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Annotated Bibliography

Delivering Bad News [Editorial]. (1999). Einstein Quarterly: Journal of Biology & Medicine,

16(4), 169.

This editorial states that even though delivering bad news is part of the medical school

curriculum and medical literature, some doctors still fail to deliver bad news

empathetically. The author, who is a doctor, shares three brief experiences of when he

unintentionally delivered news in ineffective ways. From his experiences, he realizes that

we do not need actual guidelines and instructions on delivering bad news to patients

because communicating with patients should be common sense, and doctors should try to

make this their first priority. Also, residents and students can pick up on skills from

observing the current staff. He believes that residents and students should observe the

current staff to pick up on skills, and that there should be some kind of role playing or

group conferences to discuss anxieties that doctors have. This will help the doctors learn

more about their emotions so that they can make guidelines for themselves instead of

following a step by step procedure to giving bad news.

This is a biased, useful source because a doctor explains his experiences of ineffectively

delivering bad news to patients due to anxiety and mistakes. This source allows me to get

real feedback from how a doctor feels about this topic, and what he thinks are the best

strategies for improving it. The information from this source is reliable because it was

found on the LSU online library and comes from Einstein Quarterly: Journal of Biology

and Medicine, which is the property of Albert Einstein Medicine of Yeshiva University. It

may not be copied or posted on any other sites without the copyright holders written

Because this editorial gives a doctors actual experience and opinions on delivering bad

news to his patients, it will fit into my research when I discuss my audiences view. He

explains that even though medical students take courses on communication, they still do

not always deliver bad news in an effective way. He also states common mistakes that he

and other doctors make, which shows that doctors know that they are not perfect in

delivering bad news, but that they are trying to correct themselves. This will help when I

discuss the audiences view in a neutral way. I can also use this source proposing

suggestions to the solutions of my argument because this doctor suggests that case

conferences and role playing will be more helpful than taking courses. This source helps

me shape my argument because the doctor admits that do doctors do not always deliver

bad news in the best manner, but that they should try to make it their top priority.

Dosanjh, S., Barnes, J., & Bhandari, M. (2001). Barriers to breaking bad news among medical

and surgical residents. Medical Education, 35(3), 197-205. Retrieved April 18, 2017.

In this journal article a qualitative study was done to examine residents perceptions of

the bad news delivery process because there is a need for effective communication. The

residents commented on the guidelines to delivering bad news, obstacles to delivering

bad news, and residents needs. The residents also noticed how the doctors want to be

caring towards their patients, but there are so many barriers and obstacles, which makes it

difficult for the doctors to follow the guidelines properly. This leads the patients to think

that the doctor is uncaring, and it gives the patients a negative experience.

This source is useful because residents were a part of a study in order to get their

perceptions and opinions after observing the current doctors deliver bad news to patients.
This study is an example of a good solution to the issue because now these residents will

be able to pick up on the barriers to delivering bad news, and they will be better

communicators with their patients one day. This source is reliable because it came from

LSUs online library. The journal is a copyright of Medical Education, which is the

property of Wiley-Blackwell. Its content may not be shared without the copyright

holders written permission. The information from the studies is reliable because the

authors who carried out data, conducted focus groups, and prepared the manuscripts are

professionals in the medical field. Dr. Bhandari is a fellow of the Clinical Scientist

Program and Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics.

Because the residents from the two studies witnessed discomfort in physicians that

caused them to fail to meet the guidelines for delivering bad news, it proved that this

causes a problem in the patient and doctors satisfaction. The residents discussion of the

guidelines for delivering bad news and ways to overcome obstacles will be helpful when

I propose a solution and negotiation to my argument because I agree that their points will

help this problem in the medical field. When the residents explained all of the obstacles

doctors have to go through when delivering bad news, it gave me a better understanding

of why doctors do not always deliver bad news in an inappropriate manner. Because of

that, his source has helped me form a common ground with my audience. The residents

discussed how the doctors want to be caring towards their patients, but the obstacles

hinder their personalities, which will be useful in explaining my audiences view on the

situation. This journal has changed the way I think about my topic because I did not

realize that there were so many barriers that made it difficult for doctors when giving bad

news. It also helped me think of more solutions to improve this topic.

Joekes, K. (2007). Breaking bad news. In et al. (Eds.), Cambridge Handbook of psychology,

health and medicine. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Retrieved March 24,


This academic journal explains the definition of bad news, and how the manner in which

the bad news is delivered will affect the patients satisfaction, comprehension of

information, and level of hopefulness. It explains how it is subjective because each

situation of delivering bad news is different. There are many barriers to delivering bad

news, which makes delivering the news difficult, awkward, and stressful for the doctor. If

the doctor feels this way, they can come off rude and tactful towards the patient, which is

not their intention. The six step approach and guidelines, such as setting, language, and

manner, are recommended to help the doctor improve their communication with patients.

Lastly, this article explains how communication skills do not always come naturally, so

workshops and evaluation of training will help the doctors focus on their own emotions,

which is important to gaining these skills.

This article is a useful source because it gives a broad overview of bad news delivery and

guidelines to help doctors cope with anxiety. The information given in the article is

subjective because it speaks for the entire medical field. The information is reliable

because this article is a copyright of Credo References from the LSU online database. It

is an article from Cambridge University Press, which is one of the worlds leading

English Language Teaching publishers.

This article is helpful because it explains the definition of bad news and how it is subject

and stressful for both the patient and physician, which will fit into the audiences view

and common ground that I share with doctors. This source suggests the six-step approach
to delivering bad news, which is recommended because it will reduce the doctors

anxiety, and improve the patients emotions and understanding about the bad news. My

role in this letter is Christie, who would say that the six-step approach is may be helpful,

but it is cookie cutter. The article then discusses three ways of improving

communication by looking at the patients perspective and adapting to it, and by paying

attention to your own emotions as the doctor. This is information will help me negotiate a

solution because Christie would agree with how this approach allows the doctor to treat

each patient individually with care.