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A project report submitted in partial fulfillment of

Requirements of the award of the degree

Submitted by
P H N AKSHAY 09212

Under the esteemed guidance of



Thermal Power Plant

Visakhapatnam Steel Plant

This project titled THERMAL EFFICIENCY OF
BOILERS in thermal power plant at Visakhapatnam steel plant. The
main objective of the project is to study the various equipments provided
for boilers and process of calculation of total efficiency of the thermal
power plant in visakhapatnam steel plant. Also some essential ideas and
facts which were learnt in due course are added at the end of this project

A generating station which converts heat energy obtained

by the combustion of coal into electrical energy is known as Thermal
Power Station. A Thermal power plant basically works on the principle
as seen in Rankin cycle. Steam is produced in the boiler by utilizing the
heat obtained by combustion of coal. This steam is used to run the prime
mover where it gets expanded. This expanded steam is then condensed
in a condenser to be fed into the boiler again. The prime mover (here the
steam turbine) drives the alternator which converts the mechanical
energy of the turbine into electrical energy. Such types of power
stations are generally commissioned where its main source coal and
water are available in abundance.
Introduction to Thermal Power Plant
Specifications of Boilers
Indian Boiler Regulation(IBR)
Boiler systems
Boiler types and classification
Boiler Mountings
Boiler Accessories
Performance evaluation of boilers
Total thermal efficiency of the power plant

The fact that thermal energy is the major source of power generation itself shows Thermal power
plants importance in India. More than 60% of electrical power is produced by Thermal powered
steam plants in India. The steep rise in the demand for power demands a larger unit setup which
requires the use of more fuel. These plants are trying to keep the overall cost of power generation
low using modern technique and devices.

In steam power plants the heat obtained by the combustion of fossil fuels (coal, oil
or gas) is utilized by the boilers to raise the steam to a high pressure and temperature. The steam
so produced is used in driving the steam turbines and sometimes steam engines coupled to
generators and thus in the generation of electrical energy. The steam turbines or steam engines
thus used not only act as prime movers but also as drives for auxiliary equipments such as pumps
, fans etc.

The steam power plants may be installed either only to generate electrical energy or
electrical energy generation along with steam generation for industrial purposes such as paper
mills, sugar mills, chemical works, plastic manufacture, food manufacture etc.

Generally Thermal power plants are categorized as:

Utility Power Plant- Power is produced solely for purpose of generation and supplied to the
various kinds of customers through grid.
Captive Power Plants- Power is produced for supplying quality power for the effective
functioning of the actual plant (say a case of a Thermal power plant present in a steel plant).
Import and export of power takes place in accordance with the load.

The Thermal power plant seen in Visakhapatnam Steel Plant is a captive power
plant. The power requirement of VSP is met through captive generation as well as supply from
APSEB grid.

Captive capacity of TPP in VSP : 354 MW

3 units of 60 MW generation capacity.
2 units of 67.5 MW generation capacity.
2 units of 7.5 MW capacity at Back Pressure Turbine Station (BPTS).
2 units of 12 MW capacity at Gas Expansion Turbine Station (GETS).

The specialty of this power plant is that the energy from the flue gas is not wasted .It is used in
BPTS and GETS power is generated.

A boiler is an enclosed vessel that provides a means for combustion heat to be
transferred into water until it becomes heated water or steam. The hot water or steam under
pressure is then usable for transferring heat to a process. When water is boiled into steam its
volume increases about 1,600 times producing a force that is almost as explosive as gunpowder.
This causes the boiler to be extremely dangerous equipment that must be treated with utmost

The process of heating a liquid until it reaches its gaseous state is called evaporation. Heat is
transferred from one body to another by means of

1. Radiation: It is the transfer of heat from a hot body to cold body without a conveying
2. Convection: It is the transfer of heat by a conveying medium, such as air or water.
3. Conduction: It is the transfer of heat by actual physical contact, molecule to molecule.

Boiler specifications:
BOILERS : 5 (4 working + 1 Standby)

TYPE : Water Tube Boiler

CAPACITY : 330 Tons/ Hr

PRESSURE : 101 Atm.


FUEL : Pulverized coal, BF Gas, CO Gas, Furnace oil/LSHS

Coal for the plant is obtained from Talcher, Orissa. Semi Bituninus coal is
obtained. It is stored in coal bunkers (Immediate stock bins) and then ground in coal mills i.e.
pulverized to increase the surface area of combustion. Then Primary Air(PA) fan sweeps the
pulverized coal for combustion to occur. The heat resulting due to this combustion is used to
raise the steam in boiler to the required temperature and pressure.

The water input given to the boiler is deaerated and demineralized before
sending into the boiler, to prevent the corrosion and damage of boiler tubes and turbine blades.

A boiler channel on the whole is divided into 2 passes:

Combustion pass
Non-combustion pass

The boiler drum consists of steam at different temperatures. The one with higher temperatures is
at top. On an average, the temperature of the boiler is 318c. The boiler seen in VSP undergoes
natural circulation i.e. due to density difference the circulation occurs. The heat is transferred by
means of radiation.

There are super-heaters which are used to increase the steam temperature to heaters used,

Low temperature super-heater

Platen or Radiant super-heater
Final super-heater

A tubular air-heater is present which is used to preheat primary air i.e. air from the PA fan. This
is done as low temperature air sticks dust and flue on to the pipes. Similarly a Regenerative air-
heater is used to preheat the combustion gas by using heat from flue gas. Finally, an economizer
is present to increase the feed water temperature, by using heat from the flue gas.
A Forced Draft Fan is present to provide the required air for combustion. Also a negative
pressure is maintained in the furnace using the above.

As it is a multiple fuel and water tube-boiler, the temperature may change. A control on the
temperature of steam is highly essential. So a re-superheater is used. It sprays a steam at lower
temperature (300c approx.) to cool down the temperature. Also some tilting arrangements in the
burner are provided in some places for the same.

Fuel comparison:

Fuel Calorific value

Coal 3200-4500 Kcal/KG

Coke-oven gas 4425 Kcal/NM
Blast Furnace gas 800 Kcal/NM
Fuel oil 10000Kcal/KG
To maintain a constant level in the boiler drum, a Feed Regulation System (FRS) is used.
Steam or water from FRS is sent to the boiler drum via economizer and platen water tubes.

Ignition is done with the help of spark plugs. There are some ignitor fans for cooling the ignitor
guns if necessary. Also there are Flame Scanners to know if flames have occurred or not. And
for cooling the above, Scanner air fans are present.
Below the boiler, a Bottom Ash Hopper is present. About 15%of the ash is collected by
gravitational force. This is removed every 8 hours. Rest gets passed as flue gas, precipitated in
ESP (Electro Static Precipitator).

An Induced Draft Fan is present at the fag end of this system, to suck the gas thus obtained and
leave it out through the chimney high up in the atmosphere.

Boiler Systems:
The boiler system comprises of: feed water system, steam system and fuel system. The
feed water system provides water to the boiler and regulates it automatically to meet the steam
demand. Various valves provide access for maintenance and repair. The steam system collects
and controls the steam produced in the boiler. Steam is directed through a piping system to the
point of use. Throughout the system, steam pressure is regulated using valves and checked with
steam pressure gauges. The fuel system includes all equipment used to provide fuel to generate
the necessary heat. The equipment required in the fuel system depends on the type of fuel used in
the system. A typical boiler room schematic is shown in Figure 1.1.

Figure 1.1 Boiler Room Schematic

The water supplied to the boiler that is converted into steam is called feed water. The two
sources of feed water are:

(1) Condensate or condensed steam returned from the processes and

(2) Makeup water (treated raw water) which must come from outside the boiler room and plant
processes. For higher boiler efficiencies, the feed water is preheated by economizer, using the
waste heat in the flue gas.

Boiler Types and Classifications:

There are virtually infinite numbers of boiler designs but generally they fit into one of
two categories:

Fire tube or fire in tube boilers; contain long steel tubes through which the hot gasses
from a furnace pass and around which the water to be converted to steam circulates. (Refer
Figure 1.2). Fire tube boilers, typically have a lower initial cost, are more fuel efficient and easier
to operate, but they are limited generally to capacities of 25 tons/hr and pressures of 17.5 kg/cm2.

Figure 1.2 Fire Tube Boiler

Water tube or water in tube boilers in which the conditions are reversed with the water
passing through the tubes and the hot gasses passing outside the tubes (see figure 1.3). These
boilers can be of single- or multiple-drum type. These boilers can be built to any steam capacities
and pressures, and have higher efficiencies than fire tube boilers.

Figure 1.3 Water Tube Boiler

Packaged Boiler: The packaged boiler is so called because it comes as a complete package.
Once delivered to site, it requires only the steam, water pipe work, fuel supply and electrical
connections to be made for it to become operational. Package boilers are generally of shell type
with fire tube design so as to achieve high heat transfer rates by both radiation and convection.

The features of package boilers are:

Small combustion space and high heat release rate resulting in faster evaporation.
Large number of small diameter tubes leading to good convective heat transfer.
Forced or induced draft systems resulting in good combustion efficiency.
Number of passes resulting in better overall heat transfer.
Higher thermal efficiency levels compared with other boilers.
These boilers are classified based on the number of passes the number of times the hot
combustion gases pass through the boiler.
The combustion chamber is taken, as the first pass after which there may be one, two or
three sets of fire-tubes. The most common boiler of this class is a three-pass unit with two
sets of fire-tubes and with the exhaust gases exiting through the rear of the boiler.
The type of boilers employed in the thermal power plant in vizag steel plant is water tube

Stoker Fired Boiler:

Stokers are classified according to the method of feeding fuel to the furnace and by the type of
grate. The main classifications are:

1. Chain-grate or traveling-grate stoker

2. Spreader stoker

Chain-Grate or Traveling-Grate Stoker Boiler:

Coal is fed onto one end of a moving steel chain grate. As grate moves along the length
of the furnace, the coal burns before dropping off at the end as ash. Some degree of skill is
required, particularly when setting up the grate, air dampers and baffles, to ensure clean
combustion leaving minimum of unburnt carbon in the ash.

Figure 1.4 Chain Grate Stoker

The coal-feed hopper runs along the entire coal-feed end of the furnace. A coal grate is
used to control the rate at which coal is fed into the furnace, and to control the thickness of the
coal bed and speed of the grate. Coal must be uniform in size, as large lumps will not burn out
completely by the time they reach the end of the grate. As the bed thickness decreases from coal
feed end to rear end, different amounts of air are required- more quantity at coal-feed end and
less at rear end (see Figure 1.4)

Spreader Stoker Boiler: Spreader stokers (see figure 1.5) utilize a combination of
suspension burning and grate burning. The coal is continually fed into the furnace above a
burning bed of coal. The coal fines are burned in suspension; the larger particles fall to the grate,
where they are burned in a thin, fast burning coal bed. This method of firing provides good
flexibility to meet load fluctuations, since ignition is almost instantaneous when firing rate is
increased. Hence, the spreader stoker is favored over other types of stokers in many industrial

Figure 1.5 Spreader Stoker

Pulverized Fuel Boiler

Most coal-fired power station boilers use pulverized coal, and many of the larger
industrial water-tube boilers also use this pulverized fuel. This technology is well developed, and
there are thousands of units around the world, accounting for well over 90% of coal-fired
capacity. The coal is ground (pulverised) to a fine powder, so that less than 2% is +300 micro
metre (m) and 70-75% is below 75 microns, for a bituminous coal. It should be noted that too
fine a powder is wasteful of grinding mill power. On the other hand, too coarse a powder does
not burn completely in the combustion chamber and results in higher unburnt lossbes.

The pulverised coal is blown with part of the combustion air into the boiler plant through a series
of burner nozzles. Secondary and tertiary air may also be added. Combustion takes place at
temperatures from 1300-1700C, depending largely on coal grade. Particle residence time in the
boiler is typically 2 to 5 seconds, and the particles must be small enough for complete
combustion to have taken place during this time.

This system has many advantages such as ability to fire varying quality of coal, quick responses
to changes in load, use of high pre-heat air temperatures etc. One of the most popular systems for
firing pulverized coal is the tangential firing using four burners corner to corner to create a
fireball at the center of the furnace (see Figure 1.6).

Figure 1.6 Tangential Firing

FBC Boiler
When an evenly distributed air or gas is passed upward through a finely divided bed of solid
particles such as sand supported on a fine mesh, the particles are undisturbed at low velocity. As
air velocity is gradually increased, a stage is reached when the individual particles are suspended
in the air stream. Further, increase in velocity gives rise to bubble formation, vigorous turbulence
and rapid mixing and the bed is said to be fluidized.

If the sand in a fluidized state is heated to the ignition temperature of the coal and the
coal is injected continuously in to the bed, the coal will burn rapidly, and the bed attains a
uniform temperature due to effective mixing. Proper air distribution is vital for maintaining
uniform fluidisation across the bed.). Ash is disposed by dry and wet ash disposal systems.

Figure 1.7 Fluidised Bed Combustion

Fluidised bed combustion has significant advantages over conventional firing systems
and offers multiple benefits namely fuel flexibility, reduced emission of noxious pollutants such
as SOx and NOx, compact boiler design and higher combustion efficiency.
Different fittings and devices necessary for the operation and safety of a boiler are called
boiler mountings. The various boiler mountings are:
1. Water level indicator
2. Pressure gauge
3. Steam stop valve
4. Feed check valve
5. Blow-down cock
6. Fusible plug
7. Safety valve : spring loaded, dead weight, lever type.

1. Water Level Indicator

The function of the water level indicator is to indicate the level of water in the boiler
constantly. Every boiler is normally fitted with two water level indicators at its front end. Fig.
12.1 shows a water level indicator used in low pressure boilers. It consists of three cocks and a
glass tube. The steam cock I keeps the glass tube in connection with the steam space and cock 2
puts the glass tube in convection with the water space in the boiler. The drain cock 3 is used to
drain out the water from the glass tube at intervals to ascertain that the steam and water cocks are
clear in operation. The glass tube is generally protected with a shield.
For the observation of water level in the boiler, the steam and water cocks are opened and drain
cock is closed. The rectangular passage at the ends of the glass tube contains two balls. In case,
the glass tube is broken, the balls are carried along its passage to the ends of the glass tube and
flow of water and steam out of the boiler is prevented.

2. Pressure Gauge

The pressure gauge is used to indicate the steam pressure of the boiler. The gauge is
normally mounted in the front top of the steam drum. The commonly used pressure gauge is the
Bourdon type pressure gauge shown m Fig 12 2 It consists of an elastic metallic tube of elliptical
cross-section bent in the form of circular arc. One end of the tube is fixed and connected to the
steam of the boiler and other end is convected to a sector wheel through a link. The section
remains in mesh with a pinion fixed on a spindle. A pointer is attached to the spindle to read the
pressure on a dial gauge. When high pressure steam enters the elliptical tube, the tube section
tends to become circular which causes the other end of the tube to move outward. The movement
of the closed end of the tube is transmitted and magnified by the link and sector. The sector is
hinged at a point on the link. The magnitude of the movement is indicated by the pointer on the
3. Steam Stop Valve
The function of the stop valve is to regulate the flow of steam from the boiler to the prime
mover as per requirement and shut off the steam flow when not required.

A commonly used steam stop valve is shown in Fig. 12.3. It consists of main body, valve,
valve seat, but and spindle, which passes through a gland to prevent leakage of steam. The
spindle is rotated by means of a hand wheel to close or open.

4.Feed Check Valve

The function of the feed check valve is to allow the supply of water to the boiler at high
pressure continuously and to prevent the hack flow of water from the boiler when the pump
pressure is less than boiler pressure A commonly used feed check valve is shown in Fig. 12.4. It
is fitted to the shell slightly below the normal water level of the boiler. The lift of the non-return
valve is regulated by the end position of the spindle which is attached with the hand wheel. The
spinfle can be moved up or down with the help of hand wheel which is screwed to the spindle by
a nut. Under normal conditions, the non-return valve is lifted due to the water pressure from the
pump and water is fed to the boiler. In case pump pressure falls below boiler pressure, valve is
closed automatically. or when pump tails.
5. Blow-Down Cock
The function of blow-down cock is to remove sludge or sediments collected at the
bottom-most point in the water space in a boiler, while the boiler is steaming. It is also used for
complete draining of the boiler A commonly used type of blow- down cock is shown in Fig.
12.5. it consists of a conical plug fitted accurately into a similar casing. The plug has a
rectangular opening which may he brought with the line of the passage of the casing by rotating
the plug. This causes the water to be discharged from the boiler: [he discharging of water may be
stopped by rotating the plug again. the blow-down ck should be opened when the boiler is in
operation by quick forcing out or sediments for maintenance.

6. Fusible Plug
The main function of the fusible plug is to put off the fire in the furnace of the boiler
when the water level in the boiler falls below an unsafe level and thus avoid the explosion which
may occur due to overheating of the tubes and shell. The plug is generally fitted over the crown
of the furnace or over the combustion chamber.

A commonly used fusible plug is shown in Fig. 12.6. It consists of a hollow gun metal body
screwed into the fire box crown. The body has hexagonal flange to lighten it into the shell. A gun
metal plug is screwed into the gun metal body by tightening the hexagonal flange formed into it.
There is yet another solid plug made of copper with conical top and rounded bottom. Fusible
metal holds this conical copper plug and the gun metal plug together due to depressions provided
at the mating surfaces.
During normal operation, the fusible plug remains submerged in water and on no account its
temperature can be more than the saturation temperature of water. Fusible metal is protected
from direct contact with water of furnace gases. When the water level in the boiler shell falls
below the top of the plug the fusible metal melts due to overheating. Thus the copper plug drops
down and is held within the gun-metal body by the ribs. Thus the steam space gets
communicated to the fire box and extinguishes the fire. The fusible plug can be put into position
again by interposing the fusible metal.

7. Safety Valves

The function of a safety valve is to prevent the steam pressure in the boiler exceeding the
desired rated pressure by automatically opening and discharging steam to atmosphere all .Le
pressure falls back to normal rated value. There are three types of safety valves spring loaded
(Rams bottom) type, dead weight type, and lever type.

(a) Spring Loaded Safety Valve:The spring loaded safety valve of the Rams Bottom
type is shown in Fig. 12.7. The spring holds the two valves on their seats by pulling the lever
down. The lever is provided with two conical pivots, one integrally forged with the level and the
other pin connected to one end. The upper end of the spring is looked to the lever midway
between the two pivots. The lower end is hooked to the shackle fixed to the valve chest by studs
and nuts. The shackle and the lever are also two links, one end of which is pin-
jointed and the other end has a slot cut into it to allow for the pin to slide in it vertically thus
allowing the lever to be lifted and retaining the link connection. These links are provided as a
safety measure in case the spring breaks, the lever should not fly off. The lever projects on one
side for manual operation to check the satisfactory working of the device.

(b) Dead Weight Safety Valve

In this type of device, shown in Fig. 12.8, the steam pressure in the upward direction is balanced
by the downward force of dead weights acting on the valve. It is generally used on low capacity
boilers like the Lancashire boiler. Bottom flange is directly connected to seating block on the
boiler shell.
(c) Lever Safety Valve
A typical lever safety valve is shown in Fig. 12.9. The lever is the second kind with effort
in the middle of fulcrum and load. It is suitable for stationary boilers.

VALVES: Valves are used to regulate or stop the flow of fluids in a pipe line. The operation
of a valve may be either automatic by fluid pressure or manual by hand. The valves may be
broadly classified as follows
1. Flap or Hinged Valve A flap valve shown in Fig. 12.10 (a) has a flap hinged at one
end. The flap is made of India rubber, leather or fabric. It is a one way valve, generally used in
pump applications as in foot valve, reflux valve, air valve, etc. The pressure of the fluid from the
bottom causes the valve to swing partially out of steam thus opening the passage for fluid flow.
The angular opening of the valve is limited to 3240 by means of some form of stop.

2. Lift ValveThis valve rises vertically from its seat, generally guided. Fig. 12.10 (b) shows
a ball lift valve used in pump applications. The ball may be solid or hollow made of rubber,
bronze or any other metal. Fig. 12.10 (c) shows a disc valve made of India rubber for pump
applications. The valves used in boiler applications such as safety valve, feed check valve, stop
valve, etc. are metal disc valves. These valves are provided with three or four wings or feathers
having straight or spiral shape.

3. Slide valveThe slide valve moves parallel to the seat. In a sluice valve shown in Fig.
12.10 (d), the spring keeps the discs in close contact with the valve seat.

4. Pin, Cock and Throttle valvesThese type of valves are shown in Fig. 12.10 (e) to(t).

Boiler Accessories:
Boiler accessories are those components which are installed either inside or outside the
boiler to increase the efficiency of the plant and to help in the proper working of the
plant. Various boiler accessories are:

1) Air Preheater
2) Economizer
3) Superheater
1. Air preheater:
Waste heat recovery device in which the air to on its way to the
f u r n a c e i s heated utilizing the heat of exhaust gases.
To recover some of the heat being carried over by exhaust gases This heat isused to

raise the temperature of feed water supplied to the boiler.

3. Superheater :
To superheat the steam generated by boiler. Super heaters are heat exchangers in which heat is
transferred to the saturated steam to increase its temperature.
Performance Evaluation of Boilers:
The performance parameters of boiler, like efficiency and evaporation ratio reduces with
time due to poor combustion, heat transfer surface fouling and poor operation and maintenance.
Even for a new boiler, reasons such as deteriorating fuel quality, water quality etc. can result in
poor boiler performance. Boiler efficiency tests help us to find out the deviation of boiler
efficiency from the best efficiency and target problem area for corrective action.
Boiler Efficiency:

Thermal efficiency of boiler is defined as the percentage of heat input that is effectively
utilized to generate steam. There are two methods of assessing boiler efficiency.

1) The Direct Method: Where the energy gain of the working fluid (water and steam) is
compared with the energy content of the boiler fuel.

2) The Indirect Method: Where the efficiency is the difference between the losses and the
energy input.
Direct Method:

This is also known as input-output method due to the fact that it needs only the useful
output (steam) and the heat input (i.e. fuel) for evaluating the efficiency. This efficiency can be
using the formula

Boiler Effieciency =
Parameters to be monitored for the calculation of boiler efficiency by direct method are :
Quantity of steam generated per hour (Q) in kg/hr.
Quantity of fuel used per hour (q) in kg/hr.
The working pressure (in kg/cm2(g)) and superheat temperature (C), if any
The temperature of feed water (C)
Type of fuel and gross calorific value of the fuel (GCV) in kCal/kg of fuel


Capacity : 60 MW
No of Units :3
Type : Condensing type, Central admission
Speed : 3000 rpm
Generating voltage : 11kv
Governing : Electro Hydraulic Turbine Control System


Capacity : 67.5 MW
No of Units :2
Type :1
Speed : 3000 rpm
Governing System : Electro Hydraulic Turbine Control System


SUPERHEATED STEAM FLOW : 340.45 tonnes / hr

FEED WATER FLOW :286.80 tonnes/hr
SPRAY WATER FLOW : 43.031 tonnes/hr
COCKE OVEN GAS FLOW : 8.6853 knm3/hr
BLAST FURNACE GAS FLOW :76.248 knm3/hr



Def : The amount of kcal of heat required for generation of 1kg of steam.
1. COAL: MASS =3 x 17t/hr=51 t/hr.
CALORIFIC VAVLE:3300 kcal/kg=3200 x 1000 kcal/tonnes.
=163200,000 kcal/hr.
2. COG : MASS=8.6953 knm3/hr=8.7 x 1000 nm3.
CALORIFIC VALVE:4500 kcal/nm3.
=39083850 kcal/hr.
3. BFG : MASS=76.4 knm3/hr=76.4 x1000 nm3.
CALORIFIC VALVE :705 kcal/nm3.
=54898560 kcal/hr.
COAL+COG+BFG=257182410 kcal/hr.
MASS OF STEAM =340.45 tonnes/hr.

HEAT RATE = 257182410/340.45.

= 755 kcal/kg=755 x 1000 kcal/ton of steam.

EFFICIENCY = (enthalpy of steam out enthalpy of feed water)/(heat in)

HEAT GIVEN IN BOILER =750 kcal/kg.

EFFICIENCY = (828-190)/750.
= 85 %.
Capacity : 60 MW
No of Units :3
Type : Condensing type, Central admission
Speed : 3000 rpm
Generating voltage : 11kv
Governing : Electro Hydraulic Turbine Control System
Capacity : 67.5 MW
No of Units :1
Type :1
Speed : 3000 rpm
Governing System : Electro Hydraulic Turbine Control

SUPERHEATED STEAM FLOW : 340.45 tonnes / hr

FEED WATER FLOW :328.80 tonnes/hr
SPRAY WATER FLOW : 43.031 tonnes/hr
COKE OVEN GAS FLOW : 8.6853 knm3/hr
BLAST FURNACE GAS FLOW :76.248 knm3/hr



Def : The amount of kcal of heat required for generation of 1kg of steam.

1.COAL: MASS =3 x 17t/hr=51 t/hr.

CALORIFIC VAVLE: 3300 kcal/kg =3200 x 1000 kcal/tonnes.
= 163200,000 kcal/hr.
2.COG :MASS=8.6953 knm3/hr = 8.7 x 1000 nm3.
CALORIFIC VALVE: 4500 kcal/nm3.
= 39083850 kcal/hr.
3.BFG : MASS=76.4 knm3/hr=76.4 x1000 nm3.
CALORIFIC VALVE :705 kcal/nm3.= 54898560 kcal/hr.
COAL+COG+BFG = 257182410 kcal/hr.
MASS OF STEAM = 340.45 tonnes/hr.

HEAT RATE = 257182410/340.45.

= 755 kcal/kg = 755 x 1000 kcal/ton of steam.
VSP is having its own captive power plant
through which the power is distributed to all the units in VSP. In
addition to its own captive power plant, AP TANSCO grid is also kept
synchronized with its power system. In recent stage latest technology
and equipments are also being introduced.

This project is the result of our study on the

boilers in Visakhapatnam Steel Plant. The whole generation and
distribution process of steam is thoroughly studied and the report is