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Author(s): Title of lesson: Factorials, Permutations, and Combinations

Team members: Bryce Jackson


Technology lesson? Yes (TI-84 calculators)
Mason Cox
Lesson source:
Michael McKenzie

Lesson #: Mentors name: Sandra Leiterman


Date lesson will be taught: April Mentors school: UALR
19, 2016 Subject/Grade level: Math / High School
Length of lesson: 45 minutes

Concept statement/Main idea:


In paragraph form, write the concepts and vocabulary of this activity.
This activity provides an introduction to factorials, permutations, and combinations.

Standards
List the appropriate process and content standards for your lesson.
Arkansas Science Standards:
Arkansas Math Standards:
CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.HSS.MD.B.6 - Use probabilities to make fair decisions.
CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.HSS.MD.B.7 - Analyze decisions and stratagies using probability concepts.
CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.7.SP.C.8 - Find probabilities of compound events using organized lists, tables, tree
diagrams, and simulation.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.7.SP.C.8.A - Understand that, just as with simple events, the probability of a


compound event is the fraction of outcomes in the sample space for which the compound event occurs.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.7.SP.C.8.B - Represent sample spaces for compound events using methods such
as organized lists, tables and tree diagrams. For an event described in everyday language (e.g., "rolling
double sixes"), identify the outcomes in the sample space which compose the event.

Objective/s Write objective/s in SWBAT form. Evaluation


The Students Will Be Able to: evaluate simple Based on your objectives, draft the content of the
factorials, permutations, and combinations with questions you will ask on your pre- and post-
and without a calculator. assessments; at least one question for each objective.
Questions do not have to be multiple choice. The actual
pre- and post- assessments are required at the end of
this lesson plan.

April 2016
Materials list (BE SPECIFIC about quantities) Accommodations: Race horse names and pizza
ingredients will be printed big enough for all
students to read.
For whole class: 5 sets of 5 different race horse
cards, each horse having a different name (A -
Lucky Leiterman, B - Chillin Chaney, C - Hall n Oats,
D - Huggin Hughes, and E - Rachels Rocket); 5 sets
of 8 different pizza topping cards (Black olives,
Pepperonis, Bell Peppers, Sardines, Onions, Pork
Sausage, Mushrooms, and Pineapples); 5 large
paper circles; 15 pencils; 5 pieces of paper; 15
Post-assessment quizzes Safety: Include a general statement and any
specific safety concerns.

Per group: 1 set of 5 different race horse cards,


each horse having a different name (A - Lucky None
Leitermand, B - Chillin Chaney, C - Hall n Oats, D -
Hugging Hughes, and E - Rachels Rocket); 1 set of
8 different pizza topping cards (Black olives,
Pepperonis, Bell Pappers, Sardines, Onions, Pork
Sausage, Mushrooms, and Pineapples); 1 large
paper circle; 4 pencils; 1 piece of paper.

Per student: 1 Post-assessment quiz.; Pencil

Advance preparation: Prepare 5 sets of 5


different race horse cards, each horse having a
different name; prepare 5 sets of 8 different pizza
topping cards, prepare 5 large paper circles;
Prepare Post-assessment quiz.

Included handouts at the end of this lesson plan


document, or link to them via a Google Doc. List
handouts in your materials list above.

Engagement
Estimated time: 15 Minutes
What the teacher does and how the teacher will Probing Questions: Critical questions that will
direct students (directions): connect prior knowledge and create a Need to

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1) Seperate the students into groups of 3 (4 Know
students per group if neccessary).
Students should be fluent in multiplication facts
2) Pass out 1 set of 4 race horse cards to
and recognizing number patterns.
each group of students.
3) Tell the students they are to pretend As each group is working to arrange the race
theyre attending the horse races for the horses to determine possible outcomes for both
day. It is time for race 1 to begin, and race 1 and 2, ask the student groups if order
there are 4 horses running in the race. matters, and why.
4) Ask each group of students to arrange
the 4 race horse cards in different orders Expected Student Responses and
to determine how many different ways it Misconceptions Students may not know what
is possible for the 4 horses to finish 1st, to do. Students will simply guess at the answers.
2nd, 3rd, and 4th in race 1. Students will ask for hints. Students may not
5) Allow each group approximately 5-7 understand order matters.
minutes to determine the possible
outcomes for race 1.
6) Give each group of students an additional
1 race horse card.
7) Tell the students race 2 is about to begin,
and there are 5 horses running in race 2.
8) Ask each group of students to arrange
the 5 race horse cards in different orders
to determine how many different ways it
is possible for the 5 horses to finish 1st,
2nd, and 3rd in race 2.
9) Allow each group approximately 8-10
minutes to determine the possible
outcomes for race 2.

Transition: Inform the students that time is up, and that they should have responses as to the
number of possible outcomes race 1 and races 2 will have.

Exploration
Estimated time: 5 minutes
What the teacher does and how the teacher will Probing Questions: Critical questions that will
direct students (directions): guide students to a common set of
experiences.
Ask each group to share their results/number of
Expected Student Responses and
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possible outcomes race 1 and race 2 would have. Misconceptions Students will respond with 16
possible outcomes for race 1 and 30 possible
Ask each group how they determined their
outcomes for race 2. Students might have a
responses. What was their process?
misconception about how order matters.
Ask each group if order mattered in the possible
outcomes.

Using the students responses, work


colaboratively with the class to identify the
correct number of sets/outcomes for both race 1
and race 2.

Ask the students what is the probability in race 1


that horses A, B, C, & D will finish with A coming
in 1st, B coming in 2nd, C coming 3rd, & D coming
in 4th.

Transition
Make sure all students understand that race 1 has 24 possible outcomes, and that race 2 has 60
possible outcomes. Ask the class if there is an easier way to determine the outcomes for race 1 and
race 2.

Explanation
Estimated time: 10 minutes
What the teacher does and how the teacher will Probing Questions: Critical questions that will
direct students (directions): help students clarify their understanding and
introduce information related to the lesson
Explain to the class what a factorial and a
concepts and vocabulary
permutation are.
Expected Student Responses and
Let students know that order matters with Misconceptions think like a student to consider
factorials and permutations. student responses INCLUDING misconceptions
Introduce the process of solving a factorial (i.e., (italics)
n! 4! = 1 x 2 x 3 x 4 = 24).
Introduce the equation and process for solving a
permutation (i.e., nPr = n!/(n-r)! 5 P 3 = 5!/(5-
3)! = 5!/2! = 120/2 = 60).

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Instruct students how to calculate factorials and
permutations using a calculator (TI-84).
Answer any questions the students have.

Transition
Make sure everyone understands how to calcuate a factorial and permutation using the written
process and using a calculator.

Elaboration
Estimated time: 10 minutes
What the teacher does and how the teacher will Probing Questions:
direct students (directions):
As the student groups work on their responses,
ask each group if order matters and why.
1) Have students stay or return to their
previous groups of 3 (4 per group if
neccessary). Expected Student Responses and
2) Pass out 1 set of 8 pizza topping cards to Misconceptions
each group. Following the factorial and permutation
3) Pass out 1 large paper circle to each engagement, some students may have a
group. misconception that order matters in
4) Instruct each group to use the provided 8 combinations.
pizza toppings and circle to determine
the possible number of combinations the
group could order using only 3 different
toppings for each pizza (3 different
topping of the 8 pizza toppings provided
should be used on each pizza
combination).
5) Allow each group approximately 5
minutes to determine the number of
pizza combinations they could order.

After 5 minutes ask how many pizza combination


each student group determined they could order
using only 3 toppings per pizza from the 8 pizza
toppings they were provided.

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Ask how each group determined their responses.
Explain to the class that order does not matter
with combinations. (i.e., a pizza with pepperonis,
mushrooms, and onions is the same pizza with
onions, pepperonis, and mushrooms.)
Introduce the process and equation for solving a
combination (i.e., n!/(n-r)!r! 8!/(8-3)!3! =
8!/5!3! = 40,320/(120 x 6) = 56)
Instruct students how to calculate combinations
using a calculator (TI-84).

Transition
Answer any questions the students may have about combinations, and how to calculate
combinations.

Evaluation:
Estimated time: 5 minutes
Critical questions that ask students to demonstrate their understanding of the lessons performance
objectives.

Formative Assessment(s): In addition to the pre and post assessments, how will you determine the
students learning within this lesson (i.e., observations, student responses/elaborations, white boards,
student questions, etc.)?

Student responses will be observed and assessed following both the engagement excercises and
elaboration excercise. Students will be asked if they understand how to calculate factorials,
permutations, and combinations using their thumbs (i.e., thumb up means the individual student
understands the concepts completely, thumb sideways means the individual student somewhat
understands the concepts (, but might need additional practice), and thumb down means the
individual student does not understand the concepts. [Every effort will be made to assure all students
understand factorials, permutations, and combinations]

Summative Assessment: Provide a student copy of the exit questions or post assessment (attach extra
pages to this document).
Each student will be expected to complete a post-assessment quiz containing 5 questions. The post-
assessment quiz will be identical to the pre-assessment quiz adminstered prior to the lesson.

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