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FIELD STUDY 4

EXPLORING THE CURRICULUM

Table of Contents
Field Study 4 - Exploring the Curriculum

1. The Meaning of Curriculum

2. The Types of Curricula in Schools

3. The Teacher as a Curriculalist

4. The Teacher as a Knower of Curriculum

5. Approaches about School Curriculum

6. Curriculum Development: Processes and Models

7. Foundations of Curriculum Development

8. Crafting the Curriculum: The Teacher as a Designer

9 Approaches to Curriculum Design

10. Implementing the Curriculum:

The Teacher as Curriculum Implementer and Manager

11. Stakeholders in Curriculum Development

12. Curriculum Evaluation and the Teacher

THE MEANING OF CURRICULUM


My FS Learning Episode Overview
The episode unfolds the meaning of curriculum from the students point of
view, from authoritative sources and from different people of various discipline.

My Desired Learning Outcomes


Give the meaning of curriculum from different point of view.
Analyze the different meanings of curriculum.
Prepare/accomplish matrix on the evolving meaning of curriculum.

My Performance Criteria
I will be rated along the following:

quality of my observations and documentation,


completeness and depth of analysis
depth and clarity of classroom observation-based reflection,
completeness, organization, clarity of portfolio and
time of submission of portfolio

My Learning Essentials
The word curriculum may be defined in various ways. The definitions may be
limited or broad in scope.

Limited Definitions of the Broad Definition of the Curriculum


Curriculum
A set of courses constituting an Sum total of all the earning
area of specialization experiences inside and outside
Is an identification of proper goals the school
Can be considered as system of The set of learnings and
dealing of people and process experiences for students/ learners
Is a means of attaining the aims planned by the school to attain
or philosophy of education the aims of education
Planned learning experiences Is the entire range of experiences,
undirected and directed,
concerned with the unfolding the
abilities of the individual
Is a plan of action or written
document which includes
strategies for achieving desired
goals or ends.
Serves as the operational medium
through which the school displays
and coordinates the patterns of
transmission, translation, and
transposition of the educative
experiences which it assumes
responsibility
My Map

To ensure that I will be able

to do this activity, I must

follow the steps in reaching the

CURRICULUM flag,

Write a letter of request to visit the school.

Upon approval, go to the designated persons to be interviewed. Analyze the results


of the interview.

Visit the school library or surf the internet. Get two (2) meanings of the word
curriculum.

Evolve your own definition based on your interview.

Write your reflection on the first activity. Prepare your portfolio


My Learning Activities

Activity 1

Interview people from different schools in various disciplines. Get their opinions on
the meaning of curriculum.

Name (s) Designation Meaning Signature


1. Offers different
subjects to teach

2. It Is the different
subjects being
taught, guided by
the school
administrator

3. A prescribed source
of study. A guideline
to be followed by
the school
administrators and
teachers

Conclusion
(After analyzing the results of the interview, what can you conclude?)

As I analyze the result of the interview, I conclude that curriculum is the guideline
offered to different courses to teach by the teachers. This serves as their basis on
how to implement different courses.
Activity 2

Visit the school library/surf the internet or consult the dictionary. Write two (2)
meanings of curriculum taken from authoritative sources.

Meaning of Curriculum Reference (s)

Whole body of course in an educational New International Dictionary


institution or by a department.

A written document that systematically Pratt, 1980


describes goals, planned objectives,
content, learning activities, evaluation
procedures and so forth.

My Analysis

As Ive read the meaning of the curriculum, It gives an idea that the curriculum is
the heart of the teaching and learning process. It directs every teachers on what to
teach and on how to teach based on the curriculum. It guides every teacher in
teaching.
Activity 3

Evolve your own definition of curriculum. Consider of all the meanings you have
taken from the different sources and from authoritative sources.

What is Curriculum?
My Key Learning Points

Curriculum is the whole body of course, planned and organized that offer different
subjects that helps learners to achieved total learning experiences under the
guidance of the teacher.
How did I feel after the activities?
I feel relieved because the answers to all my queries were solved or answered
based on these activity about the curriculum.
My Reflections/Insights

Why is curriculum important?

Curriculum is important because these are the set of subjects, content, material and
programs that will be taught in school, these will be the guide of every teacher

How can one enrich the curriculum in every school?


Integrating Theory and Practice

Directions: Read the items given below and encircle the correct answer.

1. In a curriculum development class, the teacher asked the students to


give an enriched definition of the curriculum. Which among the following
encompasses the true essence of the term??

A. Curriculum is a list of subjects to take to complete a course.

B. Curriculum is the sum total of all the learning experiences in the teaching-
learning process.

C. Curriculum is a list of courses in order to graduate.

D, Curriculum is a never ending process in education.

2. Ordinary people consider curriculum as ________.

I. a list of subjects

II. courses to complete

III. subjects to undertake

A. I only C. III only

B. II only D. I, II, and III

3. Curriculum may be defined in many ways. What does this prove?

A. The concept of curriculum is based on those given by experts.

B. The concept is limited and narrow in scope.

C. The curriculum is characterized as fragmentary, elusive and confusing.

D. The concept of curriculum may be define form different perspectives.


Learning Portfolio

Pieces of Evidence

Documents

Records

Pictures
Other Learning Proofs/Pieces of Evidence
2 THE TYPES OF CURRICULA IN SCHOOLS
My FS Learning Episode Overview

The episode describes the different types of curricula in schools. This learning
episode allows you to differentiate the types of curricula existing in the different
schools

My Designed Learning Outcomes

summarize the existing types of curricula in various school


reflect on the importance of the different types of curricula
complete the matrix on the types of curricula

My Performance Criteria

I will be rated along the following:

quality of my observations and documentations,


completeness and depth of analysis
depth and clarity of classroom observation-based reflection,
completeness, organization, clarity of portfolio and
time of submission of portfolio

My Learning Essentials

There are several types of curriculum existing in schools.

Types of Curriculum In Schools


1. Recommended Curriculum These are recommendations in the form of
memoranda or policy, standards and guidelines
that came from government agencies such as
DepEd, CHED and TESDA and professional
organizations or international bodies suxh as
UNESCO.
2. Written Curriculum This includes documents based on the
recommended curriculum. They come in the
form of course of study, syllabi, modules, books,
instructional guides among others. Example of
written curriculum is the teachers lesson plan.
3.Taught Curriculum The teacher and the learners will put life to the
written curriculum. The skill of the teacher to
facilitate learning based on the written
curriculum with the aid of instructional materials
and facilities is necessary.
4. Supported Curriculum These are support materials that the teacher
needs, This includes print materials like books,
chats, worksheets and non-print materials like
PowerPoint presentation and other electronic
illustrations. It also includes facilities like science
laboratory and playground.
5. Assessed Curriculum This is the curriculum that is evaluated after it
has been taught. It can either be assessment for
learning, assessment as learning or assessment
of learning. If the process is to find the progress
of learning, then assessed curriculum is for
learning, but if it is to find out how much has
been learned or mastered, then it is assessment
of learning.
6. Learned Curriculum These are measured by tools in assessment,
which can indicate the cognitive, affective, and
psychomotor outcomes. Learned curriculum also
demonstrates higher order and critical thinking
and lifelong skills.
7. Hidden/Implicit Curriculum This is the unwritten curriculum peer influence,
school environment, media, parental pressures,
societal changes, cultural practices, natural
calamities are some factors that create hidden
curriculum.

My Map

1. Interview a teacher based on the given question.

2. Visit the schools near your place or you Alma Mater. Interview a teacher or
administrator or former teacher in your school.

3. Write your reflection and insights.

4. Answer the assessment question.

5. List down the tools used by the school.

6. Prepare your portfolio.

To ensure that I will be able to do this activity, I must follow the map.
My Learning Activities

Activity 1

Visit the school near your place or your Alma Mater. Interview a teacher or
administrator or former teacher in your school. Find out what curriculum is being
used in the schools/college/universities in your place. Check the corresponding
column.

Name(s) of

Curriculum
Recommende

Curriculum

Supported

Curriculum Hidden
Curriculum
Curriculum Written
d Curriculum

Assessed

Learned
Schools/
Tauugt

Colleges/Univers
ities
Curriculum

1.

2.

3.

Activity 2

Interview a teacher from a school. Ask this question:

Why must the teacher be aware and sensitive to the hidden curriculum?

Over Printed Name


Signature of the Interviewee
___________________
Activity 3 List down some of the tools used by the school to assess their curriculum.

Tools used by the school to assess their curriculum

My Reflections/Insights

Why do I need to know the different types of curricula?


Integrating Theory and Portfolio

Directions: Read the items given below and encircle the correct answer.

1. The Philippine Association for Teachers and Educators (PAFTE) proposed a new
curriculum for Teacher Education to make the graduates globally competitive. What
type of curriculum is this?

A. Supported curriculum

B. Hidden Curriculum

C. Assessed Curriculum

D. Recommended Curriculum

2. In order to have an effective teaching and learning, there must be an adequate


utilization of learning materials. What type of curriculum is this?

A. Assessed curriculum

B. Hidden curriculum

C. Recommended Curriculum

D. Supported Curriculum

3. When teachers conduct a series of evaluation to determine the extent of


teaching, what must be implemented?

A. Hidden curriculum

B. Taught curriculum

C. Learned curriculum

D. Assessed Curriculum
Pieces of Evidence

Records

Documents

Pictures

Other Learning Proofs/Pieces of Evidence


3 THE TEACHER AS A CURRICULARIST

My FS Learning Outcomes

define role of teachers as curricularist


discuss the roles of teachers s curricularist
reflect on how those roles affect the teaching-learning process

My Performance Criteria

I will be rated along the following:

quality of my observations and documentation.


Completeness and depth of analysis,
Depth and clarity of classroom observation-based reflection,
Completeness, organization, clarity of portfolio and
Time of submission of portfolio.

My Learning Essentials

A curricularist is a professional who is curriculum specialist. A teachers role is


broader and inclusive off other functions and so a teacher is a curricularist. What
does it take to be a curricularist. What does it take to be a curricularist?

Knows the curriculum (Knower)

As a teacher, one has to master what are included in the curriculum.

Writes the curriculum (Writer)

A classroom teacher takes record of knowledge concepts, subject matter or content.

Plans the curriculum (Planner)

A teachers role is to make yearly, monthly, or daily plan of the curriculum which
serves guide in the implementation of the curriculum.

Initiates the curriculum (Initiator)

Implementation of new curriculum requires the open mindedness of the teacher,


and the full belief that the curriculum will enhance learning.
Innovates the curriculum (Innovator)

A teacher makes innovations in the curriculum Creativity and innovation are


hallmarks of an excellent teacher.

Implements the curriculum (Implementer)

An implementor gives life to the curriculum plan. It is where the teaching, guiding
facilitating skills of the teacher are expected at the highest level.

Evaluates the curriculum (Evaluator)

Determines if the desired learning outcomes have been achieved.

My Map

To ensure that I will be able to do this activity, I must follow the foot prints.

1. Present the letter to the school Principal.

2. Go to the designated person for interview.

3. Get samples/pieces of evidence to prove that the teacher is a curricularist.

4. Get research findings on the roles of Curricularist.

5. Prepare a portfolio.
My Learning Activities

Activity 1

Interview a teacher on the specific roles he/she play as a curricularist. Your


interview must include a teacher in basic education and in the tertiary level.
Complete the matrix given below.

Levels Roles as a Curricularist


Early Childhood
Name of Teacher

School:

Signature:

Elementary
Name of Teacher

School:

Signature:

Secondary Level
Name of Teacher

School:

Signature:

Tertiary Level
Name of Teacher
School:

Signature:

Activity 2

After the interview, get samples/pieces of evidence to show that the teacher is a
curricularist. Write/Paste or post them here.
Activity 3

Research in the library and look for a topic about the role of teacher as a
curricularist. Complete the template below:

Research Title:

Researcher(s):

Findings: (Write the salient forms in bulleted form).


My Reflections/Insights

Aware of the roles of teachers as a curricularist,

How do you perceive your role as curricularist?


Integrating Theory and Practice

Directions: Read the items given below and encircle the correct answer.

1. This curricularist uses unique and out-of-the box strategies to make his/her class
highly engaging. He/She is a/an _____.

A. knower

B. innovator

C. writer

D. implementer

2. This curricularist has published researches, book, manuals, and other


instructional materials. He/She is a/an ____________.

A. implementer

B. evaluator

C. planner

D. writer

3. This curricularist attends seminars, workshops and pursues graduate work.


He/she is a/an ________.

A. innovator

B. knower

C. writer

D. evaluator
Pieces of Evidence

Records

Documents

Pictures

Other Learning Proofs/Pieces of Evidence


4 THE TEACHER AS A KNOWER OF CURRICULUM

My FS Learning Episode Overview

The episode is meant to enable you to distinguish the traditional from the
progressive curriculum. It cites the differences and similarities between the two.
This provides a wider perspective on the nature and scope of these types.

My Desired Learning Outcomes

analyze the teacher as a knower of curriculum


explain some viewpoints of other curriculum
complete the Venn diagram of traditional and progressive curriculum

My Performance Criteria

I will be rated along the following

quality of my observations and documentation,


completeness and depth of analysis,
depth and clarity of classroom observation-based reflection,
completeness, organization, clarity of portfolio and
time of submission of portfolio.

My Learning Essentials

Point of view about the curriculum can either be traditional or progressive


according to their philosophical and psychological orientations. These views can
also define what a curriculum is all about.

TRADITIONAL PROGRESSVE
Robert Hutchins Views curriculum John Dewey Believe that the
as permanent education is
studies where experiencing.
rules of
grammar,
reading, rhetoric, Reflective
logic and thinking is a
mathematics for means to unify
basic education curricular
are emphasized. elements that are
tested by
The 3Rs(Reading, application.
Writing,
rithmetic)
should be
emphasized in
basic education
while liberal
education should
be emphasis in
college

TRADITIONAL PROGRESSIVE
Arthur Bestor Believes that the Hollis Caswell Bothe educators
mission of the viewed
school should be
intellectual Kenn Campbell curriculum as all
training. experiences
Curriculum should children have
focus on the under the guidance
fundamental of teachers.
intellectual
disciples of
grammar,
literature and
writing.

It should include
Mathematics,
Science, History
and Foreign
Language.
Philip Phenix Curriculum should Colin Marsh Viewed curriculum
consist entirely of as all the
knowledge which George Willis experiences in the
comes from classroom which
various disciples. are planned and
enacted by the
teacher and also
learned by the
students

My Map

To ensure that I will be able to do this activity, I must follow the following:

1. Present a letter of request.

2. Interview a teacher and administrator on their view points on traditional and


progressive curriculum.

3. Interview a parent and ask her/his viewpoints on traditional and progressive


curriculum.
4. Research the differences of traditional and progressive curriculum. Accomplish
the H chart.

5. Call/Interview your friends from other institutions and ask the same question.

6. Prepare your portfolio.

My Learning Activities

Activity 1

Interview an administrator, a student and a parent. Find out their view points on the
traditional and progressive curriculum.

Name of Student:______________________________________________
School:______________________________________________________
Signature:___________________________________________________
Aspects Traditional Progressive
Roles of Teacher
Roles of Pupils
Modes of Instruction
Instructional Materials
Modes of assessment

Activity 1.1

Interview a teacher and an administrator. Find out their viewpoints on the traditional
and progressive curriculum.

Name of Faculty member:______________________________________________


School:______________________________________________________
Signature:___________________________________________________
Aspects Traditional Progressive
Roles of Teacher
Roles of Pupils
Modes of Instruction
Instructional Materials
Modes of assessment

Name of Administrator:______________________________________________
School:______________________________________________________
Signature:___________________________________________________
Aspects Traditional Progressive
Roles of Teacher
Roles of Pupils
Modes of Instruction
Instructional Materials
Modes of assessment

Activity 1.2

Interview a parent. Find out their viewpoints on the traditional and progressive
curriculum.

Name of Parent:______________________________________________
School:______________________________________________________
Signature:___________________________________________________
Aspects Traditional Progressive
Roles of Teacher
Roles of Pupils
Modes of Instruction
Instructional Materials
Modes of assessment

My Reflections

Activity 2

Research on the differences of the traditional and progressive curriculum.


Accomplish the H-Chart given below. Write the similarities at the center and the
differences on each side.

My Personal Insights
Activity 3

Call up your friends from other Teacher Education Institutions. Find out what is their
own point of view of curriculum. Put a check ( ) mark on the corresponding
column.

Names of the Traditional Progressive Both


Students/Schools
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

My Insights
Certificate of Completion

Is awarded to

Name of FS Student

Name of Teacher Education Institution

In the City/Province of

_______________ Region _____________

For having satisfactorily completed

the required number of hours (18 hours) for

Field Study Course 4

Exploring the Curriculum

Given this ______ day of ___________

In the year of our Lord,

Two Thousand and ___________

FS Teacher Academic Dean


(Name of School)

College of Education

Certificate of Completion

on EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING COURSES

( FIELD STUDY AND PRACTICE TEACHING )

is awarded to

Name

Bachelor of ____________________________________ Education

Course

for having satisfactorily completed

Field Study Courses and Practice Teaching as

EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING COURSES

in the TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAM

With the following PERFORMANCE RATINGS

Experiential Learning Courses


Grade Obtained
A. FIELD STUDY COURSES
FS 1
FS 2
FS 3
FS 4
FS 5
FS 6
FS 7

Average
B. Practice Teaching / Practicum
Given this ___ day of ___ in the year of our Lord, Two Thousand and __________

College Supervisor Dean


Integrating Theory and Practice

Directions: Read the items given below and encircle the correct answer.

1. When a school believes that curriculum should highly focus on


Math, Science and other fundamental intellectual disciplines, this
school believes in the curriculum views of ________.

A. John Dewey

B. Hollis Caswell

C. Arthur Bestor

D. Philip Phenix

2. The following are characteristics of progressive curriculum


except.

A. focuses on the experiences of the students and supervised by


the teacher.

B. takes into account all the curricular elements and tests these
elements through real life application

C. the classroom is only one place for the students to learn;


learning can take place anywhere

D. knowledge that comes from various disciplines should be the

3. In analysing the curriculum, the teacher should consider the


following except.

I. vision, mission, goals, and core values of the school

II. learning resources and faculties of the school

IV. all must be considered

A. I only C. III only

B. II only D. I, II, and III


Pieces of Evidence
Records

Documents

Pictures

Other Learning Proofs/Pieces of Evidence

5 AAPPROACHES ABOUT SCHOOL CURRICULUM

My Fs Learning Episode Overview


This episode is concerned with the different approaches about school curriculum. It
elaborates on suggested criteria in the selection of knowledge or subject matter. It
also discusses the basic principle of curriculum.

My Desired Learning Outcomes

describes the guides in the selection of content in the curriculum


apply the different approaches about school curriculum
reflect on the basic principles of curriculum development

My Performance Criteria

I will be rated along the following:

quality of my observations and documentation


completeness and depth of analysis
depth and clarity of classroom observation base reflection
completeness, organization, clarity of portfolio and
time of submission of portfolio

My Learning Essentials

Curriculum can be approached or see in three (3) ways. It can be defined as


content, a process or as an outcome. First, is to approach it as content or body of
knowledge to be transmitted. Second, is to approach it as a product or the learning
outcomes desired of learners. Third, is to approach it as a process or what actually
happens in the classroom when the curriculum is practiced.

Three Approaches to
Curriculum

Curriculum as a Curriculum as a Curriculum as a


Content Or Process Product
My Map
Body Of

My Map

1. Complete the matrix using varied sources.


2. Interview a teacher and inquire about the criteria in the selection of
knowledge/subject matter.

3. Ask samples on how the principles of curriculum content are applied in their
school.

4. Prepare your portfolio.

My Learning Activities

Activity 1

Accomplish the template given below by following the given examples.

Subjects Content Process Product

E.g. Curriculum Definition of Clustering Evolved a


Development with curriculum Read post contextualized
Field Study 4. Categorize definition of
Interview curriculum
1.

Subjects Content Process Product


2.
3.

4.

My Reflection
Activity 2

There are six criteria in the selection of knowledge/subject matter. Interview a


teacher, the indicators for each of the criteria by answering the given question.

Criteria Questions Indicators

Significance How do you know the


significance in the content
of the curriculum
Validity How do you know if the
curriculum is valid?
Usefulness When do we know that the
curriculum is useful?
Learnability When do you know that
the content is within the
range of your learners
experience?
Interest When do you know that
the learners are interested
in the content?

My Insights

Activity 3

B.A.S.I.C is an acronym to state the principles of curriculum content.


Principle I: Curriculum Content Sample

Balance
Equitable assignment of contents,
time, experiences and other elements

*write the contents in one subject area


for the first grading period*

Articulation
Curriculum is arranged vertically or
horizontally

* Write a sample content of one topic in


a subject from level to level or grade to
grade*
Scope
Content topics learning experiences
and organizing the threads of an
educational plan
*write sample topics in a subject area*
Integration
Curriculum is integrated and
interconnected
*cite a lesson which is integrated in
other subjects*
Continuity
Vertical repetition and recurring
approaches of content
*Write a sample topics in a subjects area
where content is organized in spiral
fashion in breadth and depth
Integrating Theory and Practice

Directions: Read the items given below and encircle the correct answer.

1. Miss Lim started off her lesson plan with the outcomes she expects her
students to achieves at the end of the lesson, this curriculum approach
is________?

I. Curriculum as a body of knowledge

II. Curriculum as a process

III. Curriculum as a product

IV. all of the above

A. I only C. III only

B. II only D. I, II, and III

2. When curriculum is viewed as a process, what should the teacher consider


primarily in designing his/her lessons?

A. Different models of assessments

B. Various methods and strategies

C. Outcomes-based learning objectives

D National competency-based competencies


Piece
s of Evidence

Records

Documents

Pictures

Other Learning Proofs/Pieces of Evidence


6 CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT: PROCESS AND MODELS

My FS Learning Episode Overview

This episode is concerned with summarizing the curriculum processes and models.
It emphasizes that curriculum is ever dynamic and so undergoes a continuous
process.

My Desired Learning Outcomes

explain the curriculum process and models


make a flow chart of the curriculum development process
research on different curriculum models

My Performance Criteria

I will be rated along the following:

quality of my observations and documentation,


completeness and depth of analysis,
depth and clarity of classroom observation-based reflection,
completeness, organization, clarity of portfolio and
time of submission of portfolio and

My Learning Essentials

Curriculum development is a dynamic process involving many different people and


procedures. In curriculum development, there are always changes intended for
improvement. Let us look into the Curriculum Development Process Models.

Ralph Tyler Model:

FOUR BASIC PRINCIPLES

Also known as Tylers rationale, the curriculum development model emphasizes the
planning phase.

1. Purposes of the school


2. Educational experiences related to the purposes

3. Organization of the experiences

4. Evaluation of the experience

Hilda Taba Model:

GRASSROOTS APPROACH

Hilda Taba improved on Tylers model. She believed that teachers should participate
in developing a curriculum. She presented seven (7) major steps:

1. Diagnosis of learners needs

2. Formulation of learning objectives

3. Selection of learning contents

4. Organization of learning contents

5. Selection of learning experiences

6. Determination of what to evaluate and the means of doing it

Galen Saylor and William Alexander

Curriculum Model

Galen Saylor and William Alexander described curriculum as a plan for providing
sets of learning opportunities to achieve broad educational goals and related
specific objectives for an identifiable population served by a single school center.

1. Goals, Objectives and Domains

2. Curriculum Designing

3. Curriculum Implementation

4. Evaluation
My Map

1. Visit your Alma Mater and interview an administrator on curriculum models.

2. Interview a teacher and find out how the Taba Model is applied in real life
situation.

3. Complete the staircase of the curriculum development process. Give examples


for each.

4. Prepare your portfolio.


My Learning Activities

Activity 1

Visit the school and interview an administrator on at least one (1) curriculum model.
Accomplish the given matrix below

Curriculum Model Best Features Insights

My Personal Insights
Activity 2

These are the steps in the model of Hilda Taba. Interview a teacher and inquire how
these steps are applied by accomplishing the given chart by giving concrete
examples.

Steps Application to Real Teaching


1. Diagnosis of Learners Needs and
Expectations of Larger Society

2. Formulation of Learning Objectives

3. Selection of Learning Objectives

4. Organization of Learning Content

5. Selection of Learning Content

6. Modes of Evaluation
Activity 3

Complete the staircase of the Curriculum Development Process according to Tyler.


Write the answers in the steps. Give examples for each step.

4
Integrating Theory and Practice

Directions: Read the items given below and encircle the correct answer.

1. Which of the following processes usually comes first in developing curriculum?

A. Selection of educational content

B. Evaluating educational experiences

C. Identifying learning goals and objectives

D. Organization of learning experiences

2. Considering the curriculum is a dynamic process, this person put premium in the
role of the teachers participation in developing the curriculum :

A. William Alexander

B. Galen Saylor

C. Hilda Taba

D. Ralf Tyler

3. The best feature of Tylers Rationale is the ______.

A. planning phase

B. identifying the purpose

C. organizing the experiences


D. evaluating the experiences

Pieces of Evidence

Records

Documents

Pictures

Other Learning Proofs/Pieces of Evidence


7 FOUNDATIONS OF CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT

My FS Learning Episode Overview

This episode emphasizes the importance of curriculum development. It vividly


describes how the philosophical, historical, psychological and sociological
foundations of curriculum are interrelated.

My Desired Learning Outcomes

describes the different foundations of curriculum


explain how those foundations reflect the development of curriculum in the
21st century classroom
accomplish the template on the foundations of the curriculum

My Performance Criteria

I will be rated along the following:

quality of mu observations and documentations


completeness and depth of analysis,
depth and clarity of classroom observation-based reflection,
completeness, organization, clarity of portfolio and
time of submission of portfolio

My Learning Essentials

Curriculum development is anchored on a very solid foundation. What philosophical,


historical, psychological and sociological influences from the current school
curriculum? Who are some of the identified curriculum with these foundations?

PHILOSOPHICAL HISTORICAL PSYCHOLOGICAL


FOUNDATIONS FOUNDATIONS FOUNDATION OF
CURRICULUM
Philosophy of the The historical foundations Psychology provides a
curriculum answers show the chronological basis to understand the
questions like: What are development along a teaching and learning
schools for? What subjects timeline. Some of the process. Questions which
are important? What many whom we consider can be addressed by
outcomes should be to have great psychological foundations
achieved? Why?? There contributions are: Hollis of education are. How
are many philosophies in Caswell (1901-1989) who should curriculum be
education. An example is believed that curriculum, organized to enhance
Perennialism instruction and learning learning? What is the
Aim: To educate the are interrelated and Hilda optimal level of students
rational person; cultivate Taba (1902-1967) who participation in learning
intellect helped lay the foundation the various contents of
Role: Teachers assist for diverse student the curriculum?
students to think with population.
reason (critical thinking
HOTS)
Focus: Classical subjects,
literary analysis?
Trends: Use of great
books

My Map

1. Complete the timeline and write your personal insights.

2. Interview an administrator or faculty and write the contribution of each person.

3. Cite specific example on how this is applies in daily life.

My Learning Activities

Activity 1

Complete the timelines by indicating the significant contribution of each person.

Franklin Bobbit Werret William Harold Rugg


Charters Klipatrick
1876-1956 1886-1960

Hollis Caswell Ralf Tyler Hilda Taba Peter Olivia

1901-1989 1902-1994 1902-1967 1992-2012


Activity 2

Interview an administrator, a faculty and cite specific examples in each of the items
given below. Complete the Table.

Foundations of Curriculum Samples/Situations


1. Philosophical Foundations

2. Historical Foundations

3. Psychological Foundations

4. Social Foundations

My Personal Insights
Activity 3

Evolve your own philosophy based on the existing philosophies of education.


Illustrate through a graphic organizer. Explain on how this will be applied, if you are
going to put up your own school.

Explanation
Integrating Theory and Practice

Directions: Read the items given below and encircle the correct answer.

1. All these questions should be answered by curriculum except:

A. What subjects are important?

B. Who will benefit from well-designed learning experience?

C. What outcomes should be achieved?

D. What qualifications should teachers have?

2. Mrs. Valdez ask her Grade 10 class to read biographies, encyclopaedias,


history books and the like during their free time. She is a believer of what
philosophy?

A. Existentialism

B. Behaviourism

C. Perennialism

D. Essentialism

3. These foundations show the chronological development of curriculum,


mostly shown using a timeline.

A. Historical Foundations

B. Legal Foundations

C. Philosophical Foundations

D. PsychologicalFoundations
Pieces of Evidence

Records

Documents

Pictures

Other Learning Proofs/Pieces of Evidence

8 CRAFTING THE CURRICULUM: THE TEACHER AS A DESIGNER


My FS Learning Episode Overview

This episode illustrates the vital role of teachers as curriculum designers. It


enumerates the ten (10) axioms for curriculum designers and explains the
elements/components of curriculum design.

My Desired Learning Outcomes

identify the fundamentals of curriculum design


cite the important roles of teachers in curriculum designing
explain the elements/component of curriculum design

My Performance Criteria

I will be rated along the following:

quality of my observations and documentation,


completeness and depth of analysis,
depth and clarity of classroom observation-based reflection and
completeness, organization, clarity of portfolio,
time of submission of portfolio

My Learning Essentials

Peter Olivias 10 Axioms for Curriculum Designers.

(An Axiom self-evident or universally recognized truth; a maxim)

1. Curriculum change is inevitable, necessary and desirable. Societal


development and knowledge revolution come so fast that the need to address the
changing condition requires new curriculum designs.

2. Curriculum is a product of its time. Curriculum should be timeless which


means it responds to changes that came from current social forces, educational
reforms, etc.

3. Curriculum changes made earlier can exist concurrently with newer


curriculum changes. The change that occurs in curriculum development can co-
exist; oftentimes overlaps for long period of time.

4. Curriculum change depends on people who will implement the change. It


is best that teachers design and own the changes.

5. Curriculum development is a cooperative group activity. Any significant


change in the curriculum should involve a board rage of stakeholders to gain their
understanding, support and input.
6. Curriculum development is a decision- making process made from
choices of alternatives. A curriculum developer or designer must decide what
contents to teach/what methods or strategies to use?

7. Curriculum development is an ongoing process. As the needs of learners


change, as society changes, and as new knowledge and technology appear, the
curriculum must change.

8. Curriculum development is more affective if it is comprehensive


process, rather than piecemeal. A curriculum design should be based on a
careful plan, intended outcomes clearly established, etc.

9. Curriculum development is more effective when it follows a systematic


process. A curriculum design should always be SMART.

10. Curriculum development starts from where the curriculum is. An existing
design is a good starting point for any teacher who plans to enhance and enrich a
curriculum.

My Map

1. Interview an administrator and ask how the 10 axioms are realized in the
school setting.

2. Observe a class and request for a sample lesson.

3. Analyze the components of the sample lesson plan.

4. Cite the similarities in the different components.

5. Prepare your portfolio.

My Learning Activities

Activity 1

Accomplish the matrix by interviewing an administrator and a teacher to explain


how the ten (10) axioms are the realized in the school setting. The administrator or
the teacher has the option to choose the axiom that she/he wishes to explain.

Situations/Samples on How These


Ten (10) axioms for Curriculum
Axioms are Realized in the School
designers
Setting
1. Curriculum change is inevitable,
necessary and desirable.
2. Curriculum reflects its own time. It
is a product of its time.
3. Curriculum changes made earlier
can exist concurrently with newer
curriculum changes.
4. Curriculum change depends on
people who will implement the
change.
5. Curriculum development is a
cooperative group activity.
6. Curriculum development is a
decision-making process made from
choices or alternatives.
7. Curriculum development is an on-
going process.
8. Curriculum development is more
effective if it is a comprehensive
process not piecemeal.
9. Curriculum development is more
effective when it follows a systematic
process.
10. Curriculum development starts
from where the curriculum is.

Activity 2

Observe a class or get a lesson plan. Using the elements/component, write a sample
curriculum using the template given below.

Intended
Subject Matter or Teaching/Learnin Assessment/Eval
Learning
Learning Content g Methods uation
Outcomes
Activity 3

Request a sample lesson. Analyze the components present in the plan. Paste the
lesson plan below.

Integrating Theory and Practice

Directions: Read the items below and encircle the correct answer.

1. What axiom emphasizes that curriculum design should be based on a careful


plan, intended outcomes clearly established, etc.?

A. Curriculum change is inevitable, necessary and desirable

B. Curriculum is a product of its time..

C. Curriculum development is more effective when it follows a systematic process.

D. Curriculum development is more effective if it is a comprehensive process, rather


than piecemeal.

2. In order to have an effective teaching and learning, there must be an adequate


utilization of learning materials. What type of curriculum is this?
A. Curriculum changes made earlier can exist concurrently with newer Curriculum
changes.

B. Curriculum development starts from where he curriculum is.

C. Curriculum design should always be SMART.

D. Curriculum development is a cooperative group activity.

3. Who are the primary movers in the implementation of the changes made on
curriculum?

A. Teachers

B. Learners

C. Parents

D. Community officials
Learning Portfolio

Collect three (3) sample lesson plans from various schools. Evaluate the similarities
and differences using the Venn diagram.

________________________

Name of School

________________________

Name of School

___________________

Name of School
9 APPROACHES TO CURRICULUM DESIGN

My FS Learning Episode Overview

This episode emphasizes the different ways at working at the curriculum. It


explains various curriculum design models and how these are applied in the school
setting.

My Desired Learning Outcomes

explain the characteristics of each curriculum design model


cite situations on how these models are used in various schools
observe classes how these curriculum models are applied in school setting

My Performance Criteria

I will be rated along the following:

quality of my observations and documentation,


completeness and depth of analysis,
depth and clarity of classroom observation-based reflection and
completeness, organization, clarity of portfolio,
time of submission of portfolio.

My Learning Essentials

Types of Curriculum Design Model


1. Subject-Centered 1.1 Subject Design
Is curriculum design has variations 1.2 Discipline Design
which are focused on the 1.3 Correlation Design
individual subject, specific 1.4 Broad Field Design/Interdisciplinary
discipline and a combination of
subjects or disciplines thus
interdisciplinary.
2. Learner-Centered 2.1 Child-Centered Design
The learner is the center of the 2.2 Experience-Centered Design
educative process. 2.3 Humanistic Design
3. Problem-Centered 3.1 Life-Situations Design
This design draws on social problems, 3.2 Core Problem Design
need, interest and abilities of the
learners.
My Map

Interview a
Interview four Visit a Teacher
teacher and ask
(4) people and Education
the features of
ask them about Institutions and
each curriculum Prepare
their secure a copy of
model. Write your
perceptions on an OBE-based
your insights. portfolio.
the K + 12.. syllabus.
My Learning Activities

Acttvity 1

There are types of Curriculum Design Models. Complete the template given below
by citing their best features/advantages.

Curriculum Design Models Best Features


1. Subject-Centered Design

1.1 Subject Design


1.2 Discipline Design
1.3 Correlation Design
1.4 Scrap field Design/Interdisciplinary
Design
2. Learner-Centered Design
2.1 Child-Centered Design
2.2 Experience-Centered Design
2.3 Humanistic Design
3. Problem-Centered Design
3.1 Life Situation Design
3.2 Core Problem Design
My Personal Insights
Activity 2

Interview at least for (4) people and ask them about their perceptions about the K to
12 program. Complete the comic strip balloons.

My Insights
Activity 2

Visit a Teacher Education Institution. Secure a copy of an OBE-based syllabus.


Analyze each component of the given syllabus. How are the components stated?
Are the activities aligned with the intended learning outcomes and modes of
assessment?

My Analysis
Integrating Theory into Practice

Directions: Read the items given below and encircle the correct answer.

1. A barangay official suggested that fishing and marine life be included in the
barangay public school so that learners will have a background on the primary
livelihood in their area. This is based on what curriculum design model?

A. subject-centered

B. learner-centered

C. problem-centered

D. career-centered

2. Which of the following does not belong in the group?

A. Child-centered design

B. Life-Situations design

C. Experience-centered design

3. Which is the primary characteristic of a subject-center design model of


curriculum?

A. interrelated

B. interdependent

C. correlated

D. interdisciplinary
Learning Portfolio

Paste the curriculum samples gathered from the field


10 IMPLEMENTING THE CURRICULUM: THE TEACHER AS CURRICULUM IMPLEMENTER
AND MANAGER

My FS Learning Episode Overview

This episode explores the process of curriculum implementation. It allows the


students to categorize the changes made in the curriculum. It also elaborates on the
different changes happening in the curriculum at present.

My Desired Learning Outcomes

define the curriculum implementation/change


elaborate on the different categories of curriculum changes
analyze the different changes in the curriculum at the present time

My Performance Criteria

I will be rated along the following:

quality of my observations and documentation,


completeness and depth of analysis,
depth and clarity of classroom observation-based reflection,
completeness, organization, clarity of portfolio and
time of submission of portfolio

My Learning Essentials

Change is inevitable in curriculum development. To be relevant, we need to


change, a change for the better. This can be obviously seen through effective
implementation. What is curriculum implementation? Let us look into the different
definitions.

SADC MoE Africa, 2000

Curriculum implementation means putting into practice the written curriculum that
has been designed in syllabi, course studies, curricular guides and subjects.

Classroom Context

-Teaching what has been written in the lesson plan.

-Implementing means using the plan as guide to engage the learners in the teacher-
learning process.

-It involves the different strategies of teaching with the support of instructional
materials.
Ornstein and Hunskins, 1998

-Shift from what is current to a new or enhanced curriculum

-Change requires effort; hence, goals should be achievable.

Other meaning of curriculum

Curriculum implementation means putting the curriculum into operation with the
different implementing agents. It takes place in a class, a school, a district, etc. It
requires time, money, personal interaction, personal contacts and support.

My Map

1. Interview administrators/students about changes in the curriculum.

2. Get samples of the different curriculum changes in the schools you visit.

3. Answer the question, why do you need to change the curriculum.

4. Prepare your portfolio.

My Learning Activities

Activity 1

Interview teachers, administrators and students. What changes are happening in


the curriculum?
Activity 2

These are the categories if curriculums change.

Categories of Curriculum Change Situation/Samples


1. Substitution
Replace the present with a new one.
2. Alternation
Introduce minor changes or
modification of the current one.
3. Restructuring
Introduce major changes or
modification of the current curriculum.
4. Perturbation
Changes happen within a fairly short
time.
5. Value Orientation
Respond to shift in emphasis within in
the vision/mission of the school.

Activity 3

Answer the question briefly. Why do we need to change the curriculum from
time to time?
Integrating Theory and Practice

Directions:

1. As an implementor of curriculum, the teacher has to perform all these tasks


except _______.

A. write appropriate lesson plans.

B. utilize suitable instructional materials

C. design reliable and valid assessment tools

D. all of the above

2. Implementation means putting into practice the experiences which has been
written in all except _________.

A. internet resource sites

B. syllabi

C. course outline

D. curriculum guides

3. All are involved in teaching except _______.

A. employing strategies

B. using instructional materials

C. utilizing varied activities

D. meeting with the parents


Learning Portfolio

Get one (1) clipping from newspapers or from an internet source about the current
trends and issues in education. Paste it on this page. Write your insights about the
article on this page.

My Insights
11 STAKEHOLDERS IN CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT

My FS Learning Episode Overview

This episode gives the roles of the various stakeholders in the community in
the enrichment of the curriculum. This also cites the importance of the various
stakeholders in curriculum development, implementation and evaluation.

My Desired Learning Outcome

explain the roles of stakeholders in curriculum development, implementation


and evaluation
elaborate on the importance of these stakeholders in designing and
evaluating the curriculum
cite situations on how the stakeholders participated in curriculum
implementation

My Performance Criteria

I will be rated along the following:

quality of my observations and documentation,


completeness and depth of analysis
depth and clarity of classroom observation-based reflection,
completeness organization, clarity of portfolio and
time of submission of portfolio

My Learning Essentials

Stakeholders are individuals or institutions that are interested in the curriculum.


They get involves in many different ways.

Curriculum Stakeholders

Learners are at the core of the curriculum.

Teachers are curricularists.

School Learners/Administrator are curriculum managers.

Parents are significant school partners.


Community serves as the curriculum resource and learning environment.

Other Stakeholders are members of the school and larger community such as
local government officials.

My Map

1. Interview different stakeholders and inquire about their roles in curriculum.

2. Interview parents on the extent of their participation.

3. Reflect on the importance of stakeholders in the curriculum.

4. Write your insights.

5. Prepare your portfolio.

My Learning Activities

Activity 1

Interview different stakeholders and inquire about their roles in curriculum


development.

Stakeholders of the Curriculum Roles in Curriculum Development


Development
1. Learners

2. Teachers

3. School Leader/Administrator

4. Parents

5. Community
6. Other Agencies

My Reflections

Activity 2

Interview the parents about the extent of their participation in enriching the
curriculum. Use the scale given below.

4 3 2 1
Very Large Extent Large Extent Moderate Extent Little Extent
(VLE) (LE) (ME) (LE)

Extent of Participation
Activities 4 3 2 1
(VLE) (LE) (ME) (LE)
1. Resource
Speaker
2. Teacher Aide
3.
Judge/Coach/Ment
or
4. Donor
(Instructional
Materials, etc.)
5. Others (pls.
specify)

My Personal Insights
Activity 3

Reflect on the importance of stakeholders in curriculum implementation.

Integrating Theory and Practice


Directions: Read the items given below and encircles the correct answer.

1. The following are the roles of the stakeholders in curriculum development except
___________.

I. help in formulating the appropriate learning experiences

II. create an environment that allows for a childs holistic development

III. participate in the implementation of the curriculum

IV. all are roles of the stakeholders

A. I only C. III only

B. II only D. I, II, and III

2. These stakeholders are direct partners of the school in strengthening learning


experience in home.

A. Community

B. School administrators

C. Parents

D. Government officials

3. These stakeholders are at the core of the curriculum. They are primary
beneficiaries of the curriculum.

A. Teachers

B. Learners

C. Community

D. Parents
Learning Portfolio

Paste pictures of stakeholders involved in curriculum implementation.

12 CURRICULLUMEVALUATION AND THE TEACHER


My FS Learning Episode Overview

This learning episode provides activities on the what, why, and how to
evaluate a curriculum. This episode also elaborates on the need to evaluate the
various curriculum models.

My Desired Learning Outcomes

describe curriculum evaluation


explain the importance of curriculum evaluation
elaborate on the process of curriculum evaluation tool

My Performance Criteria

I will be rated along the following:

quality of my observations and documentation,


completeness and depth of analysis
depth and clarity of classroom observation-based reflection,
completeness organization, clarity of portfolio and
time of submission of portfolio

My Learning Essentials

Curriculum evaluation is a new idea for many teachers, not knowing that every
day; the teacher is involved in several components of evaluation. There are two (2)
ways of looking at curriculum evaluation.
Curriculum Program Evaluation may

1
focus on the overall aspects of a
Curriculum
Evaluation curriculum or the curriculum itself.
More often it refers to big curriculum
program.
Examples of these programs that may
undergo a curriculum program
evaluation are the K to 12 Curriculum
and the Outcomes-Based Approach in
2 Curriculum Program Component
Evaluation. A curriculum component
may include separate evaluation of
(a) achieved learning outcomes, (b)
curriculum process and (c)
instructional materials.

My Map
1. Ask several people why there is a need to evaluate the curriculum.

2. Interview a school principal, how they evaluate the curriculum. Write your
reflection.

3. Secure a copy of a curriculum evaluation checklist.

4. Prepare your portfolio.

My Learning Activities

Activity 1
Ask at least six (6) teachers, why there is a need to evaluate the curriculum.

Why there is a
need to evaluate
the curriculum?
Activity 2

Interview a principal/administrator, find out how they evaluate their schools


curriculum.
Excerpts of the Interview

My Reflections
Activity 3

Design/Secure a copy of a curriculum checklist and paste on this page.


Integrating Theory

Directions:

Read the items given below and encircle the correct answer.

1. All are importance of evaluating the curriculum except:

A. To be able to boast of a new and improved curriculum every time.

B. To constantly keep up with the changing times.

C. To answer to the changing needs of the learners.

D. To identify which parts and aspects of the implement curriculum needs to be


improved, modified or changed.

2. Which component can be included in curriculum evaluation?

A. Learning outcomes

B. Teacher performance

C. Strategies and methods used

D. Instructional materials

3. When do we need to evaluate the curriculum?

A. Every academic year

B. Every quarter

C. When somebody suggests it

D. Whenever necessary

Learning Portfolio
Paste a sample a curricula evaluation form.
My Learning Rubric

Field Study 4

Name of FS Student: Date Submitted:

Year and section: Course:

Learning Exemplary Superior Satisfactory Needs


Episodes 4 3 2 Improvemen
t
1
Learning All task were All or nearly all Nearly all Fewer than
Activities done with tasks were tasks were half of tasks
outstanding done with high done with were done,
quality; work quality. acceptable or most
exceeds 3 quality. objectives
expectations 2 were met
4 but need
improvemen
t
1
Analysis of the All Analysis Analysis Analysis
Learning questions/episod questions were questions questions
Episode es were answered were not were not
answered completely. answered answered.
completely; in completely.
depth answers; Clear Grammar
thoroughly connection with Vaguely and spelling
grounded on theories related to the unsatisfactor
theories. theories y.
Exemplary Grammar and
grammar and spelling are Grammar and
spelling superior spelling
4 acceptable
3 2 1
Reflections/Insi Reflection Reflection Reflection Reflection
ghts statements are statements are statements statements
profound and clear, but not are shallow; are unclear
clear; supported clearly supported by and shallow
by experiences supported by experiences and are not
from the experiences from the supported
learning from the learning by
episodes learning episodes experiences
episodes from the
4 2 learning
3 episodes
1
Learning Portfolio is Portfolio is Portfolio is Analysis
Portfolio complete, clear, complete, incomplete; questions
well-organized clear, well- supporting were not
and all organized; documentatio answered
supporting; most ns are
documentations supporting organized but Grammar
are located in documentation are lacking and spelling
sections clearly s are available unsatisfactor
designated and logical and y
4 clearly marked 2
locations 1
3
Submission of Submitted Submitted on Submitted a Submitted
Learning before the the deadline day after the two days or
Episode deadline deadline more after
3 the deadline
4 2 1
COMMENT/S Over-all score Rating:
(Based on
transmutation)

TRANSMUTATION OF SCORE TO GRADE/RATING


Score 20 19- 17 16 15 14 13- 11 10 9- 7-below
18 12 8
Grade 1.0 1.25 1.5 1.75 2.0 2.2 2.50 2.7 3.00 3. 5.00
0 5 5 5
99 96 93 90 87 84 81 78 75 72 71-Below

___________________ ___________________

Signature of FS Teacher Date


Above Printed Name