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Technology lesson? Yes (TI-84 calculators)

Mason Cox

Lesson source:

Michael McKenzie

Date lesson will be taught: April Mentors school: UALR

19, 2016 Subject/Grade level: Math / High School

Length of lesson: 45 minutes

In paragraph form, write the concepts and vocabulary of this activity.

This activity provides an introduction to factorials, permutations, and combinations.

Standards

List the appropriate process and content standards for your lesson.

Arkansas Science Standards:

Arkansas Math Standards:

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.HSS.MD.B.6 - Use probabilities to make fair decisions.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.HSS.MD.B.7 - Analyze decisions and stratagies using probability concepts.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.7.SP.C.8 - Find probabilities of compound events using organized lists, tables, tree

diagrams, and simulation.

compound event is the fraction of outcomes in the sample space for which the compound event occurs.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.7.SP.C.8.B - Represent sample spaces for compound events using methods such

as organized lists, tables and tree diagrams. For an event described in everyday language (e.g., "rolling

double sixes"), identify the outcomes in the sample space which compose the event.

The Students Will Be Able to: evaluate simple Based on your objectives, draft the content of the

factorials, permutations, and combinations with questions you will ask on your pre- and post-

and without a calculator. assessments; at least one question for each objective.

Questions do not have to be multiple choice. The actual

pre- and post- assessments are required at the end of

this lesson plan.

April 2016

Materials list (BE SPECIFIC about quantities) Accommodations: Race horse names and pizza

ingredients will be printed big enough for all

students to read.

For whole class: 5 sets of 5 different race horse

cards, each horse having a different name (A -

Lucky Leiterman, B - Chillin Chaney, C - Hall n Oats,

D - Huggin Hughes, and E - Rachels Rocket); 5 sets

of 8 different pizza topping cards (Black olives,

Pepperonis, Bell Peppers, Sardines, Onions, Pork

Sausage, Mushrooms, and Pineapples); 5 large

paper circles; 15 pencils; 5 pieces of paper; 15

Post-assessment quizzes Safety: Include a general statement and any

specific safety concerns.

each horse having a different name (A - Lucky None

Leitermand, B - Chillin Chaney, C - Hall n Oats, D -

Hugging Hughes, and E - Rachels Rocket); 1 set of

8 different pizza topping cards (Black olives,

Pepperonis, Bell Pappers, Sardines, Onions, Pork

Sausage, Mushrooms, and Pineapples); 1 large

paper circle; 4 pencils; 1 piece of paper.

different race horse cards, each horse having a

different name; prepare 5 sets of 8 different pizza

topping cards, prepare 5 large paper circles;

Prepare Post-assessment quiz.

document, or link to them via a Google Doc. List

handouts in your materials list above.

Engagement

Estimated time: 15 Minutes

What the teacher does and how the teacher will Probing Questions: Critical questions that will

direct students (directions): connect prior knowledge and create a Need to

April 2016 2

1) Seperate the students into groups of 3 (4 Know

students per group if neccessary).

Students should be fluent in multiplication facts

2) Pass out 1 set of 4 race horse cards to

and recognizing number patterns.

each group of students.

3) Tell the students they are to pretend As each group is working to arrange the race

theyre attending the horse races for the horses to determine possible outcomes for both

day. It is time for race 1 to begin, and race 1 and 2, ask the student groups if order

there are 4 horses running in the race. matters, and why.

4) Ask each group of students to arrange

the 4 race horse cards in different orders Expected Student Responses and

to determine how many different ways it Misconceptions Students may not know what

is possible for the 4 horses to finish 1st, to do. Students will simply guess at the answers.

2nd, 3rd, and 4th in race 1. Students will ask for hints. Students may not

5) Allow each group approximately 5-7 understand order matters.

minutes to determine the possible

outcomes for race 1.

6) Give each group of students an additional

1 race horse card.

7) Tell the students race 2 is about to begin,

and there are 5 horses running in race 2.

8) Ask each group of students to arrange

the 5 race horse cards in different orders

to determine how many different ways it

is possible for the 5 horses to finish 1st,

2nd, and 3rd in race 2.

9) Allow each group approximately 8-10

minutes to determine the possible

outcomes for race 2.

Transition: Inform the students that time is up, and that they should have responses as to the

number of possible outcomes race 1 and races 2 will have.

Exploration

Estimated time: 5 minutes

What the teacher does and how the teacher will Probing Questions: Critical questions that will

direct students (directions): guide students to a common set of

experiences.

Ask each group to share their results/number of

Expected Student Responses and

April 2016 3

possible outcomes race 1 and race 2 would have. Misconceptions Students will respond with 16

possible outcomes for race 1 and 30 possible

Ask each group how they determined their

outcomes for race 2. Students might have a

responses. What was their process?

misconception about how order matters.

Ask each group if order mattered in the possible

outcomes.

colaboratively with the class to identify the

correct number of sets/outcomes for both race 1

and race 2.

that horses A, B, C, & D will finish with A coming

in 1st, B coming in 2nd, C coming 3rd, & D coming

in 4th.

Transition

Make sure all students understand that race 1 has 24 possible outcomes, and that race 2 has 60

possible outcomes. Ask the class if there is an easier way to determine the outcomes for race 1 and

race 2.

Explanation

Estimated time: 10 minutes

What the teacher does and how the teacher will Probing Questions: Critical questions that will

direct students (directions): help students clarify their understanding and

introduce information related to the lesson

Explain to the class what a factorial and a

concepts and vocabulary

permutation are.

Expected Student Responses and

Let students know that order matters with Misconceptions think like a student to consider

factorials and permutations. student responses INCLUDING misconceptions

Introduce the process of solving a factorial (i.e., (italics)

n! 4! = 1 x 2 x 3 x 4 = 24).

Introduce the equation and process for solving a

permutation (i.e., nPr = n!/(n-r)! 5 P 3 = 5!/(5-

3)! = 5!/2! = 120/2 = 60).

April 2016 4

Instruct students how to calculate factorials and

permutations using a calculator (TI-84).

Answer any questions the students have.

Transition

Make sure everyone understands how to calcuate a factorial and permutation using the written

process and using a calculator.

Elaboration

Estimated time: 10 minutes

What the teacher does and how the teacher will Probing Questions:

direct students (directions):

As the student groups work on their responses,

ask each group if order matters and why.

1) Have students stay or return to their

previous groups of 3 (4 per group if

neccessary). Expected Student Responses and

2) Pass out 1 set of 8 pizza topping cards to Misconceptions

each group. Following the factorial and permutation

3) Pass out 1 large paper circle to each engagement, some students may have a

group. misconception that order matters in

4) Instruct each group to use the provided 8 combinations.

pizza toppings and circle to determine

the possible number of combinations the

group could order using only 3 different

toppings for each pizza (3 different

topping of the 8 pizza toppings provided

should be used on each pizza

combination).

5) Allow each group approximately 5

minutes to determine the number of

pizza combinations they could order.

each student group determined they could order

using only 3 toppings per pizza from the 8 pizza

toppings they were provided.

April 2016 5

Ask how each group determined their responses.

Explain to the class that order does not matter

with combinations. (i.e., a pizza with pepperonis,

mushrooms, and onions is the same pizza with

onions, pepperonis, and mushrooms.)

Introduce the process and equation for solving a

combination (i.e., n!/(n-r)!r! 8!/(8-3)!3! =

8!/5!3! = 40,320/(120 x 6) = 56)

Instruct students how to calculate combinations

using a calculator (TI-84).

Transition

Answer any questions the students may have about combinations, and how to calculate

combinations.

Evaluation:

Estimated time: 5 minutes

Critical questions that ask students to demonstrate their understanding of the lessons performance

objectives.

Formative Assessment(s): In addition to the pre and post assessments, how will you determine the

students learning within this lesson (i.e., observations, student responses/elaborations, white boards,

student questions, etc.)?

Student responses will be observed and assessed following both the engagement excercises and

elaboration excercise. Students will be asked if they understand how to calculate factorials,

permutations, and combinations using their thumbs (i.e., thumb up means the individual student

understands the concepts completely, thumb sideways means the individual student somewhat

understands the concepts (, but might need additional practice), and thumb down means the

individual student does not understand the concepts. [Every effort will be made to assure all students

understand factorials, permutations, and combinations]

Summative Assessment: Provide a student copy of the exit questions or post assessment (attach extra

pages to this document).

Each student will be expected to complete a post-assessment quiz containing 5 questions. The post-

assessment quiz will be identical to the pre-assessment quiz adminstered prior to the lesson.

April 2016 6

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