as complete representation of a
incorporated computational systems and algebraic
mathematical model of a real world problem.
systems. To estimate the uncertainty in any system of
Consequently, if uncertainty is involved in a problem
the real world problems, first attempt was made by the
we use Fuzzy set theory, and if indertminancy is
Lotfi A Zadesh [1] with help of Fuzzy set theory in
involved in a problem we essential Neutrosophic
1965. Fuzzy set theory is very powerful technique to
theory.
deal and describe the behavior of the systems but it is
Kandasamy and Smarandache [7] introduced the
very difficult to define exactly. Fuzzy set theory helps
philosophical algebraic structures, in particular,
us to reduce the errors of failures in modeling and
Neutrosophic algebraic structures with illustrations and
different fields of life. In order to define system
examples in 2006 and initiated the new way for the
exactly, by using Fuzzy set theory many authors were
emergence of a new class of structures, namely,
modified, developed and generalized the basic theories
Neutrosophic groupoids, Neutrosophic groups,
of classical algebra and modern algebra. Along with
Neutrosophic rings etc. According to these authors, the
Fuzzy set theory there are other different theories have
Neutrosophic algebraic structures N(I) was a nice
been study the properties of uncertainties in the real
composition of indeterminate I and the elements of a
world problems, such as probability theory,

T.Chalapathi, R. V M S S Kiran Kumar, Neutrosophic graphs of finite groups


Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017 23

given algebraic structure ( N , ) . In particular, the new In the fourth section, we introduced basic
algebraic structure ( N ( I ), ) is called Neutrosophic Neutrosophic triangles in the graph Ne G, I and

algebraic structure which is generated by N and I . obtained a formula for enumerating basic Neutrosophic
In [8], Agboola and others have studied some triangles in Ne G, I to understand the internal
properties of Neutrosophic group and subgroup. mutual relations between the elements in G, I and N
Neutrosophic group denoted by N (G ), and defined (G).
In the last section, all finite isomorphic groups
by N (G ) G I , where G is a group with respect
G and G such that N (G ) N (G) and
to multiplication. These authors also shown that all
Neutrosophic groups generated by the Neutrosophic Ne G, I Ne G, I are characterized with examples.
element I and any group isomorphic to Klein 4-group Throughout this paper, all groups are assumed to
are Lagrange Neutrosophic groups. be finite multiplicative groups with identity e . Let
Recent research in Neutrosophic algebra has N (G ) be a Neutrosophic group generated by G and
concerned developing a graphical representation of the
I . For classical theorems and notations in algebra and
elements of a given finite Neutrosophic set, and then
Neutrosophic algebra, the interest reader is refereed to
graph theoretically developing and analyzing the
[11] and [8].
depiction to research Neutrosophic algebraic
conclusions about the finite Neutrosophic set. The most Let X be a graph with vertex set V ( X ) and edge
well-known of these models is the Neutrosophic graph set E ( X ) . The cardinality of V ( X ) and E ( X ) are
of Neutrosophic set, first it was introduced by
Kandasamy and Smarandache [9]. denoted by V ( X ) and E ( X ) , which are order and
Recently, the authors Kandasamy and size of X , respectively. If X is connected, then there
Smarandache in [9-10] have introduced Neutrosophic
exist a path between any two vertices in X . We denote
graphs, Neutrosophic edge graphs and Neutrosophic
vertex graphs, respectively. If the edge values are from by K n the complete graph of order n . Let u V ( X ) .
the set G I they will termed as Neutrosophic Then degree of u , deg(u ) in X is the number of
graphs, and a Neutrosophic graph is a graph in which at edges incident at u . If deg(u ) 1 then the vertex u is
least one edge is indeterminacy. Let V (G ) be the set called pendent. The girth of X is the length of smallest
of all vertices of G . If the edge set E (G ) , where at cycle in X . The girth of X is infinite if X has no
least one of the edges of G is an indeterminate one. cycle. Let d( x, y ) be the length of the shortest path
Then we call such graphs as a Neutrosophic edge from two vertices x and y in X , and the diameter of
graphs. Further, a Neutrosophic vertex graph GN is a X denoted by
graph G with finite non empty set VN VN (G ) of Diam( X ) max{d ( x, y ) : x, y V ( X )} .
p points where at least one of the point in VN (G ) is For further details about graph theory the reader should
see [12].
indeterminate vertex. Here VN (G ) V (G ) N ,
2 Basic Properties of Neutrosophic set and
where V (G ) are vertices of the graph G and N the
GI
non empty set of vertices which are indeterminate.
In the present paper, indeterminacy of the real This section will present a few basic concepts of
world problems are expressed as mathematical model Neutrosophic set and Neutrosophic group that will then
in the form of new algebraic structure GI , , and its be used repeatedly in further sections, and it will
introduce a convenient notations. A few illustrations
properties are studied in second section, where G is and examples will appear in later sections.
finite group with respect to multiplication and I Neutrosophic set is a mathematical tool for
indeterminacy of the real world problems. handling real world problems involving imprecise,
In the third section, to find the relation between G, inconsistent data and indeterminacy; also it generalizes
I and N (G) we introduced Neutrosophic the concept of the classic set, fuzzy set, rough set etc.
graph Ne G, I of the Neutrosophic group N (G ), , According to authors Vasantha Kandasamy and
Smarandache, the Neutrosophic set is a nice
by studying its important concrete properties of these
graphs. composition of an algebraic set and indeterminate
element of the real world problem.

T.Chalapathi, R. V M S S Kiran Kumar, Neutrosophic graphs of finite groups


24 Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017

Let N be a non-empty set and I be an Proof. For any finite group G , we have G GI and
indeterminate. Then the set N ( I ) N I is called GI G . Now define a map f : G GI by the
relation f ( a ) aI for every a I . Let a, b G .
a Neutrosophic set generated by N and I .If is
Then
usual multiplication in N , then I has the following
axioms. a b a b 0 ( a b) I 0 I
1. 0 I 0 aI bI f (a ) f (b) .This shows that f is a
2. 1 I I I 1 well defined one-one function. Further, we have
3. I I
2
Range( f ) f (a) GI : a G
4. a I I a , for every a N .
aI GI : a G GI .
5. I 1 does not exist.
This show that for every aI GI at least one
For the definition, notation and basic properties of a G such that f (a ) aI .
Neutrosophic group, we refer the reader to Agbool [8].
As treated in [8], we shall denote the finite Therefore, f : G GI is one-one correspondence
Neutrosophic group by N (G ) for a group G . and consequently a bijective function. Hence G GI .
Definition 2.1 Let G be any finite group with respect Lemma 2.5 Let G be any finite group with respect to
to multiplication. Then the set GI defined as multiplication and let N (G ) G I . Then the
GI gI : g G Ig : g G . order of N (G ) is 2 G .
Definition 2.2 If a map f from a finite nonempty
Proof: We GI gI : g G .
have
set S into a finite nonempty set S is both one-one and
Obviously, GI G and G GI but GI N (G ) .
onto then there exist a map g from S into S that is
also one-one and onto. In this case we say that the two It is clear that N (G ) is the disjoint union of
sets are equivalent, and, abstractly speaking, these sets G and GI .That is,
can be regarded as the same cardinality. We write N (G ) G GI and G GI .
S ~ S whenever there is a one-one map of a set
S onto S . Therefore, N (G ) G GI 2G ,
Two finite rings R and R are equivalent if since G GI .
there is a one-one correspondence between R and R .
Lemma 2.6 The set GI is not Neutrosophic group with
We write R ~ R .
respect to multiplication of group G .
Definition 2.3 Let G be any finite group with respect
to multiplication and let N (G ) G I .Then
Proof: It is obvious, since GI GI .
Lemma 2.7 The elements in GI satisfies the following
N (G), is called a Neutrosophic group generated properties,
by G and I under the binary operation on G . The 1. e gI gI
Neutrosophic group N (G ) has the following gI g2I
2
2.
properties.
1. N (G ) is not a group. 3. gI gI ... gI g n I for all positive integers
2. G N (G ) . n terms
n.
3. GI N (G ) .
gI
1 1
4. does not exist, since I does not ex-
4. N (G ) is a specific composition of G and I .
ist.
Lemma 2.4 Let G be any finite group with respect to 5. gI g I g g .
multiplication and I I . Then
2
G GI . In Proof: Directly follows from the results of the
particular, G GI . group N (G), .

T.Chalapathi, R. V M S S Kiran Kumar, Neutrosophic graphs of finite groups


Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017 25

Theorem 2.8 The structure GI , is a monoid under Definition 3.1 A graph Ne G, I associated with
the operation ( aI )(bI ) abI for all a , b in the group Neutrosophic group N (G), is undirected simple
G, and I 2
I. graph whose vertex set is N (G ) and two vertices
Proof: We know that GI gI : g G . x and y in N (G ) if and only if xy is either x or y .
Let aI , bI and cI be any three elements in GI . Then Theorem 3.2 For any group G, , the Neutrosophic
the binary operation
graph Ne G, I is connected.
(aI )(bI ) abI in GI , satisfies the following
Proof: Let e be the identity element in G .Then
axioms.
e N (G ) , since G N (G ) . Further, xe x , for
1. abI GI (aI )(bI ) GI .
every x e in N (G ) . It is clear that the vertex e is
2. (aI )(bI ) (cI ) (ab) I (cI ) adjacent to all other vertices of the graph Ne G, I .
(ab)c) I a(bc)) I aI (bI )(cI )
Hence Ne G, I is connected.
3. Let e be the identity element in G, .Then
Theorem 3.3 Let G 1 .Then the graph has at least
eI I Ie and
one cycle of length 3.
I (aI ) aI 2 aI (aI ) I .
Proof: Since G 1 implies that N (G) 4 . So
Remark 2.9 The structure GI , is never a group there is at least one vertex gI of N (G ) such that
1
because I does not exist.
gI is adjacent to the vertices e and I in
Here we obtain lower bounds and upper bounds of the Ne G, I ,since eI I , I ( gI ) gI 2 gI and
order of the Neutrosophic group N (G ) . Moreover,
( gI )e geI gI . Hence we have the cycle
these bounds are sharp.
e I gI e of length 3, where g e .
Theorem 2.10 Let G be a finite group with respect to Example 3.4 Since
multiplication. Then, N (G10 ) 2, 4, 6, 8, 2 I , 4 I , 6 I , 8I
1 G n 2 N (G) 2n . is the Neutrosophic group of the group
Proof. We have, G10 2, 4, 6, 8 with respect to multiplication
G 1 G {e} N (G ) G GI {e, I }
modulo 10, where e 6 .The Neutrosophic graph
N (G) 2 . This is one extreme of the required Ne G10 , I contains three cycles of length 3, which
inequality. For other extreme, by the Lemma [2.4], are listed below.
G 1 GI 1 C1 : 6 I 2 I 6 ,
G GI 2 and G GI is not odd C2 : 6 I 4 I 6 ,
G GI is even. C3 6 I 8I 8 .
N (G) G GI 2n . Theorem 3.5 The Neutrosophic graph Ne G, I is
Hence, the theorem. complete if and only if G 1.
3 Basic Properties of Neutrosophic Graph Proof: Necessity. Suppose that Ne G, I is

In this section, our aim is to introduce the notion complete. If possible assume that G 1 , then
and definition of Neutrosophic graph of finite
Neutrosophic group with respect to multiplication and N (G) 4 . So without loss of generality we may
study on its basic and specific properties such as
connectedness, completeness, bipartite, order, size, assume that N (G) 4 and clearly the vertices
number of pendent vertices, girth and diameter.

T.Chalapathi, R. V M S S Kiran Kumar, Neutrosophic graphs of finite groups


26 Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017

e, g , I , gI V Ne(G, I ) .Therefore the vertex Theorem [3.7], the total number of edges in

g is not adjacent to the vertex I in Ne G, I , since Ne G, I is


1
2

2 G 2 G 1 G 2 G 1 ,
gI g or I for each g e in G , this contradicts our but in view of Theorem [3.6], we arrived a

assumption that Ne G, I is complete. It follows that contradiction to the completeness of Ne G, I .


N (G ) cannot be four. Further, if N (G) 4 , then Theorem 3.9 The graph Ne G, I has exactly

obviously we arrive a contradiction. So our assumption G 1 pendent vertices.


is wrong , and hence G 1. Proof: Since N (G ) G GI and G GI .
Sufficient. Suppose that G 1 . Then, trivially Let x N (G ) . Then either x G or x GI . Now

Ne G, I K 2
consider the following cases on GI and G ,
N (G) 2 .Therefore, , since
respectively.
eI I . Hence, Ne G, I is a complete graph. Case 1. If x GI , then x gI for g G . But

Recall that V Ne(G, I ) is the order and


xI ( gI ) I gI 2 gI x and ex egI
gI x . This implies that the vertex x is adjacent to
E Ne(G, I ) is the size of the Neutrosophic graph
both the vertices e and I in N (G ) .Hence
Ne G, I . But, deg( x) 1 for every x GI .
V Ne(G, I ) N (G) 2 G Case 2. If x G , then ex x ,for every x e and
egI gI , for every gI GI . Therefore
and the following theorem shows that the size of
Ne G, I . deg(e) N (G) 1 1 . Now show that
Theorem 3.6 The size of Neutrosophic graph deg( x) 1 , for every x e in G . Suppose,
Ne G, I is 3 G 2 . deg( x) 1 , for every x e in G . Then there exist
Proof: By the definition of Neutrosophic graph, another vertex y e in G such that either
Ne G, I contains 2 G 1
2
non adjacent pairs.
xy x or y , this is not possible in G , because G is
a finite multiplication group. Thus deg( x) 1 , for
But the number of combinations of any two distinct
x e in G .
N (G ) From case (1) and (2), we found the degree of
pairs from N (G ) is . Hence the total
2 each non identity vertex in G is 1. This shows that each
and every non identity element in G is a pendent
number of adjacent pairs in Ne G, I is
vertex in Ne G, I . Hence, the total number of

N (G ) pendent vertices in Ne G, I is G 1 .
E Ne(G, I ) 2 G 1
2

2 The following result shows that Ne G, I is


3 G 2. never a traversal graph.

Theorem 3.7 [11] The size of a simple complete graph


Corollary 3.10 Let G 1 . Then Ne G, I is never
1 Eulerian and never Hamiltonian.
of order n is n(n 1) . Proof. It is obvious from the Theorem [3.9].
2 Theorem 3.11 [11] A simple graph is bipartite if and
Corollary 3.8 The Neutrosophic graph Ne G, I , only it does not have any odd cycle.
Theorem 3.12 The Neutrosophic graph Ne G, I ,
G 1 is never complete.
Proof: Suppose on contrary that G 1 is never bipartite.
Ne G, I , G 1 is complete. Then, by the

T.Chalapathi, R. V M S S Kiran Kumar, Neutrosophic graphs of finite groups


Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017 27

Proof. Assume that G 1. Suppose, Ne G, I is Let us denote a traingle by ( x, y , z ) in Ne G, I with

a bipartite graph. Then there exist a bipartition vertices x, y and z . Without loss of generality we

G, GI , since N (G ) G GI and G GI . may assume that our triangles (e, I , gI ) have vertices
e , I and gI , where g e in G . These triangles are
But e G and I GI , where e I . So there exist
called basic Neutrosophic triangles in Ne G, I , which
at least one vertex gI in Ne G, I such that
are defined as follows.
e I gI e is an odd cycle of length 3 because Definition 4.1 A triangle in the graph Ne G, I is
eI I , I ( gI ) gI and ( gI )e gI . said to be basic Neutrosophic if it has the common
This violates the condition of the Theorem [3.11]. vertices e and I .The set of all basic Neutrosophic
Hence Ne G, I is not a bipartite graph. triangles in Ne G, I denoted by
Theorem 3.13 The girth of a Neutrosophic graph is 3.
TeI (e, I , gI ) : g e in G .
Proof. In view of Theorem [3.3], for G 1 , we
always have a cycle e I gI e of length 3, for each A triangle ( x, y , z ) in Ne G, I is called non-basic
g e in G , which is smallest in Ne G, I . Neutrosophic if ( x, y, z ) TeI .
This completes the proof. The following short table illustrates some
Remark 3.14 Let G be a finite group with respect to finite Neutrosophic graphs and their total number of
basic Neutrosophic triangles.
multiplication. Then gir ( Ne(G, I )) if G 1 ,
since Ne G, I is acyclic graph if and only if G 1 . Ne G, I Ne Z *p , I Ne Cn , I Ne G2 p , I Ne V4 , I

Theorem 3.15 Diam ( Ne(G , I )) 2 .


Proof. Let G be a finite group with respect to TeI p2 n 1 p2 3
multiplication. Then we consider the following two
cases.
where Z *p Z p 0 is a group with respect to
Case 1 Suppose G 1 . The graph Ne G, I K 2 .
multiplication modulo p , a prime,
It follows thatNe G, I is complete, so Cn 1, g , g 2 ,..., g n1 : g n 1
diam ( Ne(G, I )) 1 . is a cyclic group generated by g with respect to
Case 2 Suppose G 1 . Then the vertex e is adjacent
multiplication,
G2 p 0, 2, 4,..., 2( p 1)
to every vertex of Ne G, I . However the vertex is a group with respect to multiplication modulo 2p and
aI is not adjacent to bI for all a b in G , so V4 e, a, b, c : a 2 b2 c 2 e
d ( aI , bI ) 1 . But in Ne G, I , there always exist is a Klein 4-group.
Before we continue, it is important to note that
a path aI I bI , since (aI ) I aI and the multiplicative identity e may differ from group to
I (bI ) bI , which gives d (aI , bI ) 2 , for every group. However, for simplicity sake we will continue
to notate that e 1 , and we leave it to reader to
aI , bI N (G ) .
understand from context of the group for e .
Hence, both the cases conclude that: The following results give information about
Diam ( Ne(G, I )) 2 . enumeration of basic and non-basic Neutrosophic
triangles in the graph Ne G, I .
4 Enumeration of basic Neutrosophic trian-
First we begin a lemma, which gives a
gles in Ne G, I formula for enumerating the number of Neutrosophic
triangles in Ne G, I corresponding to fixed elements
Since Ne G, I is triangle free graph for G 1 , we
e and I in the Neutrosophic set N (G ) .
will consider G 1 in this section.

T.Chalapathi, R. V M S S Kiran Kumar, Neutrosophic graphs of finite groups


28 Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017

This is useful for finding the total number of


non-basic Neutrosophic triangles in Ne G, I . 5 Isomorphic properties of Neutrosophic
groups and graphs
Theorem 4.2 Let G 1 . Then the total number of basic
In this section we consider important concepts
Neutrosophic triangles in Ne G, I is TeI G 1. known as isomorphism of groups and Neutrosophic
Proof. Since N (G ) G GI and G GI . It groups. But the notion of isomorphism is common to
all aspects of modern algebra [14] and Neutrosophic
is clear that e I . For any aI GI , the traid algebra. An isomorphism of groups and Neutrosophic
(e, I , aI ) TeI (e, I ), (e, aI ), and ( I , aI ) are groups are maps which preserves operations and
structures. More precisely we have the following
edges in Ne G, I definitions which we make for finite groups and
eI I , e(aI ) aI , I (aI ) aI Neutrosophic finite groups.
Definition.5.1 Two finite groups G and G are said
I , aI GI , where a e in G . to be isomorphic if there is a one-one correspondence
That is, for fixed vertices e , I and for each aI GI , f : G G such that f (ab) f (a ) f (b) for all
the traid (e, I , aI ) exists in Ne G, I . Further, for a, b G and we write G G .
any vertex a G ,the vertices e , I and a does not Now we proceed on to define isomorphism of
form a triangle in Ne G, I because ( I , a ) is not an
finite Neutrosophic groups with distinct indeterminate,
which can be defined over distinct groups with same
edge in Ne G, I , since aI a or I for all ae. binary operation. We can establish two main results.
1. Two groups are isomorphic and their Neutro-
So that the total number of triangles having common sophic groups are also isomorphic.
verities e and I in Ne G, I is 2. If two Neutrosophic groups are isomorphic,
then their Neutrosophic graphs are also iso-
TeI N (G) G 1 morphic.

2 G G 1 G 1 . Definition 5.2 Let G, and G, be two finite


Theorem 4.3 The total number of non-basic groups and let I I be two indeterminates of two
Neutrosophic triangles in Ne G, I is zero. distinct real world problems. The Neutrosophic groups
Proof. Suppose that two vertices either x, y or y , z or N (G ) G I , and N (G ) G I ,
z , x are not equal to e and I . are isomorphic if there exist a group isomorphism
Then the traid ( x, y , z ) is a non-basic triangle in
from G onto G such that ( I ) I and we
write N (G ) N (G ) .
Ne G, I ( x, y, z ) TeI
Definition 5.3 [13] If there is a one-one
xy x, yz y and zx z mapping a a of the elements of a group G onto
either xyzx x or yzxy y those a group G and if a a and b b implies
or zxyz z . ab ab , then we say that G and G are
This is not possible in the Neutrosophic group N (G ) . isomorphic and write G G . If we put
Thus there is no any non-basic triangle in the a f (a ) and b f (b) for a, b G , then
graph Ne G, I , and hence the total number of non- f : G G is a bijection satisfying

f (ab) a b f (a ) f (b) .
basic Neutrosophic triangles in Ne G, I is zero.
Lemma 5.4 G G N (G ) N (G ) .
In view of Theorems [3.9] and [4.2], the
following theorem is obvious. Proof. Necessity. Suppose G G . Then there exist a
Theorem 4.4 The total number of pendent vertices and group isomorphism from G onto G such
basic Neutrosophic triangles in Ne G, I is same, that ( a ) a for every a G and a G . By the
which is equal to G 1 . definition [12], the relation says that sends ab onto
ab , where a (a ) and b (b) are the elements of

T.Chalapathi, R. V M S S Kiran Kumar, Neutrosophic graphs of finite groups


Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017 29

G one-one corresponding to the elements a , b in G . ( x) ( y ) ( x) xy x


We will prove that N (G ) N (G ) . For this we ( x, y) E Ne(G, I ) .
f : N (G ) N (G ) by the relation
G and G are adjacent in Ne G, I .
define a map
Hence,
f (G ) G , f ( I ) I and f (GI ) G I .
similarly, maps non-adjacent vertices to non-
Suppose x, y N (G ) .
adjacent vertices. Thus, is a Neutrosophic graph
Then either x, y G or x, y GI . Now consider
isomorphism from Ne G, I onto Ne G, I , that
the following two cases.
Case 1 Suppose x, y G . is, Ne G, I Ne G, I .
Then x x and y y . The converse of the Theorem [5.5] is not true,
Trivially, f ( x ) x ( x ) , for every x G and in general. Let G V4 and let G Z5 . Clearly,
*

x G , since G G . Thus, N (G ) N (G) . Ne G, I Ne G, I , but V4 is not isomorphic


Case 2 Suppose x, y GI .
to Z5* .
Then x aI and y bI for a, b G . Obviously, f is
This is illustrated in the following figure.
one-one correspondence between N (G ) and N (G ) ,
since G G and f ( I ) I . Further,
f ( xy ) f (aI )(bI )
f (abI ) abI ,
since f (GI ) G I
(aI )(bI )
f (aI ) f (bI ) f ( x) f ( y ) .
Thus f is a Neutrosophic group isomorphism from
N (G ) onto N (G ) , and hence N (G ) N (G ) .
Sufficiency. It is similar to necessity,
because G I G I implies that G G and
GI GI under the mapping a a
and aI aI , respectively.
Theorem 5.5 If G G , then
Ne G, I Ne G, I , where I I .
But converse is not true.
Proof. Suppose N (G ) G I and Acknowledgments
The authors express their sincere thanks to Prof.L.
N (G ) G I be two different Neutrosophic Nagamuni Reddy and Prof.S.Vijaya Kumar Varma for
groups generated by G , I and G , I , respectively.
his suggestions during the preparation of this paper.
My sincere thanks also goes to Dr. B. Jaya Prakash
Let be an isomorphism from G onto G . Reddy.
Then is one-one correspondence between the
graphs Ne G, I and Ne G, I under the relation References
( x) x forevery x N (G ) and x N (G ) . [1] L.A. Zadeh, Fuzzy sets, Inform and Control. 8 (1965),
338353.
Further to show that preserves the adjacency. For [2] E. T. Jaynes, G. Larry Bretthorst. Probability Theory: The
this let x and y be any two vertices of the graph Logic of Science. Cambridge University Press(2003).
[3] K. Atanassov. More on intuitionistic fuzzy sets, Fuzzy
Ne G, I , then x , y N (G ) . This implies that Sets and Systems 33 (1989), 3746.
[4] Z. Pawlak: Rough sets, International Journal of Computer
( x, y) E Ne(G, I ) xy x and Information Sciences, 11(1982) 341-356.

T.Chalapathi, R. V M S S Kiran Kumar, Neutrosophic graphs of finite groups


30 Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017

[5] Florentin Smarandache. A unifying field in logics. [10] W.B. Vasantha Kandasamy, F. Smarandache, Some
Neutrosophy: Neutrosophic probability, set and logic. Neutrosophic Algebraic Structures and Neutrosophic N-
Americal research press, Rehoboth (1999). Algebraic Structures, Hexis, Phoenix, Arizona (2006).
[6] Florentin Smarandache, Unmatter, mss. Archives Vlcea [11] David Joyner. Adventures in Group Theory: Rubik's
(1980). Cube, Merlin's Machine, and Other Mathematical. Toys. 2nd
[7] W.B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Florentin Smarandache. edition, JHU Press (2008).
Basic Neutrosophic Algebraic Structures and their [12] I.Vitaly, I. Voloshin. Introduction to graph theory, Nova
Applications to Fuzzy and Neutrosophic Models, Hexis, Science Publishers. Inc. New York (2009).
Church Rock (2004). [13] Kiyosi It.: Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Mathematics,
[8] A.A.A. Agboola, A.O. Akwu, Y.T. Oyebo, Neutrosophic Volume 1. The MIT Press. 2nd edition (2000).
Groups and Neutrosophic Subgroups, Int. J. of Math. Comb.3 [14] Linda Gilbert. Elements of Modern Algebra. 8th edition
(2012)1-9. Cengage Learning, (2014).
[9] W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Ilanthenral K, Florentin
Smarandache . Neutrosophic Graphs: A New Dimension to
Graph Theory. EuropaNova (2015). Received: January 23, 2017. Accepted: February 13, 2017.

T.Chalapathi, R. V M S S Kiran Kumar, Neutrosophic graphs of finite groups


Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017 31

University of New Mexico

A New Similarity Measure Based on Falsity Value


between Single Valued Neutrosophic Sets Based on the
Centroid Points of Transformed Single Valued
Neutrosophic Numbers with Applications to Pattern
Recognition
1 1 1 1
Memet Sahin, Necati Olgun, Vakkas Uluay, Abdullah Kargn
and Florentin Smarandache
2

1
Department of Mathematics, Gaziantep University, Gaziantep, Turkey. E-mail: mesahin@gantep.edu.tr
2
Department of Mathematics, Gaziantep University, Gaziantep, Turkey. E-mail: olgun@gantep.edu.tr
3
Department of Mathematics, Gaziantep University, Gaziantep, Turkey. E-mail: vulucay27@gmail.com
4
Department of Mathematics, Gaziantep University, Gaziantep, Turkey. E-mail: abdullahkargin27@gmail.com
5
Department of Mathematics, University of New Mexico,705 Gurley Avenue, Gallup, NM 87301, USA
E-mail: fsmarandache@gmail.com

Abstract. In this paper, we propose some transfor- falsity value between single valued neutrosophic sets.
mations based on the centroid points between single Furthermore, we propose similarity measure based on
valued neutrosophic numbers. We introduce these trans- falsity value between single valued neutrosophic sets
formations according to truth, indeterminacy and falsity based on the centroid points of transformed single valued
value of single valued neutrosophic numbers. We neutrosophic numbers. We also apply the proposed
propose a new similarity measure based on falsity value similarity measure between single valued neutrosophic
between single valued neutrosophic sets. Then we prove sets to deal with pattern recognition problems.
some properties on new similarity measure based on
falsity value between
Keywords: Neutrosophic sets, Single Valued Neutrosophic Numbers, Centroid Points.

1 Introduction similarity between intuitionistic fuzzy sets based on trans-


formed techniques for pattern recognition. But those meth-
In [1] Atanassov introduced a concept of intuitionistic
ods are unsuitable for dealing with the similarity measures
sets based on the concepts of fuzzy sets [2]. In [3]
of neutrosophic sets since intuitionistic sets are character-
Smarandache introduced a concept of neutrosophic sets
ized by only a membership function and a non-
which is characterized by truth function, indeterminacy
membership function. Few researchers dealt with similarity
function and falsity function, where the functions are com-
measures for neutrosophic sets [16-22]. Recently, Jun [18]
pletely independent. Neutrosophic set has been a mathe-
discussed similarity measures on internalneutrosophic sets,
matical tool for handling problems involving imprecise,
Majumdar et al.[17] discussed similarity and entropy of
indeterminant and inconsistent data; such as cluster analy-
neutrosophic sets, Broumi et.al.[16]discussed several simi-
sis, pattern recognition, medical diagnosis and decision
larity measures of neutrosophic sets, Ye [9] discussed sin-
making.In [4] Smarandache et.al introduced a concept of
gle-valued neutrosophic similarity measures based on co-
single valued neutrosophic sets. Recently few researchers
tangent function and their application in the fault diagnosis
have been dealing with single valued neutrosophic sets [5-
of steam turbine, Deli et.al.[10] discussed multiple criteria
10].
decision making method on single valued bipolar neutro-
The concept of similarity is fundamentally important in
sophic set based on correlation coefficient similarity meas-
almost every scientific field. Many methods have been
ure, Ulucay et.al. [21] discussed Jaccard vector similarity
proposed for measuring the degree of similarity between
measure of bipolar neutrosophic set based on multi-criteria
intuitionistic fuzzy sets [11-15]. Furthermore, in [13-15]
decision making and Ulucay et.al.[22] discussed similarity
methods have been proposed for measuring the degree of

Memet Sahin et al., A New Similarity Measure Based on Falsity Value between Single Valued Neutrosophic Sets Based
on the Centroid Points of Transformed Single Valued Neutrosophic Numbers with Applications to Pattern Recognition
32 Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017

measure of bipolar neutrosophic sets and their application ship, the degree of indeterminacy and degree of non-
to multiple criteria decision making. membership of the element to the set with the
In this paper, we propose methods to transform be- condition:
tween single valued neutrosophic numbers based on cen-
troid points. Here, as single valued neutrosophic sets are 0 () + () + () 3+
made up of three functions, to make the transformation
functions be applicable to all single valued neutrosophic
numbers, we divide them into four according to their truth, Definition 2.2 [4] Let be a universe of discourse.The
indeterminacy and falsity values. While grouping accord- single valued neutrosophic set is an object having the
ing to the truth values, we take into account whether the farm = {: () , () , () , } where the func-
truth values are greater or smaller than the indeterminancy tions , , : [0,1]respectively the degree of member-
and falsity values. Similarly, while grouping according to
ship, the degree of indeterminacy and degree of non-
the indeterminancy/falsity values, we examine the inde-
terminancy/falsity values and their greatness or smallness membership of the element to the set A with the
with respect to their remaining two values. We also pro- condition:
pose a new method to measure the degree of similarity
based on falsity values between single valued neutrosophic 0 () + () + () 3
sets. Then we prove some properties of new similarity
measure based on falsity value between single valued neu- For convenience we can simply use x = (T,I,F) to represent
trosophic sets. When we take this measure with respect to an element x in SVNS, and element x can be called a sin-
truth or indeterminancy we show that it does not satisfy
gle valued neutrosophic number.
one of the conditions of similarity measure. We also apply
the proposed new similarity measures based on falsity val-
Definition 2.3 [4] A single valued neutrosophic set is
ue between single valued neutrosophic sets to deal with
pattern recognition problems. Later, we define the method equal to another single valued neutrosophic set B, =
based on falsity value to measure the degree of similarity if ,
between single valued neutrosophic set based on centroid
points of transformed single valued neutrosophic numbers () = () , () = () , () = () .
and the similarity measure based on falsity value between
single valued neutrosophic sets. Definition 2.4[4] A single valued neutrosophic set A is
In section 2, we briefly review some concepts of single contained in another single valued neutrosophic set B ,
valued neutrosophic sets [4] and property of similarity
if ,
measure between single valued neutrosophic sets. In sec-
tion 3, we define transformations between the single val-
ued neutrosophic numbers based on centroid points. In sec- () () , () () , () () .
tion 4, we define the new similarity measures based on fal-
sity value between single valued neutrosophic sets and we Definition 2.5[16] (Axiom of similarity measure)
prove some properties of new similarity measure between
single valued neutroshopic sets. We also apply the pro- A mapping(, ): () () [0,1] , where ()
posed method to deal with pattern recognition problems. In denotes the set of all NS in = {1 , , },is said to be the
section 5, we define the method to measure the degree of degree of similarity between and if it satisfies the fol-
similarity based on falsity value between single valued
lowing conditions:
neutrosophicset based on the centroid point of transformed
single valued neutrosophic number and we apply the
s1 ) 0 (, ) 1
measure to deal with pattern recognition problems. Also
we compare the traditional and new methods in pattern
recognition problems. s2 ) (, ) = 1 if and only if = , ,

s3 ) (, ) = (, )
2 Preliminaries
s4 ) If for all , , , then (, )
Definition 2.1[3] Let be a universe of discourse. The (, )and (, ) (, ).
neutrosophic set is an object having the farm =
{: () , () , () , } where the functions
, , : ] 0, 1+ [ respectively the degree of member-

Memet Sahin et al., A New Similarity Measure Based on Falsity Value between Single Valued Neutrosophic Sets Based
on the Centroid Points of Transformed Single Valued Neutrosophic Numbers with Applications to Pattern Recognition
Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017 33

3 The Transformation Techniques between Single


Valued Neutrosophic Numbers

In this section, we propose transformation techniques


between a single valued neutrosophic number
( ) , () , () and a single valued neutrosophic
number ( ) . Here ( ) , ( ) , () denote the single
valued neutrosophic numbers to represent an element in
the single valued neutrosophic set A, and ( ) is the cen-

ter of a triangle (SLK) which was obtained by the trans-
formation on the three-dimensional plane.

First we transform single valued neutrosophic numbers ac-


cording to their distinct , , values in three parts.

3.1 Transformation According to the Truth Value

In this section, we group the single valued neutrosophic Here, as


numbers after the examination of their truth values s
greatness or smallness against and values. We will ( 2 () ( ) )
shift the () and ( ) values on the Z axis and( ) ( ) = ( ) +
and ( ) values on the Y axis onto each other. We take 3
2 ( ) + 2 ()
the ( ) value on the M axis. The shifting on the Z and =
Y planes are made such that we shift the smaller value to 3
the difference of the greater value and 2, as shown in the
below figures. (2 () ( ) )
( ) = ( ) +
3
1. First Group 2 () + 2 ( )
=
3
For the single valued neutrosophic numbers
( ) , () , () , if and

( ) ( ) ( ) = ( ) ,

and we have

( ) ( ) , 2 ( ) + 2 ( ) 2 ( ) + 2 ( )

( ) = ( , , ( ) ).
3 3
as shown in the figure below, we transformed
( ) , () , () into the single valued neutrosophic 2. Second Group
number () , the center of the SKL triangle, where
For the single valued neutrosophic numbers
( ) = (( ) , () , ( ) ) ( ) , () , () , if

( ) = (2 ( ) , ( ) , ( ) )
( ) ( )
() = (( ) , 2 () , ( ) ) .
and

( ) ( ) ,

as shown in the figure below, we transformed


( ) , () , () into the single valued neutrosophic
number () , the center of the SKL triangle, where

Memet Sahin et al., A New Similarity Measure Based on Falsity Value between Single Valued Neutrosophic Sets Based
on the Centroid Points of Transformed Single Valued Neutrosophic Numbers with Applications to Pattern Recognition
34 Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017

( ) = (() , () , ( ) ) into the single valued neutrosophic number ( ) , the cen-


ter of the SKL triangle, where
LA() = (( ) , 2 () , () ) SA( ) = (TA( ) , IA( ) , FA() )

K A() = (2 ( ) , () , ( ) ) . LA() = (TA() , 2 TA() , FA( ) )

K A() = (2 FA( ) , IA( ) , FA() ) .

Here, as
Here, as
(2 ( ) ( ) )
( ) = ( ) + (2 ( ) () )
3 ( ) = ( ) +
2 ( ) + 2 () 3
= 2 ( ) + 2 ()
3 =
3
(2 () ( ) )
( ) = ( ) + (2 () ( ) )
3 ( ) = ( ) +
2 ( ) + 2 ( ) 3
= 2 ( ) + 2 ( )
3 =
3
and
and
( ) = ( ) ,
( ) = ( ) ,
we have
we have
CA( )
2 TA() + 2 FA() 2 TA( ) + 2IA( ) CA( )
=( , , FA( ) ) . 2 FA() + 2 TA( ) 2 TA( ) + 2IA( )
3 3 =( , , FA( ) ) .
3 3
3. Third Group
4. Fourth Group
For the single valued neutrosophic numbers
( ) , () , () , ifIA( ) TA( ) FA() ,as shown For the single valued neutrosophic numbers
in the figure below, we transformed ( ) , () , () ( ) , () , () , ifFA( ) TA() IA() ,as shown in

Memet Sahin et al., A New Similarity Measure Based on Falsity Value between Single Valued Neutrosophic Sets Based
on the Centroid Points of Transformed Single Valued Neutrosophic Numbers with Applications to Pattern Recognition
Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017 35

the figure below, we transformed ( ) , ( ) , ( ) in- . 0.3, 0.2, 0.5single valued neutrosophic number be-
to the single valued neutrosophic number ( ) , the center longs to the third group.
of the SKL triangle, where
The formula for the center of 0.3, 0.2, 0.5 is CA() =
2 FA( ) +2 TA( ) 2 TA( ) + 2IA( )
SA( ) = (FA() , TA( ) , FA() ) (
,
, FA( ) )and therefore we
3 3
have CA(x) = 0.7, 0.7, 0.5.
LA() = (FA() , 2 TA( ) , FA( ) )
. 0.3, 0.2, 0.4single valued neutrosophic number is in
K A() = (2 A( ) , TA( ) , FA( ) ) . the third group and the center is calculated to be CA(x) =
0.733, 0.7, 0.4.

Corollary 3.1.2The corners of the triangles obtained using


the above method need not be single valued neutrosophic
number but by definition, trivially their centers are.

Note 3.1.3As for the single valued neutrosophic number1,


ber1, 1, 1 there does not exist any transformable trian-
gle in the above four groups, we take its transformation
equal to itself.

Corollary 3.1.4If FA( ) = TA() = IA( ) the transfor-


mation gives the same center in all four groups. Also,
if TA() = IA() FA() , then the center in the first group
is equal to the one in the third group and if FA( )
TA() = IA( ) , the center in the second group is equal to
Example3.1.1Transform the following single valued neu- the center in the fourth group. Similarly, if TA( ) =
trosophic numbers according to their truth values. FA() IA() , then the center in the first group is equal to
the center in the fourth group and if IA( ) TA() = FA( )
0.2, 0.5, 0.7 , 0.9, 0.4, 0.5 , 0.3, 0.2, 0.5 , 0.3,
, the center in the second group is equal to the one in the
0.2, 0.4 .
third group.
. 0.2, 0.5, 0.7 single valued neutrosophic number be-
3.2Transformation According to the Indeterminancy
longs to the first group.
Value
The center is calculated by the formula,( ) = In this section, we group the single valued neutrosophic
2 ( ) + 2 ( ) 2 ( ) + 2 ( )
numbers after the examination of their indeterminancy val-
( , , ( ) )
3 3
ues s greatness or smallness against A and values. We
and we haveCA() = 0.566, 0.633, 0.7 . will shift the ( ) and ( ) values on the Z axis
and () and ( ) values on the Y axis onto each other.
. 0.9, 0.4, 0.5single valued neutrosophic number is in We take the ( ) value on the M axis. The shifting on
the second group. the Z and Y planes are made such that we shift the smaller
value to the difference of the greater value and 2, as shown
The center for the values of the second group is, CA( ) =
in the below figures.
2 TA( ) +2 FA( ) 2 TA( ) + 2IA( )

( , , FA( ) )
3 3
1. First Group
and for 0.9, 0.4, 0.5,CA(x) = 0.7, 0.633, 0.5. For the single valued neutrosophic numbers
( ) , () , () , if

Memet Sahin et al., A New Similarity Measure Based on Falsity Value between Single Valued Neutrosophic Sets Based
on the Centroid Points of Transformed Single Valued Neutrosophic Numbers with Applications to Pattern Recognition
36 Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017

( ) ( ) we have

2 ( ) + 2 ( ) 2 ( ) + 2 ( )
and ( ) = (
,
, ( ) ) .
3 3

( ) () ,

as shown in the figure below, we transformed


( ) , () , () into the single valued neutrosophic 2. Second Group
number () , the center of the SKL triangle, where For the single valued neutrosophic numbers
() , () , () , if
( ) = (( ) , ( ) , () )

() ()
( ) = (2 ( ) , ( ) , ( ) )

and
( ) = (() , 2 ( ) , () ) .
() () ,

as shown in the figure below, we transformed


() , () , () into the single valued neutro-
sophic number (), the center of the SKL triangle,
where

() = (() , () , () )

() = ( () , 2 () , () )

() = (2 () , () , () ) .

We transformed the single valued neutrosophic number


( ) , () , () into the center of the SKL triangle,
namely ( ) . Here, as

( 2 () () )
( ) = ( ) +
3
2 ( ) + 2 ()
=
3

(2 () ( ) )
( ) = ( ) + Here, as
3
2 ( ) + 2 ( )
= ( 2 () () )
3
( ) = ( ) +
3
and 2 ( ) + 2 ()
=
3
( ) = ( ) ,

Memet Sahin et al., A New Similarity Measure Based on Falsity Value between Single Valued Neutrosophic Sets Based
on the Centroid Points of Transformed Single Valued Neutrosophic Numbers with Applications to Pattern Recognition
Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017 37

Here as
(2 () ( ) ) ( 2 () () )
( ) = ( ) + ( ) = ( ) +
3 3
2 () + 2 ( ) 2 ( ) + 2 ()
= =
3 3

and (2 () ( ) )
( ) = ( ) +
3
( ) = ( ) , 2 () + 2 ( )
=
3
we have
and
( )
2 ( ) + 2 () 2 () + 2 ( ) ( ) = ( ) ,
=( , , () ).
3 3
we have
3. Third Group
( )
2 ( ) + 2 () 2 () + 2 ( )
=( , , () ).
For the single valued neutrosophic number 3 3
() , () , () , if TA() IA() FA() ,
4. Fourth Group
as shown in the figure below, we transformed
For the single valued neutrosophic numbers
() , () , () into the single valued neutro- ( ) , () , () , if FA( ) IA( ) TA() ,
sophic number (), the center of the SKL triangle,
where as shown in the figure below, we transformed
( ) , () , () into the single valued neutrosophic
() = (() , () , () ) numbers ( ) , the center of the SKL triangle, where

() = ( () , 2 () , () ) ( ) = (( ) , () , ( ) )

() = (2 () , () , () ) . ( ) = ( ( ) , 2 ( ) , ( ) )

() = (2 ( ) , () , ( ) ) .

Memet Sahin et al., A New Similarity Measure Based on Falsity Value between Single Valued Neutrosophic Sets Based
on the Centroid Points of Transformed Single Valued Neutrosophic Numbers with Applications to Pattern Recognition
38 Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017

Here, as
( 2 () () ) ( )
( ) = ( ) +
3 2 ( ) + 2 () 2 () + 2 ( )
2 ( ) + 2 () =( , , () ),
= 3 3
3
so,CA(x) = 0.633, 0.9, 0.5.
(2 () ( ) )
( ) = ( ) +
3 . 0.3, 0.2, 0.4single valued neutrosophic number is in
2 ( ) + 2 ( ) the first group.
= Using
3
( )
and 2 ( ) + 2 () 2 () + 2 ( )
=( , , () ),
3 3
( ) = ( ) ,
we have CA(x) = 0.666, 0.7, 0.4.
we have
Corollary 3.2.2 The corners of the triangles obtained using
the above method need not be single valued neutrosophic
( )
numbers but by definition, trivially their centers are.
2 ( ) + 2 () 2 () + 2 ( )
=( , , () ).
3 3 Note 3.2.3As for the single valued neutrosophic number
1, 1, 1 there does not exist any transformable triangle in
the above four groups, we take its transformation equal to
itself.
Example3.2.1:Transform the single neutrosophic numbers
of Example 3.1.3 , Corollary 3.2.4 If FA( ) = TA( ) = IA( ) ,the transfor-
0.2, 0.5, 0.7 , 0.9, 0.4, 0.5 , 0.3, 0.2, 0.5 , mation gives the same center in all four groups. Also if
0.3, 0.2, 0.4according to their indeterminancy values. TA() = IA( ) FA( ) , then the center in the first group is
equal to the center in the third group, and if FA()
. 0.2, 0.5, 0.7 single valued neutrosophic number is in TA() = IA( ) , then the center in the second group is the
the third group. The center is given by the formula same as the one in the furth group. Similarly, ifFA( ) =
( ) IA( ) TA() , then the center in the first group is equal to
2 ( ) + 2 () 2 () + 2 ( ) the one in the fourth and in the case that TA( ) FA( ) =
=( , , () ), IA( ) ,the center in the second group is equal to the center
3 3
in the third.
and so CA() = 0.766, 0.633, 0.7.
3.3 Transformation According to the Falsity Value
. 0.9, 0.4, 0.5 single valued neutrosophic number is in
the first group. In this section, we group the single valued neutrosophic
numbers after the examination of their indeterminancy val-
By ues s greatness or smallness against and values.
We will shift the () and ( ) values on the Z axis and
( ) ( ) and () values on the Y axis onto each other. We
2 ( ) + 2 () 2 () + 2 ( ) take the ( ) value on the M axis. The shifting on the Z
=( , , () ),
3 3 and Y planes are made such that we shift the smaller value
to the difference of the greater value and 2, as shown in the
we have CA(x) = 0.733, 0.633, 0.5.
below figures.
. 0.3, 0.2, 0.5single valued neutrosophic number be-
longs to the first group and the center is

Memet Sahin et al., A New Similarity Measure Based on Falsity Value between Single Valued Neutrosophic Sets Based
on the Centroid Points of Transformed Single Valued Neutrosophic Numbers with Applications to Pattern Recognition
Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017 39

1. First Group ( ) = ( ) ,

For the single valued neutrosophic numbers we get


( ) , ( ) , () , if
( )
( ) ( )
2 ( ) + 2 ( ) 2 ( ) + 2 ()
and =( , , ( ) ).
3 3
( ) ( ) ,
2. Second Group
then
For the single valued neutrosophic numbers
as shown in the figure below, we transformed ( ) , ( ) , () , if
( ) , () , () into the single valued neutrosophic
number () , the center of the SKL triangle, where ( ) ( )

( ) = (( ) , () , ( ) ) and

() = ( 2 ( ) , () , ( ) ) ( ) ( ) ,

( ) = (( ) , 2 ( ) , () ) . then

as shown in the figure below, we transformed


( ) , () , () into the single valued neutrosophic
numbers ( ) , the center of the SKL triangle, where

( ) = (( ) , ( ) , () )

( ) = (( ) , 2 ( ) , () )

() = (2 () , () , ( ) ) .

Here, as

( 2 () () )
( ) = ( ) +
3
2 ( ) + 2 ()
=
3

(2 ( ) ( ) ) Here, as
( ) = () +
3
2 ( ) + 2 () ( 2 () () )
= ( ) = ( ) +
3 3
2 ( ) + 2 ()
=
and 3

Memet Sahin et al., A New Similarity Measure Based on Falsity Value between Single Valued Neutrosophic Sets Based
on the Centroid Points of Transformed Single Valued Neutrosophic Numbers with Applications to Pattern Recognition
40 Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017

Here, as
(2 ( ) () ) ( 2 () () )
( ) = ( ) + ( ) = ( ) +
3 3
2 ( ) + 2 () 2 ( ) + 2 ()
= =
3 3

and (2 ( ) ( ) )
( ) = () +
3
( ) = ( ) , 2 ( ) + 2 ()
=
3
we have
and
()
2 ( ) + 2 ( ) 2 ( ) + 2 () ( ) = ( ) ,
=( , , ( ) ).
3 3
we have
3. Third Group
( )
For the single valued neutrosophic numbers 2 ( ) + 2 ( ) 2 ( ) + 2 ()
=( , , ( ) ).
( ) , () , () , if IA( ) FA( ) TA( ) then as 3 3
shown in the figure below, we transformed
( ) , () , () into the single valued neutrosophic 4. Fourth Group
numbers ( ) , the center of the SKL triangle, where
For the single valued neutrosophic numbers
( ) , () , () , if TA() FA() IA( ) , then as
( ) = (( ) , () , ( ) )
shown in the figure below, we transformed
( ) = (( ) , 2 ( ) , ( ) ) ( ) , () , () into the single valued neutrosophic
numbers ( ) , the center of the SKL triangle, where
( ) = (2 ( ) , ( ) , () ) .
( ) = (( ) , () , () )

( ) = (( ) , 2 ( ) , () )

() = (2 ( ) , () , ( ) ).

Example 3.3.1: Transform the single neutrosophic


numbers of Example 3.1.3.

Memet Sahin et al., A New Similarity Measure Based on Falsity Value between Single Valued Neutrosophic Sets Based
on the Centroid Points of Transformed Single Valued Neutrosophic Numbers with Applications to Pattern Recognition
Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017 41

0.2, 0.5, 0.7 , 0.9, 0.4, 0.5 , 0.3, 0.2, 0.5 , FA() TA( ) , then the centers in the first and third
0.3, 0.2, 0.4according to their falsity values. groups are same and lastly, if TA( ) IA( ) = FA() , then
the center in the second group is equal to the one in the
. 0.2, 0.5, 0.7 single valued neutrosophic number be-
fourth group.
longs to the second group. So, the center is

2 ( ) + 2 ( ) 2 ( ) + 2 ( )
() = ( , , ( ) ),
3 3 4. A New Similarity Measure Based on Falsity
Value Between Single Valued Neutrosophic Sets
and we get CA() = 0.766, 0.7, 0.7.
In this section, we propose a new similarity measure
. 0.9, 0.4, 0.5 single valued neutrosophic number is in based on falsity value between single valued neutrosophic
the third group. Using the formula sets.

2 ( ) + 2 ( ) 2 ( ) + 2 ( ) Definition 4.1 Let A and B two single valued neutrosoph-


() = ( , , ( ) ) ic sets in = {1 , 2 , , }.
3 3
Let = {, () , ( ) , () }
we see thatCA(x) = 0.766, 0.7, 0.5.
and
. 0.3, 0.2, 0.5single valued neutrosophic number is in
the second group. As = {, () , ( ) , ( ) }.

2 ( ) + 2 ( ) 2 ( ) + 2 ( ) The similarity measure based on falsity value between the


() = ( , , ( ) ),
3 3 neutrosophic numbers ( ) and ( ) is given by

the center of the triangle is CA(x) = 0.633, 0.7, 0.5. |2(FA( ) FB( ) ) (TA( ) TB() )|
(A( ) , B( ) ) = 1 (
9
. 0.3, 0.2, 0.4single valued neutrosophic number be-
longs to the second group. |2(FA( ) FB( ) ) (IA( ) IB() )|
+
9
2 ( ) + 2 ( ) 2 ( ) + 2 ( )
() = ( , , ( ) ), 3|(FA( ) FB( ) )|
3 3
+ ).
9
and so we have CA(x) = 0.666, 0.733, 0.4.
Here, we use the values
Corollary 3.3.2The corners of the triangles obtained using
the above method need not be single valued neutrosophic 2(FA() FB() ) (TA() TB() ),
numbers but by definition, trivially their centers are single
valued neutrosophic values. 2(FA() FB( ) ) (IA() IB( ) ),

Note 3.3.3 As for the single valued neutrosophic 2(FA() FB() ) + (FA( ) FB() )
ber1, 1, 1 there does not exist any transformable trian- = 3(FA( ) FB( ) ) .
gle in the above four groups, we take its transformation
equal to itself. Since we use the falsity values FA() in all these three val-
ues, we name this formula as similarity measure based on
Corollary 3.3.4 If FA() = TA( ) = IA() , the transfor-
falsity value between single valued neutrosophic num-
mation gives the same center in all four groups. Also, bers.
if TA() = FA() IA( ) , then the center in the first group
is equal to the one in the fourth group, and if IA( )
TA() = FA( ) , then the center in the second group is the
Property4.2 :0 (( ) , ( ) ) 1 .
same as the center in the third. Similarly, if IA( ) =

Memet Sahin et al., A New Similarity Measure Based on Falsity Value between Single Valued Neutrosophic Sets Based
on the Centroid Points of Transformed Single Valued Neutrosophic Numbers with Applications to Pattern Recognition
42 Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017

Proof: By the definition of Single valued neut- |2(FA() FB() ) (IA( ) IB( ) )|
rosophic numbers, as +
9

0 ( ) , () , ( ) , ( ) , ( ) , ( ) 1, 3|(FA( ) FB() )|
+ )=0
9
we have
So,
0 2(( ) ( ) ) (() , ( ) ) 3
|(( ) ( ) )| = 0,
0 2(( ) ( ) ) (() , ( ) ) 3
|2(( ) ( ) ) (( ) ( ) )| = 0,
and
and
0 3(( ) , () ) 3 .
|2(( ) ( ) ) (( ) () )| = 0 .
So,
As |(FA( ) FB() )|=0 , then FA() = FB() .
|2(FA( ) FB( ) ) (TA( ) TB( ) )|
0 1(
9
If FA( ) = FB( ) ,
|2(FA( ) FB( ) ) (IA( ) IB( ) )|
+ |2(FA() FB() ) (TA() TB() )| = 0
9

3|(FA( ) FB( ) )| and


+ ) 1.
9
TA()= TB() .
Therefore,0 (( ) , ( ) ) 1.
When FA() = FB() ,
Property 4.3:(( ) , ( ) ) = 1 () = ( )
|2(FA() FB( ) ) (IA() IB( ) )| = 0
Proof.i) First we show () = () when
and
(( ) , ( ) ) = 1 .
IA()= IB( )
Let (( ) , ( ) ) = 1 .
Therefore, if (( ) , ( ) ) = 1 , then by Definition 2.3,
|2(FA( ) FB() ) (TA( ) TB( ) )|
(() , () ) = 1 ( A() = B() .
9
ii)Now we show if A() = B() , then(( ) , () ) = 1.
|2(FA( ) FB( ) ) (IA( ) IB( ) )| Let A( ) = B( ) . By Definition 2.3 ,
+
9
TA( )= TB( ) , IA( )= IB( ) , FA()= FB( )
3|(FA( ) FB( ) )|
+ )
9 and we have
=1 TA() TB() = 0, IA( ) IB( ) = 0, FA() FB() = 0
and thus, .

So,
|2(FA() FB( ) ) (TA( ) TB( ) )|
(
9

Memet Sahin et al., A New Similarity Measure Based on Falsity Value between Single Valued Neutrosophic Sets Based
on the Centroid Points of Transformed Single Valued Neutrosophic Numbers with Applications to Pattern Recognition
Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017 43

Proof:
|2(FA( ) FB( ) ) (TA( ) TB( ) )| i)
(() , () ) = 1 (
9 By the single valued neutrosophic set proper-
ty, if , then
|2(FA() FB( ) ) (IA() IB( ) )| TA( ) TB( ) TC() ,
+
9
IA( ) IB( ) IC( ) ,
3|(FA( ) FB() )|
+ )
9 FA( ) FB() FC() .
So,
0
=1 = 1.
9 TA( ) TB( ) 0,
Property4.4 :(( ) , () ) = (( ) , () ) .
IA() IB( ) 0,
Proof:
FA() FB( ) 0 (1)
|2(FA( ) FB( ) ) (TA( ) TB( ) )|
(() , () ) = 1 ( TA( ) TC( ) 0,
9

|2(FA() FB( ) ) (IA() IB( ) )| IA( ) IC( ) 0,


+
9
FA() FC( ) 0 (2)
3|(FA( ) FB() )|
+ ) TA( ) TB() TA( ) TC( ) ,
9
IA( ) IB( ) IA() IC( ) ,
|2((FA() FB() )) ((TA( ) TB() ))|
=1(
9 FA( ) FB() FA( ) FC() (3)

|2((FA() FB( ) )) ((IA( ) IB() ))| Using (1), we have


+
9
2(FA() FB() ) (TA() TB( ) ) 0
3|(FA() FB( ) )|
+ )
9 2(FA( ) FB() ) (IA() IB( ) ) 0

|2(FB() FA() ) (TB( ) TA( ) )| and


=1(
9
3(TA( ) TB( ) ) 0 .
|2(FB() FA() ) (IB( ) IA( ) )|
+ Thus, we get
9
|2(FA( ) FB( ) ) (TA( ) TB() )|
3|(FB( ) FA() )| (( ) , ( ) ) = 1 (
+ 9
9

= (() , ( ) ). |2(FA() FB( ) ) (IA() IB( ) )|


+
9
Property 4.5 : If ,
3|(FA( ) FB() )|
+ )
i) (( ) , () ) (( ) , () ) 9
ii) (( ) , () ) (( ) , () )
7(FA( ) FB( ) )(TA( ) TB( ) )(IA( )IB( ) )

=1 .(4)
9

Memet Sahin et al., A New Similarity Measure Based on Falsity Value between Single Valued Neutrosophic Sets Based
on the Centroid Points of Transformed Single Valued Neutrosophic Numbers with Applications to Pattern Recognition
44 Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017

Similarly, by (2), we have (( ) , () ) (( ) , () ) .

|2(FA( ) F( ) ) (TA( ) TC( ) )| ii. The proof of the latter part can be similarly done as the
(() , () ) = 1 (
9 first part.
Corollary 4.6 : Suppose we make similar definitions to
|2(FA() FC( ) ) (IA() IC( ) )| Definition 4.1, but this time based on truth values or inde-
+
9 terminancy values. If we define a truth based similarity
measure, or namely,
3|(FA() FC( ) )|
+ )
9 |2(TA( ) TB( ) ) (FA( ) FB() )|
(( ) , ( ) ) = 1 (
9
7(FA( ) FC( ) )(TA( )TC( ))(IA( ) IC( ))

=1 . (5)
9 |2(TA() TB( ) ) (IA() IB( ) )|
+
Using (4) and (5) together, we get 9

3|(TA( ) B( ) )|
(( ) , () ) (( ) , ( ) ) + ),
9
7(FA() FB( ) ) (TA( ) TB( ) ) (IA( ) IB( ) )
=1 or if we define a measure based on indeterminancy values
9
like
7(FA() FB( ) ) (TA( ) TB( ) ) (IA( ) IB( ) )
1 + |2(IA( ) IB( ) ) (TA( ) TB() )|
9 (( ) , ( ) ) = 1 (
9
7(FA() FB( ) ) (TA( ) TB( ) ) (IA( ) IB( ) )
=
9 9 9 |2(IA( ) IB() ) (FA( ) FB() )|
+
9
7(FA() FC( ) ) (TA( ) TC( ) ) (IA( ) IC( ) )
+
9 9 9 3|(IA( ) IB() )|
+ )
7(FA() FB( ) ) 7(FA( ) FC( ) ) (TA( ) TB( ) ) 9
= +
9 9 9
these two definitions dont provide the conditions of Prop-
(TA() TC( ) ) (IA( ) IB( ) ) (IA( ) IC( ) ) erty 4.5 . For instance, for the truth value

9 9 9
|2(TA( ) TB( ) ) (FA( ) FB() )|
by (1) and (3), (( ) , ( ) ) = 1 (
9

7(FA( ) FB() ) 7(FA() FC( ) ) |2(TA() TB( ) ) (IA() IB( ) )|


+ 0, +
9 9 9
(TA( ) TB() ) (TA() TC() ) 3|(TA( ) B( ) )|
0, + ),
9 9 9
(IA( ) IB( ) ) (IA( ) IC( ) )
0 when we take the single valued neutrosophic numbers
9 9 A() = 0, 0.1, 0, B() = 1, 0.2, 0 andC() = 1, 0.3, 0,
and therefore we see (() , () ) = 0.233 and (() , () ) = 0.244 .
This contradicts with the results of Property 4.5.
(( ) , () ) (() , ( ) ) 0
Similarly, for the indeterminancy values,
and

Memet Sahin et al., A New Similarity Measure Based on Falsity Value between Single Valued Neutrosophic Sets Based
on the Centroid Points of Transformed Single Valued Neutrosophic Numbers with Applications to Pattern Recognition
Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017 45

|2(IA( ) IB( ) ) (TA( ) TB( ) )| 1


(() , () ) = 1 (
Let be the weight of element , where = 1
2
9
2,
|2(IA( ) IB() ) (FA( ) FB() )| SNS (1 , ) = 0.711
+
9
and
3|(IA( ) IB() )|
+ )
9 SNS (1 , ) = 0.772 .

if we take the single valued neurosophic numbers A() = We can see that SNS ( 2 , )is the largest value amongthe
0.1, 0, 1, B() = 0.2, 1, 1and C() = 0.3, 1, 1, we have values of SNS (1 , ) and SNS ( 2 , ) .
(() , () ) = 0.233 and (() , () ) = 0.244.
Therefore, the unknown pattern represented by single val-
These results show that the definition 4.1 is only valid for ued neutrosophic set should be classified into the pat-
the measure based on falsity values. tern P2 .

Defintion 4.7 As 5. A New Similarity Measure Based on Falsity


Measure Between Neutrosophic Sets Based on the
|2(FA( ) FB( ) ) (TA( ) TB( ) )| Centroid Points of Transformed Single Valued
(() , () ) = 1 (
9 Neutrosophic Numbers

|2(FA() FB( ) ) (IA() IB( ) )| In this section, we propose a new similarity measure
+
9 based on falsity value between single valued neutrosophic
sets based on the centroid points of transformed single val-
3|(FA() FB() )|
+ ), ued neutrosophic numbers.
9
Definition5.1:
The similarity measure based on the falsity value between
two single valued neutrosophic sets A and B is; |2(FA( ) FB( ) ) (TA( ) TB() )|
(( ) , ( ) ) = 1 (
9
SNS (, ) = =1 ( S (A() , B() )) .
|2(FA() FB( ) ) (IA() IB( ) )|
+
Here,SNS (, ) [0,1]and s are the weights of the s 9
with the property =1 = 1 . Also,
3|(FA() FB() )|
+ ),
= {: ( ) , () , ( ) }, 9

= {: ( ) , () , ( ) }. Taking the similarity measure as defined in the fourth sec-


tion, and letting CA( ) andCB( ) be the centers of the trian-
Example4.8 Let us consider three patternsP1 , P2 , P3 repre- gles obtained by the transformation of A( ) and B() in the
serted by single valued neutrosophic sets P1 and P2 in = third section respectively,the similarity measure based on
{1 , 2 } respectively, where falsity value between single valued neutrosophic sets A
P1 = {x1 , 0.2, 0.5, 0.7, x2 , 0.9, 0.4, 0.5} and P2 = and B based on the centroid points of transformed single
{x1 , 0.3, 0.2, 0.5, x2 , 0.3, 0.2, 0.4}. We want to classify valued neutrosophic numbers is
an unknown pattern represented by a single valued neutro-

sophic set in = {1 , 2 } into one of the patterns
SNSC (, ) = ( xS(CA(xi) , CB(xi) )),
P1 , P2 ;where = {x1 , 0.4, 0.4, 0.1, x2 , 0.6, 0.2, 0.3}. =1

where

Memet Sahin et al., A New Similarity Measure Based on Falsity Value between Single Valued Neutrosophic Sets Based
on the Centroid Points of Transformed Single Valued Neutrosophic Numbers with Applications to Pattern Recognition
46 Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017

= {: () , ( ) , () }, CP2 x2 = (0.733, 0.7, 0.4)


= {: ( ) , () , ( ) } .
x1 = x1 , 0.4, 0.4, 0.1 transformed based on falsity value
Here again, s are the weights of the s with the prop- in Section 3.1
erty =1 = 1 .
Cx1 = 0.6, 0.8, 0.1(second group)
Example5.2: Let us consider two patterns P1 and P2 repre-
sented by single valued neutrosophic sets P1 , P2 in x2 = x2 , 0.6, 0.2, 0.3transformed based on truth falsity
= {1 , 2 }respectively in Example 4.8,where in Section 3.1

P1 = {x1 , 0.2, 0.5, 0.7, x2 , 0.9, 0.4, 0.5} Cx2 = 0.666, 0.6, 0.3(second group)

and SNSC (P1 , ) = 0.67592

P2 = {x1 , 0.3, 0.2, 0.5, x2 , 0.3, 0.2, 0.4}. SNSC (P2 , ) = 0.80927

We want to classify an unknown pattern represented by Therefore, the unknown patternQ,represented by a single
single valued neutrosophic set in = {1 , 2 } into one valued neutrosophic set based on truth value is classified
of the patterns P1 , P2 , where into pattern P2 .

= {x1 , 0.4, 0.4, 0.1, x2 , 0.6, 0.2, 0.3}. Example5.3 : Let us consider two patterns P1 and P2 of
example 4.8, represented by single valued neutrosophic
We make the classification using the measure in Definition sets P1 , P2 , in = {1 , 2 } respectively, where
5.1, namely
P1 = {x1 , 0.2, 0.5, 0.7, x2 , 0.9, 0.4, 0.5}
SNSC (, ) = =1 ( S(CA(xi) , CB(xi) )) .
and
Also we find the CA(xi) , CB(xi) centers according to the
P2 = {x1 , 0.3, 0.2, 0.5, x2 , 0.3, 0.2, 0.4}.
truth values.
1 We want to classify an unknown pattern represented by the
Let be the weight of element , = ; 1 2 . single valued neutrosophic set in = {1 , 2 } into one
2

of the patterns P1 , P2 ,where


P1 x1 = 0.2, 0.5, 0.7transformed based on falsity value
in Example 3.1.1 = {x1 , 0.4, 0.4, 0.1, x2 , 0.6, 0.2, 0.3}.

CP1x1 = (0.566, 0.633, 0.7) We make the classification using the measure in Definition
5.1, namely
P1 x2 = 0.9, 0.4, 0.5 transformed based on falsity value
in Example 3.1.1 SNSC (, ) = =1 ( xS(CA(xi) , CB(xi) )).
CP1x2 = (0.7,0.633,0.5)
Also we find the CA(xi) , CB(xi) centers according to the in-
P2 x1 = 0.3, 0.2, 0.5 transformed based on falsity value determinacy values.
in Example 3.1.1 1
Let be the weight of element , = ; 1 2 .
2
CP2x1 = (0.7, 0.7,0.5)
P1 x1 = 0.2, 0.5, 0.7 transformed based on falsity value
P2 x2 = 0.3, 0.2, 0.4 transformed based on falsity value in Example 3.2.1
in Example 3.1.1
CP1x1 = (0.766,0.633, 0.7)

Memet Sahin et al., A New Similarity Measure Based on Falsity Value between Single Valued Neutrosophic Sets Based
on the Centroid Points of Transformed Single Valued Neutrosophic Numbers with Applications to Pattern Recognition
Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017 47

P1 x2 = 0.9, 0.4, 0.5 transformed based on falsity value SNSC (, ) = =1 ( xS(CA(xi) , CB(xi) )).
in Example 3.2.1
Also we find the CA(xi) , CB(xi) centers according to the fal-
CP1x2 = (0.766, 0.633, 0.5)
sity values.
P2 x1 = 0.3, 0.2, 0.5 transformed based on falsity value 1
Let be the weight of element , = ; 1 2 .
in Example 3.2.1 2

CP2 x1 = (0.633, 0.9, 0.5) P1 x1 = 0.2, 0.5, 0.7transformed based on falsity value
in Example 3.3.1
P2 x2 = 0.3, 0.2, 0.4 transformed based on falsity value
in Example 3.2.1 CP1x1 = (0.766,0.7,0.7)

CP2 x2 = (0.666, 0.7, 0.4) P1 x2 = 0.9, 0.4, 0.5 transformed based on falsity value
in Example 3.3.1
x1 = x1 , 0.4, 0.4, 0.1 transformed based on falsity value
CP1x2 = (0.766, 0.7,0.5)
in Section 3.2

Cx1 = 0.6, 0.8, 0.1(second group) P2 x1 = 0.3, 0.2, 0.5 transformed based on falsity value
in Example 3.3.1
x2 = x2 , 0.6, 0.2, 0.3transformed based on truth falsity
CP2x1 = (0.633,0.7,0.5)
in Section 3.2
P2 x2 = 0.3, 0.2, 0.4 transformed based on falsity value
Cx2 = 0.7, 0.666, 0.3 (first group)
in Example 3.3.1
SNSC (P1 , ) = 0.67592
CP2x2 = (0.666, 0.733, 0.4)
SNSC (P2 , ) = 0.80927
x1 = x1 , 0.4, 0.4, 0.1 transformed based on falsity value
Therefore, the unknown patternQ, represented by a single in Section 3.3
valued neutrosophic set based on indeterminacy value is
Cx1 = 0.6, 0.6, 0.1(first group)
classified into pattern P2 .

Example5.4: Let us consider in example 4.8, two patterns x2 = x2 , 0.6, 0.2, 0.3transformed based on truthfalsity
P1 and P2 represented by single valued neutrosophic sets in Section 3.3
P1 , P2 in = {1 , 2 } respectively ,where
Cx2 = 0.7, 0.666, 0.3 (third group)
P1 = {x1 , 0.2, 0.5, 0.7, x2 , 0.9, 0.4, 0.5}
SNSC (P1 , ) = 0.7091
and
SNSC (P2 , ) = 0.8148
P2 = {x1 , 0.3, 0.2, 0.5, x2 , 0.3, 0.2, 0.4}.
Therefore, the unknown pattern Q, represented by a single
We want to classify an unknown pattern represented by valued neutrosophic set based on falsity value is classified
single valued neutrosophic set in = {1 , 2 } into one of into pattern P2 .
the patterns P1 , P2 , where
In Example 5.2, Example 5.3 and Example 5.4, all
= {x1 , 0.4, 0.4, 0.1, x2 , 0.6, 0.2, 0.3}. measures according to truth, indeterminancy and falsity
values give the same exact result.
We make the classification using the measure in Definition
5.1, namely

Memet Sahin et al., A New Similarity Measure Based on Falsity Value between Single Valued Neutrosophic Sets Based
on the Centroid Points of Transformed Single Valued Neutrosophic Numbers with Applications to Pattern Recognition
48 Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017

Conclusion

In this study, we propose methods to transform between [11] G. Beliakov, M.Pagola, T. Wilkin,Vector valued similarity
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transformation techniques with applications to patternrec-
does not satisfy one of the conditions of similarity measure.
ognition, Inf. Sci. 291 (2015) 96 - 114
We also apply the proposed new similarity measures based
[14] S. M. Chen, C. H. Chang,T. C. Lan, A novel similarity
on falsity value between single valued neutrosophic sets to
measure between intuitionistic fuzzy sets based on the cen-
deal with pattern recognition problems.
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to pattern recognition, Inf.Sci. 343-344 (2016) 15-40
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Received: January 30, 2017. Accepted: February 15, 2017.

Memet Sahin et al., A New Similarity Measure Based on Falsity Value between Single Valued Neutrosophic Sets Based
on the Centroid Points of Transformed Single Valued Neutrosophic Numbers with Applications to Pattern Recognition
Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017 49

University of New Mexico

Multi-Criteria Assignment Techniques in Multi-


Dimensional Neutrosophic Soft Set Theory
Tanushree Mitra Basu and Shyamal Kumar Mondal

Department of Applied Mathematics with Oceanology and Computer Programming, Vidyasagar University,
Midnapore, W.B., India. E-mail : tanushreemitra13@gmail.com, shyamal_260180@yahoo.com

Abstract: In this paper, we have introduced a new concept theory. For presence of vagueness Maji et al.[9, 10]
of multi-dimensional neutrosophic soft sets together with have introduced the concept of Fuzzy Soft Set. Then
various operations, properties and theorems on them. Then Mitra Basu et al. [14] proposed the mean potentiality
we have proposed an algorithm named 2 DNS based approach to get a balanced solution of a fuzzy soft set
on our proposed two-dimensional neutrosophic soft set for based decision making problem.
solving neutrosophic multi-criteria assignment problems
with multiple decision makers. At last, we have applied the But the intuitionistic fuzzy sets can only handle the
2 DNS Algorithm for solving neutrosophic multi- incomplete information considering both the truth-
criteria assignment problem in medical science to evaluate membership ( or simply membership ) and falsity-
the effectiveness of different modalities of treatment of a membership ( or non-membership ) values. It does not
disease.
handle the indeterminate and inconsistent information
Keywords: Assignment, Neutrosophic Multi-Criteria, which exists in belief system. Smarandache [13]
introduced the concept of neutrosophic set(NS)
Multi-Dimensional Neutrosophic Soft Set, 2 DNS
which is a mathematical tool for handling problems
Algorithm, Application.
involving imprecise, indeterminacy and inconsistent
data. He showed that NS is a generalization of the
1 Introduction classical sets, conventional fuzzy sets, Intuitionistic
Most of the recent mathematical methods meant for Fuzzy Sets (IFS) and Interval Valued Fuzzy Sets
formal modeling,reasoning and computing are crisp, (IVFS). Then considering the fact that the parameters
accurate and deterministic in nature. But in ground or criteria ( which are words or sentences ) are mostly
reality, crisp data is not always the part and parcel of neutrosophic set, Maji [11, 12] has combined the
the problems encountered in different fields like concept of soft set and neutrosophic set to make the
economics, engineering, social science, medical mathematical model neutrosophic soft set and also
science, environment etc. As a consequence various given an algorithm to solve a decision making
theories viz. theory of probability, theory of fuzzy sets problem. But till now there does not exist any method
introduced by Zadeh [1], theory of intuitionistic fuzzy for solving neutrosophic soft set based assignment
sets by Atanassov[2], theory of vague sets by Gau[3], problem.
theory of interval mathematics by Gorzalczany[4], In several real life situations we are encountered with
theory of rough sets by Pawlak[5] have been evolved a type of problem which includes in assigning men to
in process. But difficulties present in all these theories offices, jobs to machines, classes in a school to rooms,
have been shown by Molodtsov [6]. The cause of these drivers to trucks, delivery trucks to different routs or
problems is possibly related to the inadequacy of the problems to different research teams etc in which the
parametrization tool of the theories. As a result assignees depend on some criteria which posses
Molodtsov proposed the concept of soft theory as a varying degree of efficiency, called cost or
new mathematical tool for solving the uncertainties effectiveness. The basic assumption of this type of
which is free from the above difficulties. Maji et al. [7, problem is that one person can perform one job at a
8] have further done various research works on soft set time. An assignment plan is optimal if it is able to

Tanushree Mitra Basu, Shyamal Kumar Mondal, Multi-Criteria Assignment Techniques in Multi-Dimensional
Neutrosophic Soft Set Theory
50 Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017

optimize all criteria. Now if such problem contains


The NOT set of E denoted by E is defined by
only one criterion then it can be solved by well known
Hungarian method introduced by Kuhn[15]. In case of E = {e1 , e2 , e3 ,...., en }, whereei = notei , i.
such problems containing more than one criterion, i.e., The operator not of an object, say k, is denoted by
for multi-criteria assignment problems De et al [16]
have proposed a solution methodology. Kar et al[17] k and is defined as the negation of the object; e.g.,
have proposed two different methods for solving a let we have the object k = beautiful, then k i.e., not
neutrosophic multi-criteria assignment problem. k means k is not beautiful.
Till date these all research work have concentrated on
multiple criteria assignment problems containing only 2.3 Definition: Neutrosophic Set [13]
one decision maker, i.e., all the criteria matrices are A neutrosophic set A on the universe of discourse
determined or observed by only one decision maker.
But there may be such type of multiple criteria
X is defined as
assignment problems in which the criteria be A = {< x, TA ( x), I A ( x), FA ( x) >: x X },
neutrosophic in nature and the degree of efficiency of
where T , I , F : X ] 0,1 [
the criteria are determined by more than one decision

makers according to their own opinions. There does and 0 TA ( x) I A ( x) FA ( x) 3 ; T , I , F
not exist any procedure to solve neutrosophic multi- are called neutrosophic components.
criteria assignment problem with multiple decision "Neutrosophic" etymologically comes from "neutro-
makers or in other words there is a demand to come a sophy" (French neutre < Latin neuter, neutral and
methodology to solve multi-criteria assignment Greek sophia, skill/wisdom) which means knowledge
problems in the parlance of neutrosophic soft set of neutral thought.
theory. From philosophical point of view, the neutrosophic set
takes the value from real standard or non-standard
In this paper we have first introduced the concept of
subsets of ] 0,1 [ . The non-standard finite numbers
neutrosophic multi-criteria assignment
problem(NMCAP) with multiple decision makers. 1 = 1 , where 1 is the standard part and is
the non-standard part and 0 = 0 , where 0 is its
Then we have proposed the new concept of multi-
dimensional neutrosophic soft sets along with few
operations, properties and theorems on them. standard part and is non-standard part. But in real
Moreover an algorithm named 2 DNS has been life application in scientific and engineering problems
it is difficult to use neutrosophic set with value from
developed based on two-dimensional neutrosophic
soft set for solving NMCAP with more than one real standard or non-standard subset of ] 0,1 [ .
decision maker. At last we have applied the Hence we consider the neutrosophic set which takes
2 DNS Algorithm for solving neutrosophic multi- the value from the subset of [0,1] .
criteria assignment problem in medical science to Any element neutrosophically belongs to any set, due
evaluate the effectiveness of different modalities of to the percentages of truth/indeterminacy/falsity
treatment of a disease. involved, which varies between 0 and 1 or even
2 Preliminaries less than 0 or greater than 1 .
Thus x (0.5,0.2,0.3) belongs to A (which
2.1 Definition: Soft Set [6] means, with a probability of 50 percent x is in
Let U be an initial universe set and E be a set of A , with a probability of 30 percent x is not in
parameters. Let P (U ) denotes the set of all subsets A and the rest is undecidable); or y (0,0,1)
of U . Let A E . Then a pair ( F , A) is called a belongs to A (which normally means y is not for
soft set over U , where F is a mapping given by, sure in A ); or z (0,1,0) belongs to A (which
F : A P (U ) . means one does know absolutely nothing about z s
In other words, a soft set over U is a parameterized affiliation with A ); here 0.5 0.2 0.3 = 1 ; thus
family of subsets of the universe U . A is a NS and an IFS too.
The subsets representing the appurtenance,
2.2 Definition: NOT Set of a Set of indeterminacy and falsity may overlap, say the
Parameters [9] element z (0.30,0.51,0.28) and in this case
Let E = {e1 , e2 , e3 ,...., en } be a set of parameters. 0.30 0.51 0.28 > 1 ; then B is a NS but is not

Tanushree Mitra Basu, Shyamal Kumar Mondal, Multi-Criteria Assignment Techniques in Multi-Dimensional
Neutrosophic Soft Set Theory
Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017 51

an IFS; we can call it paraconsistent set (from Table-1: Cost Matrix


paraconsistent logic, which deals with paraconsistent
information). MACHINES
Or, another example, say the element M1 M 2 M 3 M 4
z (0.1,0.3,0.4) belongs to the set C , and here
A 7 25 16 10
0.1 0.3 0.4 < 1; then B is a NS but is not an

JOBS
B 12 27 3 25
IFS; we can call it intuitionistic set (from
intuitionistic logic, which deals with incomplete
C 37 18 17 14
information). D 18 25 23 9
Remarkably, in a NS one can have elements which
have paraconsistent information (sum of
components > 1 ), or incomplete information (sum 3 Neutrosophic Multi-Criteria Assignment
Problems With Multiple Decision Makers
of components < 1 ), or consistent information (in
the case when the sum of components = 1 ). Normally in traditional assignment problems one
person is assigned for one job with respect to a single
2.4 Definition: Complement of a criterion but in real life there are different problems in
Neutrosophic Set [18] which one person can be assigned for one job with
The complement of a neutrosophic set S is denoted respect to more than one criteria. Such type of
by c (S ) and is defined by problems is known as Multi-Criteria Assignment
Tc( S ) ( x) = FS ( x), I c( S ) ( x) = 1 I S ( x), Fc( S ) ( x) = TS ( x)x X Problem(MCAP). Moreover in such MCAP if atleast
one criterion be neutrosophic in nature then the
2.5 Definition: Neutrosophic Soft Set [12] problems will be called Neutrosophic Multi-Criteria
Let U be an initial universe set and E be a set of Assignment Problem(NMCAP). Now there may be
parameters. Consider A E . Let P (U ) denotes such type of NMCAP in which the criteria matrices are
the set of all neutrosophic sets of U . The collection determined by more than one decision makers
according to their own opinions. In such type of
( F , A) is termed to be the neutrosophic soft set problems there may be more than one matrices
over U , where F is a mapping given by associated with a single criterion as the criteria are
F : A P (U ) . determined by multiple decision makers. Now we will
discuss these new type of NMCAP with more than one
decision makers and develop an algorithm to solve
2.6 Traditional Assignment Problems [15]
Sometimes we are faced with a type of problem which such type of problems.
consists in assigning men to offices, jobs to machines,
classes in a school to rooms, drivers to trucks, delivery
trucks to different routs or problems to different 3.1 General Formulation of a Neutrosophic
research teams etc in which the assignees posses Multi-Criteria Assignment Problem With
varying degree of efficiency, called cost or Multiple Decision Makers
effectiveness. The basic assumption of this type of
problem is that one person can perform one job at a Let m jobs have to be performed by m number of
time with respect to one criterion. An assignment plan machines depending on p number of criteria (each
is optimal if it optimizes the total effectiveness of criterion is neutrosophic in nature) according to q
performing all the jobs. number of decision makers. Now suppose that to
Example 2.1
perform j -th job by i -th machine it will take the
Let us consider the assignment problem represented by
the following cost matrix (Table- 1 ) in which the degree of efficiency qk for the k -th criterion
elements represent the cost in lacs required by a
machine to perform the corresponding job. The
according to the q -th decision maker. Then the k-
problem is to allocate the jobs to the machines so as to th ( k = 1,2,...., p ) criteria matrix according to q -th
minimize the total cost. decision maker will be as given in Table- 2 .

Tanushree Mitra Basu, Shyamal Kumar Mondal, Multi-Criteria Assignment Techniques in Multi-Dimensional
Neutrosophic Soft Set Theory
52 Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017

Table-2: criteria matrix of k -th criterion


for q -th decision maker Table-5:Time Matrix by Mr.X and Mr.Y
MACHINES MACHINES
M1 M2 M3 M M1 M2 M3
m

J1 q11
k
q12
k
q13
k k
q1m
(0.3,0.5,0.8) (0.7,0.2,0.4) (0.5,0.2,0.6)
J3 k
JOBS

k k k
q31 q32 q33 q3 m

JOBS
J2 (0.2,0.5,0.9) (0.5,0.3,0.7)
(0.8,0.3,0.3)
J m qm1 qm2 qm3
k k k
qmm
k

J3 (0.5,0.3,0.6) (0.5,0.4,0.5) (0.4,0.3,0.7)


If the number of jobs and machines be equal in a
criteria matrix then it is called a balanced criteria
matrix otherwise it is known as unbalanced criteria
matrix. Now the problem is to assign each machine
with a unique job in such a way that the total degree of The problem is to allocate the jobs J1 , J 2 , J 3 to the
efficiency for an allocation will be optimized for all machines M 1 , M 2 , M 3 so as to minimize the total
criteria which is illustrated in the following example.
Example 3.1 cost and time collectively and simultaneously.
Let us consider a NMCAP represented by the
following cost matrices and time matrix in which the 4 The Concept of Multi-Dimensional
criteria are neutrosophic in nature and the elements of Neutrosophic Soft Set
the matrices are representing the degree of cost and
time required by a machine to perform the 4.1 Definition: Multi-Dimensional Neutrosophic
corresponding job according to two decision makers Soft Set
Mr. X and Mr.Y. Let U1 , U 2 ,......... ., U n be n non-null finite sets
Table-3:Cost Matrix by Mr.X of n different type of objects such that,
MACHINES
U 1 = {O1 , O2 ,....., Om1 }, U 2 = {O1' , O2' ,...., Om' 2 },.
M1 M2 M3
.......... ., U n = {O1( n 1) , O2( n 1) ,...., Omn
( n 1)
};
(0.8,0.2,0.6) (0.2,0.5,0.9) (0.6,0.4,0.4) where m1, m2,...., mn respectively be the
cardinalities of U1 ,U 2 ,........, U n and let
JOBS

(0.2,0.6,0.8) (0.7,0.2,0.5) (0.6,0.3,0.5) U = U1 U 2 .......... .. U n . Now let E be the


set of parameters clarifying all types of objects
(0.6,0.3,0.5) (0.6,0.2,0.7) (0.6,0.1,0.5) Oi1 , Oi'2 ,...., Oin( n1) ;
i1 = 1,2,..., m1; i 2 = 1,2,..., m2;........ ...; in = 1,2,..., mn
and each parameter is a neutrosophic word or
neutrosophic sentence involving neutrosophic words
and A E . Suppose that N
U
Table-4:Cost Matrix by Mr.Y denotes all
MACHINES neutrosophic sets of U . Now a mapping F is
U
M1 M2 M3 defined from the parameter set A to N , i.e.,
F : A N , then the algebraic structure ( F , A)
U

J1 (0.7,0.4,0.3) (0.2,0.5,0.9) (0.5,0.4,0.6) is said to be a n -Dimensional neutrosophic soft set


over U .
(0.3,0.6,0.8) (0.7,0.2,0.4) (0.6,0.4,0.3)
JOBS

J2 Now n may be finite or, infinite. If n = 1 then


( F , A) will be the conventional neutrosophic soft
J3 (0.5,0.3,0.6) (0.6,0.3,0.5) (0.5,0.2,0.7)
set, ifn = 2 then ( F , A) is said to be a two-
dimensional neutrosophic soft set, if n = 3 then

Tanushree Mitra Basu, Shyamal Kumar Mondal, Multi-Criteria Assignment Techniques in Multi-Dimensional
Neutrosophic Soft Set Theory
Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017 53

( F , A) is said to be a three-dimensional ( J 3 , M 2 )/(.5,.6,.7), ( J 3 , M 3 )/(.6,.3,.5),


neutrosophic soft set and so on.
( J 3 , M 4 )/(.3,.4,.8)}
4.2 The Features of Multi-Dimensional Now the two-dimensional neutrosophic soft set
Neutrosophic Soft Set Compared to Neutrosophic ( F , A) describing the requirements for the objects
Soft Set is given by,
Neutrosophic soft set is just a special type of multi- ( F , A) = {cost requirement
dimensional neutrosophic soft set where the
dimension i.e., the number of the set of objects is one. = {( J 1 , M 1 )/(.8,0.3,0.4),( J 1 , M 2 )/(.3,.2,.8),
( J 1 , M 3 )/(.5,.4,.6), ( J 1 , M 4 )/(.7,.2,.3),
A neutrosophic soft set indicates that how a single set
of objects is involved with a single set of parameters ( J 2 , M 1 )/(.2,.3,.9), ( J 2 , M 2 )/(.7,.3,.4)
(or, criteria) where as a n -dimensional neutrosophic
soft set( n may be any positive integer) reveals the
( J 2 , M 3 )/(.5,.5,.6), ( J 2 , M 4 )/(.3,.2,.8),
involvement of n number of sets of different types ( J 3 , M 1 )/(.6,.4,.6), ( J 3 , M 2 )/(.4,.2,.6),
of objects with a single set of parameters(or, criteria).
So from the perspective of application, multi-
( J 3 , M 3 )/(.3,.4,.8), ( J 3 , M 4 )/(.7,.2,.5)},
dimensional neutrosophic soft set has more vast time requirement = {( J 1 , M 1 )/(.2,.3,.9), ( J 1 , M 2 )/(.6,.3,.5),
scope than the conventional neutrosophic soft set. ( J 1 , M 3 )/(.5,.3,.7), ( J 1 , M 4 )/(.4,.5,.8), ( J 2 , M 1 )/(.7,.2,.5),
Now we will discuss the example, operations and
( J 2 , M 2 )/(.2,.3,.9), ( J 2 , M 3 )/(.6,.3,.5), ( J 2 , M 4 )/(.6,.2,.7),
properties of two-dimensional neutrosophic soft set
and for the higher dimensional neutrosophic soft set ( J 3 , M 1 )/(.4,.3,.7), ( J 3 , M 2 )/(.5,.6,.7), ( J 3 , M 3 )/(.6,.3,.5),
they can also be established in the identical manner. ( J 3 , M 4 )/(.3,.4,.8)}
Example 4.1: Let U1 be the set of three jobs, say, The Tabular Representation of the two-dimensional
U1 = {J1 , J 2 , J 3} and let U 2 be the set of four neutrosophic soft set ( F , A) is as follows:
machines, say, U 2 = {M 1 , M 2 , M 3 , M 4 } . Now let
Table-6
E = { cost requirement , time requirement , Tabular Representation of ( F , A)
troublesome due to transportation }
.
= {e1 , e2 , e3 }(say). e1 e2
Let A = {e1 , e2 } ( J1 , M1 ) (.8,0.3,0.4) (.2,.3,.9)
Now let U = U1 U 2 and F : A N , s.t., ( J1 , M 2 ) (.3,.2,.8) (.6,.3,.5)
U

F (cost requirement ) ( J1 , M 3 ) (.5,.4,.6) (.5,.3,.7)


= {( J 1 , M 1 )/(.8,0.3,0.4), ( J1 , M 4 ) (.7,.2,.3) (.4,.5,.8)

( J 1 , M 2 )/(.3,.2,.8), ( J 1 , M 3 )/(.5,.4,.6), ( J 2 , M1 ) (.2,.3,.9) (.7,.2,.5)

( J 1 , M 4 )/(.7,.2,.3), ( J 2 , M 1 )/(.2,.3,.9), (J2 , M 2 ) (.7,.3,.4) (.2,.3,.9)


( J 2 , M 2 )/(.7,.3,.4)(J 2 , M 3 )/(.5,.5,.6), (J2, M 3) (.5,.5,.6) (.6,.3,.5)

( J 2 , M 4 )/(.3,.2,.8), ( J 3 , M 1 )/(.6,.4,.6), (J2 , M 4 ) (.3,.2,.8) (.6,.2,.7)


( J 3 , M 2 )/(.4,.2,.6), ( J 3 , M 3 )/(.3,.4,.8), ( J 3 , M1 ) (.6,.4,.6) (.4,.3,.7)
and
( J 3 , M 4 )/(.7,.2,.5)} (J3, M 2 ) (.4,.2,.6) (.5,.6,.7)
F (time requirement ) = {( J 1 , M 1 )/(.2,.3,.9), (J3, M 3 ) (.3,.4,.8) (.6,.3,.5)
( J 1 , M 2 )/(.6,.3,.5), ( J 1 , M 3 )/(.5,.3,.7), (J3, M 4 ) (.7,.2,.5) (.3,.4,.8)
( J 1 , M 4 )/(.4,.5,.8), ( J 2 , M 1 )/(.7,.2,.5),
4.3 Definition: Choice Value:
( J 2 , M 2 )/(.2,.3,.9), ( J 2 , M 3 )/(.6,.3,.5), According to a decision making problem the
( J 2 , M 4 )/(.6,.2,.7), ( J 3 , M 1 )/(.4,.3,.7), parameters of a decision makers choice or
requirement which forms a subset of the whole

Tanushree Mitra Basu, Shyamal Kumar Mondal, Multi-Criteria Assignment Techniques in Multi-Dimensional
Neutrosophic Soft Set Theory
54 Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017

parameter set of that problem are known as choice defined by ( F , A)C = ( F C , A) where
parameters.
Choice value of an object is the sum of the true- F : A N
C U
where A is the NOT set of the
membership values of that object corresponding to all parameter set A .
the choice parameters associated with a decision
making problem. 4.9 Definition: Union
The union of two two-dimensional neutrosophic soft
4.4 Definition: Rejection Value: sets ( F , A) and (G , B ) over the same universe
Rejection value of an object is the sum of the falsity-
membership values of that object corresponding to all U
the choice parameters associated with a decision where U = U 1 U 2 ;U 1 = {O1 , O2 ,....., Oi },
making problem. )
U 2 = {O1' , O2' ,...., O 'j }; i, j N
4.5 Definition: Confusion Value: and over the parameter set E (where A, B E
Confusion value of an object is the sum of the
and each parameter is a neutrosophic word or
indeterminacy-membership values of that object
neutrosophic sentence involving neutrosophic
corresponding to all the choice parameters associated ~
with a decision making problem. words)is denoted by ( F , A) (G, B) and is
~
defined by ( F , A) (G, B) = ( H , C )
4.6 Definition: Null Two-dimensional
where
Neutrosophic Soft Set:
Let U1 U 2 be the initial universe set, E be the
F ( e ), if e( A B )

H ( e ) = G ( e ), if e( B A)
universe set of parameters and A E . Then a two- ' ' ' '
{(Oi ,O j )/ max{ F ( e ) (Oi ,O j ), G ( e ) (Oi ,O j )}(Oi ,O j )U1U 2 }, if eA B

dimensional neutrosophic soft set ( F , A) is said to


where F ( e ) (Oi , O ) '
and G ( e ) (Oi , O ) '
denote
be a null two-dimensional neutrosophic soft set ( A
j j

) with respect to the parameter set A if for each


the membership values of (Oi , O 'j ) w.r.t the
e A functions F and G respectively associated with
F (e) = {(Oi , O 'j )/0.0}(Oi , O 'j ) U1 U 2 } the parameter e .

4.10 Definition: Intersection


4.7 Definition: Universal Two-dimensional The intersection of two two-dimensional
Neutrosophic Soft Set: neutrosophic soft sets ( F , A) and (G , B ) over
Let U1 U 2 be the initial universe set, E be the
the same universe U where
universe set of parameters and A E . Then a two- U = U 1 U 2 ;U 1 = {O1 , O2 ,....., Oi },
dimensional neutrosophic soft set ( F , A) is said to
be a universal two-dimensional neutrosophic soft U 2 = {O1' , O2' ,...., O 'j }; i, j N
set ( U A ) with respect to the parameter set A if for and over the parameter set E (where A, B E
each e A and each parameter is a neutrosophic word or
neutrosophic sentence involving neutrosophic
F (e) = {(Oi , O 'j )/1.0}(Oi , O 'j ) U1 U 2 } ~
words)is denoted by ( F , A) (G, B) and is
~
defined by ( F , A) (G, B) = ( H , C )
4.8 Definition: Complement of a Two-
dimensional Neutrosophic Soft Set where
The complement of a two-dimensional neutrosophic
F ( e ), if e( A B )
soft set ( F , A) over the universe U where
H ( e ) = G ( e ), if e( B A)

U = U 1 U 2 ;U 1 = {O1 , O2 ,....., Oi }, ' ' ' '


{(Oi ,O j )/ min{ F ( e ) (Oi ,O j ), G ( e ) (Oi ,O j )}(Oi ,O j )U1U 2 }, if eA B

U 2 = {O1' , O2' ,...., O 'j }; i, j N where F ( e ) (Oi , O 'j ) and G ( e ) (Oi , O 'j ) denote
'
over the parameter set E (where each parameter is a the membership values of (Oi , O ) w.r.t the
j
neutrosophic word or neutrosophic sentence involving functions F and G respectively associated with
C
neutrosophic words)is denoted by ( F , A) and is the parameter e .

Tanushree Mitra Basu, Shyamal Kumar Mondal, Multi-Criteria Assignment Techniques in Multi-Dimensional
Neutrosophic Soft Set Theory
Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017 55

profit. Since in such type of problems the degrees of


4.11 Properties: each criterion (or, parameter) of a set of criteria
Let ( F , A), (G , B ) and ( H , C ) be three two- (or, parameter set) are evaluated with respect to
dimensional neutrosophic soft sets over the same two different types of objects, to solve such
problems we can apply two-dimensional
universe U and parameter set E . Then we have,
neutrosophic soft set and their various operations.
(i)(F, A) ~((G, B) ~(H,C)) = ((F, A) ~(G, B)) ~(H,C) The stepwise procedure to solve such type of
~ (G, B) = (G, B)
(ii)(F , A) ~ ( F , A) problems is given below.
2 DNS Algorithm:
(iii)((F , A)C )C = ( F , A) Step 1: Convert each unbalanced criteria matrix to
~ ( F , A) = ( F , A)
(iv)(F , A) balanced by adding a fictitious job or machine with
(v)(F , A) ~ ( F , A) = ( F , A) zero cost of efficiency.
Step 2: From these balanced criteria matrices
(vi)(F , A) ~ = ( F , A) , where is the null construct a two-dimensional neutrosophic soft set
A A
two-dimensional neutrosophic soft set with respect to ( Fi , Ei ) according to each decision maker
the parameter set A . d i ; i = 1,2,..., q; q be the number of decision
~ =
(vii)(F , A) A A makers.
~ U = U , where U is the
(viii)(F , A) Step 3: Combining the opinions of all the decision
A A A
universal two-dimensional neutrosophic soft set with makers about the criteria, take the union of all these
respect to the parameter set A . two-dimensional neutrosophic soft sets
~ U = ( F , A)
(ix)(F , A) ( Fi , Ei ); i = 1,2,..., q as follows
A
~ q (F , E )
( F , E) = i =1 i i
4.12 De Morgans laws in two-dimensional C
neutrosophic soft set theory: Step 4: Then compute the complement ( F , E )
The well known De Morgans type of results hold in of the two-dimensional neutrosophic soft set ( F , E )
two-dimensional neutrosophic soft set theory for the if our aim be to minimize the criteria (such as cost,
newly defined operations: complement, union and time etc.).
intersection. Step 5: Construct the tabular representation of
Theorem 4.1
( F , E ) or, ( F , E ) C according to maximization or
Let ( F , A) and (G , B ) be two two-dimensional
minimization problem with row wise sum of
neutrosophic soft sets over a common universe U parametric values which is known as choice value
and parameter set E . Then ( C( J , M ) ).
~ (G, B))C = ( F , A)C
i )((F , A) ~ (G, B)C i j

~ (G, B))C = ( F , A)C


~ (G, B)C Step 6: Now for i -th job, consider the choice values
ii)((F , A) C( J , M ) , j and point out the maximum choice
i j

5 The Methodology Based On Two- value C(max


J ,M with a .
Dimensional Neutrosophic Soft Set For Solving i j)

Neutrosophic Multi-Criteria Assignment Step 7: If C(max


J ,M holds for all distinct j s then
Problems With Multiple Decision Makers i j)

In many real life problems we have to assign each assign M j machine for J i job and put a tick
object of a set of objects to another object in a different
set of objects such as assigning men to offices, jobs to mark( ) beside the choice values corresponding to
machines, classes in a school to rooms, drivers to M j to indicate that already M j machine has been
trucks, delivery trucks to different routs or problems to
different research teams etc. in which the assignees assigned.
posses varying degree of efficiency, depending on Step 8: If for more than one i , C(max
J ,M hold for
i j)
neutrosophic multiple criteria such as cost, time etc.
The basic assumption of this type of problem is that the same j , ie., if there is a tie for the assignment of
one person can perform one job at a time. To solve M j machine in more than one job then we have to
such type of problems our aim is to make such
assignment that optimize the criteria i.e., minimize the consider the difference value ( Vd ) between the
( Ji ,M j )
degree of cost and time or maximizes the degree of

Tanushree Mitra Basu, Shyamal Kumar Mondal, Multi-Criteria Assignment Techniques in Multi-Dimensional
Neutrosophic Soft Set Theory
56 Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017

maximum and the next to maximum choice 2 DNS Algorithm for solving those problems.
values(corresponding to those machines which are not Now we will discuss a such type of problem with its
yet assigned). If Vd < Vd then M j solution.
( Ji ,M j ) ( Ji ,M j )
1 2 Problem 1: In medical science[19] there are different
machine will be assigned for the job J i . Now if the types of diseases and various modalities of treatments
2 in respect to them. On the basis of different aspects of
difference values also be same, i.e., the treatment procedure (such as degree of pain relief,
Vd = Vd then go to the next step. cost and time requirements for treatment etc.) we may
( Ji ,M j ) ( Ji ,M j ) measure the degree of effectiveness of the treatment
1 2
Step 9: Now for i -th job, consider the rejection for the disease. Here we consider three common
diseases of oral cavity such as dental caries, gum
values R( J , M ) , j and point out the minimum disease and oral ulcer. Now medicinal treatment,
i j
extraction and scaling that are commonly executed,
rejection value R(min
J ,M with a . have more or less impacts on the treatment of these
i j)
three diseases. According to the statistics,
Step 10: If for more than one i , R(min
J ,M hold for ( true-membership value, indeterminacy-membership
i j)
the same j , consider the difference value ( value, falsity-membership value ) of pain relief in case
of medicinal treatment on the basis of pain score for
VdR ) between the minimum and the next to dental caries, gum disease, oral ulcer are
( Ji ,M j )
(0.7,0.7,0.5), (0.6,0.8,0.5) and (0.9,0.5,0.2)
minimum rejection values(corresponding to those
respectively; by extraction the degrees of pain relief
machines which are not yet assigned). If
for dental caries, gum disease and oral ulcer are
VdR < VdR then M j machine will (0.8,0.5,0.3) , (0.8,0.7,0.4) and (0.5,0.7,0.6)
( Ji ,M j ) ( Ji ,M j )
1 2
respectively and by scaling the degrees of pain relief
be assigned for the job J i . Now if the difference for dental caries, gum disease and oral ulcer are
2
values also be same then go to the final step. (0.3,0.8,0.8), (0.9,0.4,0.2) and (0.6,0.7,0.5)
Step 11: Now for i -th job, consider the confusion respectively. Now the degree of cost to avail the
values ( J , M ) , j and point out the minimum medicinal treatment, extraction and scaling for both
i j the diseases dental caries, gum disease are
confusion value (min
Ji ,M j ) with a . (0.4,0.3,0.8), (0.3,0.2,0.7) and (0.5,0.4,0.6)
respectively and that for oral ulcer are
Step 12: If for more than one i , (min
Ji ,M j ) hold for (0.3,0.2,0.8), (0.2,0.3,0.9) and (0.4,0.4,0.7)
the same j , consider the difference value ( respectively. Moreover the degree of time taken to the
medicinal treatment, extraction and scaling for gum
Vd ) between the minimum and the next to disease are
( Ji ,M j )
(0.6,0.3,0.5), (0.4,0.2,0.8), (0.5,0.5,0.6) and
minimum confusion values(corresponding to those
for oral ulcer are
machines which are not yet assigned). If
(0.6,0.4,0.7), (0.4,0.3,0.8), (0.5,0.5,0.5)
Vd < Vd then M j machine will
( Ji ,M j ) ( Ji ,M j ) respectively and that of for dental caries are
1 2
(0.6,0.2,0.3), (0.5,0.4,0.7) and (0.3,0.2,0.9)
be assigned for the job J i . Now if the difference
2 respectively. Now the problem is to assign a
values also be same i.e., Vd = Vd treatment for each disease so that to maximize the
( Ji ,M j ) ( Ji ,M j ) pain relief and minimize the cost and time
1 2
simultaneously as much as possible.
then M j machine may be assigned to any one of the
Solution By 2 DNS Algorithm
jobs J i or J i .
1 2 The set of universe U = U1 U 2 where
U 1 = {dental caries, gum disease, oral ulcer}
6 Application of 2 DNS Algorithm For
= {d1 , d 2 , d 3 },
Solving Neutrosophic Multi-Criteria Assignment
Problems in Medical Science U 2 = {medicinal treatment, extraction, scaling}
In medical science there also exist neutrosophic multi- = {t1 , t 2 , t 3 }
criteria assignment problems and we may apply the

Tanushree Mitra Basu, Shyamal Kumar Mondal, Multi-Criteria Assignment Techniques in Multi-Dimensional
Neutrosophic Soft Set Theory
Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017 57

and the set of parameters


E = { pain score, cost requirement, time requirement F, E = { degree of pain score = {(d1 , t1 )/(0.5,0.3,0.7),
= {e1 , e2 , e3 }(say) (d1 , t 2 )/(0.3,0.2,0.7), (d1 , t 3 )/(0.8,0.2,0.3),
Now from the given data we have the following (d 2 , t1 )/(0.5,0.2,0.6), (d 2 , t 2 )/(0.4,0.3,0.8),
criteria matrices:
(d 2 , t 3 )/(0.2,0.6,0.9), (d 3 , t1 )/(0.3,0.2,0.8),
(d 3 , t 2 )/(0.6,0.3,0.5),(d 3 , t 3 )/(0.5,0.3,0.6)},
degree of cost requirement = {(d1 , t1 )/(0.4,0.3,0.8),
Table-7(Pain Score Matrix)
TREATMENTS (d1 , t 2 )/(0.3,0.2,0.7),(d1 , t 3 )/(0.5,0.4,0.6),
t1 t2 t3 (d 2 , t1 )/(0.4,0.2,0.7),(d 2 , t 2 )/(0.3,0.3,0.8),
(d 2 , t 3 )/(0.5,0.4,0.6),(d 3 , t1 )/(0.3,0.2,0.8),
d1 (0.5,0.2,0.6) (0.4,0.3,0.8) (0.2,0.6,0.9)
(d 3 , t 2 )/(0.2,0.3,0.9),(d 3 , t 3 )/(0.4,0.4,0.7)},
DISEASES

d2 (0.2,0.5,0.9) (0.6,0.3,0.5) (0.5,0.3,0.6) degree of time requirement = {(d1 , t1 )/(0.6,0.2,0.3),


(d1 , t 2 )/(0.5,0.4,0.7),(d1 , t 3 )/(0.3,0.2,0.9),
d3 (0.2,0.5,0.9) (0.6,0.3,0.5) (0.5,0.3,0.6)
(d 2 , t1 )/(0.6,0.3,0.5),(d 2 , t 2 )/(0.4,0.2,0.8),
(d 2 , t 3 )/(0.5,0.5,0.6),(d 3 , t1 )/(0.6,0.4,0.7),
(d 3 , t 2 )/(0.4,0.3,0.8), (d 3 , t3 )/(0.5,0.5,0.5)}}
Table-8(Cost Matrix) Here,
TREATMENTS
t1 t2 t3 E = { pain relief , not requirement of cost,
not requirement of time } = {e1 , e2 , e3 },
d1 (0.4,0.3,0.8) (0.3,0.2,0.7) (0.5,0.4,0.6) then
DISEASES

(0.4,0.2,0.7) (0.3,0.3,0.8) (0.5,0.4,0.6) ( F , E ) c = {degree of pain relief = {(d1 , t1 )/(0.7,0.7,0.5),


d2
(d1 , t 2 )/(0.7,0.8,0.3),(d1 , t 3 )/(0.3,0.8,0.8),
d3 (0.3,0.2,0.8) (0.2,0.3,0.9) (0.4,0.4,0.7) (d 2 , t1 )/(0.6,0.8,0.5),(d 2 , t 2 )/(0.8,0.2,0.4),
(d 2 , t 3 )/(0.9,0.4,0.2),(d 3 , t1 )/(0.8,0.8,0.3),
(d 3 , t 2 )/(0.5,0.7,0.6),(d 3 , t 3 )/(0.6,0.7,0.5)},
degree of not requirement of cost = {(d1 , t1 )/(0.8,0.7,0.4),
Table-9(Time Matrix)
TREATMENTS (d1 , t 2 )/(0.7,0.8,0.3),(d1 , t 3 )/(0.6,0.6,0.5),
t1 t2 t3 (d 2 , t1 )/(0.7,0.8,0.4),(d 2 , t 2 )/(0.8,0.7,0.3),
d1 (0.6,0.2,0.3) (0.5,0.4,0.7) (0.3,0.2,0.9) (d 2 , t 3 )/(0.6,0.6,0.5), (d 3 , t1 )/(0.8,0.8,0.3),
(d 3 , t 2 )/(0.9,0.7,0.2),(d 3 , t 3 )/(0.7,0.6,0.4)},
d2 (0.6,0.3,0.5) (0.4,0.2,0.8) (0.5,0.5,0.6)
degree of not requirement of time = {(d1 , t1 )/(0.3,0.8,0.6),
d3 (0.6,0.4,0.7) (0.4,0.3,0.8) (0.5,0.5,0.5) (d1 , t 2 )/(0.7,0.6,0.5),(d1 , t 3 )/(0.9,0.8,0.3),
(d 2 , t1 )/(0.5,0.7,0.6),(d 2 , t 2 )/(0.8,0.8,0.4),
(d 2 , t 3 )/(0.6,0.5,0.5),(d 3 , t1 )/(0.7,0.6,0.6),
To solve this problem by 2 DNS algorithm at
(d 3 , t 2 )/(0.8,0.7,0.4),(d 3 , t 3 )/(0.5,0.5,0.5)}}
first we have to form the two-dimensional
neutrosophic soft set ( F , E ) describing the c
impact of the treatments for the diseases from the Therefore the tabular representation of ( F , E ) is
given criteria matrices as: as follows:

Tanushree Mitra Basu, Shyamal Kumar Mondal, Multi-Criteria Assignment Techniques in Multi-
Dimensional Neutrosophic Soft Set Theory
58 Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017

Table-10
c
Tabular Representation of ( F , E ) with choice
rejection and confusion values
(C( d ,t ) , R ( di ,t j ) , ( di ,t j ) )
i j

e1 e2 e3 C R( d ,t ) ( d ,t
( d ,t i j) i j i j)
1.8 1.5 2.2
(d1 , t1 ) (0.7,0.7,0.5), (0.8,0.7,0.4) (0.3,0.8,0.6)
*2.1 1.1 2.2
(d1 , t2 ) (0.7,0.8,0.3) (0.7,0.8,0.3) (0.7,0.6,0.5)
1.8 1.6
( d1 , t3 ) (0.3,0.8,0.8) (0.6,0.6,0.5) (0.9,0.8,0.3) 2.2
1.8 1.5 2.3
(d 2 , t1 ) (0.6,0.8,0.5) (0.7,0.8,0.4) (0.5,0.7,0.6)

*2.4 1.1
(d 2 , t2 ) (0.8,0.2,0.4) (0.8,0.7,0.3) (0.8,0.8,0.4) 1.7 Figure 1: Block Diagram of 2DNS -Algorithm to
2.1 1.2 1.5
(d 2 , t3 ) (0.9,0.4,0.2) (0.6,0.6,0.5) (0.6,0.5,0.5) Assign a Treatment for a Disease
1.2 2.2
( d 3 , t1 ) (0.8,0.8,0.3) (0.8,0.8,0.3) (0.7,0.6,0.6)
*2.3
2.2 1.2 2.1
(d 3 , t 2 ) (0.5,0.7,0.6) (0.9,0.7,0.2) (0.8,0.7,0.4) 7 Conclusion:
1.8 1.4 1.8 In this paper, we have introduced a new concept of
( d 3 , t3 ) (0.6,0.7,0.5) (0.7,0.6,0.4) (0.5,0.5,0.5)
multi-dimensional neutrosophic soft set. Using this
new idea, an algorithm named 2 DNS has been
Now among the choice values C( d ; j = 1,2,3 , proposed to solve neutrosophic multi-criteria
3 ,t j )
assignment problems with multiple decision makers.
C( d
3 ,t1 )
is maximum( 2.3 ), which implies that t1 Finally, our newly proposed 2 DNS algorithm
has been applied to solve an assignment problem in
treatment has to be assigned for the disease d 3 .
medical science.
But for both the diseases d1 and d2 ,
References
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[3] W. L. Gau and D. J. Buehrer. Vague Sets. IEEE Trans.
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[4] M.B. Gorzalczany. A method of inference in
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[11] P. K. Maji. Neutrosophic soft set. Annals of Fuzzy
for the disease d1 . Mathematics and Informatics, 5(1)(2013), 157-168.

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Neutrosophic Soft Set Theory
Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017 59

[12] P. K. Maji. A neutrosophic soft set approach to a [16] P. K. De and Y.Bharti. An Algorithm to Solve Multi-
decision making problem. Annals of Fuzzy Mathematics and Objective Assignment Problem Using Interactive Fuzzy
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[13] F Smarandache. Neutrosophic set - a generalisation of 6(34) (2011), 1651-1662.
the intuitionistic fuzzy sets. International Journal of Pure and [17] S.Kar, K. Basu and S. Mukherjee. Solution of Multi-
Applied Mathematics, 24 (2005), 287-297. Criteria Assignment Problem using Neutrosophic Set
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Balanced Solution of a Fuzzy Soft Set Based Decision [18] H Wang, F Smarandache, QY Zhang, R Sunderraman.
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[15] H.W. Kuhn. The Hungarian Method for the assignment [19] Carranza. Carranzas Clinical Periodontology 10th
problem. Naval Research Logistic Quarterly, 2(1955)83-97. edition. Elsevier(A Divison of Reed Elsevier Pvt. Ltd.)2006.

Received: January 31, 2017. Accepted: February 17, 2017.

Tanushree Mitra Basu, Shyamal Kumar Mondal, Multi-Criteria Assignment Techniques in Multi-
Dimensional Neutrosophic Soft Set Theory
Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017 60

University of New Mexico

GRA for Multi Attribute Decision Making in Neutrosophic


Cubic Set Environment
Durga Banerjee1, Bibhas C. Giri2, Surapati Pramanik3, and Florentin Smarandache4
1
Ranaghat Yusuf Institution, P. O. Ranaghat,Dist. Nadia, West Bengal, Pin Code-741201, India. E-mail: dbanerje3@gmail.com
2
Department of Mathematics, Nandalal Ghosh B.T. College, Panpur, PO-Narayanpur, and District: North 24 Parganas, Pin Code: 743126,
West Bengal, India. Email: sura_pati@yahoo.co.in
3
Department of Mathematics, Jadavpur University, West Bengal, India, Pin Code-700032, Email:bcgiri.jumath@gmail.com
4
University of New Mexico. Mathematics & Science Department, 705 Gurley Ave., Gallup, NM 87301, USA. Email: smarand@unm.edu

Abstract. In this paper, multi attribute decision making Hamming distances for weighted GRA coefficients and
problem based on grey relational analysis in neutrosophic standard (ideal) GRA coefficients are determined. The
cubic set environment is investigated. In the decision relative closeness coefficients are derived in order to rank
making situation, the attribute weights are considered as the alternatives. The relative closeness coefficients are
single valued neutrosophic sets. The neutrosophic weights designed in ascending order. Finally, a numerical example
are converted into crisp weights. Both positve and neg- is solved to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed
ative GRA coefficients, and weighted GRA coefficients approach.
are determined.
Keywords: Grey relational coefficient, interval valued neutrosophic set, multi attribute decision making, neutrosophic set,
neutrosophic cubic set, relative closeness coefficient

1 Introduction a weighted correlation coefficients for ranking the altern-


atives for multicriteria decision making (MCDM). Ye [13]
In management section, banking sector, factory, plant
established single valued neutrosophic cross entropy for
multi attribute decision making (MADM) problems are to
MCDM problem. Sodenkamp [14] studied multiple-criteria
be extensively encountered. In a MADM situation, the most
decision analysis in neutrosophic environment. Mondal and
appropriate alternative is selecting from the set of alter-
Pramanik [15] defined neutrosophic tangent similarity
natives based on highest degree of acceptance. In a decision
measure and presented its application to MADM. Biswas et
making situation, decision maker (DM) considers the ef-
al. [16] studied cosine similarity measure based MADM
ficiency of each alternative with respect to each attribute. In
with trapezoidal fuzzy neutrosophic numbers. Mondal and
crisp MADM, there are several approaches [1, 2, 3, 4, 5] in
Pramanik [17] presented multi-criteria group decision
the literature. The weight of each attribute and the elements
making (MCGDM) approach for teacher recruitment in
of decision matrix are presented by crisp numbers. But in
higher education. Mondal and Pramanik [18] studied
real situation, DMs may prefer to use linguistic variables
neutrosophic decision making model of school choice. Liu
like good, bad, hot, cold, tall, etc. So, there is an
and Wang [19] presented MADM method based on single-
uncertainty in decision making situation which can be
valued neutrosophic normalized weighted Bonferroni mean.
mathematically explained by fuzzy set [6]. Zadeh [6]
Biswas et al. [20] presented TOPSIS method for MADM
explained uncertainty mathematically by defining fuzzy set
under single-valued neutrosophic environment. Chi and Liu
(FS). Bellman and Zadeh [7] studied decision making in
[21] presented extended TOPSIS method for MADM on
fuzzy environment. Atanassov [8, 9] narrated uncertainty by
interval neutrosophic set. Broumi et al. [22] presented
introducing non-membership as independent component
extended TOPSIS method for MADM based on interval
and defined intuitionistic fuzzy set (IFS). Degree of indeter-
neutrosophic uncertain linguistic variables. Nabdaban and
minacy (hesitency) is not independent .
Dzitac [23] presented a very short review of TOPSIS in
Later on DMs have recognized that indeterminacy plays
neutrosophic environment. Pramanik et al. [24] studied
an important role in decision making. Smarandache [10]
hybrid vector similarity measures and their applications to
incorporated indeterminacy as independent component and
MADM under neutrosophic environment. Biswas et al. [25]
developed neutrosophic set (NS) and together with Wang
presented triangular fuzzy neutrosophic set information and
et a. [11] defined single valued neutrosophic set (SVNS)
its application to MADM. Sahin and Liu [26] studied
which is an instance of neutrosophic set. Ye [12] proposed

Durga Banerjee, Bibhas C. Giri, Surapati Pramanik, Florentin Smarandache, GRA for Multi Attribute Decision Making
in Neutrosophic Cubic Set Environment
Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017 61

maximizing deviation method for neutrosophic MADM environment. The ranking of alternatives is made in
with incomplete weight information. Ye [27] studied descending order.
bidirectional projection method for MADM with neutr- The rest of the paper is designed as follows: In Section
osophic numbers of the form a + bI, where I is characterized 2, some relevant definitions and properties are recalled.
by indeterminacy. Biswas et al. [28] presented value and Section 3 presents MADM in neutrosophic cubic set
ambiguity index based ranking method of single-valued environment based on GRA. In Section 4, a numerical
trapezoidal neutrosophic numbers and its application to example is solved to illustrate the proposed approach.
MADM. Dey et al. [29] studied extended projection-based Section 5 presents conclusions and future scope of research.
models for solving MADM problems with interval-valued
neutrosophic information. 2 Preliminaries
Deng [30, 31] studied grey relational analysis (GRA).
Pramanik and Mukhopadhyaya [32] developed GRA based In this section, we recall some established definitions
intuitionistic fuzzy multi criteria decision making (MCDM) and properties which are connected in the present article.
approach for teacher selection in higher education. Dey et al. 2.1 Denition (Fuzzy set) [6]
[33] established MCDM in intuitionistic fuzzy environment
based on GRA for weaver selection in Khadi institution. Let W be a universal set. Then a fuzzy set F over W can
Rao, and Singh [34] established modified GRA method for be dened by F={<w, F ( w) : w W} where F ( w ) : W
decision making in manufacturing situation. Wei [35] [0, 1]is called membership function of F and F ( w ) is
presented GRA method for intuitionistic fuzzy MCDM. the degree of membership to which w F.
Biswas et al. [36] studied GRA method for MADM under
single valued neutrosophic assessment based on entropy. 2.2 Denition (Interval valued fuzzy set) [52]
Dey et al. [37] presented extended GRA based neutrosophic Let W be a universal set. Then, an interval valued fuzzy
MADM in interval uncertain linguistic setting. Pramanik set F over W is dened by F = {[ F (w), F (w)] / w : w W},
and K. Mondal [38] employed GRA for interval neutros- where F (w ) and F ( w ) are referred to as the lower and
ophic MADM and presented numerical examples. upper degrees of membership w W where
Several neutrosophic hybrid sets have been recently
proposed in the literature, such as neutrosophic soft set 0 F (w ) + F ( w ) 1, respectively.
proposed by Maji [39], single valued soft expert set pro-
posed by Broumi and Smarandache [40], rough neutros- 2.3 Denition (Cubic set) [46]
ophic set proposed by Broumi, et al. [41], neutrosophic bi- Let W be a non-empty set. A cubic set C in W is of the
polar set proposed by Deli et al. [42], rough bipolar neutro- form c = { w, F(w ), ( w )) / w W} where F is an interval
sophic set proposed by Pramanik and Mondal [43], neutro- valued fuzzy set in W and is a fuzzy set in W.
sophic cubic set proposed by Jun et al. [44] and Ali et al.
[45]. Jun et al. [44] presented the concept of neut-rosophic 2.4 Denition (Neutrosophic set (NS)) [10]
cubic set by extending the concept of cubic set proposed by
Jun et al. [46] and introduced the notions of truth-internal Let W be a space of points (objects) with generic
(indeterminacy-internal, falsity-internal) neut-rosophic element w in W. A neutrosophic set N in W is denoted by
cubic sets and truth-external (indeterminacy-external, N= {< w: TN(w), IN(w), FN(w)>: w W} where TN, IN, FN
falsity-external) and investigated related properties. Ali et al. represent membership, indeterminacy and non-membership
[45] presented concept of neutrosophic cubic set by function respectively. TN, IN, FN can be defined as follows:
extending the concept of cubic set [46] and defined internal
neutrosophic cubic set (INCS) and external neutrosophic TN : W ] 0, 1+ [
cubic set (ENCS). In their study, Ali et al.[45] also

introduced an adjustable approach to neutrosophic cubic set I N : W ] 0, 1+ [
based decision making.

GRA based MADM/ MCDM problems have been pro- FA : W ] 0, 1+ [
posed for various neutrosophic hybrid environments [47, 48,
49, 50]. MADM with neutrosophic cubic set is yet to appear Here, TN(w), IN(w), FN(w) are the real standard and non-

in the literature. It is an open area of research in standard subset of ] 0, 1+ [ and
neutrosophic cubic set environment.
The present paper is devoted to develop GRA method 0 TN(w)+IN(w)+FN(w) 3+.
for MADM in neutrosophic cubic set environment. The
attribute weights are described by single valued neutros- 2.5 Definition (Complement of neutrosophic set)
ophic sets. Positive and negative grey relational coefficients [10]
are determined. We define ideal grey relational coefficients The complement of a neutrosophic set N is denoted by
and relative closeness coefficients in neutrosophic cubic set Nand defined as

Durga Banerjee, Bibhas C. Giri, Surapati Pramanik, Florentin Smarandache, GRA for Multi Attribute Decision Making
in Neutrosophic Cubic Set Environment
62 Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017

N= {<w: TN(w), IN(w), FN(w)>, w W } 1 n


( TP ( w i ) TQ ( w i ) I P ( w i ) I Q ( w i ) FP ( w i ) FQ ( w i ) )
3n i 1
TN(w) = {1+}- TN(w)
IN(w) = {1+} -IN(w) 2. 11 Denition (Interval neutrosophic set) [51]

FN(w) = {1+} - FN(w) Let W be a non-empty set. An interval neutrosophic set


(INS) P in W is characterized by the truth-membership
2.6 Definition (Containment) [10, 20] function PT, the indeterminacy-membership function PI and
the falsity-membership function PF. For each point w W,
A neutrosophic set P is contained in the other PT(w), PI(w),PF(w))[0,1]. Here P can be presented as
neutrosophic set Q, P Q, if and only if follows:
inf (TP ) inf (TQ),sup (TP ) ) sup ((TQ), P ={< w, [PTL ( w ), PTU ( w )] , [PIL ( w ), PIU ( w )] ,
inf (IP ) inf (IQ),sup (IP ) ) sup ((IQ). [PFL ( w ), PFU ( w )] > :w W}.

inf (FP ) inf (FQ),sup (FP ) ) sup ((FQ).


2.12 Denition (Neutrosophic cubic set) [44, 45]
2.7 Definition (Union) [10] Let W be a set. A neutrosophic cubic set (NCS) in W is
The union of two neutrosophic sets P and Q is a a pair (P, ) where P = { w , PT ( w ), PI ( w ), PF ( w ) / w W} is
neutrosophic set R, written as R = P Q, whose truth- an interval neutrosophic set in W and
membership, indeterminacy-membership and falsity
w , T ( w ), I ( w ), F ( w ) / w W is a neutrosophic set
membership functions are related to those of P and Q by in W.
TR(w) = TP(w) + TQ(w) TP(w) TQ(w), 3 GRA for MADM in neutrosophic cubic set
IR(w) = IP(w) + IQ(w) IP(w) IQ(w), environment
FR(w) = FP(w) + FQ(w) FP(w) FQ(w), for all w W. We consider a MADM problem with r alternatives {A1,
A2, , Ar} and s attributes {C1, C2, , Cs}. Every attribute
2.8 Denition (Intersection) [10] is not equally important to decision maker. Decision maker
provides the neutrosophic weights for each attribute. Let
The intersection of two neutrosophic sets P and Q is a W w 1 , w 2 , ..., w s T be the neutrosophic weights of the attrib-
neutrosophic set C, written as R =PQ, whose truth- utes.
membership, indeterminacy-membership and falsity-
membership functions are related to those of P and Q by Step 1 Construction of decision matrix
TR(w) = TP(w) TQ(w), Step1.The decision matrix (see Table 1) is constructed
as follows:
IR(w) = IP(w) IQ(w),
FR(w) = FP(w) FQ(w), for all w W. Table 1: Decision matrix

A (aij )r s
2.9 Denition (Hamming distance) [20, 53]
C1 C2 ... Cs

Let P w i : TP ( w i ), I P (w i ), FP (w i ), i 1, 2, ...,n and A1 (A11 , 11 ) (A12 , 12 ) ... (A1s , 1s )
A 2 (A 21 , 21 ) (A 22 , 22 ) ... (A 2s , 2s )
Q w i : TP ( w i ), I Q ( w i ), FQ ( w i ) , i 1, 2, ...,n be any two . . . . .
. . . . .
neutrosophgic sets. Then the Hamming distance between P . . . . .
and Q can be defined as follows: A ... (A rs , rs ) r s
r (A r1 , r1 ) (A r 2 , r 2 )
d (P, Q) =
Here a ij ( A ij , ij ) , A ij [TijL , TijU ],[I ijL , I ijU ],[FijL , FijU ] ,
(1)
n
( TP ( w i ) TQ ( w i ) I P ( w i ) I Q ( w i ) FP ( w i ) FQ ( w i ) ) ij (Tij , I ij , Fij ) , a i j means the rating of alternative Ai with
i 1
respect to the attribute Cj. Each weight component w j of
2.10 Denition (Normalized Hamming distance) attribute C j has been taken as neutrosophic set and

w j (T j , I j , Fj ) , A ij [TijL , TijU ],[I ijL , I ijU ],[FijL , FijU ]


The normalized Hamming distance between two
SVNSs, A and B can be defined as follows:
N d (P, Q) = are interval neutrosophic set and ij (Tij , I ij , Fij ) is a
(2)
neutrosophic set.

Durga Banerjee, Bibhas C. Giri, Surapati Pramanik, Florentin Smarandache, GRA for Multi Attribute Decision Making
in Neutrosophic Cubic Set Environment
Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017 63

and defined as M j Tjm , I mj , Fjm where Tj min Tijm ,


m

Step 2 Crispification of neutrosophic weight set i

Let w j T j , I j , Fj be the j th neutrosophic weight I mj max I ijm , Fjm max Fijm and (T , I , F ) where

j j j j
for the attribute C j . The equivalent crisp weight of C j is i i

defined as follows: Tj min Tij , I j max I ij , Fj max Fij in the neutrosophic


i i i

cubic decision matrix M (m ij )rs , i = 1,2,...,r and j = 1, 2,


Tj2 I 2j Fj2
w cj
s
and w cj 1 . ...,s.
n
Tj I j Fj j 1
2 2 2

j1 Step 4.3 Definition:


The grey relational coefficients of each alternative
Step 3 Conversion of interval neutrosophic set into neu- from INERS can be defined as:
trosophic set decision matrix
, ij

In the decision matrix (1), each

Aij [TijL , TijU ],[IijL , IijU ],[FijL , FijU ] is an INS. Taking


ij

mid value of each interval the decision matrix reduces to min min ij max max ij min min ij max max ij
i

j i j i j i j
single valued neutrosophic decision matrix (See Table 2). ,


max max ij


max max ij


ij ij
i j i j

Table 2: Neutrosophic decision matrix Here,


M (mij )r s ij d (M j , M ij )


C1 C2 ... Cs
r
A1 (M11 , 11 ) (M12 , 12 ) ... (M1s , 1s ) Tjm Tijm I m
j

I ijm Fjm Fijm
i 1
A 2 (M 21 , 21 ) (M 22 , 22 ) ... (M 2s , 2s )
.
,
. . . .
. and ij dj , ij Tj Tij I j I ij Fj Fij
r
. . . .
. . . . . i 1
A ... (M rs , rs ) r s
r (M r1 , r1 ) (M r 2 , r 2 )
i = 1, 2 ,..., r and j = 1, 2, ..., s, [ 0,1] .
where each m ij M ij , ij and
We call ij , ij as positive grey relational coeffi-
TijL TijU I ijL I ijU FijL FijU
Mij , , T m , I m , F m . cient.
2 2 2 ij ij ij


Step 4.4 Definition:
Step 4 Some definitions of GRA method for MADM with The grey relational coefficient of each alternative from
NCS INEURS can be defined as:
The GRA method for MADM with NCS can be pre-
sented in the following steps:

ij
, ij
min min ij max max ij min min ij max max ij
i j i j
,
i j i j
Step 4.1 Definition: ij max max ij


max max ij


The ideal neutrosophic estimates reliability solution i j
ij
i j
(INERS) can be denoted as Here,
M
, [M1 , 1 , M2 , 2 , ...,Mq , q ] r

ij d (M j , M ij ) Tjm Tijm I mj I ijm Fjm Fijm
i 1

and defined as M j
Tj , I j , Fj , where Tj max Tijm , i and:
m
min I , F m m
min F and m

, i = 1,
I (T , I , F )

ij dj , ij Tj Tij I j I ij Fj Fij
j ij j ij j j j j r
i i
i 1
where T max Tij , I min I ij , F min Fij in the neutro-

j
i
j
i
j
i 2,..., r and j = 1, 2, ..., s, [ 0,1] .
sophic cubic decision matrix M (m ij )pq
, i = 1,2,...,r and j We call ij , ij as negative grey relational coefficient.
= 1, 2, ..., s. is called distinguishable coefficient or identification coef-
ficient and it is used to reflect the range of comparison en-
Step 4.2 Definition: vironment that controls the level of differences of the grey
The ideal neutrosophic estimates unreliability solution relational coefficient. 0 indicates comparison environ-
(INEURS) can be denoted as
M

, M1 , 1 , M2 , 2 , ..., Ms , s ment disappears and 1 indicates comparison environ-
ment is unaltered. Generally, 0.5 is assumed for decision
making.

Durga Banerjee, Bibhas C. Giri, Surapati Pramanik, Florentin Smarandache, GRA for Multi Attribute Decision Making
in Neutrosophic Cubic Set Environment
64 Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017

The negative grey relational coefficient is less than unity


Step 4.5 Calculation of weighted grey relational coeffi- i.e. ij 1, ij 1 .
cients for MADM with NCS Proof:
We can construct two r s order matrices namely
,
From the definition, we can write

M GR

ij

ij rs

and M GR ij , ij
r s
. The crisp weight is min min ij max max ij

i j i j

to be multiplied with the corresponding elements of M GR ij
max max

ij ij

and M GR to obtain weighted matrices W M GR and i j


M GR Now, min min

and defined as: ij ij

w , w ~ , ~
W i j
c c
W

M GR j ij j ij rs ij ij rs min min ij max max ij ij max max ij

M w , w ,
i j i j i j

~ ~c c
and W

GR j ij j ij rs ij ij rs min min max max
ij

ij
ij
i j i j

ij max max ij
Step 4.6 i j

From the definition of grey relational coefficient, it is ij 1


clear that grey relational coefficients of both types must be Again, from the definition
less than equal to one. This claim is going to be proved in
min min ij max max ij
the following theorems.

i j i j

ij max max ij
ij

Theorem 1 i j

Now, min min ij



The positive grey relational coefficient is less than unity ij
i.e. ij 1, and ij 1 .
i j

min min max max ij ij max max ij



ij
Proof: i j i j i j

From the definition max max


min min ij ij
min min ij max max ij ij
i j i j

i j i j
max max ij

ij
ij max max ij
ij
i j

1 .
i j
ij

Now, min min ij ij


i j
Note 1:
min min ij max max ij ij max max ij
i j i j i j i. Since ij 1 , w cj 1 then ij w cj 1 ~ij 1
min min max max
ij

ij
ii. Since ij 1 , w cj 1 then ij w cj 1 ~ij 1
1
i j i j
iii. Since ij 1 , w cj 1 then ij w cj 1 ~ij 1
max max

ij

ij
i j
iv. Since ij 1 , w cj 1 then ij w cj 1 ~ij 1
1
ij

Again, from the definition, we can write: Step 4.7


min min ij max max ij We define the ideal or standard grey relational coeffi-
ij
i j i j
cient as (1, 1). Then we construct ideal grey relational coef-
max max ij

ij

ficient matrix of order r s (see Table 3).
i j
Table 3: Ideal grey relational coefficient matrix
Now, min min ij ij

i j of order r s
min min ij max max ij ij max max ij 1,1 1,1... 1,1

1,1 1,1... 1,1
i j i j i j

ij max max ij I
min min .......... .........

i j i j
1,1 1,1... 1,1
ij
ij max max ij rs
i j

1 .
ij Step 5 Determination of Hamming distances
We find the distance d i between the corresponding el-

Theorem 2 ements of i-th row of I and W M GR by employing Hamming

Durga Banerjee, Bibhas C. Giri, Surapati Pramanik, Florentin Smarandache, GRA for Multi Attribute Decision Making
in Neutrosophic Cubic Set Environment
Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017 65

distance. Similarly, d i can be determined between I and 0.85 0.95 0.05 0.15

M GR by employing Hamming distance as follows:
0.65 0 0.7 0.25

] , i = 1, 2, , r.
W

d i
1 s ~ 1 ~
[ 1 ij
ij 0.05 0.15 0.25 0.45
2s j1
1 s
~ 1 ~
d i [ 1
2s j1
ij ij ] , i = 1, 2, , r. The ( ij ) ( dj , ij ) i, j is presented as below:

0.45 1.2 0.4 0.15


Step 6 Determination of relative closeness coefficient
The relative closeness coefficient can be calculated as: 0.05 0.5 0.2 0.2

d i 0.25 0.3 0.2 0.5


i
d d i
i = 1, 2, ..., r.
i
( ij ) ( d (M j , M ij )) i, j is presented as below:
Step 7 Ranking the alternatives
0.25 0.3 0.7 0.55
According to the relative closeness coefficient, the rank-
ing order of all alternatives is determined. The ranking order 0.45 1.2 0 0.45

is made according to descending order of relative closeness 1.05 0.65 0.6 0.25
coefficients.
The ( ij ) ( dj , ij ) i, j is presented as:
4 Numerical example
Consider a hypothetical MADM problem. The prob- The positive grey relational coefficient M GR

lem consists of single decision maker, three alternatives , ij 34 is presented in the Table 7, at the end of article.

ij

with three alternatives {A1, A2, A3} and four attributes {C1,
C2, C3, C4}. The solution of the problem is presented using The negative grey relational coefficient M GR
ij , ij 34 is
the following steps: presented in the Table 8, at the end of article.
Now, we multiply the crisp weight with the corresponding
Step 1. Construction of neutrosophic cubic decision ma-
elements of M GR and M GR to get weighted matrices W M GR
trix

and W M GR and which are described in the Table 9 and 10
The decison maker forms the decision matrix which is
respectively, at the end of article.
displayed in the Table 4, at the end of article.

Step 2. Crispification of neutrosophic weight set Step 5 Determination of Hamming distances

The neutrosophic weights of the attributes are taken as: Hamming distances are calculated as follows:
W (0.5, 0.2, 0.1), (0.6, 0.1, 0.1), (0.9, 0.2, 0.1), (0.6, 0.3, 0.4) d 1 0.84496, d 1 0.83845625,
T

The equivalent crisp weights are d 2 0.82444375, d 2 0.85328875 ,


W (0.1907), (0.2146), (0.3228), (0.2719)
c T
d 3 0.82368675, d 3 0.85277.
Step 3 Conversion of interval neutrosophic set into neu- Step 6 Determination of relative closeness coefficient
trosophic set in decision matrix The relative closeness coefficients are calculated as:
Taking the mid value of INS in the Table 4, the new decision d 1
1 0.501932
matrix is presented in the following Table 5, at the end of d 1 d 1
article. d 2
2 0.491403576
Step 4 Some Definitions of GRA method for MADM d d 2

2

with NCS d 3
3 0.49132
The ideal neutrosophic estimates reliability solution (IN- d d 3

ERS) M , and the ideal neutrosophic estimates unrelia-


3

bility solution (INEURS) M , are presented in the Ta- Step 7 Ranking the alternatives
ble 6, at the end of article. The ranking of alternatives is made according to de-
scending order of relative closeness coefficients. The rank-
( ij ) ( d (M j , M ij )) i, j is presented as below: ing order is shown in the Table 11 below.

Durga Banerjee, Bibhas C. Giri, Surapati Pramanik, Florentin Smarandache, GRA for Multi Attribute Decision Making
in Neutrosophic Cubic Set Environment
66 Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017

[13] J. Ye. Single valued neutrosophic cross entropy for mul-


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[14] M. Sodenkamp, Models, methods and applications of group
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Journal of New Theory, 3 (2015), 67 88. Received: February 1, 2017. Accepted: February 20, 2017.

Durga Banerjee, Bibhas C. Giri, Surapati Pramanik, Florentin Smarandache, GRA for Multi Attribute Decision Making
in Neutrosophic Cubic Set Environment
68 Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017

Table 4: Construction of neutrosophic cubic decision matrix

A (aij )34

C1 C2 C3 C4
(([0.2, 0.3], [0.3, 0.5], [0.2, 0.5]), ([0.1, 0.3], [0.2, 0.4], [0.3, 0.6]), (([0.6, 0.9], [0.1, 0.2], [0, 0.2]), (([0.4, 0.7], [0.1, 0.3], [0.2, 0.3]),
A
1 (0.3, 0.2, 0.3)) (0.2, 0.5, 0.4)) (0.4, 0.5, 0.1)) (0.7, 0.3, 0.2))

([0.6, 0.8], [0.4, 0.6], [0.3, 0.7]), ([0.7, 0.9], [0.2, 0.3], [0.1, 0.3]), (([0.5, 0.7], [0.4, 0.6], [0.3, 0.5]),
A2 (([0.4, 0.5], [0.1, 0.3], [0.2, 0.3]),
(0.5, 0.2, 0.1)) (0.7, 0.3, 0.3)) (0.4, 0.1, 0.2))
(0.6, 0.2, 0.1))

.
(([0.4, 0.9], [0.1, 0.4], [0, 0.2]), (([0.8, 0.9], [0.4, 0.7], [0.4, 0.6]), (([0.6, 0.9], [0.1, 0.3], [0, 0.3]), (([0.6, 0.8], [0.5, 0.7], [0.2, 0.4]),
A3
(0.25, 0.15, 0.1)) (0.8, 0.1, 0.2)) (0.5, 0.4, 0.3)) (0.5, 0.1, 0.4))

Table 5: Construction of neutrosophic decision matrix

M (mij )34

C1 C2 C3 C4

A1 ((0.25, 0.4, 0.35), (0.3, 0.2, 0.3)) ((0.2, 0.3, 0.45), (0.2, 0.5, 0.4)) ((0.55, 0.2, 0.25), (0.7, 0.3, 0.2))
((0.75, 0.15, 0.1), (0.4, 0.5, 0.1))

A2 ((0.7,0.5, 0.5), (0.5, 0.2, 0.1)) ((0.8, 0.25, 0.2), (0.7, 0.3, 0.3)) ((0.6, 0.5, 0.4), (0.4, 0.1, 0.2))
((0.45, 0.2, 0.25), (0.6, 0.2, 0.1))
.
A ((0.7, 0.6, 0.3), (0.5, 0.1, 0.4))
3 ((0.65, 0.25, 0.1), (0.25, 0.15, 0.1)) ((0.85, 0.55, 0.5), (0.8, 0.1, 0.2)) ((0.75, 0.2, 0.15), (0.5, 0.4, 0.3))

Table 6: The ideal neutrosophic estimates reliability solution (INERS) M ,


and the ideal neutrosophic estimates unreliability solution (INEURS) M ,

(0.7,0.25,0.1), (0.85,0.25,0.2), (0.75,0.15,0.1), (0.7,0.2,0.25),



M
,
(0.5,0.15,0.1) (0.8,0.1,0.2) (0.5,0.1,0.1) (0.7,0.1,0.1)

(0.25,0.5,0.5), (0.2,0.55,0.5), (0.6,0.5,0.4), (0.45,0.6,0.3),


M
,
(0.25,0.2,0.3) (0.2,0.5,0.4) (0.4,0.5,0.3) (0.5,0.3,0.4)


Table 7: The positive grey relational coefficient M GR ij , ij 34

(0.3585, 0.6190) (0.333, 0.3611) (0.9048, 0.65) (0.76, 0.7222)




M GR (0.4222, 1 ) (1, 0.5909) (0.4042, 0.8125) (0.6552, 0.8125)
(0.9048, 0.7647) (0.76, 0.7222) (0.6552, 0.8125) (0.5135, 0.5909)

Durga Banerjee, Bibhas C. Giri, Surapati Pramanik, Florentin Smarandache, GRA for Multi Attribute Decision Making
in Neutrosophic Cubic Set Environment
Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017 69


Table 8: The negative grey relational coefficient M GR ij , ij 34

(0.7059, 0.5454) (0.6667,1) (0.4615, 0.75) (0.5217, 0.6)




M GR ( 0.5714, 0.5714) (0.3333, 0.4286) (1, 0.5454) (0.5714, 0.5454)
(0.3636, 0.7059) (0.48, 0.3333) (0.7059, 0.75)
(0.5, 0.75)

Table 9: Weighted matrix



W M GR W

M GR
(0.06836, 0.11804) (0.07153, 0.07749) (0.29207, 0.20982) (0.20664, 0.19637)

(0.08051, 0.1907 ) (0.2146, 0.12681) (0.13048, 0.26228) (0.17815, 0.22092)
(0.17252, 0.14583) (0.163096, 0.15498) (0.21150, 0.26228) (0.13962, 0.16066)


Table 10: Weighted matrix W M GR
(0.13461, 0.10401) (0.14307, 0.2146) (0.14897, 0.2421) (0.14185, 0.16314)

W

M GR ( 0.10896, 0.10896) (0.07153, 0.08173) (0.3228,0.17606) (0.15536, 0.14829)
(0.06934, 0.13461) (0.10301, 0.07153) (0.1614, 0.2421) (0.19193, 0.20392)

Durga Banerjee, Bibhas C. Giri, Surapati Pramanik, Florentin Smarandache, GRA for Multi Attribute Decision Making
in Neutrosophic Cubic Set Environment
Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017 70

University of New Mexico

Bipolar Neutrosophic Projection Based Models for


Solving Multi-attribute Decision Making Problems
Surapati Pramanik1, Partha Pratim Dey2, Bibhas C. Giri3, and Florentin Smarandache4
1
Department of Mathematics, Nandalal Ghosh B.T. College, Panpur, P.O.-Narayanpur, District - North 24 Parganas, Pin Code-743126, West Bengal,
India. E-mail: sura_pati@yahoo.co.in
2
Department of Mathematics, Jadavpur University, Kolkata-700032, West Bengal, India. E-mail: parsur.fuzz@gmail.com
3
Department of Mathematics, Jadavpur University, Kolkata-700032, West Bengal, India. E-mail: bcgiri.ju.math@gmail.com
4
University of New Mexico. Mathematics & Science Department, 705 Gurley Ave., Gallup, NM 87301, USA. Email: fsmarandache@gmail.com

Abstract. Bipolar neutrosophic sets are the extension of of bipolar neutrosophic values. We calculate projection,
neutrosophic sets and are based on the idea of positive and bidirectional projection, and hybrid projection measures
negative preferences of information. Projection measure is between each alternative and ideal alternative with bipolar
a useful apparatus for modelling real life decision making neutrosophic information. All the alternatives are ranked
problems. In the paper, we define projection, bidirectional to identify the best alternative. Finally, a numerical exam-
projection and hybrid projection measures between bipo- ple is provided to demonstrate the applicability and effec-
lar neutrosophic sets. Three new methods based on the tiveness of the developed methods. Comparison analysis
proposed projection measures are developed for solving with the existing methods in the literature in bipolar neu-
multi-attribute decision making problems. In the solution trosophic environment is also performed.
process, the ratings of performance values of the alterna-
tives with respect to the attributes are expressed in terms

Keywords: Bipolar neutrosophic sets; projection measure; bidirectional projection measure; hybrid projection measure; multi-
attribute decision making.

1 Introduction membership, indeterminate membership and falsity


membership of an element x X corresponding to the
For describing and managing indeterminate and inconsistent
bipolar neutrosophic set Q and the negative membership
information, Smarandache [1] introduced neutrosophic set
which has three independent components namely truth degrees TQ (x) , I Q (x ) , and FQ (x) denote respectively the
membership degree (T), indeterminacy membership degree truth membership, indeterminate membership and false
(I) and falsity membership degree (F) where T, I, and F lie membership degree of an element x X to some implicit
in]-0, 1+[. Later, Wang et al. [2] proposed single valued counter-property corresponding to the bipolar neutrosophic
neutrosophic set (SVNS) to deal real decision making set Q.
problems where T, I, and F lie in [0, 1]. Projection measure is a useful decision making device
Zhang [3] grounded the notion of bipolar fuzzy sets by as it takes into account the distance as well as the included
extending the concept of fuzzy sets [4]. The value of angle for measuring the closeness degree between two
membership degree of an element of bipolar fuzzy set objects [6, 7]. Yue [6] and Zhang et al. [7] studied
belongs to [-1, 1]. With reference to a bipolar fuzzy set, the projection based multi-attribute decision making (MADM)
membership degree zero of an element reflects that the in crisp environment i.e. projections are defined by ordinary
element is irrelevant to the corresponding property, the numbers or crisp numbers. Yue [8] further investigated a
membership degree belongs to (0, 1] of an element reflects new multi-attribute group decision making (MAGDM)
that the element somewhat satises the property, and the method based on determining the weights of the decision
membership degree belongs to [1,0) of an element reflects makers by employing projection technique with interval
that the element somewhat satises the implicit counter- data. Yue and Jia [9] established a methodology for
property. MAGDM based on a new normalized projection measure,
Deli et al. [5] extended the concept of bipolar fuzzy set in which the attribute values are provided by decision
to bipolar neutrosophic set (BNS). With reference to a makers in hybrid form with crisp values and interval data.
bipolar neutrosophic set Q, the positive membership degrees Xu and Da [10] and Xu [11] studied projection method
TQ (x) , I Q (x ) , and FQ (x) represent respectively the truth for decision making in uncertain environment with

Surapati Pramanik, Partha Pratim Dey, Bibhas C. Giri, Florentin Smarandache, Bipolar Neutrosophic Projection Based
Models for Solving Multi-attribute Decision Making Problems
Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017 71

preference information. Wei [12] discussed a MADM et al. [5] also proposed a MCDM approach on the basis of
method based on the projection technique, in which the score, accuracy, and certainty functions and BNWA,
attribute values are presented in terms of intuitionistic fuzzy BNWG operators. Deli and Subas [25] presented a single
numbers. Zhang et al. [13] proposed a grey relational valued bipolar neutrosophic MCDM through correlation
projection method for MADM based on intuitionistic coefficient similarity measure. ahin et al. [26] provided a
trapezoidal fuzzy number. Zeng et al. [14] investigated MCDM method based on Jaccard similarity measure of
projections on interval valued intuitionistic fuzzy numbers BNS. Uluay et al. [27] defined Dice similarity, weighted
and developed algorithm to the MAGDM problems with Dice similarity, hybrid vector similarity, weighted hybrid
interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy information. Xu and Hu vector similarity measures under BNSs and developed
[15] developed two projection based models for MADM in MCDM methods based on the proposed similarity measures.
intuitionistic fuzzy environment and interval valued Dey et al. [28] defined Hamming and Euclidean distance
intuitionistic fuzzy environment. Sun [16] presented a group measures to compute the distance between BNSs and
decision making method based on projection method and investigated a TOPSIS approach to derive the most
score function under interval valued intuitionistic fuzzy desirable alternative.
environment. Tsao and Chen [17] developed a novel In this study, we define projection, bidirectional pro-
projection based compromising method for multi-criteria jection and hybrid projection measures under bipolar neu-
decision making (MCDM) method in interval valued trosophic information. Then, we develop three methods for
intuitionistic fuzzy environment. solving MADM problems with bipolar neutrosophic assess-
In neutrosophic environment, Chen and Ye [18] ments. We organize the rest of the paper in the following
developed projection based model of neutrosophic numbers way. In Section 2, we recall several useful definitions con-
and presented MADM method to select clay-bricks in cerning SVNSs and BNSs. Section 3 defines projection, bi-
construction field. Bidirectional projection measure [19, 20] directional projection and hybrid projection measures be-
considers the distance and included angle between two tween BNSs. Section 4 is devoted to present three models
vectors x, y. Ye [19] defined bidirectional projection for solving MADM under bipolar neutrosophic environment.
measure as an improvement of the general projection In Section 5, we solve a decision making problem with bi-
measure of SVNSs to overcome the drawback of the general polar neutrosophic information on the basis of the proposed
projection measure. In the same study, Ye [19] developed measures. Comparison analysis is provided to demonstrate
MADM method for selecting problems of mechanical the feasibility and flexibility of the proposed methods in
design schemes under a single-valued neutrosophic Section 6. Finally, Section 7 provides conclusions and
environment. Ye [20] also presented bidirectional projection future scope of research.
method for MAGDM with neutrosophic numbers.
Ye [21] defined credibility induced interval 2 Basic Concepts Regarding SVNSs and BNSs
neutrosophic weighted arithmetic averaging operator and
credibility induced interval neutrosophic weighted In this Section, we provide some basic definitions regarding
geometric averaging operator and developed the projection SVNSs, BNSs which are useful for the construction of the
measure based ranking method for MADM problems with paper.
interval neutrosophic information and credibility 2.1 Single valued neutrosophic sets [2]
information. Dey et al. [22] proposed a new approach to
neutrosophic soft MADM using grey relational projection Let X be a universal space of points with a generic element
method. Dey et al. [23] defined weighted projection of X denoted by x, then a SVNS P is characterized by a truth
measure with interval neutrosophic assessments and applied membership function TP (x) , an indeterminate membership
the proposed concept to solve MADM problems with inter- function I P (x) and a falsity membership function FP (x) . A
val valued neutrosophic information. Pramanik et al. [24] SVNS P is expressed in the following way.
defined projection and bidirectional projection measures
between rough neutrosophic sets and proposed two new P = {x, TP ( x), I P ( x), FP ( x) xX}
multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) methods based on where, TP (x) , I P (x) , FP (x) : X [0, 1] and 0 T P (x) +
projection and bidirectional projection measures in rough I P (x) + FP (x) 3 for each point x X.
neutrosophic set environment.
In the field of bipolar neutrosophic environment, Deli 2.2 Bipolar neutrosophic set [5]
et al. [5] defined score, accuracy, and certainty functions in
Consider X be a universal space of objects, then a BNS Q in
order to compare BNSs and developed bipolar neutrosophic
X is presented as follows:
weighted average (BNWA) and bipolar neutrosophic
weighted geometric (BNWG) operators to obtain collective Q = {x, TQ ( x), I Q ( x), FQ ( x), TQ ( x), I Q ( x), FQ ( x) x
bipolar neutrosophic information. In the same study, Deli X},

Surapati Pramanik, Partha Pratim Dey, Bibhas C. Giri, Florentin Smarandache, Bipolar Neutrosophic Projection Based
Models for Solving Multi-attribute Decision Making Problems
72 Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017

where TQ (x) , I Q (x ) , FQ (x) : X [0, 1] and TQ (x) , I Q (x ) , TQ ( x), I Q ( x), FQ ( x), TQ ( x), I Q ( x), FQ ( x)
2 2 2 2 2 2
x X} be

F (x) : X [-1, 0].The positive membership degrees
Q any two BNSs. Their union Q1 Q2 is defined as follows:
TQ (x) , I Q (x ) , FQ (x) denote the truth membership, Q1 Q2 = {Max ( TQ ( x ) , TQ ( x ) ), Min ( I Q ( x) , I Q ( x ) ),
1 2 1 2


indeterminate membership, and falsity membership Min ( F ( x) , F ( x) ), Min ( T ( x ) , T ( x) ), Max ( I Q ( x) ,

Q1

Q2

Q1 Q2 1

functions of an element x X corresponding to a BNS Q and


I Q2 ( x ) ), Max ( FQ1 ( x) , FQ2 ( x) )}, xX.
the negative membership degrees TQ (x) , I Q (x ) , FQ (x)
denote the truth membership, indeterminate membership, Their intersection Q1 Q2 is defined as follows:
and falsity membership of an element x X to several Q1 Q2 = {Min ( TQ ( x ) , TQ ( x ) ), Max ( I Q ( x) , I Q ( x ) ),
implicit counter property associated with a BNS Q. For 1 2 1 2

convenience, a bipolar neutrosophic value (BNV) is Max ( F ( x) , F ( x) ), Max ( T ( x ) , T ( x ) ), Min ( I Q ( x) ,



Q1

Q2

Q1

Q2 1
~ = < T , I , F , T , I , F >.
presented as q Q Q Q Q Q Q I ( x ) ), Min ( F ( x) , F ( x) )}, x X.

Q2

Q1

Q2

Definition 1 [5] Definition 5 [5]


Let, Q1 =
Let q~1 = < TQ , I Q , FQ , TQ , I Q , FQ > and q~2 = < TQ , I Q ,
{x, TQ ( x), I Q ( x), FQ ( x), TQ ( x), I Q ( x), FQ ( x) x X} 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2

FQ2 , TQ2 , I Q2 , FQ2 > be any two BNVs, then


1 1 1 1 1 1

and Q2 = {x,

TQ ( x), I Q ( x), FQ ( x), TQ ( x), I Q ( x), FQ ( x) x X} be i. . q~1 = < 1 (1 - TQ ) , ( I Q ) , ( FQ1 ) , - (- TQ1 ) , - 1 1
2 2 2 2 2 2

any two BNSs. Then Q1 Q2 if and only if (- I ) , - (1 - (1 - (- F )) ) >;
Q1 Q1
~ ) = < ( T ) , 1 - (1 - I ) , 1 - (1 - F ) , - (1

T ( x ) T ( x ) , I ( x ) I ( x ) , F ( x ) F ( x) ;
Q1 Q2 Q1 Q2 Q1 Q2 ii. ( q1 Q1 Q1 Q1
TQ1 ( x ) TQ2 ( x ) , I Q1 ( x ) I Q2 ( x) , FQ1 ( x) FQ2 ( x) for all
(1 - (- TQ1 )) ), - (- I Q1 ) , (- FQ1 ) ) >;
x X.
iii. q~1 + q~2 = < TQ + TQ - TQ . TQ , 1 2 1 2
I Q1 . I Q2 , FQ1 . FQ2 , -
Definition 2 [5] TQ1 . TQ2 , - (- I Q1 - I Q2 - I Q1 . I Q2 ), -
Let, Q1 = {x, TQ ( x), I Q ( x), FQ ( x), TQ ( x), I Q ( x), FQ ( x)
1 1 1 1 1 1
(- FQ1 - FQ2 - FQ1 . FQ2 ) >;
x X} and Q2 =
iv. q~1 . q~2 = < TQ . TQ , I Q1 + I Q2 - I Q1 . I Q2 , FQ1 + FQ2 -
{x, TQ ( x), I Q ( x), FQ ( x), TQ ( x), I Q ( x), FQ ( x) x X} 1 2

FQ1 . FQ2 , - (- TQ1 - TQ2 - TQ1 . TQ2 ), -


2 2 2 2 2 2

be any two BNSs. Then Q1 = Q2 if and only if


TQ ( x ) = TQ ( x ) , I Q ( x ) = I Q ( x) , FQ ( x) = FQ ( x) ; TQ ( x ) I Q1 . I Q2 , - FQ1 . FQ2 > where > 0.
1 2 1 2 1 2 1

= TQ ( x ) , I Q ( x ) = I Q ( x) , FQ ( x) = FQ ( x) for all x X.
2 1 2 1 2
3 Projection, bidirectional projection and hybrid
projection measures of BNSs
Definition 3 [5]
This Section proposes a general projection, a bidirectional
Let, Q = {x, TQ ( x), I Q ( x), FQ ( x), TQ ( x), I Q ( x), FQ ( x)
projection and a hybrid projection measures for BNSs.
x X} be a BNS. The complement of Q is represented by Qc
and is defined as follows: Definition 6
TQ ( x) = {1+} - TQ (x) , I Q ( x) = {1+} - I Q (x ) , FQ ( x) = Assume that X = (x1, x2, , xm) be a finite universe of
c c c
discourse and Q be a BNS in X, then modulus of Q is defined
+
{1 } - F (x) ; Q as follows:
m 2
TQ ( x) = {1-} - TQ (x) , I Q ( x) = {1-} - I Q (x ) , FQ ( x) =
c c c || Q || =
j =
j1

{1-} - F (x) . Q m
[(TQ ) 2 ( I Q ) 2 ( FQ ) 2 (TQ ) 2 ( I Q ) 2 ( FQ ) 2 ] (1)
j1 j j j j j j

Definition 4 where j = TQ ( x), I Q ( x), FQ ( x), TQ ( x), I Q ( x), FQ ( x)


j j j j j j
,
Let, Q1 = j = 1, 2, ..., m.
{x, TQ ( x), I Q ( x), FQ ( x), TQ ( x), I Q ( x), FQ ( x)
1 1 1 1 1 1
x X}
and Q2 = {x,

Surapati Pramanik, Partha Pratim Dey, Bibhas C. Giri, Florentin Smarandache, Bipolar Neutrosophic Projection Based
Models for Solving Multi-attribute Decision Making Problems
Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017 73

Definition 7 [10, 29] ( ) should be equal to 1. Therefore, Ye [20] proposed an


Assume that u = (u1, u2, , um) and v = (v1, v2, , vm) be alternative method called bidirectional projection measure
two vectors, then the projection of vector u onto vector v can to overcome the limitation of general projection measure as
be defined as follows: given below.
m
(u j v j )
u
m 2 j1
Proj (u)v = || u || Cos (u, v) =
j = Definition 9 [20]
j1 m 2 m 2
u
j
v j Consider x and y be any two vectors, then the bidirectional
j1 j1
projection between x and y is defined as follows:
m
(u j v j ) B-proj (x, y) = 1 =
j1
(2) 1 |
x.y

x.y
|
m 2 || x || || y ||
vj
j1
|| x || || y ||
where, Proj (u)v represents that the closeness of u and v in (4)
|| x || || y || | || x || || y || | x. y
magnitude.
where ||x||, ||y|| denote the moduli of x and y respectively,
Definition 8 and x. y is the inner product between x and y.
Assume that X = (x1, x2, , xm) be a finite universe of Here, B-Proj (x, y) = 1 if and only if x = y and 0 B-Proj (x,
discourse and R, S be any two BNSs in X, then y) 1, i.e. bidirectional projection is a normalized measure.
1
Proj ( R) S = || R|| Cos (R, S) = (R.S) (3) Definition 10
|| S || Consider R =
is called the projection of R on S, where
TR ( x i ), I R ( x i ), FR ( x i ), TR ( x i ), I R ( x i ), FR ( x i ) and S =
||R|| =
[(T ) ( x ) ( I ) ( x ) ( F ) ( x ) (T ) ( x ) ( I ) ( x ) ( F ) ( x )] , TS ( x i ), I S ( x i ), FS ( x i ), TS ( x i ), I S ( x i ), FS ( x i )
m 2 2 2 2 2 2
i 1
R i R i R i R i R i R i be any
||S||= two BNSs in X = (x1, x2, , xm), then the bidirectional
m
[(TS ) 2 ( x i ) ( I S ) 2 ( x i ) ( FS ) 2 ( x i ) (TS ) 2 ( x i ) ( I S ) 2 ( x i ) ( FS ) 2 ( x i )], projection measure between R and S is defined as follows:
i 1
B-Proj (R, S) = = || R || || S ||
and R.S = 1
R.S R.S || R || || S || | || R || || S || | R.S
m [TR ( xi )TS ( x ) I R ( xi ) I S ( xi ) FR ( xi ) FS ( xi ) TR ( xi )TS ( xi ) I R ( xi ) I S ( xi ) 1 | |
. || R || || S ||
i 1
FR ( xi ) FS ( xi )]. (5)
Example 1. Suppose that R = < 0.5, 0.3, 0.2, -0.2, -0.1, - where
0.05 >, S = < 0.7, 0.3, 0.1, -0.4, -0.2, -0.3 > be the two BNSs ||R|| =
in X, then the projection of R on S is obtained as follows: m
[(TR ) 2 ( x i ) ( I R ) 2 ( x i ) ( FR ) 2 ( x i ) (TR ) 2 ( x i ) ( I R ) 2 ( x i ) ( FR ) 2 ( x i )]
i 1

1 ,
Proj ( R) S = (R.S) =
|| S || ||S|| =
m
(0.5)(0.7) (0.3)(0.3) (0.2)(0.1) (0.2)(0.4) (0.1)(0.2) (0.05)(0.3) [(TS ) 2 ( x i ) ( I S ) 2 ( x i ) ( FS ) 2 ( x i ) (TS ) 2 ( x i ) ( I S ) 2 ( x i ) ( FS ) 2 ( x i )]
i 1
(0.7) (0.3) (0.1) (0.4) (0.2) (0.3)
2 2 2 2 2 2

and R.S =
= 0.612952 [TR ( xi )TS ( x) I R ( xi ) I S ( xi ) FR ( xi ) FS ( xi ) TR ( xi )TS ( xi ) I R ( xi ) I S ( xi )
m
The bigger value of Proj ( R) S reflects that R and S are
i 1
FR ( xi ) FS ( xi )].
closer to each other.
However, in single valued neutrosophic environment, Ye Proposition 1. Let B-Proj ( R) S be a bidirectional
[20] observed that the general projection measure cannot projection measure between any two BNSs R and S, then
describe accurately the degree of close to . We also 1. 0 B-Proj (R, S) 1;
notice that the general projection incorporated by Xu [11] is 2. B-Proj (R, S) = B-Proj (S, R);
not reasonable in several cases under bipolar neutrosophic 3. B-Proj (R, S) = 1 for R = S.
setting, for example let, = = < a, a, a, -a, -a, -a > and
Proof.
= < 2a, 2a, 2a, -2a, -2a, -2a >, then Proj ( ) = 2.44949 ||a|| 1. For any two non-zero vectors R and S,
and Proj ( ) = 4.898979 ||a||. This shows that is much
1
closer to than which is not true because = . Ye [20] 1 0, 0, when x 0
R.S R.S 1 x
opined that is equal to whenever Proj ( ) and Proj 1 | |
|| R || || S ||

Surapati Pramanik, Partha Pratim Dey, Bibhas C. Giri, Florentin Smarandache, Bipolar Neutrosophic Projection Based
Models for Solving Multi-attribute Decision Making Problems
74 Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017

B-Proj (R, S) 0, for any two non-zero vectors R and S. ||R|| =


m
B-Proj (R, S) = 0 if and only if either || R || = 0 or || S || = 0 [(TR ) 2 ( xi ) ( I R ) 2 ( xi ) ( FR ) 2 ( xi ) (TR ) 2 ( xi ) ( I R ) 2 ( xi ) ( FR ) 2 ( xi )],
i 1
i.e. when either R = (0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0) or S = (0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0) ||S|| =
which is trivial case. m
[(TS ) 2 ( x i ) ( I S ) 2 ( x i ) ( FS ) 2 ( x i ) (TS ) 2 ( x i ) ( I S ) 2 ( x i ) ( FS ) 2 ( x i )],
i 1

B-Proj (R, S) 0 . and


For two non-zero vectors R and S, R.S =
|| R || || S || + | || R || - || S || | R.S || R || || S || m [TR ( xi )TS ( x) I R ( xi ) I S ( xi ) FR ( xi ) FS ( xi ) TR ( xi )TS ( xi ) I R ( xi ) I S ( xi )
|| R || || S || || R || || S || + | || R || - || S || | R.S
i 1
FR ( xi ) FS ( xi )]
where 0 1.
|| R || || S ||
1 Proposition 2
|| R || || S || | || R || || S || | R.S
Let Hyb-Proj (R, S) be a hybrid projection measure between
any two BNSs R and S, then
B-Proj (R, S) 1. 1. 0 Hyb-Proj (R, S) 1;
0 B-Proj (R, S) 1; 2. Hyb-Proj (R, S) = B-Proj (S, R);
3. Hyb-Proj (R, S) = 1 for R = S.
2. From definition, R.S = S.R, therefore,
Proof. The proofs of the properties under Proposition 2 are
|| R || || S || similar as Proposition 1.
B-Proj (R, S) = =
|| R || || S || | || R || || S || | R.S Example 3. Assume that R = < 0.5, 0.3, 0.2, -0.2, -0.1, -0.05
|| S || || R || >, S = < 0.7, 0.3, 0.1, -0.4, -0.2, -0.3 > be the two BNSs, then
|| S || || R || | || S || || R || | S .R
= B-Proj (S, R). the hybrid projection measure between R on S with = 0.7
is calculated as given below.
Hyb-Proj (R, S) = (0.7). (0.612952) + (1 - 0.7).
Obviously, B-Proj (R, S) = 1, only when || R || = || S || i. (0.7927845) = 0.6669018.
e. when TR ( x i ) = TS ( x i ) , I R ( xi ) = I S ( xi ) ,
FR ( xi ) = FS ( xi ) , TR ( x i ) = TS ( x i ) , I R ( xi ) = 4 Projection, bidirectional projection and hybrid
I S ( xi ) , FR ( xi ) = FS .(xi ) projection based decision making methods for
MADM problems with bipolar neutrosophic infor-
This completes the proof. mation
Example 2. Assume that R = < 0.5, 0.3, 0.2, -0.2, -0.1, - In this section, we develop projection based decision
0.05 >, S = < 0.7, 0.3, 0.1, -0.4, -0.2, -0.3 > be the BNSs in making models to MADM problems with bipolar
X, then the bidirectional projection measure between R on S neutrosophic assessments. Consider E = {E1, E2, , Em},
is computed as given below. (m 2) be a discrete set of m feasible alternatives, F = {F1,
B-Proj (R, S) = F2, , Fn}, (n 2) be a set of attributes under consideration
(0.6576473).(0.9380832) and w = (w1, w2, , wn)T be the weight vector of the
(0.6576473).(0.9380832) | 0.9380832 06576473 | (0.575)
n
attributes such that 0 wj 1 and w j = 1. Now, we present
j1
= 0.7927845
three algorithms for MADM problems involving bipolar
Definition 11 neutrosophic information.
Let R =
4.1. Method 1
T R ( x i ), I R ( x i ), FR ( x i ), T R ( x i ), I R ( x i ), FR ( x i ) and S =
Step 1. The rating of evaluation value of alternative Ei (i =
TS ( x i ), I S ( x i ), FS ( x i ), TS ( x i ), I S ( x i ), FS ( x i ) be any 1, 2, , m) for the predefined attribute Fj (j = 1, 2, , n) is
two BNSs in X = (x1, x2, , xm), then hybrid projection presented by the decision maker in terms of bipolar
measure is defined as the combination of projection neutrosophic values and the bipolar neutrosophic decision
measure and bidirectional projection measure. The hybrid matrix is constructed as given below.
projection measure between R and S is represented as q11 q12 ... q1n
follows:
Hyb-Proj (R, S) = Proj ( R) S + (1 - ) B-Proj (R, S) q 21 q 22 ... q 2 n
qij = . . ... .
R.S || R || || S || mn
= + (1 - ) (6) . . ... .
|| S || || R || || S || | || R || || S || | R.S
q
where m1 q m 2 ... q mn

Surapati Pramanik, Partha Pratim Dey, Bibhas C. Giri, Florentin Smarandache, Bipolar Neutrosophic Projection Based
Models for Solving Multi-attribute Decision Making Problems
Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017 75

where qij = < ( Tij , I ij , Fij , Tij , I ij , Fij ) > with Tij , I ij , Fij , 4.2. Method 2

- Tij , - I ij , - Fij [0, 1] and 0 Tij + I ij + Fij - Tij - I ij - Fij Step 1. Give the bipolar neutrosophic decision matrix
6 for i = 1, 2, , m; j = 1, 2, , n. qij , i = 1, 2, , m; j = 1, 2, , n.
mn

Step 2. We formulate the bipolar weighted decision matrix


by multiplying weights wj of the attributes as follows: Step 2. Construct weighted bipolar neutrosophic decision
z11 z12 ... z1n matrix z ij , i = 1, 2, , m; j = 1, 2, , n.
m n

z 21 z 22 ... z 2n
wj qij = z ij = . . ... . Step 3. Determine z
PIS
e j , f j , g j , e j , f j , g j ; j
mn mn = 1, 2, , n.
. . ... .
z
m1 z m2 ... z mn Step 4. Compute the bidirectional projection measure
PIS
between z and Zi = z ij for all i = 1, 2, , m; j = 1,
where zij = wj. q ij = < 1 (1 - Tij ) , ( I ij ) , ( Fij )
wj wj wj
, - (- m n
2, , n using the Eq. as given below.
|| Z i || || z PIS ||
Tij ) , - (- I ij ) , - (1 (1 (- Fij )) ) > = < ij , ij , ij ,
wj wj wj
B-Proj (Zi, z P IS ) = (8)
|| Z i || || z PIS || | || Z i || || z PIS || | Z i .z PIS
, , > with , , , - , - , - [0, 1] and

ij ij ij ij ij ij ij ij ij
where || Z i || = n
[(ij )2 ( ij )2 (ij )2 ( ij )2 ( ij )2 (ij )2 ] , i
0 + + - - - 6 for i = 1, 2, , m; j = 1,
j 1
ij ij ij ij ij ij
= 1, 2, ..., m.
2, , n.
|| z PIS || =
Step 3. We identify the bipolar neutrosophic positive ideal n
[(e j ) 2 ( f j ) 2 ( g j ) 2 (e j ) 2 ( f j ) 2 ( g j ) 2 ] and
solution (BNPIS) [27, 28] as follows: j 1

z P IS e j , f j , g j , e j , f j , g j = < [{ Max ( ij ) |j };

[ijej ij f j ij g j ijej ij f j ij g j ] , i =
n
i
Z i .z PIS =
j1

{ Min ( ij ) |j }], [{ Min ( ij ) | j }; { Max ( ij ) |j 1, 2, ..., m.


i i i

}], [{ Min ( ij ) |j }; Step 5. According to the bidirectional projection measure B-


i
Proj (Zi, z P IS ) for i = 1, 2, , m the alternatives are ranked
{ Max ( ij ) |j }], [{ Min ( ij ) |j }; { Max (ij ) |j and highest value of B-Proj (Zi, z P IS ) reflects the best
i i i
option.
}], [{ Max ( ) |j }; { Min ( ) |j }],

ij

ij
i i
4.3. Method 3
[{ Max ( ij ) |j }; { Min ( ij ) |j }] >, j = 1, 2, , n,
i i

where and are benefit and cost type attributes Step 1. Construct the bipolar neutrosophic decision matrix
respectively. q ij , i = 1, 2, , m; j = 1, 2, , n.
m n

Step 4. Determine the projection measure between z P IS and Step 2. Formulate the weighted bipolar neutrosophic
Zi = z ij for all i = 1, 2, , m; j = 1, 2, , n by using the
mn
following Eq. decision matrix z ij , i = 1, 2, , m; j = 1, 2, , n.
m n
Proj ( Z i ) z P IS

[ e j ij f j ij g j ij e j ij f j ij g j ] Step 3. Identify z P IS e j , f j , g j , e j , f j , g j
n

ij , j = 1, 2, ,
= j1 (7)
n n.
[(e j ) 2 ( f j ) 2 ( g j ) 2 (e j ) 2 ( f j ) 2 ( g j ) 2 ]
j 1 Step 4. By combining projection measure Proj ( Z i ) z P IS and
Step 5. Rank the alternatives in a descending order based on P IS
bidirectional projection measure B-Proj (Zi, z ), we
the projection measure Proj ( Z i ) z for i = 1, 2, , m and P IS
calculate the hybrid projection measure between z P IS and Zi
bigger value of Proj ( Z i ) z determines the best alternative. P IS = z ij for all i = 1, 2, , m; j = 1, 2, , n as follows.
mn

Surapati Pramanik, Partha Pratim Dey, Bibhas C. Giri, Florentin Smarandache, Bipolar Neutrosophic Projection Based
Models for Solving Multi-attribute Decision Making Problems
76 Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017

) = Proj ( Z i ) z + (1 - ) B-Proj (Zi, Table 1. The bipolar neutrosophic decision matrix


PIS
Hyb-Proj (Zi, z P IS

z P IS ) = F1 F2 F3 F4
Z i .z PIS + (1 - ) || Zi || || z PIS ||
|| z PIS ||| E1 <0.5, 0.7, 0.2, - <0.4, 0.5, 0.4, - <0.7, 0.7, 0.5, -0.8, <0.1, 0.5, 0.7, -
|| Zi || || z PIS || | || Zi || || z PIS || | Zi .z PIS 0.7, -0.3, -0.6> 0.7, -0.8, -0.4> -0.7, -0.6> 0.5, -0.2, -0.8>
(9) E2 <0.9, 0.7, 0.5, - <0.7, 0.6, 0.8, - <0.9, 0.4, 0.6, -0.1, <0.5, 0.2, 0.7, -
0.7, -0.7, -0.1> 0.7, -0.5, -0.1> -0.7, -0.5> 0.5, -0.1, -0.9>
i
where || Z || =
E3 <0.3, 0.4, 0.2, - <0.2, 0.2, 0.2, - <0.9, 0.5, 0.5, -0.6, <0.7, 0.5, 0.3, -
[( ij ) 2 ( ij ) 2 (ij ) 2 ( ij ) 2 ( ij ) 2 (ij ) 2 ] , i = 1, 2, ,
n 0.6, -0.3, -0.7> 0.4, -0.7, -0.4> -0.5, -0.2> 0.4, -0.2, -0.2>

j 1 E4 <0.9, 0.7, 0.2, - <0.3, 0.5, 0.2, - <0.5, 0.4, 0.5, -0.1, <0.2, 0.4, 0.8, -
0.8, -0.6, -0.1> 0.5, -0.5, -0.2> -0.7, -0.2> 0.5, -0.5, -0.6>
m,
|| z PIS || =
n Step 2. Construction of weighted bipolar neutrosophic
[(e j ) 2 ( f j ) 2 ( g j ) 2 (e j ) 2 ( f j ) 2 ( g j ) 2 ] ,
j 1 decision matrix
Z i .z PIS = The weighted decision matrix z ij is obtained by
m n

[ e f g e f g ] , i = 1, 2, multiplying weights of the attributes to the bipolar


n

ij j ij j ij j ij j ij j ij j
j1
neutrosophic decision matrix as follows (see Table 2).
, m, with 0 1.
Table 2. The weighted bipolar neutrosophic decision matrix
F1 F2 F3 F4
Step 5. We rank all the alternatives in accordance with the
hybrid projection measure Hyb-Proj (Zi, z P IS ) and greater E1 <0.293, 0.837, <0.120, 0.795, <0.140, 0.956, <0.013, 0.917,
value of Hyb-Proj (Zi, z P IS ) indicates the better alternative. 0.447,-0.837, - 0.841, 0.915, 0.917, 0.972, 0.956, -0.917,
0.818, -0.182 > -0.946, -0.120> -0.956, -0.108> -0.818, -0.182>
E2 <0.684, 0.837, <0.260, 0.880, <0.250, 0.892, <.083, 0.818,
5 A numerical example 0.707, -0.837, - 0.946, -0.915, - 0.938, - 0.956, 0.917,
0.837, -0.051> 0.841, -0.026> 0.750, -0.956, - -0.750, -0.250>
We solve the MADM studied in [5, 28] where a customer 0.083>
desires to purchase a car. Suppose four types of car E3 <0.163, 0.632, <0.054, 0.669, <0.250, 0.917, <.140, 0.917,
0.447, -0.774, - 0.669, - 0.795, - 0.917, - 0.860, -
(alternatives) Ei, (i = 1, 2, 3, 4) are taken into consideration 0.548, -0.452> 0.915, -0.120> 0.938, -0.917, - 0.892, -0.818, -
in the decision making situation. Four attributes namely 0.028> 0.028>
Fuel economy (F1), Aerod (F2), Comfort (F3) and Safety E4 <0.648, 0.837, <0.085, 0.841, <0.083, 0.892, <0.062, 0.818,
0.447, , -0.894,- 0.669, -0.841, 0.917, - 0.972, -0.917,
(F4) are considered to evaluate the alternatives. Assume the -0.774, -0.051> -0.841, -0.054> 0.750, -0.956, - -0.917, -0.108>
weight vector [5] of the attribute is given by w = (w1, w2, w3, 0.028>
w4) = (0.5, 0.25, 0.125, 0.125).

Method 1: The proposed projection measure based decision Step 3. Selection of BNPIS
making with bipolar neutrosophic information for car The BNRPIS ( z P IS ) = e j , f j , g j , e j , f j , g j , (j = 1, 2, 3,
selection is presented in the following steps:
4) is computed from the weighted decision matrix as
Step 1: Construct the bipolar neutrosophic decision matrix follows:
The bipolar neutrosophic decision matrix qij presented e1 , f 1 , g 1 , e1 , f 1 , g 1 = < 0.684, 0.632, 0.447, -0.894, -
mn
by the decision maker as given below (see Table 1) 0.548, -0.051 >;
e2 , f 2 , g 2 , e2 , f 2 , g 2 = < 0.26, 0.669, 0.669, -0.915, -
0.841, -0.026 >;
e3 , f 3 , g 3 , e3 , f 3 , g 3 = < 0.25, 0.892, 0.917, -0.972, -
0.917, -0.028 >;
e4 , f 4 , g 4 , e4 , f 4 , g 4 = < 0.14, 0.818, 0.86, -0.917, -0.75,
-0.028 >.

Surapati Pramanik, Partha Pratim Dey, Bibhas C. Giri, Florentin Smarandache, Bipolar Neutrosophic Projection Based
Models for Solving Multi-attribute Decision Making Problems
Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017 77

Step 4. Determination of weighted projection measure Table 3. Results of hybrid projection measure for differ-
The projection measure between positive ideal bipolar ent valus of
neutrosophic solution z P IS and each weighted decision Similarity Measure values
Ranking order
measure
matrix z ij can be obtained as follows: Hyb-Proj 0.25
mn
Hyb-Proj (Z1, z P IS) = 1.4573 E4 > E3 > E1 > E2
1 2
Proj ( Z ) z P IS = 3.4214, Proj ( Z ) z PIS = 3.4972, Proj (Zi, z P IS) Hyb-Proj (Z2, z
P IS
) = 1.4551
P IS
( Z 3 ) z P IS = 3.1821, Proj ( Z 4 ) z PIS = 3.3904. Hyb-Proj (Z3, z ) = 1.5297
P IS
Hyb-Proj (Z , z
4
) = 1.5622
Hyb-Proj 0.50 P IS
Step 5. Rank the alternatives Hyb-Proj (Z1, z ) = 2.1034 E4 > E1 > E2 > E3
(Zi, z P IS) Hyb-Proj (Z2, z
P IS
We observe that Proj ( Z 2 ) z PIS > Proj ( Z 1 ) z P IS > Proj ) = 2.0991
P IS
Hyb-Proj (Z , z
3
) = 2.0740
( Z 4 ) z PIS > Proj ( Z 3 ) z P IS . Therefore, the ranking order of the P IS
Hyb-Proj (Z4, z ) = 2.1270
cars is E2 E1 E4 E3. Hence, E2 is the best alternative Hyb-Proj 0.75
Hyb-Proj (Z , z
1 P IS
) = 2.4940
E2 > E4 > E3 > E1
P IS
for the customer. i
(Z , z ) P IS
Hyb-Proj (Z2, z ) = 2.7432
P IS
Method 2: The proposed bidirectional projection measure Hyb-Proj (Z3, z ) = 2.6182
P IS
based decision making for car selection is presented as Hyb-Proj (Z , z
4
) = 2.6919
follows: Hyb-Proj 0.90 P IS
Hyb-Proj (Z1, z ) = 3.1370 E1 > E2 > E4 > E3
Step 1. Same as Method 1 (Zi, z P IS) Hyb-Proj (Z , z
2 P IS
) = 3.1296
Step 2. Same as Method 1 P IS
Hyb-Proj (Z3, z ) = 2.9448
Step 3. Same as Method 1 P IS
Step 4. Calculation of bidirectional projection measure Hyb-Proj (Z4, z ) = 3.0308

The bidirectional projection measure between positive ideal


bipolar neutrosophic solution z P IS and each weighted
6 Comparative analysis
decision matrix z ij can be determined as given below.
m n
In the Section, we compare the results obtained from the
B-Proj (Z1, z P IS ) = 0.8556, B-Proj (Z2, z P IS ) = 0.8101, B-
Proj (Z3, z P IS ) = 0.9503, B-Proj (Z4, z P IS ) = 0.8969. proposed methods with the results derived from other exist-
Step 5. Ranking the alternatives ing methods under bipolar neutrosophic environment to
Here, we notice that B-Proj (Z3, z P IS ) > B-Proj (Z4, z P IS ) > show the effectiveness of the developed methods.
B-Proj (Z1, z P IS ) > B-Proj (Z2, z P IS ) and therefore, the Dey et al. [28] assume that the weights of the
ranking order of the alternatives is obtained as E3 E4 attributes are not identical and weights are fully unknown to
E1 E2. Hence, E3 is the best choice among the alternatives. the decision maker. Dey et al. [28] formulated maximizing
deviation model under bipolar neutrosophic assessment to
Method 3: The proposed hybrid projection measure based compute unknown weights of the attributes as w = (0.2585,
MADM with bipolar neutrosophic information is provided 0.2552, 0.2278, 0.2585). By considering w = (0.2585,
as follows: 0.2552, 0.2278, 0.2585), the proposed projection measures
Step 1. Same as Method 1 are shown as follows:
Step 2. Same as Method 1 Proj ( Z 1 ) z PIS = 3.3954, Proj ( Z 2 ) z PIS = 3.3872, Proj
Step 3. Same as Method 1
Step 4. Computation of hybrid projection measure ( Z 3 ) z P IS = 3.1625, Proj ( Z 4 ) z PIS = 3.2567.
The hybrid projection measures for different values of Since, Proj ( Z 1 ) z P IS > Proj ( Z 2 ) z PIS > Proj
[0, 1] and the ranking order are shown in the Table 3. ( Z ) z PIS > Proj ( Z 3 ) z P IS , therefore the ranking order of the
4

four alternatives is given by E1 E2 E4 E3. Thus, E1 is


the best choice for the customer.
Now, by taking w = (0.2585, 0.2552, 0.2278,
0.2585), the bidirectional projection measures are calculated
as given below.
B-Proj (Z1, z P IS ) = 0.8113, B-Proj (Z2, z P IS ) = 0.8111, B-
Proj (Z3, z P IS ) = 0.9854, B-Proj (Z4, z P IS ) = 0.9974.
Since, B-Proj (Z4, z P IS ) > B-Proj (Z3, z P IS ) > B-
Proj (Z , z P IS ) > B-Proj (Z2, z P IS ), consequently the ranking
1

Surapati Pramanik, Partha Pratim Dey, Bibhas C. Giri, Florentin Smarandache, Bipolar Neutrosophic Projection Based
Models for Solving Multi-attribute Decision Making Problems
78 Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017

order of the four alternatives is given by E4 E3 E1 Table 4. Results of hybrid projection measure for differ-
E2. Hence, E4 is the best option for the customer. ent values of
Also, by taking w = (0.2585, 0.2552, 0.2278, 0.2585), the Similarity Measure values
Ranking order
measure
proposed hybrid projection measures for different values of
[0, 1] and the ranking order are revealed in the Table 4. Hyb-Proj 0.25
Hyb-Proj (Z1, z P IS) = 1.4970 E4 > E3 > E1 > E2
Deli et al. [5] assume the weight vector of the (Zi, z P IS) Hyb-Proj (Z2, z
P IS
) = 1.4819
attributes as w = (0.5, 0.25, 0.125, 0.125) and the ranking P IS
Hyb-Proj (Z , z
3
) = 1.5082
order based on score values is presented as follows: P IS
E3 E4 E2 E1 Hyb-Proj (Z4, z ) = 1.5203
Hyb-Proj 0.50 P IS E4 > E1 > E2 > E3
Thus, E3 was the most desirable alternative. Hyb-Proj (Z , z
1
) = 2.1385
Dey et al. [28] employed maximizing deviation (Zi, z P IS) Hyb-Proj (Z2, z
P IS
) = 2.1536
method to find unknown attribute weights as w = (0.2585, Hyb-Proj (Z , z
3 P IS
) = 2.0662
0.2552, 0.2278, 0.2585). The ranking order of the P IS
Hyb-Proj (Z4, z ) = 2.1436
alternatives is presented based on the relative closeness Hyb-Proj 0.75 P IS E2 > E4 > E3 > E1
coefficient as given below. P IS
Hyb-Proj (Z , z
1
) = 2.7800
E3 E2 E4 E1.
i
(Z , z )
Hyb-Proj (Z2, z
P IS
) = 2.8254
Obviously, E3 is the most suitable option for the customer. Hyb-Proj (Z3, z
P IS
) = 2.6241
Dey et al. [28] also consider the weight vector of Hyb-Proj (Z , z
4 P IS
) = 2.7670
the attributes as w = (0.5, 0.25, 0.125, 0.125), then using Hyb-Proj 0.90 P IS E2 > E1 > E4 > E3
Hyb-Proj (Z1, z ) = 3.1648
TOPSIS method, the ranking order of the cars is represented (Zi, z P IS) P IS
as follows: Hyb-Proj (Z , z
2
) = 3.2285
E4 E2 E3 E1. Hyb-Proj (Z3, z
P IS
) = 2.9589
P IS
Hyb-Proj (Z4, z ) = 3.1410
So, E4 is the most preferable alternative for the buyer. We
observe that different projection measure provides different
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Received: February 3, 2017. Accepted: February 21, 2017.

Surapati Pramanik, Partha Pratim Dey, Bibhas C. Giri, Florentin Smarandache, Bipolar Neutrosophic Projection Based
Models for Solving Multi-attribute Decision Making Problems
Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017 80

University of New Mexico

Integrated Framework of Optimization


Technique and Information Theory Measures
for Modeling Neutrosophic Variables
1
Mona Gamal Gafar and 2Ibrahim El-Henawy
1
Information System Department, Faculty of computers and Information, Kafrelsehiekh University, Egypt (Mona_gafar@fci.kfs.edu.eg)
2
Computer Science Department, Faculty of Computers and Informatics, Zagazig University, Egypt (henawy2000@yahoo.com)

Abstract

Uncertainty and indeterminacy are two major problems in Ant Colony Optimization is an efficient search algorithm
data analysis these days. Neutrosophy is a generalization of presented to define parameters of membership,
the fuzzy theory. Neutrosophic system is based on indeterminacy and non-membership functions. The
indeterminism and falsity of concepts in addition to truth integrated framework of information theory measures and
degrees. Any neutrosophy variable or concept is defined by Ant Colony Optimization is proposed. Experimental
membership, indeterminacy and non-membership results contain graphical representation of the
membership, indeterminacy and non-membership
functions. Finding efficient and accurate definition for
functions for the temperature variable of the forest fires
neutrosophic variables is a challenging process. This paper
data set. The graphs demonstrate the effectiveness of the
presents a framework of Ant Colony Optimization and proposed framework.
entropy theory to define a neutrosophic variable from
concrete data.

Keywords

Neutrosophic set, Ant Colony Optimization, Information Theory Measures, Entropy function.

1. Introduction

These days, Indeterminacy is the key idea of principles of neutrosophic data. Neutrosophy
the information in reality issues. This term creates the main basics for a new mathematics
alludes to the obscure some portion of the field through adding indeterminacy concept to
information representation. The fuzzy traditional and fuzzy theories[1][2][3][15].
logic[1][2][3]] serves the piece of information
Handling neutrosophic system is a new,
participation degree. Thus, the indeterminacy
moving and appealing field for scientists. In
and non-participation ideas of the information
literature, neutrosophic toolbox
ought to be fittingly characterized and served.
implementation using object oriented
The neutrosophic [4][16] theory characterizes
programming operations and formulation is
the informational index in mix with their
introduced in[18]. Moreover, a data warehouse
membership, indeterminacy and non-
utilizing neutrosophic methodologies and sets
membership degrees. Thus, the decisions could
is applied in [17]. Also, the problem of
be practically figured out from these well
optimizing membership functions using
defined information.
Particle Swarm Optimization was introduced
in [24]. This same mechanism could be
Smarandache in [5][13][14], and Salama et al.
generalized to model neutrosophic variable.
in[4], [9],[10][11][12][12][16] present the
mathematical base of neutrosophic system and

Mona Gamal Gafar, Ibrahim El-Henawy, Integrated Framework of Optimization Technique and Information Theory
Measures for Modeling Neutrosophic Variables
Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017 81

The neutrosophic framework depends actually from the membership and non-membership
on the factors or variables as basics. The capacities.
neutrosophic variable definition is without a
doubt the base in building a precise and This paper exhibits an incorporated hybrid
productive framework. The neutroshophic search model amongst ACO and information
variable is made out of a tuple of value, theory measures to demonstrate a neutrosophic
membership, indeterminacy and non- variable. The rest of this paper is organized as
membership. Pronouncing the elements of follows. Section 2 shows the hypotheses and
participation, indeterminacy and non- algorithms. Section 3 announces the proposed
enrollment and map those to the variable integrated framework. Section 4 talks about the
values would be an attainable arrangement or exploratory outcomes of applying the
solution for neutroshophic variable framework on a general variable and
formulation. demonstrating the membership, indeterminacy
and non-membership capacities. Conclusion
Finding the subsets boundary points of and future work is displayed in section 5.
membership and non-membership functions
within a variable data would be an interesting 2. Theory overview
optimization problem. Ant Colony
2.1 Parameters of a neutrosophic variable
Optimization (ACO)[19][20] is a meta-
heuristic optimization and search In the neutrosophy theory[5][13][14], every
procedure[22] inspired by ants lifestyle in
concept is determined by rates of truth ( )
searching for food. ACO initializes a
, indeterminacy ( ), and negation ( ) in
population of ants in the search space
various partitions. Neutrosophy is a
traversing for their food according to some
generalization of the fuzzy
probabilistic transition rule. Ants follow each
hypothesis[1][2][3]] and an extension of the
other basing on rode pheromone level and ant
desirability to go through a specific path. The regular set. Neutrosophic is connected to
main issue is finding suitable heuristic concepts identified with indeterminacy.
desirability which should be based on the Neutrosophic data is defined by three main
information conveyed from the variable itself. concepts to manage uncertainty. These
concepts are joined together in the triple:
Information theory measures [6][20][21], [23]
collect information from concrete data. The = ( ), ( ), ( ) (1)
entropy definition is the measure of
information conveyed in a variable. Whereas, Where
the mutual information is the measure of data
inside a crossing point between two nearby ( ) is the membership degree,
subsets of a variable. These definitions may
( ) is the indeterminacy degree,
help in finding limits of a membership function
of neutrosophic variable subsets depending on ( ) is the falsity degree.
the probability distribution of the data as the
heuristic desirability of ants. These three terms form the fundamental
concepts and they are independent and
In a similar philosophy, the non- membership explicitly quantified. In neutrosophic set [7],
of a neutrosophic variable might be each value in set A defined by Eq. 1 is
characterized utilizing the entropy and mutual constrained by the following conditions:
information basing on the data probability
distribution complement. Taking the upsides of 0 ( ), ( ), ( ) 1
(2)
the neutrosophic set definition; the
indeterminacy capacity could be characterized

Mona Gamal Gafar, Ibrahim El-Henawy, Integrated Framework of Optimization Technique and Information Theory
Measures for Modeling Neutrosophic Variables
82 Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017

0 ( )+ ( )+ ( ) 3 level is updated by the algorithm using the


(3) fitness function.
Whereas, Neutrosophic intuitionistic set of
type 1 [8] is subjected to the following: ( + 1) = (1 ). ( )+ (t) (11)

0 ( ), ( ), ( ) 1 (4)
Where 0< <1 is a decay constant used to
( ) ( ) ( ) 0.5 (5)
estimate the evaporation of the pheromone
0 ( )+ ( )+ ( ) 3 (6)
from the edges. (t) is the amount of
Neutrosophic intuitionistic set of type 2 [5] is pheromone deposited by the ant.
obliged by to the following conditions:
The heuristic desirability describes the
0.5 ( ), ( ), ( ) (7)
association between a node j and the problem
solution or the fitness function of the search. If
( ) ( ) 0.5 , ( ) ( )
0.5, ( ) ( ) 0.5 (8) a node has a heuristic value for a certain path
then the ACO will use this node in the solution
0 ( )+ ( )+ ( ) 2 (9)
of the problem. The algorithm of ACO is
2.2 Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) illustrated in figure 1.

The ACO [19][20]is an efficient search


= (12)
algorithm used to find feasible solutions for
complex and high dimension problems. The ACO Algorithm
intelligence of the ACO is based on a Input :pd, N
population of ants traversing the search %%%% pd number of decision variables in
workspace for their food. Each ant follows a ant, N iterations, Present position (ant) in the
specific path depending on information left search universe , evaporation rate,
previously from other ants. This information is %%%%%%%
Output: Best_Solution
characterized by the probabilistic transition
1: Initianlize_Node_Graph();
rule Eq. 10. 2: Initialize_Phermoni_Node();
3: While (num_of_Iterations>0) do
( )
( )= 4: foreach Ant
[ ] ( )
(10) 5: objective function of the search space
6: TRANSITION_RULE[j]= ( )=
( )
Where [ ] ( )
7: Select node with the highest ( )
is the heuristic desirability of choosing
8: Update Pheromone level ( + 1) =
node j and (1 ). ( ) + ( )
9: num_of_Iterations--;
is the amount of virtual pheromone on edge
10: end While
( i, j) 11:Best_sol solution with best
12: output(Best_sol)
The pheromone level guides the ant through its
journey. This guide is a hint of the significance
Figure 1: Pseudo code of ant colony
level of a node (exhibited by the ants went to optimization Algorithm
the nodes some time recently). The pheromone

Mona Gamal Gafar, Ibrahim El-Henawy, Integrated Framework of Optimization Technique and Information Theory
Measures for Modeling Neutrosophic Variables
Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017 83

2.3 Entropy and Mutual Information

Information theory measures [6][20][23] Finding best values of L and U for all
collect information from raw data. The entropy partitions would optimize the membership
of a random variable is a function which (non-membership) function definition. Figure
characterizes the unexpected events of a 3 give a view of the ant with n partitions for
random variable. Consider a random variable each fuzzy variable.
X expressing the number on a roulette wheel
or the number on a fair 6-sided die.

H(X) = P(x) log P(x) (13)

Joint entropy is the entropy of a joint


probability distribution, or a multi-valued
random variable. For example, consider the Figure 2 : corresponding to triangle fuzzy
joint entropy of a distribution of mankind (X) membership and its boundary parameters
defined by a characteristic (Y) like age or race
or health status of a disease.
Individual L1 U1 L2 U2 Ln Un
( , )
I(X; Y ) = , p(x, y)log ( ) ( ) Figure 3: Individual in ACO for Triangle
(14) function

3. The proposed frame work One of the main difficulties in designing


optimization problem using ACO is finding the
An Integrated hybrid model of ACO and heuristic desirability which formulates the
information theory measures (entropy and transition rule. The amount of information
mutual information) as the objective function deposited by neutrosophic variable inspires the
is presented. The ACO[19][20] is a heuristic ACO to calculate the transition rule and find
searching algorithm used to locate the ideal parameters of membership, indeterminism and
segments of the membership and non- non-membership declarations. The
membership functions of a neutrosophic membership function subsets are declared by
variable. The indeterminacy function is ant parameters in figure 2. The histogram of a
calculated by the membership and non- variable shows the data distribution of the
membership functions basing on the different values. Therefore, the set of
definitions of neutrosophic set illustrated in parameters are mapped to the histogram of a
section 2. The objective function is the amount given variable data (Fig. 4).
of information conveyed from various
partitions in the workspace. Therefore, the
total entropy [21] is used as the objective
function on the variables workspace. Total
entropy calculates amount of information of
various partitions and intersections between
these partitions. Best points in declaring the
membership function are the boundaries of the
partitions. The ants are designed to form the
Figure 4: Fuzzy discretizing of the histogram
membership and non-membership partitions as
into n joint subsets and m-1 intersections
illustrated in figure 2. A typical triangle
membership function would take the shape of The objective function is set as the total
figure 2. entropy of partitions[23]. By enhancing
partition's parameters to optimize the total
The triangle function of a variable partition is entropy of the histogram subsets, the optimal
represented by parameters (L, (L+U)/2, U). membership design of the variable is found.

Mona Gamal Gafar, Ibrahim El-Henawy, Integrated Framework of Optimization Technique and Information Theory
Measures for Modeling Neutrosophic Variables
84 Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017

Start

Initialize ACO parameters

Initialize two ACO populations for membership and non-membership generation

Read attribute data file

Evaluate the Initial ants and pheromone level for edges

Next Itera on t=t+1

Get Ant positions for non-membership Get Ant positions for membership

Calculate transition rule Calculate transition rule

Update pheromone level Update pheromone level

Select Ant with the best objective Select Ant with the best objective
function function

No
End of
Iterations?
Yes

Get optimal parameters for Get optimal parameters for


fuzzy partitions of non- fuzzy partitions of membership
membership function function

Use membership and non-membership functions


to evaluate indeterminacy function

Normalize indeterminacy function

Draw the membership, non-membership and


indeterminacy functions

End

Figure 4: Flow chart for the modelling neuotrosophic variable using ACO

Mona Gamal Gafar, Ibrahim El-Henawy, Integrated Framework of Optimization Technique and Information Theory
Measures for Modeling Neutrosophic Variables
Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017 85

Input :pd, N, variable_datafile


%%%% pd number of decision variables in particle, N ieteration, Present position in the search
universe , is the decay rate of phermone. %%%%%%%
Output: membership, non-membership and indeterminacy function, conversion rate.
1: XInitianlize_Ants(); % Each ant is composed of pd decision variables for fuzzy partitions
2:AttRead_data(variable_datafile)
3:Objective_mem_ Evaluate _ Objective_of_Particles (X, P(Att)); % According to entropy and
Mutual information
4: Objective_non_mem Evaluate _ Objective_of_Particles (X, 1-P(Att)); % According to
entropy and Mutual information

5: While (num_of_Iterations<Max_iter)
% membership generation
6: foreach Ant
7: = ( ) ( , + 1)
( )
8: ( ) [ ] ( )

9: ( + 1) = (1 ). ( ) + ( )
10:end foreach
11: Best_sol_mem max( ) % Best found value until iteration t
% non-membership generation
12: foreach Ant
13 = ( ) ( , + 1)
( )
14: ( ) [ ] ( )

15: ( + 1) = (1 ). ( ) + ( )
16:end foreach
17: Best_sol_non-mem max( ) % Best found value until iteration t
18: End While
18: Best _mem Best_sol_mem
19: Best _non-mem Best_sol_non-mem
20: indeterminacy calculate-ind(Best _mem, Best _non-mem);
21: Draw(Best _mem, Best _non-mem, indetrminancy)
22: Draw_conversions_rate()
23: Output membership, non-membership and indeterminacy function, conversion rate.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Function calculate-ind( ( ), ( ))
1: Input:( ( ), ( ))
2: Output: indeterminacy
3: 0 [ ( ) + ( )] ( ) 3 [ ( )+ ( )]
4: indeterminacy Normalize( ( ));
5: Return indeterminacy
5: End Fun

Figure 5: Algorithm for the modelling neuotrosophic variable using ACO

Mona Gamal Gafar, Ibrahim El-Henawy, Integrated Framework of Optimization Technique and Information Theory
Measures for Modeling Neutrosophic Variables
86 Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017

To model (n) membership functions, variable in the interval [ 0 , 2 ]. Hence, the


histogram is partitioned into n overlapped indeterminacy function is defined as Eq. 17.
subsets that produce n-1 intersections. Every
joint partition corresponds to joint entropy and 0 [ ( ) + ( )] ( ) 2
each overlap is modelled by mutual [ ( ) + ( )] (17)
information. Eq.15 shows the total entropy
By finding the membership and non-
which is assigned to the heuristic desirability
membership definition of , the
of ants.
indeterminacy function ( ) could be driven
= = ( ) ( , + 1) easily from Eq. 15 or 16. The value of the
(15) indeterminacy function should be in the
interval [0 1 ] , hence the ( ) function is
Where n is the number of partitions or subsets normalized according to Eq. 18.
in the fuzzy variable,
( ) ( ( ))
_ ( )= ( )) ( ))
( (
H is the total entropy,
(18)
H(i) is the entropy of subset i,
Where (x ) is the indeterminacy function for
the value x . The flow chart and algorithm of
I is the mutual information between to
the integrated framework is illustrated in figure
intersecting partitions(i,j). 5 and 6 respectively.
In membership function modelling, the total
4. Experimental Results
entropy function Eq. 13, 14 and 15 are
calculated by the probability distribution P(x) The present reality issues are brimming with
of the variable data frequency in various vulnerability and indeterminism. The
partitions and the intersecting between them. neutrosophic field is worried by picking up
The complement of probability distribution information with degrees of enrollment,
1 P(x) is utilized to measure the non- indeterminacy and non-participation.
membership of variable data in different Neutrosophic framework depends on various
partitions. Therefore, the non-membership neurtosophic factors or variables.
objective function will compute Eq. 13, 14 and Unfortunately, the vast majority of the
15 with the variable data frequency informational indexes accessible are normal
complement in different partitions and numeric qualities or unmitigated
overlapping. characteristics. Henceforth, creating
approaches for characterizing a neutrosophic
According to Eq.3 & 6, the summation of the set from the current informational indexes is
membership, non membership and required.
indeterminacy values for the same instance is
in the interval [ 0 , 3 ]. Hence the The membership capacity function of a
indeterminacy function is declared by Eq. 16. neutrosophy variable, similar to the fuzzy
variable, can take a few sorts. Triangle
0 [ ( ) + ( )] ( ) 3 membership is very popular due to its
[ ( ) + ( )] (16) simplicity and accuracy. Triangle function is
characterized by various overlapping
Where Eq. 9 states that the summation of the
partitions. These subsets are characterized by
membership, non membership and
support, limit and core parameters. The most
indeterminacy values for the same instance is
applicable parameter to a specific subset is the
support which is the space of characterizing

Mona Gamal Gafar, Ibrahim El-Henawy, Integrated Framework of Optimization Technique and Information Theory
Measures for Modeling Neutrosophic Variables
Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017 87

the membership degree. Finding the start and heuristic desirability of the ants in designing
closure of a support over the universe of a the non-membership function Eq. 13, 14 and
variable could be an intriguing search issue 15.
suitable for optimization. Meta-heuristic search
methodologies [22] give a intelligent The indeterminacy capacity of variable data is
procedure for finding ideal arrangement of created by both membership and non-
solutions is any universe. ACO is a well membership capacities of the same data using
defined search procedure that mimics ants in neutrosophic set declaration in section 2 and
discovering their sustenance. Figure 3 presents Eq. 16 or 17. Afterwards, Eq. 18 is used to
the ant as an individual in a population for normalize the indeterminacy capacity of the
upgrading a triangle membership function data. Through simulation, the ACO is applied
through the ACO procedure. The ACO utilizes by MATLAB , PC with Intel(R) Core (TM)
the initial ant population and emphasizes to CPU and 4 GB RAM. The simulation are
achieve ideal arrangement. implemented on the temperature variable from
the Forest Fires data set created by: Paulo
Table 1:Parameters of ACO Cortez and Anbal Morais (Univ. Minho) [25].
The histogram of a random collection of the
Maximum Number of Iterations 50 temperature data is shown in figure 7.
Population Size (number of 10
ants)
Decaying rate 0.1

The total entropy given by Eq. 15 characterizes


the heuristic desirability which affects the
probabilistic transition rule of ants in the ACO
algorithm. The probability distribution ( )
presented in Eq. 13, 14 and 15 is used to
calculate the total entropy function. The ACO
parameters like Maximum Number of
Iterations, Population Size, and pheromone
decaying rate are presented in table 1. Figure 6: Temparature Variable Histogram

Figures 8: a, b and c presents the resulting


The non-membership function means the
membership, non-membership and
falsity degree in the variables values. Hence,
indeterminacy capacities produced by applying
the complement of a data probability
the ACO on a random collection of the
distribution 1 ( ) is utilized to create the
temperature data.
Non-membership

Indeterminacy
Membership

Temperature Temperature Temperature

Figure 7: a. Membership Function b. Non-membership Function c. Inderminacy


Function

Mona Gamal Gafar, Ibrahim El-Henawy, Integrated Framework of Optimization Technique and Information Theory
Measures for Modeling Neutrosophic Variables
88 Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017

5. Conclusion [5] Bhowmik, M., & Pal, M.. Intuitionistic


neutrosophic set relations and some of its
A proposed framework utilizing the ant colony properties. Journal of Information and
optimization and the total entropy measure for Computing Science, 5(3), (2010), 183-192.
mechanizing the design of neutrosophic [6] Cover, T. M., & Thomas, J. A.. Entropy,
variable is exhibited. The membership, non- relative entropy and mutual
membership and indeterminacy capacities are information. Elements of Information
utilized to represent the neutrosophy idea. The Theory, 2, (1991), 1-55.
enrollment or truth of subset could be conjured [7] Salama, A. A., & Alblowi, S. A..
from total entropy measure. The fundamental Generalized neutrosophic set and
generalized neutrosophic topological
system aggregates the total entropy to the
spaces. Journal computer Sci.
participation or truth subsets of a neutrosophic Engineering, 2(7), (2012), 29-32.
concept. The ant colony optimization is a
[8] Salama, A. A., & Alblowi, S. A..
meta-heuristic procedure which seeks the Neutrosophic set and neutrosophic
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segments or partitions parameters. The Mathematics (IOSR-JM), 3(4), (2012), 31-
heuristic desirability of ants, for membership 35.
generation, is the total entropy based on the [9] Salama, A. A., & Smarandache, F.. Filters
probability density function of random variable via Neutrosophic Crisp Sets. Neutrosophic
X. Thusly, the probability density complement Sets and Systems, 1(1), (2013) ,34-38.
is utilized to design non-membership capacity. [10] Salama, A. A., & Alblowi, S. A..
The indeterminacy capacity is identified, as Intuitionistic Fuzzy Ideals Topological
indicated by neutrosophic definition, by the Spaces. Advances in Fuzzy
membership and non-membership capacities. Mathematics, 7(1), (2012), 51-60.
The results in light of ACO proposed system [11] Salama, A. A., Smarandache, F., &
are satisfying. Therefore, the technique can be Kroumov, V.. Neutrosophic Crisp Sets &
Neutrosophic Crisp Topological
utilized as a part of data preprocessing stage
Spaces. Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, 2,
within knowledge discovery system. Having (2014), 25-30.
sufficient data gathering, general neutrosophic
[12] Salama, A. A., Smarandache, F., &
variable outline for general data can be ALblowi, S. A.. New Neutrosophic Crisp
formulated. Topological Concepts. Neutrosophic Sets
and Systems, 4, (2014), 50-54.
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[14] Smarandache, F.. A Unifying Field in
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American Research Press, Rehoboth, NM,
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[3] Atanassov, K. (1988). Review and new
[15] Smarandache, F.. Neutrosophic set, a
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(2013). New Concepts of Neutrosophic
[16] Hanafy, I. M., Salama, A. A., & Mahfouz,
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Research (IJMCAR), 3(4), 2013.
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Research(IJMCAR), 3(1) , (2013), 171 - Systems Association World Congress ,


178. (2003) (pp. 603-610). Springer Berlin
[17] Salama, A. A, Ibrahim El-Henawy and Heidelberg.
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Received: February 6, 2017. Accepted: February 22, 2017.

Mona Gamal Gafar, Ibrahim El-Henawy, Integrated Framework of Optimization Technique and Information Theory
Measures for Modeling Neutrosophic Variables
Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017 90

University of New Mexico

Neutrosophic Modal Logic


Florentin Smarandache
University of New Mexico, Mathematics & Science Department, 705 Gurley Ave., Gallup, NM 87301, USA.
Email: smarand@unm.edu

Abstract: We introduce now for the first time the Applications of neutrosophic modal logic are to
neutrosophic modal logic. The Neutrosophic Modal Logic neutrosophic modal metaphysics. Similarly to classical
includes the neutrosophic operators that express the modal logic, there is a plethora of neutrosophic modal
modalities. It is an extension of neutrosophic predicate logics. Neutrosophic modal logics is governed by a set of
logic and of neutrosophic propositional logic. neutrosophic axioms and neutrosophic rules.

Keywords: neutrosophic operators, neutrosophic predicate logic, neutrosophic propositional logic, neutrosophic epistemology,
neutrosophic mereology.

1 Introduction.
A) Neutrosophic Alethic Modalities (related to
The paper extends the fuzzy modal logic [1, 2, and truth) has three neutrosophic operators:
4], fuzzy environment [3] and neutrosophic sets, i. Neutrosophic Possibility: It is neutrosophic-
numbers and operators [5 12], together with the last ally possible that .
developments of the neutrosophic environment ii. Neutrosophic Necessity: It is neutrosophic-
{including (t, i, f)-neutrosophic algebraic structures, ally necessary that .
neutrosophic triplet structures, and neutrosophic iii. Neutrosophic Impossibility: It is neutrosoph-
overset / underset / offset} [13 - 15] passing through ically impossible that .
the symbolic neutrosophic logic [16], ultimately to B) Neutrosophic Temporal Modalities (related
neutrosophic modal logic. to time)
All definitions, sections, and notions introduced in It was the neutrosophic case that .
this paper were never done before, neither in my It will neutrosophically be that .
previous work nor in other researchers. And similarly:
Therefore, we introduce now the Neutrosophic It has always neutrosophically been that .
Modal Logic and the Refined Neutrosophic Modal It will always neutrosophically be that .
Logic. C) Neutrosophic Epistemic Modalities (related
Then we can extend them to Symbolic to knowledge):
Neutrosophic Modal Logic and Refined Symbolic It is neutrosophically known that .
Neutrosophic Modal Logic, using labels instead of D) Neutrosophic Doxastic Modalities (related
numerical values. to belief):
There is a large variety of neutrosophic modal It is neutrosophically believed that .
logics, as actually happens in classical modal logic too. E) Neutrosophic Deontic Modalities:
Similarly, the neutrosophic accessibility relation and It is neutrosophically obligatory that .
possible neutrosophic worlds have many It is neutrosophically permissible that .
interpretations, depending on each particular
application. Several neutrosophic modal applications 2 Neutrosophic Alethic Modal Operators
are also listed.
Due to numerous applications of neutrosophic The modalities used in classical (alethic) modal
modal logic (see the examples throughout the paper), logic can be neutrosophicated by inserting the indeter-
the introduction of the neutrosophic modal logic was minacy. We insert the degrees of possibility and
needed. degrees of necessity, as refinement of classical modal
operators.
Neutrosophic Modal Logic is a logic where some
neutrosophic modalities have been included. 3 Neutrosophic Possibility Operator
Let be a neutrosophic proposition. We have the The classical Possibility Modal Operator
following types of neutrosophic modalities: meaning It is possible that P is extended to
Neutrosophic Possibility Operator: meaning

Florentin Smarandache, Neutrosophic Modal Logic


Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017 91

It is (t, i, f)-possible that , using Neutrosophic = It will be snowing tomorrow, with


Probability, where (t, i, f)-possible means t % ([0.5, 0.6], (0.2, 0.4), {0.3, 0.5}) , then the
possible (chance that occurs), i % indeterminate neutrosophic necessity operator is:
(indeterminate-chance that occurs), and f %
=
impossible (chance that does not occur).
(inf[0.5, 0.6], sup(0.2, 0.4), sup{0.3, 0.5}) =
If ( , , ) is a neutrosophic proposition, with (0.5, 0.4, 0.5),
, , subsets of [0, 1], then the neutrosophic truth-
value of the neutrosophic possibility operator is: i.e. 0.5 necessary, 0.4 indeterminate-necessity, and
0.5 unnecessary.
= (sup( ), inf( ), inf( )),
5 Connection between Neutrosophic
which means that if a proposition P is true, Possibility Operator and Neutrosophic
indeterminate, and false, then the value of the Necessity Operator.
neutrosophic possibility operator is: sup( ) In classical modal logic, a modal operator is
possibility, inf( ) indeterminate-possibility, and equivalent to the negation of the other:
inf( ) impossibility.
,
.
For example.
In neutrosophic logic one has a class of
Let P = It will be snowing tomorrow. neutrosophic negation operators. The most used one is:

According to the meteorological center, the
(, , ) = (, 1 , ),
neutrosophic truth-value of is:
where t, i, f are real subsets of the interval [0, 1].
([0.5, 0.6], (0.2, 0.4), {0.3, 0.5}),
Lets check whats happening in the neutrosophic
i.e. [0.5, 0.6] true, (0.2, 0.4) indeterminate, and modal logic, using the previous example.
{0.3, 0.5} false.
One had:
Then the neutrosophic possibility operator is:
([0.5, 0.6], (0.2, 0.4), {0.3, 0.5}),
=
(sup[0.5, 0.6], inf(0.2, 0.4), inf{0.3, 0.5}) = then
(0.6, 0.2, 0.3),
({0.3, 0.5}, 1 (0.2, 0.4), [0.5, 0.6]) =
=
i.e. 0.6 possible, 0.2 indeterminate-possibility, and 0.3 ({0.3, 0.5}, 1 (0.2, 0.4), [0.5, 0.6]) =
impossible. ({0.3, 0.5}, (0.6, 0.8), [0.5, 0.6]).

4 Neutrosophic Necessity Operator Therefore, denoting by the neutrosophic equiv-

The classical Necessity Modal Operator alence, one has:
meaning It is necessary that P is extended to
(0.2, 0.4), {0.3, 0.5})
Neutrosophic Necessity Operator: meaning It ([0.5, 0.6],
is (t, i, f)-necessary that , using again the
Neutrosophic Probability, where similarly (t, i, f)- It is not neutrosophically necessary that It will

necessity means t % necessary (surety that occurs), not be snowing tomorrow
i % indeterminate (indeterminate-surety that occurs),
and f % unnecessary (unsurely that occurs). It is not neutrosophically necessary that

If ( , , ) is a neutrosophic proposition, with ({0.3, 0.5}, (0.6, 0.8), [0.5, 0.6])

, , subsets of [0, 1], then the neutrosophic truth
It is neutrosophically possible that
value of the neutrosophic necessity operator is:
({0.3, 0.5}, (0.6, 0.8), [0.5, 0.6])
= (inf( ), sup( ), sup( )),

It is neutrosophically possible that
which means that if a proposition is true,
indeterminate, and false, then the value of the ([0.5, 0.6], 1 (0.6, 0.8), {0.3, 0.5})
neutrosophic necessity operator is: inf( )
It is neutrosophically possible that

necessary, sup( ) indeterminate-necessity, and ([0.5, 0.6], (0.2, 0.4), {0.3, 0.5})
sup( ) unnecessary.

([0.5, 0.6], (0.2, 0.4), {0.3, 0.5}) =
Taking the previous example:
(0.6, 0.2, 0.3).

Florentin Smarandache, Neutrosophic Modal Logic


92 Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017

We can say that the proposition ( , , ) is


Lets check the second neutrosophic equivalence. neutrosophically true if:
inf( ) inf( ) and sup( ) sup( );
(0.2, 0.4), {0.3, 0.5})
([0.5, 0.6],
inf( ) inf( ) and sup( ) sup( );

It is not neutrosophically possible that It will
inf( ) inf( ) and sup( ) sup( ).
not be snowing tomorrow
For the particular case when all , , and
It is not neutrosophically possible that , , are single-valued numbers from the interval

({0.3, 0.5}, (0.6, 0.8), [0.5, 0.6]) [0, 1], then one has:
The proposition ( , , ) is neutrosophically
It is neutrosophically necessary that
true if:
({0.3, 0.5}, (0.6, 0.8), [0.5, 0.6])

;

It is neutrosophically necessary that
;
([0.5, 0.6], 1 (0.6, 0.8), {0.3, 0.5})
.
It is neutrosophically necessary that
The neutrosophic truth threshold is established by
([0.5, 0.6], (0.2, 0.4), {0.3, 0.5}) experts in accordance to each applications.

([0.5, 0.6], (0.2, 0.4), {0.3, 0.5}) =
8 Neutrosophic Semantics
(0.6, 0.2, 0.3).
Neutrosophic Semantics of the Neutrosophic
6 Neutrosophic Modal Equivalences Modal Logic is formed by a neutrosophic frame ,
which is a non-empty neutrosophic set, whose
Neutrosophic Modal Equivalences hold within a elements are called possible neutrosophic worlds,
certain accuracy, depending on the definitions of and a neutrosophic binary relation , called
neutrosophic possibility operator and neutrosophic neutrosophic accesibility relation, between the
necessity operator, as well as on the definition of the possible neutrosophic worlds. By notation, one has:
neutrosophic negation employed by the experts
depending on each application. Under these conditions, , .
one may have the following neutrosophic modal A neutrosophic world that is neutrosophically
equivalences: accessible from the neutrosophic world is

( , , ) ( , , ) symbolized as:

.

( , , ) ( , , )
In a neutrosophic model each neutrosophic
For example, other definitions for the neutrosophic proposition has a neutrosophic truth-value
modal operators may be: ( , , ) respectively to each neutrosophic
world , where , , are subsets of [0,
( , , ) = (sup( ), sup( ), inf( )), or 1].
A neutrosophic actual world can be similarly
( , , ) = (sup( ), , inf( )) etc.,
2 noted as in classical modal logic as .
while
Formalization.
( , , ) = (inf( ), inf( ), sup( )), or Let be a set of neutrosophic propositional
variables.
( , , ) = (inf( ), 2 [0,1], sup( ))
etc. 9 Neutrosophic Formulas
1) Every neutrosophic propositional variable
7 Neutrosophic Truth Threshold
is a neutrosophic formula.
In neutrosophic logic, first we have to introduce a
neutrosophic truth threshold, = , , , 2) If A, B are neutrosophic formulas, then ,
where , , are subsets of [0, 1]. We use upper-
, , , , and , , are also
case letters (T, I, F) in order to distinguish the

neutrosophic components of the threshold from those neutrosophic formulas, where , , , , , and ,

of a proposition in general.

Florentin Smarandache, Neutrosophic Modal Logic


Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017 93

Instead of the classical (, ), which means that


represent the neutrosophic negation, neutrosophic
the world is accesible from the world , we
intersection, neutrosophic union, neutrosophic
generalize it to:
implication, neutrosophic equivalence, and
neutrosophic possibility operator, neutrosophic ()
(1 , 2 , , ; ),
necessity operator respectively.
which means that the neutrosophic world is
10 Accesibility Relation in a Neutrosophic accesible from the neutrosophic worlds
Theory 1 , 2 , , all together.
Let be a set of neutrosophic worlds such that 13 Neutrosophic Kripke Frame
each chracterizes the propositions (formulas) of a
given neutrosophic theory . = , is a neutrosophic Kripke frame,
since:
We say that the neutrosophic world is accesible . is an arbitrary non-empty neutrosophic set of
from the neutrosophic world , and we write: neutrosophic worlds, or neutrosophic states, or
or ( , ) , if for any proposition neutrosophic situations.
(formula) , meaning the neutrosophic truth- . is a neutrosophic accesibility
value of with respect to is relation of the neutrosophic Kripke frame. Actually,

( , , ), one has a degree of accesibility, degree of
indeterminacy, and a degree of non-accesibility.
one has the neutrophic truth-value of with respect to
14 Neutrosophic (t, i, f)-Assignement

( , , ), The Neutrosophic (t, i, f)-Assignement is a
neutrosophic mapping
where
: [0,1] [0,1] [0,1]
inf( ) inf( ) and sup( )
where, for any neutrosophic proposition and
sup( );
for any neutrosophic world , one defines:

inf( ) inf( ) and sup( ) sup( );
(, ) = ( , , ) [0,1] [0,1] [0,1]

inf( ) inf( ) and sup( ) which is the neutrosophical logical truth value of the

sup( ) neutrosophic proposition in the neutrosophic world
.
(in the general case when , , and

, , are subsets of the interval [0, 1]). 15 Neutrosophic Deducibility

But in the instant of and
, , We say that the neutrosophic formula is

, , as single-values in [0, 1], the above neutrosophically deducible from the neutrosophic
inequalities become: Kripke frame , the neutrosophic (t, i, f) assignment

, and the neutrosophic world , and we write as:
,

, , .
,
Lets make the notation:
.
(; , , )
11 Applications that denotes the neutrosophic logical value that the
If the neutrosophic theory is the Neutrosophic formula takes with respect to the neutrosophic
Mereology, or Neutrosophic Gnosisology, or Kripke frame , the neutrosophic (t, i, f)-assignement
Neutrosophic Epistemology etc., the neutrosophic , and the neutrosphic world .
accesibility relation is defined as above. We define by neutrosophic induction:
12 Neutrosophic n-ary Accesibility Relation (, )
1. (; , , ) if and
=
We can also extend the classical binary accesibility .
relation to a neutrosophic n-ary accesibility [ (;
2. (; , , ) , , )].
relation =
()
, for n integer 2. 3. ( ; , , )
=

[ (; , , )] [ (; , , )]

Florentin Smarandache Neutrosophic Modal Logic


94 Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017

2
4. ( ; , , ) = It is a little bigger necessity (degree of
= (,,)

[ (; , , )] [ (; , , )] necessity +2 ) that , i.e. +1 < +2 ,
+2 > +1 , +2 > +1 ;

5. ( ; , , )
=

[ (; , , )] [ (; , , )] and so on;

6.

( ; , , ) = It is a very high necessity (degree of


= (,,)
sup, inf, inf{ (; , , ), and }.
necessity + ) that , i.e. +1 < + = 1,
+ > +1 , + > +1 .
7. ( ; , , )
=
inf, sup, sup{ (; , , ), and }.
17 Application of the Neutrosophic
8.

if and only if (a formula is Threshold

neutrosophically deducible if and only if is We have introduced the term of (t, i, f)-physical law,
neutrosophically deducible in the actual neutrosophic meaning that a physical law has a degree of truth (t), a
world). degree of indeterminacy (i), and a degree of falsehood
We should remark that has a degree of truth (f). A physical law is 100% true, 0% indeterminate,
( ), a degree of indeterminacy ( ), and a degree and 0% false in perfect (ideal) conditions only, maybe
in laboratory.
of falsehood ( ) , which are in the general case
But our actual world ( ) is not perfect and not
subsets of the interval [0, 1]. steady, but continously changing, varying, fluctuating.
Applying sup, inf, inf to is equivalent to For example, there are physicists that have proved a
calculating: universal constant (c) is not quite universal (i.e. there
sup( ), inf( ), inf( ), are special conditions where it does not apply, or its
value varies between ( , + ), for > 0 that can
and similarly be a tiny or even a bigger number).
inf, sup, sup = Thus, we can say that a proposition is
inf( ), sup( ), sup( ). neutrosophically nomological necessary, if is
neutrosophically true at all possible neutrosophic
worlds that obey the (t, i, f)-physical laws of the actual
16 Refined Neutrosophic Modal Single- neutrosophic world .
Valued Logic In other words, at each possible neutrosophic world
Using neutrosophic (t, i, f) - thresholds, we refine , neutrosophically accesible from , one has:
for the first time the neutrosophic modal logic as:
( , , ) ( , , ),
a) Refined Neutrosophic Possibility Operator.
i.e. , , and .
1
= It is very little possible (degree of
(,,)
possibility 1 ) that , corresponding to the threshold 18 Neutrosophic Mereology
(1 , 1 , 1 ), i.e. 0 1 , 1 , 1 , for 1 a very Neutrosophic Mereology means the theory of the
little number in [0, 1]; neutrosophic relations among the parts of a whole, and
2 the neutrosophic relations between the parts and the
= It is little possible (degree of whole.
(,,)
possibility 2 ) that , corresponding to the threshold A neutrosophic relation between two parts, and
(2 , 2 , 2 ), i.e. 1 < 2 , 2 > 1 , 2 > 1 ; similarly a neutrosophic relation between a part and
the whole, has a degree of connectibility (t), a degree
of indeterminacy (i), and a degree of disconnectibility
and so on; (f).
19 Neutrosophic Mereological Threshold
= It is possible (with a degree of
(,,)
possibility ) that , corresponding to the threshold Neutrosophic Mereological Threshold is defined
( , , ), i.e. 1 < , > 1 , as:
> 1 .
TH M (min(tM ), max(iM ), max( f M ))
b) Refined Neutrosophic Necessity Operator.
where is the set of all degrees of connectibility
1
= It is a small necessity (degree of between the parts, and between the parts and the
(,,)
necessity +1 ) that , i.e. < +1 , whole;
+1 , +1 > ;

Florentin Smarandache, Neutrosophic Modal Logic


Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017 95

is the set of all degrees of indeterminacy between 24 Conclusions


the parts, and between the parts and the whole;
We have introduced for the first time the
is the set of all degrees of disconnectibility Neutrosophic Modal Logic and the Refined
between the parts, and between the parts and the whole. Neutrosophic Modal Logic.
Symbolic Neutrosophic Logic can be connected to
We have considered all degrees as single-valued
the neutrosophic modal logic too, where instead of
numbers. numbers we may use labels, or instead of quantitative
neutrosophic logic we may have a quantitative
20 Neutrosophic Gnosisology neutrosophic logic. As an extension, we may introduce
Neutrosophic Gnosisology is the theory of (t, i, f)- Symbolic Neutrosophic Modal Logic and Refined
knowledge, because in many cases we are not able to Symbolic Neutrosophic Modal Logic, where the
completely (100%) find whole knowledge, but only a symbolic neutrosophic modal operators (and the
part of it (t %), another part remaining unknown (f %), symbolic neutrosophic accessibility relation) have
and a third part indeterminate (unclear, vague, qualitative values (labels) instead on numerical values
contradictory) (i %), where t, i, f are subsets of the (subsets of the interval [0, 1]).
interval [0, 1]. Applications of neutrosophic modal logic are to
neutrosophic modal metaphysics. Similarly to classical
21 Neutrosophic Gnosisological Threshold modal logic, there is a plethora of neutrosophic modal
logics. Neutrosophic modal logics is governed by a set
Neutrosophic Gnosisological Threshold is of neutrosophic axioms and neutrosophic rules. The
defined, similarly, as: neutrosophic accessibility relation has various
TH G (min(tG ), max(iG ), max( f G )) , interpretations, depending on the applications.
Similarly, the notion of possible neutrosophic worlds
where is the set of all degrees of knowledge of all has many interpretations, as part of possible
theories, ideas, propositions etc., neutrosophic semantics.
is the set of all degrees of indeterminate-knowledge
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96 Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, 2017

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Q1.197
Received: February 10, 2017. Accepted: February 24, 2017.

Florentin Smarandache, Neutrosophic Modal Logic


Information about the journal:

Neutrosophic Sets and Systems has been created for publications on advanced studies in neutrosophy,
neutrosophic set, neutrosophic logic, neutrosophic probability, neutrosophic statistics, and their
applications in any field.
The papers should be professional, in good English, containing a brief review of a problem and ob-
tained results.
All submissions should be designed in MS Word format using our template file:
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To submit a paper, mail the file to the Editor-in-Chief. To order printed issues, contact the Editor-in-
Chief. This journal is non-commercial, academic edition. It is printed from private donations.
The neutrosophics website at UNM is: http://fs.gallup.unm.edu/neutrosophy.htm
The home page of the journal is accessed on http://fs.gallup.unm.edu/NSS

Editor-in-Chief: Associate Editor-in-Chief:


Prof. Florentin Smarandache Mumtaz Ali
Department of Mathematics and Science University of Southern
University of New Mexico Queensland 4300, Australia
705 Gurley Avenue
Gallup, NM 87301, USA
E-mails: fsmarandache@gmail.com, smarand@unm.edu E-mail: Mumtaz.Ali@usq.edu.au

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