MAT1791
Mathematics 10C
ISBN: 9781927090756
Course Review
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Barrhead, Alberta Canada T7N 1P4
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Mathematics 10
McGrawHill Ryerson Ltd.
Mathematics 10C
Course Review
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Mathematics 10C: Course Review Booklet Workbook 9
You have now learned all the concepts for Math 10C. This course review includes a summary table
of topics and review problems for each Unit. All the problems include a full solution located in the
Appendix section of the Review Workbook. Your task is to solve all the problems in each of the Unit
sections, ensuring to show all steps and necessary work; then, compare your solutions to the full
solutions in the Appendix.
Unit 1: Measurement
Im going to
I know how to
Concepts review that
do that
topic
Provide referents for linear measurements using SI and imperial
units
Estimate a length using a referent
Choose an appropriate unit for solving a measurement problem
Use various tools for measuring lengths and distances
Describe how to measure the length or perimeter of an oddly shaped
object
Convert between SI units
Convert between Imperial units
Convert between SI and Imperial units
Explain how units are eliminated in a unit conversion
Use mental mathematics to justify the reasonableness of a
conversion
1. What unit(s) of linear measurement would be most appropriate for making each of the following
linear measurements?
2. Jude estimates that his index finger is 3 inches long. He calculates the
circumference of one of his bongo drums to be 27 inches. Suppose Jude
used his finger as a referent to measure the circumference of the drum.
How many finger lengths along the circumference of the drum would he
have counted?
Thinkstock
0 24 6 8 1/128 in
0 1 2
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
0 5 10 0.1 mm
b. Use mental math and estimation to justify that the answer is reasonable.
1. Calculate the surface area of the right rectangular pyramid shown, to the nearest square foot.
13 ft
12.3 ft
ft
5
10 ft
2. Calculate the volume of the right cone shown, to the nearest cubic metre.
7.0 m
3.0 m
3. A sphere has a surface area of 15.4 m2. What is the radius of the sphere, to the nearest tenth of a
metre?
4. A right cylindrical can has a volume of approximately 563.9 cm3. What is the volume of a right
cone with the same base and height, to the nearest cubic centimetre?
5. Determine the exposed surface area of a solid, triangular prism shelf attached to a wall and the
cylindrical container sitting on it, to the nearest tenth of a square inch.
4.5 in
4 in
6 in
8 in
16 in
Unit 3: Trigonometry
Im going to
I know how to
Concepts review that
do that
topic
Explain the relationship between similar right triangles and the sine,
cosine, and tangent ratios
Identify the hypotenuse and the sides opposite and adjacent to a
given acute angle in a right triangle
Solve right triangles
Solve problems involving right triangles by applying the primary
trigonometric ratios, the Pythagorean theorem, and the triangle
angle sum
Use measuring instruments and the primary trigonometric ratios or
the Pythagorean theorem to solve a problem
5.5 cm
9.0 3.2 cm
cm
2. Solve the right triangle shown. Express side lengths to the nearest tenth of an inch and angles to
the nearest degree.
4 .2
5i
y
n
65
x
3. Sarahs math class went on a field trip to the BC coast and took measurements of different totem
poles. Sarah stood 20 feet away from the smallest totem pole and used a clinometer to determine
the angle of elevation to the top of the totem pole to be 51. If Sarahs eyes are 5.5 feet from the
ground, what is the height of the totem pole, to the nearest tenth of a foot?
51
20 ft
Thinkstock
4. Using the information in the diagram, determine the length of AD, to the nearest tenth of a
millimetre. D
40 6.5 mm
A 18
B C
5. The High River Hot Air Balloon Festival was held in September of 2013. One of the hot air
balloons was tethered to the ground at points B, C, and D, using three guy wires, as shown.
A
Thinkstock
D
30
30
B C
150 m
How far above the ground was the hot air balloon, to the nearest tenth of a metre?
4. Evaluate or simplify the following radicals, expressing each in exact value form. Then,
categorize them as Rational or Irrational.
Number Exact Value Answer Rational Irrational
4
196
54
3
 16
225
3
216
49
81
^^5 2 h^5 3 hh
3 1 6
a.
2 1 a 2 b 3
b.
4a3 b5
5
7. a. Write 42 3 as a radical.
`5 j
11
b. Write 6 as a power.
2
8. Biologists use the formula b = 0.01m 3 to estimate the brain mass, b, in kilograms, of a mammal
with body mass m, in kilograms. Determine the brain mass of a koala with body mass
11.8 kilograms, to the nearest hundredth of a kilogram.
Unit 5: Polynomials
Im going to
I know how to
Concepts review that
do that
topic
Model the multiplication of two binomials using pictures or algebra
tiles, and record the process symbolically
Explain how binomial multiplication is related to area
Explain the relationship between binomial multiplication and
multiplying twodigit numbers
Verify polynomial multiplication using substitution
Multiply two polynomials and combine like terms in the product
Explain how to multiply any two polynomials
Correct errors in a polynomial multiplication
Factor a polynomial using the GCF of its terms
Model the factoring of a trinomial using pictures or algebra tiles,
and record this process symbolically
Factor a polynomial that is a difference of squares
Identify and correct errors in a polynomial factorization
Factor a polynomial and verify by multiplying the factors
Use examples to show the relationship between multiplying and
factoring polynomials
Generalize and explain strategies used to factor a trinomial
Express a polynomial as a product of its factors
^ x + 6h^ x  8h
x 6
x
8
^3t  6h^t  8t + 2h
2
a.
21x2 yz  3x2 y2 + 24x3 y3
b.
w2  13w  30
c.
36d2  49e2
d.
x2  18xy + 81y2
a. Determine a possible set of expressions for the length, width, and height of the rectangular
prism.
Explain, using examples, why some relations are not functions but
all functions are relations
Determine if a set of ordered pairs represents a function
Sort a set of ordered pairs or nonfunctions
Generalize and explain rules for determining whether graphs and
sets of ordered pairs represent functions
Express the equation of a linear function in two variables using
function notation
Express an equation given a function notation as a linear function in
two variables
Sketch the graph of a linear function expressed in function notation
Solve for the domain and range values when given the range and
domain values for a linear function
1. The graph representing Julies morning run shows the relationship between her distance from
home and time.
B C
Distance From Home
D E
F
0
Time
AB:
BC:
CD:
DE:
EF:
x
4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4
x
4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4
x
4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4
3.
Determine whether each of the following relations is a function. State the domain and range of
the graph of each relation.
y y y
4 4 4
2 2 2
x x x
2 0 2 4 6 4 2 0 2 4 2 0 2 4 6
2 2 2
R: R: R:
a. of 7 ? ________
4
b. that is undefined? ________
c. of zero? ________
d. of 4 ? ________
7
i. y ii. y
A
4 4
2 2
A
x x
4 2 0 2 4 4 2 0 2 4
2 2
B B
4 4
iii. y iv. y
A
4 4
2 2
B
x x
4 2 0 2 4 4 2 0 2 4
2 2
B A
4 4
5. Cherries from the Okanagan Valley in BC are popular treat during early summer months. They
are also high in dietary fibre. The table below represents the amount of dietary fibre from various
masses of cherries.
Mass of Cherries (g) 180 360 540
Amount of Fibre (g) 3.5 7 10.5
a. Does the data represent a linear or nonlinear relationship between the amount of fibre and
the mass of cherries? Explain.
x
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1
2. a. State the equation of the relation, in slopeintercept form, of the following graph.
x
5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5
1
3. Determine the slope of a line that is perpendicular to the line through C(10,4) and D(7,2).
5. The number of girls playing organized ice hockey from January of 1990 to January of 2010
increased by approximately 4 000 girls per year. Specifically, in January of 2000, there were
approximately 45 000 girls playing organized ice hockey.
a. Write an equation, in slopepoint form, to represent the number of girls, g, playing organized
ice hockey as it relates to the number of years, t, after 1990.
b. Use the equation from part a. to determine the number of girls who played organized ice
hockey in January of 2005.
1. Graphically solve the following system of linear equations. Verify the solution.
y
2y  14 = 4x
y1 = x 8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
x
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
2. Use substitution to solve the following system of linear equations. Verify the solution.
x = 4+y
2x + 8y = 132
3. Use elimination to solve the following system of linear equations. Verify the solution.
8x  6y = 20
2x + 5y = 18
4. What system of linear equations is modelled by these balanced scales? Each small square on the
right side of the scales represents 3 kg.
y
x x
y y
x x
y y
5. Create a system of linear equations to model each of the following situations. Do not solve the
system.
a. The perimeter of an isosceles triangle is 45 cm. The base of the triangle is 10 cm longer than
each equal side.
b. Charlie operates a grasscutting business. He charges $15 for a small lawn and $25 for a
large lawn. One weekend, Charlie made $290 by cutting 16 lawns.
6. To rent a car, a person is charged a flat daily rate and a fee for each kilometre driven. When
Cheyenne rented a car for 7 days and drove 800 km, the charge was $540.00. When she rented
the same car for 16 days and drove 1 950 km, the charge was $1 295.00.
b. Determine the daily rate and the fee for each kilometre driven. Verify the solution.
Appendix
1. a. inch or centimetre
b. inch or centimetre
c. yard or metre
d. yard or metre
e. millimetre
f. foot or inch or centimetre
27 in =
2. 9 finger lengths
3 in
3. 2 cm + 0.5 cm + 0.08 cm = 2.58 cm
x ft = 1 ft
60 in 12 in
x ft 1 ft
: 60 in = : 60 in
60 in 12 in
x ft 1 ft
: 60 in = : 60 in
60 in 12 in
x ft = 5 ft
or
1 ft = 1 ft
60 in : 60 in :
12 in 12 in
= 5 ft
60 min = 60 min
3 h: 3h:
1h 1h
= 180 min
12 in = 12 in
6 ft : 6 ft :
1 ft 1 ft
= 72 in
72 in + 1 in = 73 in
2.54 cm = 2.54 cm
73 in : 73 in :
1 in 1 in
= 185.42 cm
b. To check:
1 ft 0 30 cm
6 ft 0 180 cm
So, 6 ft 1 in = 185.42 cm is reasonable.
10 ft : 12.3 ft m + c 5 ft : 13 ft m
SAright retangular pyramid = ^10 ft : 5 fth + 2 c 2
2 2
SAright retangular pyramid = 50 ft + 123 ft + 65 ft
2 2 2
1 2
2. Vright cone = 3 rr h
Vright cone = r ^3.0 mh2 ^7.0 mh
1
3
Vright cone = r ^63.0 m3h
1
3
Vright cone 0 66 m3
3. SAsphere = 4rr2
15.4 m2 = 4rr2
15.4 m2 = 4r r
2
4r 4r
15.4 m = 2
2
r
4r
15.4 m2 = 2
r
4r
1.1 m 0 r
1 2
Vright cone = rr h
3
Vright cone = ^Vright cylinderh
1
3
Vright cone 0 ^563.9 m3h
1
3
Vright cone 0 187.9666f
Vright cone 0 188 cm3
5. Use the Pythagorean theorem to find the missing measurement for the front lateral face of the
prism.
4.5 in
b = 6 in and a = 8 in
4 in
a +b = c 2 2 2
6i
n
6 in
^8 inh + ^6 inh2 = c2
2
64 in2 + 36 in2 = c2 c
8 in
100 in2 = c2
10 in = c 16 in
Use parts of the formulas for the surface area of a right cylinder and surface area of a right
triangular prism.
Let l be the length of the shelf and let h be the height of the container.
diameter = 4.5 in =
r= 2.25 in
2 2
opp
1. a. tan i = adj
5.5 cm
tan i =
9.7 cm
i = tan1 `
5.5 j
9.7
i 0 29.6c
adj
b. cos b =
hyp
3.2 cm
cos b =
9.0 cm
b = cos1 `
3.2 j
9.0
b 0 69c
adj
cos 65c =
hyp
x
cos 65c =
4.25 in
x
4.25 in : cos 65c = : 4.25 in
4.25 in
1.8 in 0 x
opp
sin 65c =
hyp
y
sin 65c =
4.25 in
y
4.25 in : sin 65c = : 4.25 in
4.25 in
3.9 in 0 y
opp
3. tan i =
adj
t
20 ft : tan 51c = : 20 ft
20 ft
24.7 0 t
adj
4. cos 40c =
hyp
BD
cos 40c =
6.5 mm
BD
6.5 mm : cos 40c = : 6.5 mm
6.5 mm
4.979... mm = BD
opp
sin 18c =
hyp
4.979... mm
sin 18c =
AD
4.979... mm
sin 18c : AD = : AD
AD
sin 18c : AD = 4.979... mm
AD = 4.979... mm
sin 18c :
sin 18c sin 18c
4.979... mm
AD =
sin 18c
AD 0 16. 1 mm
opp opp
5. sin 30c =
hyp tan 30c =
adj
CD AD
sin 30c = tan 30c =
150 m 75 m
CD AD
150 m : sin 30c = : 150 m 75 m : tan 30c = : 75 m
150 m 75 m
75 m = CD 43.3 m 0 AD
The hot air balloon was approximately 43.3 metres above the ground.
1. 2 520
2 260
2 130
5 65
13
520 = 2 : 2 : 2 : 5 : 13
2. Prime factorization:
2 420 2 190
2 210 5 95
5 105 19
3 21
7
GCF LCM
420 = 2 : 2 : 5 : 3 : 7 420 = 2 : 2 : 5 : 3 : 7
190 = 2 :5 : 19 190 = 2 :5 : 19
GCF = 2 :5 LCM = 2 : 2 : 5 : 3 : 7 : 19
GCF = 10 LCM = 7 980
3. a. 2 500 = 50
b. 3
91125 = 45
4.
Number Exact Value Answer Rational Irrational
4
4
196 196
= 2 =1
14 7
54 54 = 9 : 6 = 3 6
3
 16 3
 16 = 3  8 : 2 = 2 3 2
225 225 = 15
3
216 3
216 = 6
49
49
81 81
=7
9
5. 3
 125 = 5
3
 64 = 4
 5 1 3  122 1  4
= ^5 9h^52h
= 511
5
7. a. 42 3 = 3 425
b. ` 5 j = ` 5 j
11
11
2
6 6
8. b = 0.01m 3
2
b 0 0.05 kg
The brain mass of a koala is approximately 0.05 kilograms.
^ x + 6h^ x  8h
x 6
x x : x = x2 x : 6 = 6x
8  8 : x = 8x  8 : 6 = 48
3. ^3t  6h^t2  8t + 2h
= ^3t : t2h + ^3t : ^ 8t hh + ^3t : 2h + ^^ 6h : t2h + ^^ 6h : ^ 8t hh + ^^ 6h : 2h
= 3t3 + ^ 24t2h + 6t + ^ 6t2h + 48t + ^ 12h
= 3t3  30t2 + 54t  12
b. ^w  15h^w + 2h
b. V = 4x ^4x + 3h^5x + 6h
V = ^4 : 2 cmh^4 ^2 cmh + 3h^5 ^2 cmh + 6h
V = 8 cm : 11 cm : 16 cm
V = 1 408 cm3
1. a. AB: Julie started her run a small distance from her home.
BC: Julie stopped running to take a rest for a small amount of time.
CD: Julie began running towards home at a faster pace.
DE: Julie took another, shorter, rest.
EF: Julie ran the rest of the way home at a slower pace.
b. Line segment CD is the steepest, so it represents the fastest portion of Julies run.
4
3
2
1
x
4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4
1
2
3
4
3
2
1
x
4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4
1
2
3
4
3
2
1
x
4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4
1
2
3
3.
y y y
4 4 4
2 2 2
x x x
2 0 2 4 6 4 2 0 2 4 2 0 2 4 6
2 2 2
R: {y  y ! R} R: {y  y ! R} R: {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5}
4. a. i
b. iv
c. iii
d. ii
5. a. The relationship is linear. For every increase in mass of 180 g, there is an increase in fibre of
3.5 g.
b. The independent variable is the mass of cherries and the dependent variable is the amount of
fibre.
c. The graph of the relation would be continuous because there can be decimal values for mass.
y2  y1
d. m=
x2  x1
7  3.5
m=
360  180
3.5
m=
180
m 0 0.02
e. For every 180 grams of cherries, there is a 3.5 g increase in fibre. It is also acceptable to state
it as a per unit increase. So, for every 1 gram of cherries, there is approximately a
0.02 g increase in fibre.
Note, however, that it might be more appropriate to state the rate of change as a value or
fraction that reflects reallife. Few people would consume 1 g of cherries, but many would
3.5 g
consume 180 g, so using the fraction m = has more meaning in this context than
180 g
0.02 g/g.
6x + 9y + 36 = 0
6x + 9 ^0 h + 36 = 0
6x + 36 = 0
6x + 36  36 = 0  36
6x = 36
6 x  36
=
6 6
x = 6
6x + 9y + 36 = 0
6 ^0 h + 9y + 36 = 0
+ 9y + 36 = 0
9y + 36  36 = 0  36
9y = 36
9 y  36
=
9 9
y = 4
1
(6,0)
x
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1
2
6x + 9y + 36 = 0
3
(0,4)
4
c. 6x + 9y + 36 = 0
6x + 9y + 36  9y = 0  9y
6x + 36 =  9 y
9 9
 6 x  36 = y
9 9
2 x4 = y
3
2. a. y = 4 x + 2
3
The yintercept of this graph is 2 and the slope can be determined by substituting two points
on the line into the slope formula.
^0, 2h and ^ 3,  2h
y2  y1
m=
x2  x1
 
= 2 2
3  0

= 4
3
=4
3
4 +
b. y= x 2
3
4 4 4
y x2 = x+2  x 2
3 3 3
4
 x+y2 = 0
3
 3 ` 4 x + y  2 j = 3 ^0 h
3
4 x  3y + 6 = 0
y2  y1
3. mCD =
x2  x1
2  4
7  ^ 10h
=
= 6
17
 6x + y + 21 = 0
 6x + y + 21  y = 0  y
 6x + 21 y
=
1 1
6x  21 = y
y = mx + b
y = 6x  5
5. a. The increase in girls playing organized ice hockey represents the slope.
m = 4 000
The year 2000 is 2000 1990 = 10 years after 1990. So, an ordered pair that satisfies this
equation is: (10,45 000)
m ^ x  x1h = y  y1
m ^t  t1h = g  g1
There were approximately 65 000 girls playing organized ice hockey in January of 2005.
1. 2y  14 = 4x 8
7
2y  14 + 14 = 4x + 14 6
5
2 y 4x + 14 2y 14 = 4x
4
=
2 2 3
y1=x
2
y = 2x + 7 1
x
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1
y1 = x 2
y 1 +1 = x + 1 3
4
y = x+1 5
(6,5)
6
7
8
Verify the solution of (6,5).
2y 14 = 4x y1=x
Left Side Right Side Left Side Right Side
2y 14 4x y1 x
2(5) 14 4(6) 5 1 6
10 14 24 6
24 LS = RS
LS = RS
 26 y  52
= 2x + 5y = 18
 26  26
y=2 Left Side Right Side
2x + 5y 18
8x  6 ^2h = 20 2 ^4h + 5 ^2h
8x  12 + 12 = 20 + 12 18
8 = 32
8
x
8 LS = RS
x = 4
4. 2x + 3y = 12
3x + 2y = 18
5. a. Let b be the base length of the isosceles triangle and s be the two equal side lengths of the
triangle.
2s + b = 45
s + 10 = b
b. Let s be the number of small lawns and l be the number of large lawns.
s + l = 16
15s + 25l = 290
6. a. Let f be the daily rate, in dollars, and let k be the cost, in dollars, for each kilometre driven.
7f + 800k = 540
16f + 1 950k = 1 295
b. 7f + 800k = 540
16f + 1 950k = 1 295
 850 k  425
=
 850  850
k = 0.50
7f + 800k = 540 16f + 1950k = 1295
Left Side Right Side Left Side Right Side
7f + 800k 540 16f + 1 950k 1295
7 ^20h + 800 ^0.50h 16 ^20h + 1 950 ^0.50h
540 1 295
LS = RS LS = RS
The daily rate is $20 and the fee for each kilometre driven is $0.50.
Circle Square
s
r Acircle = rr2 Asquare = s2
Triangle Rectangle
l
a ab
Atriangle = Arectangle = lw
2
w
b
3D Shapes:
w l
h
w
l a
h
h
s
r
s2 h s
s1 h
w
l b
s r
s
s
Trigonometry
Pythagorean Theorem: a2 + b2 = c2
c a
hypothenuse length opposite
length adjacent to
b
Trigonometric Ratios:
Linear Equations
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