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Alexander B. Griswold
This is an authorized facsimile of the original book, and
was produced in 1971 by microfilm-xerography by University
Microfilms,_ A Xerox Company, Ann Ar&or, Michigan, U.S.A.


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Cnuus I.-- ~ ~
Iotroducu,ry Remarkl.-On the Origin of Bnddhlat; Hiadu,
and .Mohammadan Pilgrimngea to Adam'a Peak ... 9
Noticea of the Peak aml Foot-print by early Chriatian writers,
-Account, by Marco Polo, Sir John :Maundcville, Captain
Ribeyro, Robert Knox, and the Dutch historian Valeotyn ... IS:S
The Samanala Peak.-Ratnapura Royal Mail,-Panabakkery,-
K~lani,-Buddbiat Tcmplea.-Kn4uwela.-Havw~lla.-Rlver
aceocry.-Awiuflweja lll
Awissaweja.-Sfta'a b11th.-S1tawalta.-The D~r~o4i-kowila.-
Rock temple.-Puaw~lla.- K uruwiia Waterfall.--Elto~ligo4a
Disiwa.- Katutiyambariwa Vihe.ra. - Weralupe. - Snman
Dewe.16 97
Ratnnpura.-Mount K artl.ngo4a,- Go4igamuw11.-GiHmala.-
];:llnpita Totupo!n.-Guruluwan, Kalu, aod Hatula-gavgas:,:...
Bandlira Mnbatmaya.-Tuntota Ferry.-Maakeliya-gagga.-
Dridge and Ford.-Alihlintenne.-"Eatuary of Rceda",-
Batnpola, - Rock cave. - Mapanan-flla W nterfall. - Pat,.
baddala ... ... 129


Palaboddnla.-:Mountain ronge1.-Kalu-gagga Bridge.-Uda
Pawun-i;lla.- Nffihela.-Gi;tanetul-gala.-Diyobetma.-Idi-
kof11pana. - Dhnrma-raja-galo. - Kunudiya-parvate.-D~na
Samauala. - 'relihilena. - Gangulo-h6na. - Sita-gangula.- ,
Hc;ramitipana 161
lli;r:imitipana.-Ascent of the Peak.-Aandiya-mala,tenne.-
Il!enik Jena. - Ehela-konuwa. - Maha-giri-don-kapulla,' -
Shrine of Soman Dliwiyli.-The Srf,Ptida.-Tho Raghili,
gi.-The Kudoruito.-Scencry of.the Skies.-Sunrise.-The
f:ihadow.-The View 191
Descent from the Peak . - Hi;ramitipana. -Alexander'
Ridge.- Cave of Khfzr,- Sita-Gongula. - Dharma-raja
gala, - Udo Pawan-i;lla.-Accidents.- Palabaddala to Rot-
napura 225
The Kalu-gagga.-Kalutara.-Panad or6.-Moratu wa. - Rat
molana,i.-College of Priests.-Galkissa.-Mount Lavinia.-
Kollupitiya.-Galle Face.-Colombo 247
Facsimile Foot~prints, - Anuradhapura.-Kurun~gala.-Alu,
Vihira. - Natha Dew file. - Gannoruwa. - Alagalla.- Kot,
timbulwala VihAra.-Dewanagola.-Khettarama Vihara.-
Ramboda.-Biiddegamo.-S1takande.-Hot spring of Maha,
palasse 266

A.-On the Origin oC the Sri-pflda 277

B.-Ibn Battita's Travels in Ceylon, and Ascent of Adam's
Peak, 1347 281



APPPDJX : - Pege.
C,-Sarinu or King Kirtisari, conferring Adam' Peak upon
Saranankara Unnknse or W~liwita 297
D.-Buddha's Three Visits \o Ceylon. The_ Impression of
his Foot-print on the summit or the Peak ... 301
E .- -Legend or the Princess Sudhad~wi ... .,. ,326
F.-Thc Dalada-Maligawa; and the History of the Toath ... 329
G.-Account or the Ascent of Adam's Peak by Lieut. Mal-
colm, c. a. a., in 18 HI; and of a subsequent Ascent by
another Officer
H.-Ruina or S{tiwaka
1.-'l'hc Pernhara
J.-Documents relating to the Election or Appointment to
the Office of lligh Priest of Adam' Peak 356
K.-Description of the Attanagalu Forest 363
L.-Vegetation abont Adam' Peak 365
M.-Procession from Colombo, and \Velcome at Mo,utuwaof
Joronia De Soysil, Eeq., after hie appointment to the
rank ofMudaliyar of the Governor'a Gate, in 1853 ... 369
N.-Festivities at Bngatclle, Kollupitiya, in honor of Hia
Royal Highnces the Duke of Edinburgh, 22nd Apri~
1870.... 378
11 Philnlethes," 391
l111:x:- 397-408

Omwo to an unrortunate mistake, the accompanying Map, engraved

and printed In London, Is not so accura~ in it delineation uf the coun
try and route from Pal&baddala to J)iyabetm1 u it 1hould bavo been.
North of Pallibaddala, trending to the e1111t, rise, the mountain Kunu-
diya-parvat6, the '!Vestern face of which i6 a tremendous precipico: South .
of and forming an angle with this mountain runn a range consisting of
the mountains Kondagala, NHihela, and K~killagala, 'l'he route from
Pnlabaddala is first between Kondagala and N!lihcla, then up and over
the latter, on to a ra'!ge that culminates at Diyabctma, the watershed of
the district; the streams to thCl east of Diyabetma, between it and Dhar
ma-raja-gala, S1ta-gnngula-hcna, and Hc;ramitipaoa, flowing in a north-
erly direction, -The source of the Kalu-gaggo is west of Diyahetma,
whence it runs south, finding its way down among the mountains and
passing nol'th of Palilbaddala, between it and the lower southern slopes
of Kunudiyaparvate.
The following
sketch will sbew the position of the mountains.

P. Palabaddols. 4. Diyabetma.
. ,
8, H9romitip11na.
1. Kunudiya-parvate. ll. Jdikatupilna, 9, Adam' Peak,
2. Kondagala. 6. Dharma-nlja-gala. 10, D~na Samo11ola
3, Nilihela, 7, Gsngula,hena,
The ranges ot mountalna where Kon,Jagalla and Nlhllagalla are marked on tha
map, are wrongly placed, and the valley bel,veen Koodsgala and Diabetna ahould
be high moaotaino111 ridges.
The following errors and corrections are also here noticed : -
page 15, lino sixth from bo~tom, for "west" read "eat."
" 65, line eighth trom top, for" south westerly" read "aouth-euterly."
88, line thirteenth from bottom, for "0." read" G."
" 104, and 107, for "Captain" Forbee, read "Major."
" I I 7, the Inscription on the stone la In memory of Ekn~llgoiJa' Disawa,
" tha !!Oil of the builder of the vihara.
184, after" rice eonjee" in first line, add "-rice,"
" 218, line fifth from bottom, for "least," read "last."
The names ofper~one and places 11re so variously spelt by different writeni, that
it;hae ~ot been possible to preAerve uniformity of orthography throughout the work.
In the Index, however, all names havo been carefully revised, and are correct u
they appeAr there.
, ,
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THERE is perhaps no mountain in the world of which so

wide-spread a knowledge exists, as "Adam's Pea~. Almost
every traveller to, or writer on, India and the East; has
alluded to, noticed, or more or less described it. But, con-
sidering the sanctity in which it is held by Buddhists,
. Hindus, and Mohammadans; the . numerous legends and
tradition~ connected with it; and the immense number
of pilgrims who annually visit the alleged Foot-print upon
its summit; it is surprising how little has been recorded by
any one author, and what wide and glaring discrepancies
appear in the different accounts respecting it which have
from time to time been given tQ the world.
An excursion to the summit of the Peak, in the early
part of 1869, having led to considerable research upon the
subject, as well as to two subsequent excursions, the results
of the observations and inquiries made on each journey, and
in the_intervals between, are set forth in the following pages.

My principal endeavour has been, to bring i?to one common

focus all attainable information; and to describe more fuily
than has hitherto been done, the Pilgrims' route from
Colombo to the SriPada, or Holy Foot-print, that crowns
the summit of the Samanala.
In the prosecution of this task I have received from
many quarters much valuable assistanee. And for aid most
freely rendered my thanks are specially due to the Hon'ble
II. T. IRVING, the Colonia,l Seeretary; to Messrs. RussELL,
SAUNDERS, MACREADY, and STEELE, of the Civil Service;
to Captain FYERS, the Surveyor General, and offieers of
his Department; to Mr. TmvAITES, the Director of the
Royal Botanic Gardens, Peradeniya; to the learned Advo-
cates of the S?premc Coui-t, Messrs, LORENZ, FERDIN ANDS,
ALWIB, and BuITo; to the Reverends BAILEY,ONDAATJE,
UNNA'NBE', High-priest of the Peak, and SuBHUTI TEUUN-
NA'NsE' of Waskaguwe. vihara; to Mudaliyar Lours
DE SoYZA, the Chief Translator to Government., and L.
,v1JAYABINHA, Mudaliyar of the Ratnapura Kaehcheri;
t.o EKNELIG0DA Ratemahatmaya of the Kuruwite K6rale;
as well as to the learned pandit C. ALwis, and other~,
whose names are mentioned in the body of the book.

PRE~'ACE. .,.

Ae a contribution to the literature of the Island, I truet

' that the work now published may be deemed worthy of a
place alongside those of others whose pens in times past
have illustrated the history and antiquities of Ceylon.
Much as they did, they yet left much to bo done j and fields
rich in historic and legendary lore still await investigation
at the hands of diligent explorers, To those whose tastes
incline them to such pursuits, investigations of the nature
indicated are most attractive. Hardly leas interesting is the
work of detailing the results of such investigations. ,vhat
may be interesting to an individual may not, however, interest
the publfo at large; although to excite that interest should
be the aim of every writer. Indulging in the hope that I
may to some extent succeed in that aim, I will only add,
that I have bee~ scrupulously regardful of accuracy in every
statement of a matter of fact; that the opinions I have
advanced have been adopted only after much consideration
and care; and that no pains huve been spared to do justice
to the subject upon which I have written,
April 22nd, 1sro.
~dam's ~~nlt.

Tum e~twml now thine eyes, and in the sun-light bold

The Snmanala peak, that sacred rock, behold,
Where with his goddess train, great SuN,\l'fA ador'd
Th' illustrious lotus Footprint of Bunn11'1 Omniscient Lord; , ,
Bow'd reverently before, and ofl'.erings mnde the sign .
Of Parasat' and Mandar, flowers of hues divine.

~ . .
ADAM'S PE,t\K,-known amongst the SiJJ.halese as the
Samanta-kuta, or peak of the Samanala mountain; by
Hindus as the Sivan-oli-padam, and by Molmmmadana
as the Baba-Aadamalei,-is one of the most noted mountains
in the world, celebrated alike for its singularly prominent

Or, more correctly, Sivaites; Siva being esteemed the supreme

divinity in the Hindu Mythology. The worshippers of Siva are divided
into the following sects :-Vniravas, Vamas, Klilamuk'bas, Mahavratas,
Pasupatne, and Saivas, The Saivas are the predominant sect among the
Tamils of Ceylon,


and striking nr11co.rance, and for the ihtereeting religious

aseocio.tione connected -with it. On
jts summit is n shrine
wl1ich covers the renowned Foot-p1i11t, clnimcd by the re,
spcctivc vota.rics of India's old beliefs, as that of Sivli., or of
Gautamo. Buddha.; but by the followers of the Prophet of
:Mecca, as that of the first crentcd mo.n,-the great pro-
genitor of the human race. To that alleged foot-print, held
sacred nn<l reverenced by far the largest portion of mankind,
annual pilgrimages are made, alike by Hindus, Buddhists and
1\Ioslems; nnd from times remote to the present _day it has
been visited by devotees, the representatives of those forms
of faith, from every region where they maintain their sway.
Ae to the cause why and the time when this po.rticular
mountain peak first became an ohject of worship, and ite
summit a fnvorite spot for pilgrims to rcsort to, the following
remo.rks which recently_appeared in the published sketch of
a journey tl1ithcr, t may not be considered irrelevant. The
" Without attempting to discuss the history, or the mytho-
logical legends connected with this place, I cannot help
epeculntiug regarding the origin of ite sanctity in the first
place. Here is a place which the Buddhist considered to be
sanctified by tl1e impress of Buddha's foot, which the Hindu
reverence~ ae being marked by the foot of Siva, which the

For rurther info,.mation as to the supposed origin of the Foot-print

see Appendix A.
t In the "Ceylon Observer," October 2nd, 1869,

Mohammadan considers a holy place a.a bearing 'the foot-print

or Adam, and which the Christians, or ra.ther some of them,
delight to believe is stamped with the foot of St. Thomas,
Now I ask, whence this con,enau,1 How came all of tbeso
to regard this place as holy, and to associate their traditions
and legends with it? How is this to be accounted for? I
at once dismiss from the inquiry this wretched imitation of
a foot-print, since the very question is, how did the necessity
arise to induce these various faiths to look on this shapeless
mark as the representation of a foot at all? Standing there,
surrounded by that matchless prospect, thel'e on that proud
pinnacle and above thnt enchanting view, one may well
refuse to accept that rock-mark as the answer to his question.
I want a higher, nobler answer, and is it not afforded?
Let each decide for himself, but I like to believe that theso
legends are- all after-thoughts; that the pince was already
sacred to the primal religion of humanity-tho worship of
nature,-as the enduring, all originating, all absorbing uni-
versal whole :-that to this faith, man's first, and perhaps
his Inst, this spcit was already consecrated as its most fitting
temple. In a question of this kind I care littlo for historio
evidences or their absence. There are many things of which
history knows nothing, many more of which it has not chosen
' to tell."
Whether tl1e "primal religion of humanity-the worsl1ip
of nature," was man's first and will perhaps be his last faith,
may be doubted, nay denied~ while at the same time the fact
is admitted, that 'the worship of false gods upon the ~igh places

of the earth is a practice that has prevailed from times of a

very remote antiquity, And although history may not know
or may have failed to furnish, an answer to the questions
"'hen and how Buddhists, Hindus, and Moslcms, came to
attribute the special sanctity they do to this hollow in the
rock, which all alike bow down before, and to which with
one consent they render re,erential .homage, the subject is
of too much interest to be dismissed without an attempt at
investigation in these pages,
Referring to the Ramayana, the oldest kn~wn work which
gives undoubted historic notices of Ceylon, it does not appear
in the descriptions that are there given of events which
happened 3000 or 4000 years ago, that any particular
sanctity was at. that ancient date accorded to the mountain;
or that the worship of any special deity was connec.ted with

"The Adventures of R6ma," by the poet Valmfki, is an Indian epic

poem of great antiquity, a~d unsurpa.~sed interest and heauty. It refers
to events considered by some cbronologera to have happened upwards of
4000 years ago. In a note to Professor l\I. William's Indian Epic Poetry,
p. 68, the following passage oee;nl'fl. "How many centuries have passed
since the two brothers (Rama and Lnkshmana) began their memorable
journey, and yet every step of it is known, and traversed annually by
thousands of pilgrims I St.rong indeed are the ties ofreligion,when entwined
with the legends of a country I Those who have followed the path of
Rama from the Go1,rra to Ceylon st,mu out as marked men among their
countrymen. It ia this that ghes the Ramayana a strange interest; tbe
story still lives; whereas no one now, in any part of the worlcl, puts faith
in the legends of Homer."

it; but there can be no question that at a period not long

subsequent, the district of which it forms the most conspi..
cuous feature, was identified, under the name of Saman, with
Lakshmana, the brother of the principal hero of the poem,
by whose aid and with that of Vibhrshann, Ba.,vana, the
king of the island was overthrowu, Both Lakshmana and
Vibishana. were deified, and became the tutelary divinities
of portions of the island; but the worship of the former, as
an incarnation of Vishnu, the deliverer and restorer, now
alone maintains its hold upon the native mind, especially in
connection with the great Saman dewiile near Ratnapura,
and the Samanala mountain, of which he is still believed
by both Buddhists and Hindus to be the potent guardian
god, During Buddha's lifetime, and for oges previous, this
mountain was the central seat of Samanite worship in
Ceylon, and the Buddhist legends impute to Saman's special
entreaty the fact that Buddha stamped his foot-print upon
the summit of its peak. This was of course an afterthought
on the part of some one in the Buddhist hierarchy, in order

Vibhfslmna is stated in the R/ij11w11liya to have succeeded to the

throne of Laokn on the death of hia brother, which event occurred 1!144
years before Buddha, or n. c. 2387; aod to have fixed his Capital at
K1;lsniya, bis sovereignty extending over o large extent of country long
since submerged by the ocean, To L11kshm11na was assigned the
sovereignty of the Western nod Southern pnrts of the island, the laws of
which be much improved, The groves of scarlet rhododendron trees
which clothe the eutern slopes of the S11m11nali\ from bnee to Rummit are
dedicated to him.

to add weigl1t to the claim upon the belief of the worshippers

of Saman that Buddha was the Lord supreme, whom even
Gods adored, just as the ea~ly Buddhist missionaries taught
the serpent worshippers,that the king of the Nagas(cobras)
recognised and protected Gautama when he attained the
Buddhahood-a legend thus commemorated by Sri Ra.hula
of Totngamuw~ in his poem "S~la Lihini Sandese,"
written A. D. 1444.
Thence to the Serpent chamber, where good it ie and meet
The image there beheld, thy worship to repeat;
For there to eye depicted ie seen how by the lake-
The lnke of Muchalinde,-when fierce on Buddha brake
In hie sixth week the rrune, from ten _directions foiling,
'l'he Naga-king himself through all that storm nppalling
Housed him in cil'cling coils, and o'er the Omniscicnt'e bead
me hood expanding wide a roof-like shelter spread,

The earliest approach to an authentic record of the moun-

tain having been dedicated to Buddha, as well as to Saman, or
Sumana, is that contained in the 32nd chapter of the Mah~
wanso. t It is there recorded that the king DuHhagamini,
being at the point of death at Anuradhapura, [n. c. 140,]

"The Sella's l'tfeseage." The Text, and a literal Translation, with

Notes and a Glossary fm! the uee of Students, woe published in 1867, by
W. C. Mecreody, Eeq., of the Ceylon Civil Service.
t The Mahawamo, which literally means "Genealogy of tl1e Great,"
is considered by competentecholare, "an nuthcntic and unrivalled record"
of the national hist.ory of Ceylon, It ie written in P6li verse, and was
compiled from annals in the vernacular languages existing in Anuradha.
ADAM'S PF!AX. 15 -
witihed for the presence of the thero TMraputtatbhayo, one of
his old military chiefti who had entered the priesthood, and
.that the said thero, "who was residentat the Panjalimountain
at the source of the river Karind.o, cognizant of his meditation,
attended by a retinue of 500 sanctified disciples and by thei~
supernatural power travelling through the air, descended,.
and arranged themselves round the monarch." The king
lamenting his approaching end, was consoled by the thero.
Recounting all his pious deed11, the dying king nt last said,
that of them all two only " administered comfort to his mind."
The thero, referring to one of these-a donation of a mess of
kangu seed to five eminent theros in a time of great famine-
said "the chief thero, Maliyadcwo, one of the five priests
who had accepted.the kangu mess, dividing the same among
500 o~ the fraternity resident at the mountain,

pura. The record of events up to A, D, 301 1 wae written by Mab{,

uncle of the reigning king Dhatu Sena, between the yeare 4/J9 and 477.
The slibsequ.ent portions were composed from time to time, by ord~r of
the kings, from the national recorus. The first thirty-eight chapter
were translated into English, and printed by. the Hon'ble George Tumour
in the year 1837,
The distance in a direct line from Anur6.dhapura cannot be leas
than llOmiles; the.Panjali mountain being one ofa range 11bout40 miles
west of Adam's Peak. The river Karindo is that now known as the
Kirindi oya. More than twenty-eight centuries ago the wisest of kings
declared that there was nothing new under the sun. May not Gautama
Duddha and his principal followers have been acquainted with what in
modeni. days is termed Mesmerism, and a state of clairvoyance be under-
stood to mean their supernatural power of travelling through the airP

himeeU also partook of it." 'This passage certainly intimate,

that the mountain' Sumano (the same as the Samanala) was
believed to be a place of residence for priests at that time;
but it does not settle the point as to whether the mountain
peak was then ~ place of pilgrimage, and the alleged foot-print
an object of worship.
A tradition of a later period, current in the locality, ,vith
much of probability in its favor, attributes to king Walagaw-
Mhu the discovery of tho Sri-puda on the mountain top.
This king ascended the throne n. c. 104, and -after a reign of
five months was driven from it byMalabarinvadcrs. For 14
years and 7 months following, he wandered a fugitive amongst
the bills and fastnesees of the. mountain districts, dwelling in
caves and supporting himself by means of the chase. During
this period, while living on the Samanala mountain at Bha-
gnwalona (Buddha's cave), he saw a deer in the distance
which he resolved to kill ; to his surprise however, he could
not approach near enough to secure it, the deer keeping just
beyond his reach, slackening or increasing its pace or stopping
altogether, in exact accord with its pursuer's movements. In
this way the king was led to the top of the mountain, and
when there the deer suddenly vanished, On reaching the
epot Walngambahu discovered the Sri-pada; and it was
then revealed to him that in this manner the god Sc;kraya,
to whom Buddha had entrusted the care of Ceylon and
Buddhism, bad chosen to make known to him the spot on

~O:>Gl'i "Sri-puda"-Sacred Foot-print.

..ADAM'S l'EAit.

which he hacfleft the impress of his sacred foot:.' After 'his

restoration the king caused the rock that bore the foot-mark
to be surrounded with large iron epikes, which formed the
first foundation for the terraced platform from the centre of
which the Samanta-kuia now seems to spring. Thus far the
local tradition. History then records that the king, having
recovered his throne, B. c. 88, "brought together 600 of
the principal and most learned priests at a cave at Matale
called Alulena, and, for the first time, ad the tenets of
Buddhism reduced to writing; which occurred in the 217th
year, 10th month, and 10th day after they were promulgated
orally by l\fohindo." It is curious that a 'somewhat similar
story of the deer is nlso made use of to introduce Mahindo
the princely Buddhist propagandist, to the notice of king
:Qewananpiyntissa, n. c. 307,t in whose reign and through
whom the Buddhist religion was first established as the
. national faith of Ceylon.

fi Turnour's Epitome of the History of Ceylon, p. 2801 vol. ii, of Forhes's

Eleven Years in Ceylon.
t "The king Dliwlinanpiyatissa departed for an elk hunt, taking with him
a retinue; and in the course of the pursuit of the game on foot he came
. to the Missa mountain. A certain dcvo assuming the form of an elk
stationed himself there, grazing; the sovereign descried him, and ftaying,
it is not fair to shoot him standing, sounded bis bowstring, on which the
elk fled to the mountain. The king gave chase to the flying animal, and
. on reaching the spot where the priests were, the thcro Mnhindo came
wit.bin sight of the monarch, but the mctamor~hoscd deer vanished."-
Mahawu11161 e. xiv.


Divested of the romance with which the local tradition

is clothed, there is no reason to doubt that it contains certain
germs of truth; for what more likely than that the king who
thus en.used the whole of Buddha's tenets to he reduced to
writing, and whose subsequent reign was zealously devoted
to the restoration of Buddhism, the building of immense
dagobas, and the founding of rock temples throughout his
dominions, should resolve upon connecting so remarkable a
mountain,-already sacred to the renowned god Saman, anrl
the place which holy theros selected as their abode,-by
indissoluble ties to 'the religion to which he was himself so
enthusiastic an a_dherent. A vivid imagination pondering ,
upon the discovery of the. hollow, or the interpretation given
to a dream, would be all-sufficient in an age of superstition
to account for a supernatural revelation; and aided by the
efforts of a powerful and restored priesthood, the account
of such a revelation industriously circulated amongst the
people, and followed by the more ela,borate legends which
tpe priests concocted in their pansalas, would speedily es-
tablish the fame of the Samanta-kuta, and draw pilgrims to
the Sd-pada from every quarter of India and the East where
Buddhism had established itself.
So'far therefore as the Buddhists of Ceylon are concerned,
it would seem that the belief in the existence of the foot-
print is not of an older date than a century and a half before
the Ch~istian era, if even it is as old, for although the
legendary. visits of Buddha to the island-(in the third of
which occurred the stamping upon the top of the Samanala

peak the impress of his left foot)-are duly recorded. in the

Mahawans6, it must be remembered that the enrly chapters
of that work were not written until the latter half of the
fifth century; more than a thousand years later than the
date when the impression ie said to have been made; and it
is moreover noteworthy, that "except in the ltiatoricol works
of Ceylon, there ie no accou~t of this supposed impression of
Buddha's foot in any of the earliest records of Buddhism:-" -
a faith which was not accepted as national until nenrly two
and a half centuries subsequent to the 4eath of its author;
and the doctrines of which were not reduced to writing until

J. D'Alwis's Attanagaluvnnsa, note 1.5, p. 0.-Thc evident object of

the historians,(themselvesDuddhistpricsts,)wns to connect in a miraculous
manner the invasion of Wijsya, the first king of Ceylon, with the
propagation of the Buddhist faith; and for that purpose the seventh
chilptcr of tho Mahawans6 opens with a revelation or command of Buddha
to that effcc!-'\Vijaya's invasion, aCCQrding to the record of the historian,
. taking pince on the day of Buddha's death. Du t the logic of facts, M
),I established by chronology, fixes the invasion at a period 60 years
subsequent. As to Buddha's visits to Ceylon, the following ia the
deliverance of the late Rev. Spence Hardy, an authority on Buddhism
of the highest rank. He snys, in a paper publi8hed in the Journal of the
Ceylon Branch of the Royal Asia.tic Society fur 1846, 11 I have little
doubt that it will one day be proved, even from the most sacred books
of the Buddhists themselves, that, the accounts we have of his visits to
'Ceylon are a pure fiction. In all the Sighalese books that I have read,
the narration appears out of the regular order of events, like an after
thought, and it ia entirely at variance with the tra.ditions of Nepa.I and
Thib.ct." ..

a further period of 218 years had passed from the time of

theiroml propagation by Mahindo.
The statement concerning Maliyadewo and 500 of the :
fraternity ofp.riests living on Sumano, quoted at page 15, will
hardly be accepted as other than apocryphal by those who
consider that the special object of the dyiug scene of the aged
monarch, as depicted by the historian, was to elevate the
order of the priesthood, and to shew that the smallest alms
to them outweighed in merit the greatest of_all other kingly
deeds. That the mountain was -a place of abode at a later
epoch is evident from the fact, thnt Mihindo III. [A. D.
997-1013] repaired t.he edifices which in a previous reign
hntl been deijtroycc.l by the SoliunA; and he i~ praised as n.
patron of the religious institutions of the country. It 'is not
however clear whether these edifices were actually on the
peak or only at the base of the mountain, nor is the foot-print
at all mentioned in the record of their repair,
The first notice of the Sri-pu.cla, after the legend of its
formation in the opening pages of the Mahawans6, ie contained

l\lnliyadcwo tl1ero wns a kinsmnn of king W alngambahu, and is Atated

in the Mnbnwnns6 to bnve been the lnst of Buddha's inspired disciples,
It is significantly recorded, that on the reduction to writing of the
doctrines of Buddha in the reign ofWalngnmbabu, the age of inspiration
passed a~ay. The inspiration then was connected with the capacity for
acquiring nncl orally delivering the traditions and cloctiines of Buddhism;
and one may rendily conceive how constantly additions and marvellous
legends and tnles of miiacles would be made to these from age to age ;
the tendency to which would nt once he checked, if not entirely stopped,
by an authorised promulgation of the written word,

, ,
//,- ,1;
/ /
. .ADAM'S PEAK. 21

in the 64th chapter of the work, which treats of the acceaaion

of Prakramabahu the First, A. D. 1153; and the first royal
pilgrimage to Samanala is l'ecorded in the Rajawaliya. This
was performed on foot by the juat named king, a, zealous
Buddhist revivalist, who on reaching the mountain peak
worshipped the priest of the foot-print, and caused a shrine to
he built on the rock .for Saman Dewiyo,-an act, considering
the hold that the Samanite ,vorship had on the minds of the
natives of the mountain districts, and the recent subjugation
of the central and southern provinces to bis rule, as much of
policy as piety on the part of the monarch. His example was
followed by Kirti Nissanga [A. n. 1192-1201], and this
king's is the first that is mentioned in the Mnhawansli as
that of a pilgrimage to the foot-print itself. A period of
from 1200 to 1300 years is thus passed over without reference
-in any way to the spot either in regard to its sanctity as a
place of pilgrimage or an object of worship to the followers of
Gautamo.; t and it is difficult to account for this silence in
~ o. history where the praise of Buddha is a dominant strain
* The Rajnwaliya was compiled by diil'ereut persons, nt TnrioUB periods,
and bas both furnished the materials to, and borrowed from tbc l\.faba,
wanso; but it is not considered so authentic a work.
t In the Rajn-Tnringini, the historical cl1ronicle of Kashmir, it is stated
that the king Megbavnhana, who according to the chronology of Troyer,
reigned A, D, 24, made an expedition to Ceylon for the purpose of extend-
ing Buddhism, and visited Adam's Peak, where be bnd an interview with
the native sovereign. Other nutl1orities (Thomas, J. A. S., vol. xiii.), fix
the date of Meghavabnna's reign at A. D. 144, which would make his expe-
dition take place during the reign of Batiyatissa I[. [A. D, 137-161),


from the opening of the first to the close of the last chapte~;
Two causes may however be assigned, with some shew of
reason, for this want of information:-( 1) the destruction of
Sii;,ihalese records at various tiwes by Malabar invaders and
apostate Buddhist kings; and(2) the fact that the capital of
the island was, up to A, D, 1319, in the No11:hern kingdom,
the Pihiti Rata, (called also the Raja Rata or country of
the kings); the Mountain zone forming the central kingdom
or Maya Rata; and the Southern portion of the Island the
Buhuna. Rata, Up to about A. n. 1050 the Maya and
Ruhuna Ratas wore under the dominion of independent
princes or petty kings, and were only at intervals subjected
to the sway of the.northern potentate. Among those kings
who were acknowledged sole sovereigns of the island was
Du!thagameni.' To the mountain fastnesses of the Maya
Rata kings and priests naturally fled for refuge when the

who like himself was o zealous Dmldhist. But no mention of such a visit
at either dote is to be found in the l\fohowonso, the R! Ratnoko1i, or
the R(ajowoliyo.
Of l\Iolubar iovosions 17 ore recorded between B, c. 204 and A, D.
1301, The iovoders were in almost every instance animated by the some
spirit of deadly hostility to Buddhism "hich led to the ultimate cxtirpo
tioo of that faith in Central India towards the cod of the seventh centur.1,
Of apostate or impious sovcreigus, the principol were Chora Nliga, B, o.
63; Knnija.ui.tisso, A, D, 33; Mahn Sen, A, D. 275; 1\16.gha,.l, D. 1211); ond
Rija Singha I., A, D, 1581, This loijt king gove over the custody of the

by S. C. 0.IIIJ, u \T
Samonala too body pf,Aandiyos, or Hindu Fakecrs; who ore dcscriLcd
of _bogg;,g f,ion OO!oogl,,g lo 1he &in =
\ I

Malabar invaders drove them from their throne and temples

at Anumdhapura or Polonnaruwa; although at times they
established themselves in the Southern <livision; ultimately
indeed [A. D. 10591 the Mi1y6. was annexed to the Ruhunn.
Raia, and the Island partitioned into two provinces, the
Northern being occupied by the Soli'.ans, and the Southern
being retained by the native. princes. Throughout the
Southern kingdom th~ Samanala was ever present to view,
while- in the Northern the high Nuwara Eliya range would
exclude it from sight.
Closed in on all sides by chains ofmonntainswhoeeeidesand
vall!lys were overgrown with dense and all but im11cnetrable
jungle, visits or pilgrimages to the Samnnta,kuta must ne-
cessarily have been few and far between, and were probably
only attempted at times when the influence and power of n
paramount sovereign could make itself felt through every
portion of his dominions. Such being the case, the wide-
spread knowledge in the north of the exi8tence, and tho
visibility in the west and south of the isolated cloud-capped
peak that reared itself so loftily above all eurrouncling
heights, would well keep in the minds of.Buddhists tho
tradition, and foster the belief, that the founder of their fnith
had there indelibly-impressed the foot-mark that was alleged
to have sealed the isle of Lanka as his own; a fradition that
was ultimately destined to become an article of faith where-
ever Buddhism was profest:1ed. A belief in the existence of
such afoot-print was held, we know, amongst the Chinese, as
early ae the third ?entury of tho Christian era, since there

are records in their literature of pilgrimages to India at that

date. All the pilgrims were struck by the altitude of the
hills of Ceylon, and above all by the lofty crest of Adam's
Peak, which served as the land-mark for ships ap1,>roaching
the i11land. They speak reverentially of the sacred foot-mark
impressed by the.first created man, who in their mythology,
hears the name of Pawn-koo; and the gems which were found
upon the mountain, they believed to he his "crystallized
tears, which accounts for their singular lustre and marvellous
tints." The Chinese books repeat the popular belief, that
the hollow of the sacred footstep contains water, "which
does not dry up all .the year round," and that invalids re~
cover health by drinking from the weH at the foot of the
mountain, into which "il~e sea-water enters free from salt."
At a later period, the belief of the Chinese as to the origin of
the foot-print seems to have undergone a change, for Fa Hian,

Sir J. E. Tennent's Ceylon, vol. i. p, 1586,7. This early belief of the

Chinese thnt the mark on the top of Adam's Peak, was an impression of
the foot of the first created man, is eo very remarkable, thnt one is inclined
to suspect there must be some error on the part of the translators of the
books in which it is recorded, unless indeed it be the record of some an-
cient tradition which was afterwards grafted on to Buddhism. lbn Batutu,
in his account of the footmark, visited liy him nbout A, D. 1340, says "The
Chinese came here at some former time, and cut out from this stone the
place of the great toe, together witb the stone about it, and placed it in
a temple in the city of Zaitun: and pilgrimages are made to it from the
most distant parts of China." The rock does not however bear any evi-
denc~a of such an olit.rage ; and the story probably owes its origin to the
. ',

the Chinese pilgrim, who in the course of his travels visited

Ceylon, A, D. 413, says in the 38th chapter~fhisinteresting
narrative, "By the strength of his divine foot, hll [Foe, i. e.
Buddha] left the print of one of his feet to tho north of the
royal city, and the print of the other on the summit of a
mountain." This visit took place in the reign of Maha
Nlima, and the royal city allt,1ded to was Anurlidhapura,
_where Fa Hian took up his abode. He did not ho,vever
visit_the Sri-pada, and only thus incidentally alludes to it;
eo that it does no~ appear to have then been a place of pil-
grimage; nor does he mention that any of the priesthood
resided on the mountain, a fact which he wonld scarcely
ha~e foiled to note, had such really been the case.
From the time of IGrti Nissnnga, pilgrimages to the foot-
print seem to have become a settled practice. The Rlija
Ratnakari: an authority only second to that of the Maha-
wans6, states, that ,vijl).yablihu, who established himself
[A. n. 1240-1267) in the Mliyli Rata, and fixed his

craft of some of the Chinese mercenaries employed in tho army of Pr&k-

rama IlL A.. ':' 1266. One con imagine the inward c~uckle with which,
oftcrhis return to "the flowery land," one of these mercenories proctised
the "old soldier" over bis countrymen, in palming oil' a lur~p of stone with
a cbiseled toe-mork, as a relic from the original impresston of the foot
print of it'oe from the top of the sacred mountain of" Sze-tseu-kwo."
Thci exact dote of the compoAition of the Rijo Rotl\akari is not
known ; but it would seem to hove been written in, or immediately after,
the reign of Wikremnbahu of Kandy, whose life ond 1ct~ occupy a
considerable apace at the end of the work, end whose coreer the author,
AbhoyarAja of W nlgampliye wihare, eulogises in glowiog terms,


cnpitnl nt Da.mbndeniya. in the Seven K6ralee; repaired the

route to tho peak, vii\ Gampola, and with much pomp,
visited n.nd worshipped tbc Sri-p4da. Hie sueceasor P~ndita
J>r~kramaba1hu) improved tho communicntions, and formed
a road from the Samanala ro Bentotti. in the Southern
Province, bridging the ro.vines and rive'rs i~ the wo.y, and
o.mong others, throwing o. bridge of timber 193 ft. 6 in. long
across the Kaluganga. Two hundred and seventy years. ,
later, ,vikremabahu, whose capital was at Kanda Nuwara,
the modern Kandy, ucaused bridges to be laid over the l'ivers,
repaired the road, and caused 780 steps to be cut in the
rock, in order that travellers might the more easily ascend;
and also caused resthouses to be made for the convenience of
travellers on the road, .And after expending a large sum of
money; he caused a great flambeau to be made which was
capable of containing 100 pots of oil, and this he lighted as
'a beacon on the top of the peak, in order to make his works
visible to the world ; and thus this king accumulated an
infinite o.mount of merit." This route, there is reason to
believ~~ is the same that is now followed in ascen4ing to the
peak, via Ratnapura, The practice oflighting up the summit
of tbe mountain nt sunset, during -the pilgrim season, is con-
tinued to the present day, and the effect produced by .the
multitude of flaming lamps in front of Saman's shrine, and
the. Ravhili-gcy, or temple of tl1e foot-print, as seen either
from Diyabetme or Heramittipane is exceedingly fine.

I J Vpbam'e Raja-Ratnakari, 1>, 131-2,

i \ '

The belief amonget the in regard to the origin

and sanctity of the hollow on the summit of Adam's Peak
varies, It ie by no meane universal; and among thoee who
hold it tho Vishnaivites maintain it ie the foot-print of
Vishnu, while the Sidites insist upon it that the impression
was made by Siva, the chief of the supreme triad of Hindu
divinities, after whom it bears the name of Siv6.n-olip6.dam.
They base their belief on the legend, that Siva in one of his
manifestations retired to this mountain for the performance
of certain devotional austerities, and that on their conclusion,
in commemdration of his abode there, he left the impress
of his foot upon the mountain-top. This legend does not
appear in any of the eighteen.Puranas; but is gathered from
hints contained in several; and it was probably concocted at
some bye-gone period rnore from political than any other
motives. That there were occasions when such motives
would be likely to sway the minds of both kings and priests,
will be evident to all who have studied the history of the
Tamils in Ceylon.
The religion of the aborigines of the island was Naga or
Serpent worship, subsequently superseded by or incorporated
with the worship of Lakshmana and Rama after their deifi-
cation as incarnations of Vishnu, The bead quarters of
this combination of religions were, Rat!)apura, in Sabara-
gamuwa, and Dewi Newaraor Dondra, the extreme southern
point. of Lanka, and boundary of Rama's conquests in that
direction. This was before the Buddhist historic period.
After the Wijayan invasion, successive monarchs built and

endowed Hindu temples, introducing therein the worship of

Brahma, Vishnu, and Siva, with that of other inferior deities.
This worship the people clave to, while still professing to be
Buddhists; arid as it was tolerated by the Buddhist priests,
it gradually led to the anomalous sight no,v almost every
where to be seen, of Hindu dcwales in close proximity to
Buddhist vihliras, and a people addicted alike to the adoration
of Buddha and the worship of Serpents and Demons.
Traditions of a remote age assert that a colony of
Malabars founded the city of Trincomalec 1589 years n. c.,
and the earliest authentic notices of the place record the
existence there Qf a very ancient and sacred Sivaite temple,
Other traditions traceable to a period long anterior to historic
times, make mention of a Tamil kingdom in the North-west
of the island, ruled over by an Amazon princess named
Alliarasamy, whose ccpital was Kudremale, where granite
ruins and rock inscriptions bear evidence to the truth of
the tradition; while a Tamil drama, founded on the story of
the queen, declares the people to have been Sivaites in their
religious faith, But
u Hardly the pince of such antiquity
Or note of these great monarchies we find ;
Only a fading verbal memory
And empty name in writ ia left behind."

The places considered specially holy by the educated Tamils and

Ilindua of Ceylon, in tonsequence of the prcs~nce of Siva, arc Trinco
malee on the east, and Mardodde on the north-west coast,


Respecting the original peopling of the northem 'peninsula,

the following account is given by Tamil writers. A cen-
tury and a half before the Christian era there liv.ed in the
Chola or Soll'. country, a certain minstrel named Ynlpai:m
Nayanar, otherwise Virarngaven. Being blind he depended
for his subsistence entirely on the earnings of his wife. One
day, however, she having delayed serving him with his
meals at the accustomed hour, he quarrcllcll with her, and
quitted the house, saying, that he was going to Ceylon;
upon which she sneeringly observed,-" Ah I you are going
to Ceylon to get a tusked elephant and a fertile field." On
reaching Ceylon he made his way to Anuradhapura, where he
obtained an audience of the king, and sang the monarch's
praises to the accompaniment of his lute, in so agreeable a
manner, that the well-pleased potentate did in fact present him
with a tusked elephant, and moreover bestowed upon him in
perpetuity the land on the northern extremity of the islnnd;
thus realizing the words wit.h which his wife had ironically
tauntecl him. The land was then covered with jungle and
wholly uninhabited, but Yalpana induced a. colony of T11mils
from Southern India to settle upon and cultivnte it; and in
the course of years it became a populous, fertile a.nd wealthy

Extracted from the Tamil Plutarcli, by the late Simon Ca.,ie Chitty,
. the talented District Judge of Putta}am, and author of the Ceylon Onztit
teer. Several valuable papers were also coctributed by him to the
Journal of the Ceylon Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, and other
local Magazines and Journals, princip:-.ily t.1pon Tamil literature, and the
history and customs of the Tamils, Moors a11d Mookwas of Ceyloc,

district, which he named after himself Yalpana nadu, or the

minstrel's country-a name the origin of which ie still prer
served in the modern J affna and J affnapatam.. He ~id not
ho,vever assume a personal sovereignty, but invited over a
prince of the Solian race, and crowned him king under the title
of Singariya Chakravarti, in the K~li year 3000, or B. c. 101.
The preceding tale ie by no means an improbable one, for
the early kings of Ceylon were of Indian otigin, and always
more or lees connected with that continent by matrimonial
alliances; and an Indian minstrel in the olden would
count it no uncommon reward to receive gifts such as those
awarded to Yalpana by the king. The colonists he imported
were worshippers of Siva, and that worship was known else-
where in Ceylon ae early as B, c. 426.
It is recorded in the Mahawans6 that in the reign of
Pandukabhaya [n. c. 437-367] that monarch, who seeme
to have been m~st tolerant in all matters of. religion, built
places of worship in his capital, Anuradhapura, for all deno-
minations. The historian writes, chap. x. " He the king
who knew how to accord hie protection with discrimination,"
established the yakkos in the royal palace itself and annually
provided demon-offerings. "He provided a nigr6dha tree

The descendants of this king continued to reign in Jaffna, under the

title of Ariya .Chakravarti,' until near the close of the sixteenth century.
They were frequently at war with the Siohalese; and o.lthough at times
conquered an~ deposed, recovered an'd maintained their power until
fino.Ily subjugated by the Portuguese.

for the (devata) Weesa wano, .and a temple {or tho Wiyddho-
devo." "He also constructed a dwelling for the various
classes of devotees." "The king built a temple for the
Nighantho Kumbhundo, which was called by his name. To
the westward of that temple . he provided a residence for
500 persons of various foreign religious faiths. Above the
dwelling of J6tiyo [a Brahman-his chief engineer] and
below the Gamini tank, he built a residence for the Paribnjika
devotees, In the same quarter, but on separate sites, he
constructed a residence for the Ajiwako, a hall for the
worshippers of Ilrnhma~ (another for those) of Siva, as
well as a hospital."
These Brahmans seem to have continued to reside peace
ably in Ceylon, until B. c. 246, when two Malabar ndven-
turers, military chiefs in the pay of the monarch Suratissa,
murdered the king and usurped the throne. Elala, of Soll
(Tanjore) on the Coromandel coast soon after their dethrone-
ment by Asela, inyaded the island, and defeating that king
po_ssessed himself of the entire country, with the exception
of Ruhuna. He retained his power till n. c. 164, when in
his turn he wns _overthrown and slain i~ battle by,gn-
mine; and his followers driven out of the islan~. An army
of Malabars again invaded Ceylon in the reign ofWalngam-
bahu, and held pos'session until n. c. 88. They seem to
have remained quiet after their expulsion by Walagnmbahu
until A, D. 106, when the prince of the SoHans once more
ravaged the country with an army, and after plundering and
devastating it returned to his own land with immense booty
32 AD.ilrS PEAK.

and 12,000 captives. Six years later, this invasion wns

avenged by Go.jabaihu, the cnptives recovered, nnd n similar
number of SoHans led prisoners to Ceylo~. Respecting these
transnctions however, the Malnbnr and SiJJhalese nnna.lista
give dissimilar accounts, the f'o1mcr asse1ting that the SoHans
voluntarily migrated to Ceylon nt the request of' Gajab!',
who made them Lirge grants of land for the support of a
temple to SiYa, by wny of expiation for a sin of intention,
. he having at one time purposed to pull the said temple down.
It is at any rate certain that at the time alluded to a Solian
colony was established in Trincomalee, and that the colonists
were Sivaites. Another Malabar invasion took place A, D,
433, and the invaders again held possession of the land for
six-and-twenty years. Anarchy and internal discord more
or less prevailed from this time to the seventh century, in
which the Malabars every now and again took part. In A, D.
838 these inveterate invaders once more overran the country.
Driven back after awhile, they remained quiet until A, D. 954,
when war broke out afresh. A short peace ensued, and
again the SoHans r~vaged the country; and the number of
:Malabars increased so much in successive reigns that A, D,
1023, they menacecl the throne, and an army of Sol fans coming
to their aid, the king Mihindu lV. was captured, and with
his queen died a prisoner in the country of his foes, The
SoHans after this held the northern and mountain districts for
upwards of fifty years,1,when they were reduced by Wejaya-, who died A, ol, 1126; and during this period the
Dhamilos [Tamils] s~.cceeded in driving almost all the

Buddhist priests out of the island, Seventy years of p~aoe

followed,. when- a fresh period of internal discord tempted
the SoHans to a fresh invasion, nnd the whole island became
the prey of' confusion, irreligion and anarchy, in which state
it continued a third of a century. . In other words, llin,du-
ism prevailed, and Buddhism was all but extirpated under
the strong hand of Magha Raja, the Malabar king. He
reigned for twenty-one years, when A. D, 1240 Wijaya
succeeded in expelling the Malabars from the Maya and
Ruhuna divisions of the island; but they were too numerous
and too firmly rooted in the Pihiii or northern kingdom to
be driven thence; and their descendants remain there to the
present day.t
The readiness with which the Sighaleso associated the
worship of Hindu divinities with that of their national
faith is easily to be accounted for. Buddha, while neither

The term "M11l11bar" is the common but improper name applied by

Europeanft to the Tamils or Ceylon, whether they come from Malabar
proper, in the aouthwest of the Dekkan, from Tanjore, or from pnrt:,i as
for north 118 Cuttnck and Orissa. 'l'he word never oc~urs in Siyhalese
writing~: The term used in the Mnhawanso and other Pili works Is
6:@c3 Dhamil6, and in Sighalese works G-q~~ Demalu, corresponding
to the Sanskrit word Dravi4a, Tamils. The king l\Ugha Rnj&, was a
native of Kalinga or Telegu, in the Northern Circars,
t The District of Nuw11r11k11laviya, however, which formed a large
portion of the Kingdom of Pihi~i, and -in which was included Anur6dh 11
p11ra, the ancient capital, ia still, 118 it always h11a been, occupied by the
Siyhalcse, but with a large admixture of_ the Tamil race,

34 .ADAM'S J.>E.AK.

denying nor disputing the claims of these divinities to god

ship, assorted his own .immeasurable. supenority over each
and all in every godlike attribute they were supposed to be
invested with: his followers therefore could worship whom
they pleased, so long as they acknowledged and took
refuge in him as the .All-Supreme. Dut this assumption
of superiority was, intolerable to those who rejected his
doctrines, and in their eyes his system was abominably ob-
noxious-in short, it was a most pestilent heresy. It
nevertheless made its way, for its originator was a king's
son, and kings and princes were its nursing fathers; and ere
long it became tho ,dominant religion in the land of its
birth. In process of time, however, there came a reaction.
Brahmanism again prevailed, and proselytes were made with
facility; for when argument failed to convince, the sword
was brought to bear, and in the hands of its warlike wielders,
it wrought such effectual conversions, tliat ultimately Bud-
dhism was either expeUcd from or extirpated throughout the
whole of Central India.
But, whilo the Hindus rejected Du<ldhism as heretical,
and extirpated it wherever tl1ey could, they have all along
manifested as ready a tendency as the most tolerant of
Buddhists to add to the number of their gods, though their
name already be legion. The ancient Tamil Poet Pudat-
tazhvtir, a native of Mavilipuram near Sadras, has thus bee!\
deified by the Vah1hnf!,vas, worsl\ippers of. Vishnu; in like
manner the two poet<lsses U ppei and U ruvei, who lived in
. ., .I
the uinth ccnturv of th~ Christian era, have been numbered
\ .

with the goddesses, and obtained elevated niohee Jn the

Hindu Pantheon; while in more recent times the founder
of a temple at Nell ore, in the north of the island, has become
the divinity worshipped within it walls.
Such a tendency, it is but reasonable to suppose; would
develope itself in connection with the Snmanala peak, when
the country in which it is situated became subjected to
Hindu rule. "The conquerors f~und the mountain dedicated
to Saman, and its summit reverenced by Buddhists. Sivaite
fakeers or ascetics discovered upon it medicinal trees and
plants well known to them on the Himalnyan ranges, the
peaks of which are supposed to he Siva's fn.vorite abodes.
They sought upon its slopes and surrounding valleys,-as
their successors still continue the search for,-the plant
"Sansevi," the tree of life and immortality, whereof whoso
eateth he shall live for ever. Amongst them the mount,
cnme to be called "Swargnrrhnnnm," tho ascent to heaven;
and as all those whom Sivti destines to celestial bliss are
said to receive ~pon their bends the impress of his snored foot,
by an easy process of transition the belief would become
prevalent among the uneducated mass of his worshippers,
that the foot-print upon tlie mountain top, alleged by the
SiJJhalese to be that of Buddha, was none other than Sivti's
own. When once such a belief obtained a hold upon tlie
Hindu mind, the legend to account for it would speedily
be framed.
As already stn~ed, however, many of the most orthodox
of the Hindus repudiate the legend and decline to accept the


rock-mark as a tangible memento of the presence ~f Siva.on

the spot. In the Tiruvathavar Purana, generally supposed
to have been written about the eighth centuryA, n., there
is a chapter entitled "the vanquishing of the Buddhists in
disputation," in which an account. is given of a certain ascetic
visiting Ceylon, ( then called" the epotless kingdom of lla"),t
and vexing the righteous souls of the" l,eautiful-shouldered"
king, and the Buddhist hierarch, by proclaiming Siva's supe-
riority to' Buddha. The king and the thcro decided to go
over to India and bold a public disputation upon the subject;
but were there defeated and converted by the convincing
arguments of the Sage Vatl1avuren. As this account appears
in one of the works the Hindus esteem divinely inspired, and
tl1ere is in it no mention whatever of the sacred foot-print
or the Sivtin-oli-padam, it may be concluded that so late .as
tlie eighth century, both legend and belief were non-existent,
so far at least as the Hindus are concerned.
The oldest probable period from which to date the legend,
is that immediately following the invasion of the Soli1111e,
A, D. 1023. The. SiJJhalese king was then captured, and
for fifty years after, the Hindu race held possession of the
Maya, or mountain, as well as the northern province of the

A trnnslntion of this chnpter, by S. C. Chitty, ERq,, wns published

in the Journal of the Ceyl(!n Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society for 1846.
t At thnt date, nnd previously, the old form of Sigholese, known as the
"Elu," would ~oubtlcss be the lnngnnge comm~nly spoken by eclucatecl
natives. l

island. Two years 'after' this Solian invasion, A. D. 102'5,

a large body of Sivaites who fied 'in terror from Somnaut in
India, where MahmouJ of Ghuznee had overthro~~ their
temple, found a refuge in Ceylon; and this access of numbera,
no doubt largely contributed to strengthen the power of the
Hindus in the land. The circumstances of the country
however, in both the next and the succeeding century, were
- - equally as bad, from a Buddhist point of view; and quite
suffici!,!nt to account for the origination and confirmation of
any belicfthat connected the Samanala peak with the worship
of Siva. The~e is no doubt about the fact, that the Sivun-
oli-padam was resorted to by Hindu pilgrims in the early part
of the fourteenth centUl'y, and as tho pilgrimngo was then an
established custom, it may have been in vogue for a century
or two earlier, for all that is known to the contrary, That
observing old traveller Ibn Batutu, after his arrival at
Putta}am, on the North-west coast, thus describes his re-
ception by rr Ayari Shakarti," the principal chief or sub-king
of the district. rr He said, Do not be shy; ask for what you
wish. I answered, My only desire in coming to the island
was to visit the blessed foot of our forefather Adam; whom
these people call Baba, while they style Eve 'Mtimti. This,
replied he, is eas.r. enough. We will send some one with
you who will conduct you thither....... He tpcn gave me
a palanquin which his servants carried upon their shoulders.

"' 'l'he chapter of Ibn Bntutu's trnvels rclnting to Ceylon, nnd con
taining the nccount of his a.scent to th<! top of A<lnm's Penk will be
founo in Appenilix B.

He also sent ,vith me four Jogecs, who wero in the habit

of visiting the foot-mark e"lcry year; with these went four
Brahm ans, and ten of the . king's companions, with fifteen
men carrying provisions,"
From the fourteenth ccntnry . to the present the custom
has been kept up amongst the Hindu worshippers of Si~a.
Hindus of other branches of Brahmanical faith seem to l1ave
frequented the mountain peak at the same period, but they
either did not know or entirely ignored the legend that con-
nected it with Siva. They, in fact, held to the more ancient
wors11ip of Saman, a worship by no mcan.s repugnant to
the feelings of the Si1,,1halese. This is ascertained from
the fo11ow\llg dialogue between two Brahmans contained in
the Sig11alcse poem entitled "P;lrnkumbasirita," the life of
P(!rakumba, or Prakramabahu VI., supposed by some to
11aYc been written by Sr1 Rahula of Totagamuwa, a loyal
paucgyrist of that mona~ch, at whose Court at Jayaward-
hmm, the modern Cotta, he resided:--
el~:n 43~ <!l~ ,;,,,:nS SI, t;t;, e;~c IS'3llla~,,
kiyngn mngiya cnu koyi si\,11, Dndn, S11m111111ln gosin{L
<!lg6 <r~o:? t9@e,, @@.,,, !Am ~8!; Ella~,
cpura amutu kimcko. Ilnmuno. Sumo.11a, surinclu wisiu(L

For the extract in the text I om indebted to the Rev. C. Alwis, whoso
intimate acquaintance with the classic literature of his native land, and
extensive knorrlcdgc of its legendary lol'e are surpassed by but few of
l1is contcmpo11\rics. lie -has most obligingly nssisted me in my researches,
aml fumishcit re with much ,aluable 'and interesting matter conncctecl
with the ~ubjee \ of this work, The ext111ct wns accompanied by the

dko 4!!0 S-<i<i!!Dcd 0d &!co 6-dl!S! l!J'lics,S ~com1

giya kala dcdah118 pnn siy11 rajek eteyi Diyaoa
,e9c;.o~co cs,eje)i~ cf.a:S, 0i6~ 6d -Ele~,
kiy111iya t11nw9si enaru P9r11kum raja medinu,

0 tell me, traveller, from whence you wend your wayP

From Samanala, Brahman, have I arrived this day.- .
-- -,--- What news fro'm God Sumana, who holds thcrco'er ehief1way'P'
When thousands twain, and hundreds five, ofyeors have passed away,
The world to rule, a king shall come, so folk who dwell there 81\J,-
King P~rnkum, then citizen, that i~, whom 1111 obey.
\ . .
A(a later elate the Sivaites became the acturu. custodians of
the mountain, Raja SiaJha the Apostate from Buddhism
having delivered it over to a body of Ann<Jiyas, Fakeers of the
Saiva. sect, after putting to death the orthoclox Bhikkhus,
and burning all the sa.cred and historical books that he could
find of the faith which he had abandoned. These Aan4iyas
retained possession of the mountain for a period of 160 ycar11,
when tho pious king Kirti Sri, restored it to the Buddhists,
bestowing the custody of the peak, with the royal village
KuH:ipi!iya, upon the priest W ~liwi!a;f at . the same time

following literal translation. "Tell (me) 0 trovcllcrl where do you come

from ?-0 Brahman (I am returning) from having gofic to Snmnnnla.-
What news is there in that country, 0 Brahman 1 frOIJ\ tho chief god
Sumana P-When two thousand five hundred years shall have elapsed,
they any that there would come n king, the chief of the world,-'fhcn it
can be said, 0 citizen 1 that it is the king P,:r11kum. of thia day,''
Dhikkhu, a person who lives on fragments; n Duddhist priest,
t A tr11n8l11tion ~fthc snnn11s or royal gr11nt, is givcu in Appendix C.
40' .. ADAM'S PEAK.

conferring upon him, for his eminent services in restoring

the religion of Buddha, and procuring from Siam the
U pasampada ordination, the title of Sangha Rajah, or king
of priests. The 'Aanqiyas tried to regain possession, and in
a~ appeal to the king for that purpose, made h~ a present of
a splendid pair of elephant's tusks. The king accepted the
present, but did not grant the petition; remarking, that the
mountain belonged to Buddha and was not his to dispose of;
at the same time he sent the tusks as an offering to the Sri-
pada. The high-priests of the temple retained possession
of these tusk!! until the British troops first entered tbe
country, when they were removed to Kandy, and from thence
to the Ga9aludeni vihura in U4unuwara, where, in 1827,
it was said they were still to be seen.

There is nothing recorded in the life of Mohammad, nor is

there anything in the Kuran to shew that that enthusiastic
Arabian iconoclast, the founder of the faith of Islam, was a
believe.r in ihe tradition that connected Adam, the divinely
created progenitor of the human race, and" greatest of all the
patriarchs and prophets," with the holy mount of Serandib;
yet the tradition was current amongst the Copts in the fourth
and fifth centuries; and in a paper by Mr. Duncan, in the
Asiatic Researches, containing historical remarks on the coast
of l\Ialapar, mention is made of a native chronicle, in which.
it is' stated_that a king of that country who was contemporary-
with l\lohammad, was converted to Islam by a. party of
\! .

dervishes on their pilgrimage to Adam's Peak, But, as

the standard of the Crescent rose, and ihe prowess of its
turbaned followers, with almost incredible celerity, spread
far and wide the doctrines of him who called himself tqe
Apostle of God, and, after Adam, "tho last and greatest
of the prophets," so, with like speed, did the wondrous tales
of the old Arab voyagers and traders or 'Ceylont spread

Asiatic Researches, vol. v. p. 9. This conver&ion "was effected by

a company of dervishes from Arabia who touched at Crungloor, or
Cranganore (then the seat of Government in l\lalahar) on their voyage
to ".isit the Footstep of Adam, on that mountain in Ceylon which mariners
distinguish by the name of Adam's Peak." In a note, l\lr. Duncan adds:
" ThiR Footstep of ,Adam is, under the name of Src-pud or the 'holy foot,'
equally reverenced and resorted to by the Hinclus."
; t Arab trudcrs were known in Ceylon centuries before Mohammad
was born, "and such was their passion for entcrprisP, that at one and the
same moment they were pursuing commerce in the Indian ocean, and
manning tbc galleys of Marc Antony io the fatal sea-fight at Actium.
The author of the Periplua found them in Ceylon after tbc first Christian
century, Cosmos Indico-pleustes in the sixth; and t.hcy hnd bccomo so
numerous in China in the eighth, as to cause a tumult in Canton. From
the tenth till the fifteenth century, the Arabs, as merchants, were the un-
disputed masters of tbe East; they formed commercial establishments in
. every country that had productions to export., and their vessels sailed
1 between every sea-port from Sofala to Bab-el-l\landcb, ancl from Aden
to Sum~tra. The 'Moors' who at the present dny inhabit the coasts of
Ceylon, are the descendants 'of these active adventurers; they are not
purely Arabs fo blood, but descendants from Arabian ancest.ors by
intermarriage with the native races who embraced the religion of the
prophet."-Sir J.E. TENNENT'& Ceylon, vol. i. p. 607,

amongst their countrymen and co.religionists reports of the

beauty, the fertility, and the riches of India's utmost isle.
Not least jn interest amongst thti marvels told would be those
respecting the mysterious relic on the summit of Al-rohoun,
the mighty mount they saw above the horizon for days before
they moored their ships beneath the shadow of the palms that
mnrged the coast. From what was recorded of Adam in
the Kurun, nnd the Coptic traditions, with which the Arab
traders would be well acquainted, connecting his name
with the mountain and the foot-print, the whole combined
failed not to invest the island with all the chqrms of an
earthly elysium, and fixed in the minds of :Moslcms the idea
that the mountain of Serandib, "than which the whole
world does not contain a mountain of greater height,"t
Fprang from the site of Eden's garden, and was most pro-
bably that sacred spot,

" The :Mou~t ot Paradise, in clouds reposed,"

whence Adam was permitted to take his last long lingering

look at the abodes of bliss from which he was for ever
expeUca, for

So called ~rom the Rubuna division of the Island, in which Galle is

situated, and from which Adam's Peak is seen,
t The description given by T ABABI, "the Livy of the Arabians,"
born A, . 83A, whose writings contain, it is believed, the earliest allusiun1
to Ceylon to be found in any of the Arabian or Persian authors.

"that my1teri~1 c,ime,'

Whose dire contagion through elapsing tlnie .
Diffused the cu~e of death beyond control;"

or the pinnacle upon which he alighted, when, accordii,g to

other traditions, he was cast out from the Paradiso of the
seventh heaven, and there "remained standing on one foot,
until years of penitence and suffering liad expiated his
offence, and formed the footstep" that now marks the place
upon which he stood. t
The traditions vary in their details; but all true Isle.mites
hold to the.belief tliat Ceylon was rendered for ever famous
by the presence upon it, and the residence therein; of the
Father of Mankind.t Sale, in the note already quoted from,

JAMES l'IIoNTaoMEBY's "World before the Flood.ll _,

"It is from the summit of this mountain, a tradition reports, that
Adam took his Inst view of Paradise, before he quitted it never to return,
The spot at which bis foot stood at the moment, is still supposed to be
found in an impressi~n on the summit of the mountain, resembling the
print of a mnn's foot, but more thnn double the ordinary size. After this fnrcwell view, the father of mankind is snid to hnve gone
over to the continent of Indin; which was nt that time joined to the
island; but no sooner hnd he pnssc\l Adam's Bridge tlmn the sea closed
behind him, nnd cut off ell hopes of returo,"-l1 Eac1vAL's Accuunt of
Ceylon, p. 206-7,
t Note to chap. ii. of SALE's Al-kornn,
t "There is another tradition related in the Cahennan-nameh, namely,
that Adam was bnnished to Serandib after his expulsion from Paradise,
and that Cnherman-Catel, wishing to bequeath to posterity a monument
to record the birth of his son Sam-Ncriman, cnusecl II town to be built

mentions the further belief of the followers of the Prophet

of Meccn, that Eve, who had fallen from Paradise near Jed-
dah, or Mecca., in Arabia, was, after a separation of two
hund1ed years, reunited to Adam, who was conducted to her
by the angel Gabriel, and that they afterwards both retired
to Ceylon, where they continued to propagate their species.
Percival, in his notice of the mountain named after him to
"the e,en_ing breeze
Ilad borne the voice of 00(1 among the trees;
whose morning eye
Outshone lhe star that lold the sun was nigh,"
J, l\lu:-iTGOl\lEllT,

states that one of the chains near the top is said to have
been made by Adam himself I but he gives no authority for
the 11tatemcnt, Sir W. Ousely, in his Travels, quoting from
the Berhnn Katten, a manuscript Pcisian dictionary, writes
"Serandib(or Serandil) is the name of a celebrated mountain,
whereon the ,enernblc Adam, (to whom be the blessing of
God l) desce\ided from Paradise and resided .... it is likewise
reported, that here is interred the father of mankind."
Ashrcf, a Persian poet of tl1c fifteenth century, holding this
belief, describes ln the "Zaffer N amnh Skendari," a voyage

in the great plain at the foot of the mountain where Adam was interred,
and that he called the some Khorr~m, place of joys nnd pleasures, such
ns the Grcek8 aml Latin, believed the Elysian fields to have bcen."-
Bi!Jliothcquc Orientate of D'IIEanE1.oT, ,ol. iii. p. 308.
, ,
' ' t I


inade to c'eyion by Alexander the Great, where, after land-

ing and indulging himself and companions in feasts and
revels, he next explores the wonders of the island, nnd "with
the philosopher Bolinas [ celebrated for tho composition of,
magical talismans] devise<1 means whereby they may ascend
the mountain of Serandib, fixing thereto chains with rings,
and nails or rivets, mnrle of iron and brass; the remains of
which exist even at this day; so thnt travellers, by tbo assist-
ance of these chnins, are ennblcd to climb the mountnin and
obtain glory by finding the sepulchre of Adam, on whom be
the blessing of God!" U nfortunntcly for Ash ref's credibility,
his statements are not supported' by any relinble authority,
and history is utterly silent in rl'gard to this alleged voyage
of Alexnnder and his companions. t His own countiymcu too,
are at issue with him as to the pluoe of scpulturo of tho
father of mankincl, for Hnmdallnh Knzwini, the Persian
geographer, says that Adam left Ceylon for the continent of
.( India, and "crossed the sea on foot, though i;hips now sail
over the pince of his passage, during tho space of two or
three days' voyage. "t

Sir ,v. OusF.LY's Travels, vol. i. p. 68.

t This belief amongst Ea sterns of the visit of Alexander the Great to
Ceylon exiated long before the time of Ashref. lbn Batuta, a century
earlier, mentioi;is "the ridge of Alexander," at the entrance to the
mounhin Serandib, "in which is a cave and a well of wnter," and a
minaret there "named after Alexander."
l Sir w. 0
OuSE!.Y S Trnl'els, vol. i. P 37.

The earliest account of 'the Mussulman tradition that

connects the story of Adam with the Peak is that contained
in the narrative of Soleyman, an Arab merchant who visited
Ceylon in the beginning of the ninth century. His attention
wns pnrticul1uly directed to the mountain cnllcd by his
0011nt1ymon "Al-rohoun," "to the top of' which" ho snye,
"it i, thought Adam ascended, and there left the p1-int of
his foot, in a rock which is seventy cubits in length; and
they say, that Adam at the snme time stood with his other

foot in the sea. About this mountain arc mines of rubies,
~f opals, and amethysts.'"" lbn ah:i.b, another trader wl10
visited Ceylon about the same period, speaks of its peal'ls
and precious stones; and the narratives of both travellers
are related in a work entitled " Voyages of tlte two lJlolwm-
. madans," written between the years A, D. 851-91 I, and
:first printed in France in 1718. t
Sindbad the Sailor in his charming tales, written probably
about the same period as those of the two l\fohnmmadans,
says in the account of his sixth voyage "The capital of
Seraticlib stnncls at the end of.a fine valley, in the middle of
the island, encompassed by high mountains. They are seen

History of Ceylon, by PHILALETHE81 1817, p. '/, 'l'he opnls referred

to by Soleymnn must h1\Ve been either cnt's-eycs or moonstones; the
real opal not being found in Ceylon.
tBy RENAUDOT; it wns reprinted nt Pnris by REINAUD in 1845,
An J~gliRh translntion wns included in both I!Aaa,s's and PINKERTON's
eollect_ions of enrly travels.


.. 47

three daye' eail oft' at sea. Rubies and several sorts of

minorals aboun~. All kinds of rare plants and tJ:eoa grow
there, especially cedars and cocoa-nut. There ie also a
pearl-fishery in the mouth of its principal river; and in eome
of its vn.lleys are found clinmonds, I made, by way of
devotion, a 11ilg1imngo to tho t>lnce where Adnm wn.e confined
after his banishment . from Paradise, and had the curiosity
to go to the top of the mountain." t The Arabian author
Edrisi, in his Geograpliy compiled at the desire of the
Sicilian king, Roger the Norman, A. D, 1'154, repeats details
of tbe l1eigbt or the holy mountain of Ceylon, its gems
and odoriferous woods; and in tbe next century Kazwini
of Bagdnd, the Pliny of the East, gives 1mrtioulars of
Ceylon as then known to .the travellers and voyagers of
his day.
Ibn Batuta, a Moor of Tangiers, the record of whose
thirty years' pilgrimage [A. D, 1324-1354] entitles him to
' ) rank amongst the most remarkable travellers of any age or
.) country, whilst journeying through Persia, vii;ited at Shfrliz
"Che tomb of the Imam El Koth El 1VaH Abu Abd Allah

Di11mond! lll'C not found in Ceylon, but white sapphiree m11y h11ve
been passed off for such gems. A species of zircon is found in M11tura,
,vhich goes by the name of the M11tura di11mond; these stones are
exceedingly hard, and some of them possess great lustre: but they 11re
seldom found of 11ny size, and are of little commercial value.
t Arabi11n Nights' Entert11inments, by 'l'owNBBND; Ch11ndos Cl11Ssics
Edit., 'p, 428. .

Ihn Khafif, who is the great exemplar of all the region of

Fara." Of him he says" This Abu Abd Allah is the person,
who made known the way from India to the mountain of
Serandib, and. who wandered about the mountains in the
Island of Ceylon. Of his miracles, his entering Ceylon, and
wandering over its mountains in com.pany with about thirty
fakeers is one: for when these persons were all suffering
from extreme hunger. -and had consulted the Sheikh .on
the necessity of slaughtering and eating an elephant, he
positively refused and forbade the act. 1'hey, nevertheless,
impelled as they were by hunger, transgressed his commands,
and killed a small elephant, which they ate. The Sheikh,
however~ refused to partake. 1Vhen they had all gone to
sleep, the elephants came in a body, and smelling one of
them, put him to death. They then came to the Sheikh,
and smelled him, but did him no injury. One of them,
however, wrapt his trunk about him, and lifting him on his
back, carried him off to some houses. 'When the people saw
him, they were much astonished. The elephant then put
him down and walked off. The infidels were mur,h delighted
with the Sheikh, treated him very kindly, and took him to
their king. ['he king gave credit to his story, and treated
him with the greatest kindness and respect. When I entered
Ceylon I found them still infidels, although they had given
great credit to the Sheikh. They also very much honour
the l\Iohnmmadan fakeers, taking them to their houses and
feeding them, contrary to the practice of the infidels o.f
India; for they neither eat with a Molmmmadan, nor suffer

him to come near them." Sir James Emerson Tennent

observes upon this account:-" As this saint died in the year
of the Hejira 331, his story serves to fix the origin of the
M~hammadan pilgrimages to Adam's Peak in the enrly pnrt
of the tenth century."t
Ibn Batutn's visit to Ceylon was the result of stress of
weather, be being at the time on a voyage from one of the
Maldive islnnds,-,vhere his long residence and popularity
had excited the hatred of the Vizier,-to the "l\ianbnr
Districts" on the const of Coromande), His narrative will
be found in the Appendix, accompanied with notes iden#-
fying many of the places mentioned in his route from
Putt~am to Gampola, thence to Adam's Peak, to Dond1a-
head, Galle, Colombo, and back to Putta!am.

The '!'ravels oC lbn Batdta, translnted from the Arabia by the

Rev. 8 LEE, Professor of Arabic in the University of Cambridge, 1829,
p. 42-43 Robert Knox, '11'.riting three hundred and forty yeara later,
fully corroborates tbc statement of Ibn Batdta.
t Sir J. E. TE1UIENT111 Ceylont vol. I. p. 679,


'.NOT E.

It is shited in page 19, on the authority of a nbte in

Mr. James D'Alwis's "Attanagalu-vansa," that except in
the historical works of Ceylon, there is no account of
supposed impression of Buddha1s foot in any of the earliest
recorrls of Budhism," Since the printing of the sheet con-
taining that page, I have been favoured with the following
communication fl'Om Mudaliyar Louis De Zoysa, the learned
Chief Translator to the Ceylon Govcrnmcut, whose merits
ai a Puli and Sanscrit scholar arc patent to nil who have
occasion to consult him, but whose reluctance to publish the
fruits of his studious labc,urs has hitherto prevented him
from taking that place amongst generally known Orientalists
to which his abilities entitle him.
"I have much plea~ure in sending you an extract and its
translation from Duddhagh6sa's AHhakatha on the Winaya-
pitaka, entitled 'Samanta Pasadika,' respecting the im-
pression of Buddha's foot on the mountain of Samantakufa.
Il11ddhagh6sa is the great commentator on the canonical
Scriptures of Buddh'ism. AHhakatha is a Comment, or
Glossary. ,vinayapitaka is that division of the sacred text
which treats of the Law~ of the Buddhist Priesthood,

"TiuikMpana BhngRvat.o padachetiyani. Laykadipe ekay.

,Tamhudipe Y 6nakaratthe <lweti. Tattha b6dhit6 atthame wasse
Kaly(11;iiyav Mauiakkhi nagarujcna nimantit6 Bhagava 'paychabi
-~( /

bhikkhusatehi parivuto Lagkad{pamagamms Kaly&ni chctlya\th,ni\

kate ratana-mm;idapc nisinno bhaltakiehchag klltwa Samttntakute
padaIJ. dassotwa agamasi."-SAMANTA PA18A1D1KA1,

"There are three foot-impressions of the Deity of felicity~

one in the Island of Lanka, and two in the Y 6naka country
in ,J ambudipo, In the eighth year after his attainment
of Buddlmhood, the Deity of felicity, at the invitation of
the Naga. king Maniakkhi, arrived at Lanka attended by
five hundred priests, and having taken his sent in the ratana-
maudapa (gem-decorated-hall) on the site of the D1tgoba at.
K~lani, and having partaken of his repast there, left the
impression. of his foot on the Sama.ntakuta mountain and
'l'he above extract, however, only proves that the notico
of the foot-print occurs for the first time in any other
than an historical work, in the AHhakatha or commentary
composed by Buddhagh6sa, which, although esteemed by
many as of equal authority .with the Tripitaka, was never-
theless only , written nt about the same period as tho
correspondin~I statement in the Mahawans6, or but a short
while before, ' Por Buddhagh6sa. arrived in Ceylon from
Maghada, near Patna, the original seat of Buddhism, during
the reign of Mahanum6, A. n. 410-432; and he and the
thero Mahauama were both resident at the same timo
at Anaradhapura, where the latter 'completed the early
chapters of the Mahawans6 in the reign of his nephew
Dhatu-Sena [A. D. 459--:-478], The statements in the
commentary and in the history are identical, and both

Bnctrinoa, or Aff"ghanistaa.

had, without doubt, a common origin. The express object

of Buddhagh6sa's vil!it to Ceylon, was to- translate from
Sitihalese into Pali the Atthakathas on, as well as the text .
of the Pi~akas, but during his residence in the island, he
himself composed additional comments, regarding which one
of the most learned priests of the present day remarked,
"that any one who read them thfough would be able to
fulfil the office of Sa11gha Raju., or supreme ruler of the
priest.hood," t But at the same time, "they abound much
more with details of miraculous interposition than the
Pi~n.kas they profess to,"t ond as there iH absolutely
nothing in the text of the Winiyapitaka respecting the alleged
foot-mark, to give occasion to the extract quoted from the
comment, it seems evident that Buddhagh6sa embodied in
his commentary, as in a kind of common-place book, every-
thing that in any way tended to the glorification of Buddha,
howc\'cr remotely connected it might be ,vith the special
subject he had on hand,

The Dipawanaa, or history of the IMland, .w ritten in Pali, pe1l1aps a

century and a half earlier than the Mahawana6, is the oldest known book
in which the legend is stated. Both 8uddhagh6sa and Mahanama seem
to ba,e been indebted to its pages for wbat they have written on this
particular subject.
t IIARDY's Manual of Buddhism, p. 512.
l HARDY's EllStcrn Monachidm,p.171.
"All the giant mountains sleep
High in heaven their monarch stands,
Bright and heauteo111 from afar
Shlning into distant landB
Like a new-created 1tar,"

THE Gnostic$, in. framing their theological system, made
Adam rank as the third emanation of the Deity; and in a
manuscript of the fourth century, containing the Coptic
version of the discourse on " Faithful Wisdom," attributed
to Valentinus, the great hcresiarch of that early corruption
of Christianity, there occurs the oldest recorded mention of
the sacred foot-print of" the primal man," The veneration
they cultivated for Ieu, (the mystic name they gave to
Adam y the protoplast of the human race, seems, after t)ieir
di11persion under persecution, to have been communicated

by them to the Arabs, and it was probably under this

influence that Mohammad recognized him in the Kuran, as
tl1e "greatest of aJl patriarchs and prophets," and the "first
of God's vicegerents upon earth.'"" It does not appear,
however, that pilgrimages any time made by Chris-
tians, as acts of devotion, to the sacred foot"print.
The Portuguese authorities, when they became interested
in the affairs of Ceylon, were not at all inclined to believe
in the impression, as being that of the foot-print of' Adam;
some attributing'it to St. Thomas, and o.thers to the Eunuch
of Candace, Queen of Ethiopia. Percival, in his account of
the island, apparently adopting this view, states, page 208,
that "the Roman Catholics have taken advantage or the
current superstitions to forward the propagation of their own
tenets; and a chapel which they have erected on the moun-
tain, iii yearly frequented by vast numbers of black Chris-
tians of the Portuguese and l\Iafabar races." But in this
respect he seems to have falltm iato an error; there are no
traces of such a chapel ou the mountain at the present day,
nor does it appear, upon inquiry, that there had been any
such in former times. Probably, when writing his work, he
had present .to his. recoJlection traditions of the old Roman
Catholic church, which in the times of the Portugues~ stood
on the spot now occupied as the great Saman D~wale, about
a couple of miles from Ratnapura, in which ci'ty there is

Sir J.E. TENNENT's Ceylon, "ol. ii. p. IM.


et.ill a body of'Roinan Catholics, and a small chapel where

they assemble for worship.
Early Christfan travellers have not failed to make mention
of the Peak in the narratives they have left of their voyages
and travels to the far East. Chief amongst these stands
Marco Polo, the celebrated Venetian whose travels through
the dominion~ of the Emperor Kublai Khan nnd adjacent
countries, A, D. 1271-1295, led Sansivino, the historian of
the city of Venice, to call him "the first before Columbus
who discovered new countries." He thus refers (book III,
cb. xxiii.) to , the traditions that connect the mountain of
Zcilan with both Adam and Buddha.
"I am unwilling to pass over certain particulars w11ich
I omitted when before speaking of the. island of Zeilan,
(eh. xix.) and which I learned when I visited that country
in my homeward voyage. In this island there is a very high
mountain, so rocky and precipitous that the ascent to the top
is impracticable~as it is said, excepting by the assistance of iron
chains employ~d for that purpose. By means of these somo
persons attain the summit, where the tomb of Adam, our
first parent, is reported to be found. Such is the account
given by the Saracens. Ilut the idolaters assert that it
contains the body of Sogomon-barchan, the founder of their
religious system, and whom they revere as a holy personage,

Evidently a corruption of the terms Sakya,muni, chief sage of the

Sakya race; and Bhagawat, supreme spirit; commonl1 used by Buddhists
to designate Gaut~ma Buddha.
Missing Page
Missing Page

king two large back-teeth, together with some of the hair,

and a handsome vessel of porphyry. When the Grand Khan
received intelligence of the appr~ach of the messenger,1, on
their return with such valuable curiosities, be ordered all
the people ofKanbalu (Pekin) to march out of the city to
meet them, and they were conducted to his presence with
great pomp and solemnity."
The first of the writers on Ceylon in the fourteenth century
was the Minorite Friar Odoric of Postenau in Frum. "In
it he saw the mountafn ou which Adam for the spnce of 600 ,
years mourned the death of Abel, and on which his tears
and these of Eve formed, as men believe, a fountain;" but
this Ocloric discovered to be a delusion, as he saw the spring
gushing from the earth, and its waters" flowing over jewels,
but abounding with leeches and bloodsuckers.". In 1349
Giovanni de Marignola, a Florentine and Legate of Clement
VI., landed in Ceylon, at a time when the legitimate king
was driven away; his attention was chiefly dil"ected to "the
mountain opposite Paradise."
Sir John Mauncleville, a native of St. Albans, who died
at Liege in the year 1371, in his Voyages and Travels,t
ea,ys of Ceylon," And there ben also many wylde Beste~, and
namelycbe of Olifauntes. In that yle is a gret Mountayne;

He set out on his travels f'rom the Black Sea, in 1318, traversed the
Asian Continent to China, and returned to Italy after a jouroey ot
twelve years.-Sir J.E. 'l'ENNENT's Ceylon, Tol. L p. 612,
t Chupter xviii. p. 238. Edit. 1727,

and in mydd place of the Mount, is a gret in a full fair

' Pleyne, and there is gret plent1,e of Watre, And thoi ot
,, the Contree seyn, that Adam and Eve wepten upon that
Mount an 100 Zeer, whan thei weren <lryven out of Pmadys,.
.And that Watre, thei seyn, is of here Teres: for so mueh
Wntre thei wepten, that made the forseyde Lake. And in
the botme of that Lake, men fynden many precious Stones
and grete Perles. In that Lake growen many Reedes and
grete Cannes: and there with inne ben many Cocodrilles and
Serpentes and grete watre Leches."
:N ieolo di Conti, o. Venetian of noble family, and merchant
at Damascus, visited Ceylon in the early portion of the
fifteenth century. His adventures were related to Poggio --===
Bracciolini, apostolic Secretary io Pope Eugenius IV., by
whom they have been-preserved in a dissertation on "The
Vicissitudes of Fortune." The notices of this work by.
Sir Emerson Tennent make no mention of either the Peak
or the Foot-print; I but Diego de Couto, t o. painstaking
Portuguese writer, 'referring to Di Conti, says his de~eription
of both are full of errors. De Couto rejects the idea that
the print of the foot was made by Adam, but insists very

D1 CoNTl's account was printed at Basil, in 1538. The work was

translated into English for, and published by the Hakluyt Society, in 1857,
t DE CoUTo was the continuntor of a work written by OnoAano
BAanosA, a Portuguese captain who sailed in the Indian seas in the e11rl1
part of the sixteenth century. This work was a summary ot'all that waa
then known concerning the countries of the East. '

strongly on the claim made on behalf or St; Thomas, who

also, he says, deeply impressed the marks of his knees upon
a stone in a quarry at Colombo.
In 1506, Ludovico Barthema, or Varthema, a Bolognese,
found it difficult to land in Ceylon "owing to the four kings.
of the island being busily engaged in civil war," but he
learned that "permi8sion to search for jewels at the foot of
Adam's Peak might be obtained by the payment of fi.,,e
ducats, and restoring as a royalty all gems over ten carats."
The pearls of Manar .and the gems of Adam's Peak were '
considered, in the early part of the 16th century, the principal .
riches of Ceylon.
Cnpt:iin Ribcyro, who gnl111ntly fought on the losing sitle,
and who rccorJs the downfall in Ceylon of the power of
ihc rucc,t which more than two centuries ago had for the
previous hundred and forty years

.. 'Neath flag of Portugal found place

Till from eacb s\rongbohJ both were hurl'd
And Holland standard proud unfurl'd,"

and the whole of the maritime provinces of the-island passed:


Sir J.E. TEl'lll'El'IT'a Ceylon, vol. i. p. 13.5, .

t History of Ceylon, presented by Captain Jomr Rm1:no to ihc King
of Portugal in 168.5. Translated from the Portuguese by the Abbe La,
GRAND, Re-translated from the French, by G1:oaaB LEE, Postmaster
General of Ceylon, 1847,

. I

into the possession of the Dutch, gives the following

' account of Adam's Peak:
"We have already said that Adam's-peak separates the'
kingdoms of Uwa, Kandy, and the Two Corlee, from each
other. This mountain passes for one of the wonders of the
world. It is twenty leagues from the sea, nnd seamen see
it twenty leagues from the land; it is t,vo miles high, and
before reaching its summit, we arrive at a very 11g1eeable
nnd extensive plain,f where that rest can be hnd of which
the person who ascends is so much in need, as the mountain
has then become very steep and rugged. 1his plain is inter-
sected by many streams whieh full fiom the mountain, and
is entirely covered with trees; there are even very plcnsunt
vullies in it.
"The heathens resort to this Peak on n pilgrimage, nnd
never mills bathing tn one of the riyulets, nnd washing their

'l'he Portuguese etrcbted tpeir first settlement in Ceylon at Colombo,'

A. D. 1.518. 'l'he Dutch erected their first fort at Knttinr, near 'l'rinco-
malee, in 1609; obtained a permanent footing (by treaty with the
Portuguese) in 1646, and by 16.58 made themselves masters of the entire
een-borde of the Island,
t Mr. LEE gives as II note here" Dinbctme. But the plain of' Diabetma
is on a mountain tc>p, and does not answer the description given by
Ribcyro. 'l'he plain of Gil!molo, 9 miles from Rotnnpura, is n inter-
sected by many streams,'' is "covered with trees," and hos moreover'
"plensnnt vnllics in it." Polabnddoln however, is most probably the pince
meant, that being nn elevated plateau, by and through which run streams
and water-courses. It is the second halting station on the route,
1.5 miles from Ratuapura.

linen, their clothes, and all they have on them in it. They
aro persuaded ~hat tho place is holy, and they think that
by these ablutions their sins are washed away.
"After these superstitious ob'!ervances, they clamber to
the top of the mouutain by chains which are attached to it,
and without which it would not be possible to mount, so
eteep is the ascent from the plain to the top, and there still
remains to ho achieved n. distance of quarter of n league. A
person leaving the foot of the mountain very early in the
morning will hardly reach its summit till two in the after-
"On the top of the Peak there is n large open square, 200
paces in diameter, and in the middle there is n very deep

In chapter viii, o( his history, Cnptain Ribcyro says, that the Queen
Donna Catharina, widow o( king Wimala Dharma [A. D, Hi92-1627],
married Seniratana, the brother of ber deceased husband, who at the
time of the king' death, was a priest "living in penitence on Adam's
Peak." The native liistori'am relate, that on the marringc of Senaratana,
be was raised to the throne, and reigned for o period of aeven years.
lie wns succeeded by his eonlRlija Siyha II., during whose reign of
fifty years the Portuguese were expelled from Ceylon, being first
driven by the king from 1111 their possessions excepting their fortified towns
on the sea-coast, nfter which, with the aid of the Dutch, he succeeded
in finnlly expelling them (1-om these be then, by treaty with his allies;
transferred to them the whole of the eo11St, with the exception of
Battiealoa and Puttl\1am. It wua while at Batticaloa, that Robert Knox
1111d bis compllllions were captured by order of Raja Siyha II.
j ~ Thu ill about the time required, taking Palibaddllla as the ~tarting
l potnt.

lake of the finest water possible. .Thence issue thoee etreams

of which we have just spoken, and which collecting their
, waters at the foot of the mountain form the three largest
' riveril of the island.
"Near the lake there is a flat stone bearing the impression
of a man's foot, two palms long nnd eight inches broad; this
impression is so well eng1aved that it could not be more
perfect if it were done on wax. All the heathens profess
great veneration for this relic, and nBscmble at the Peak
from all places to see it and render it their homage, nnd to
fulfil vows which they make regarding 'it. On the left of
the atone a1e some huts of earth and wood where the pilgrims
dwell: and on its right is a pagoda. or temple, with the __ _
house of the priest, who resides there to receive offerings
and to relate to the pilgrims the miracles which have been
wrought on the spot, and the favours and blessings which
have attended those who have come thither on pilgrimage;
and he never fails to impress on th~ minds of his hearers the
antiquity and holiness of that stone, which they wish the
heathens to believe is the imprint of the foot of our first

The statement respecting tl,o lnke and the 1tream1 la erroneou,.

There ia ho,vevcr a small well near the top of the Peak.
t Riheyro seems not to have known that tlie Sighalese ath'ibuted the
foot-print to Buddha, lie probably obtained his information from a
Mohammadan source. His account of the size of the foot.print diff'en

, considerably from the reality, Its present length and breadth la about
four times larger than the dimension, stated in the text.

"Some trees have been planted round the stono to render

the spot more venerable in nppearnnec; and in order that
tbe hen.thens mny havo no doubt ns to the holiness of the
plaoe, the priest declares to them that two smaller mountains
at the sido of tho Peak havo stooped and bowed down before
the sanctity of tl1is mountain. No mnn of common sense
would believe this, any more than that the impression was
made by a human foot, as the man who made it must have
been of the moat gigantic size; it is evident that it is the
work of some heathenish hypocrite, a recluse on this spot,
who sought to create a reputation for himself.
"One of the rivers falling from Adnm't1 Peak runs towards
the north, crosses the Four Corles, passes through Sittawncca
and Malwana, and falls into the sea near Colombo, at a
place called Mutwal; another flows towards the south, and
waters the Two Corles, Saffragam, the Pasdun and Raygam
Corlcs, and falls into the sea near Caltura; hut the largest
and most considerable of the three rivers is that which passes
near Kan<ly, and after crossing the kingdoms of Trincomalee
and Batticaloa, discharges itself into the bay dos Arcos,
near the port of Cottiar. None of these river;i have any
. peculiar names, but take the appellations of the places they

Sir J. E. TENNENT @ays, (vol. ii. p. 138,) "De Couto, in eonfir

111ation of the pious conjecture that the footstep on the summit wus thnt
of St. Thomll!I, asserts that all the treea,of the Peak, and for half a league
on all aides around it, bend their crowns in the direction of 1he relic; a
homngc which could only be offered to the foot.step of an Apostle." .

pass in. their course, rece1vmg as they flow onwards many

smaller streams which entirely intersect the island,"
The assertion of the priests referred to by Ribeyro in
the penultimate paragraph, is but the expression ofn belief to
,,hich all true Duddhists tenaciously adhere, They nppeal
to the evidence of their senses; and plainly, the top of one
the summits of the B~na Samanaln, th~ mountain which
nearly faces Adam's Peak in a south-westerly direction,
overhangs its base .with a very apparent bend; while the
tall rhododendron trees which flourish on the eastern side
of the Peak, appear to lean over in the direction of the foot-
print, as their branches rise above the wall of the platform
which surrounds the rock that bears it. There, they say,
you have, on either hand, a miraculous proof of the divine
eupremacy of Buddha, and the sanctity of the seal of
hie power which he has impre11eed upon the mountain top.
Five centuries and a half ago this belief, then as firmly held
as now, was again and referred to in the Samanta-
kuta-wannana, a poem descriptive of the Peak, and the
origin of the Foot-print; and from which De Couto a~cl
others seem to have dived much of their information,

This statement is not wholly correct. The first of the rivers nnmcd
is the K<;lani-gnnga, the second the Kalu-ganga. Both of these
have their origin in the western slopes of the Samsnnla range of mountains,
but not from Adam's Peak direct. The third is the l\fahaw~lli-
gsnga, the source of which is in P<;durutaltignla, the highest mountain in
Ceylon. One of its tributaries however flows from the eastern slopes
of the Ssmnnaln range,


66 ADAM'S .. PEAK.

The following _stanza ie a fair sample of the poem c-

,c, E)c,oeo c:,E)<'l,)3 cf36,;,~, eo~t.n.3
l\fnlli 'watansa samakli girayo samantA
t16:h .?l:>?l~d cp8 e,ejd c:,r;-S)1.n~,, E)
Hutwli namanti api hanti eaehetanawa
eoti'l,;..8>8 m~ Ol6'G'ei3 Elce,, ... ,;..~, e)
Subbcpi tattha tarawo chnlntudo.yocl1a
~C,e)ejd ~~@ ~e,~, ei~ ci)~(b~,.
Nncltehanti dibbn 1111~M wiya onatngga.

Like canopica and g11rlande fuir becamo the rocks around;

Anit gmccful na the danccrH 1 in heavenly mansions found,
1'hc trees nnd floral crecpcrH that clothe the mount11ina round, ,
Their beaus, like sentient beings, bent lowly to the grou!)d,

Robert Knox, in Ui:ii most interesting account he has

given of Ceylon in the narrative of hie twenty years' eapti
,ity in the interior, during the reign of Ruja ShJha II.,.makes

. The author of Samant11kuta-w:mn11Da is generally believed to have

~en one WE'DE 1DA, the chief priest of a temple called Pntiraja Piri-
wenn, who also wrote the Pali w~rk Padya-madhu, and to whom is
gcncrnlly attributed the authorship of t.he Sidat Snngn.rawa, the oldest
known Grommnr of the Sighalcsc langungc. He lived in the reign of
kingPnnditn-Pnrnkkrnmnb{1hu IY. A.. 1320-1347. ThcSamantokuta
wannnn6. is n. poem containing upwards of'll00 stanzas, and describes, in
flowing Pali verse, the legends which nnrrntc the circumstances that led
to the impression of Buddho.'H foqtprint upon the summit of the S11111ant11
. 'i kuta. Vide lntrodnction to the Sidnt Sangarnwn, by JAM.ES D'ALw1s
Jll' clxxxii, clxxxiii, nnd cc!xxxi ..Colombo, 1852,

frequent mention of Adnm'iJ Peak. He says~ "The land is

full of ~ills, but exceedingly well wnterecl, there being many
pure nod clear rivers running through them The main river
of all is ea.lied Mavelagooga; which proceeds out of the
mountain, called Adam's Peak (of ,vhich more hereafter);
it rune through the whole land norihward, and falls into the
sea at Trenkimalay ... :.On the south side of Conde Ucln. is
a hill, supposed to be the highest on this Island, called, in
the Chingulay language, Hamalell; t but by the Portuguese
and the Euro1)ean nations, Adam's Peak. It is sharp, like
a sugar loaf, anJ on the top a flat stone with the print of
a foot like a man's on it, but far bigger, being about two feet
long. The people of this land count it meritorious to go

"An lliatorical relation of the Mand of Ceylon in the East Indies;

together with an account of the detaining in Capth-ity the Author, end
divers other Englishmen now living there; n~d oC the Author's mirn
culous escape. By RoEa'I lCNox, a cuptive there near twenty years.
[1659-1679]. Edit. 1817.';l i This work wns first priotc<l in 1681.
Captain Ribeyro's History WOB not presented to the king of Portugal
until 1685; and remoined unpublished till 1701; but ae he lived in
Ceylon, and took port in the occurrences he describes, previous to lCnox's
captivity, bis nccount of the Peak is given first in order of time in the text.
t"The learned BRYANT, in J,is Anolysis of Ancient Mythology, luys
great weight upon this name; he says 1 The Pike of A4am ie properly
the summit aucred to Ad I-lam, the king or deity 11nm, the Amon of
Egypt. 'l'his is pluin, to a demonstration, from another nome given to
it by the n11tive Singalese, who live near the mountnin, and call it Ham-
al-cl: tliis, without any change, is Ham-eel-E~ (Hom, tl1c Sun,) am!'
relatea to the ancient religion . of the 1s1and . In short, every thing in

nnd worship this impression; and generally, about their new

year, which is in March, they, men, women and children,
go up this vast and high mountain to worship: the manner
of which I shall write hereafter, when I come to describe
their religion. Out of this mountain arise many fine rivers,
which run through the land, some to the westward/ some
to the soutbward,t and tbo main river, viz. Mavclngonga
before mentioned to the northward.t'
"There is another great got!, whom they cnll lluddou,
unto whom t.he salvation of souls belong~. Him they believe ,
once to have come upon the earth; and, when he was here,
that he did usually_ sit under a large shady tree, calle<l
Bogahah, which trees ever since are accounted holy, and
under which, with great solemnities, they do; to this day,
celebrate the ceremonies of his worship. He departed from
the earth from the top of the highest mountain on the Island,
called Pico Adam ;t where there is an impression like a foot,
which they say is his, as hnth been mentioned before."

tbc!e countries savours ofClrnluaic and Egyptian institution."'-DAvT's

Account of the Interior of ~eylon, p. 348. But Dr, Davy sbews that
Dryant'~ explanation i! entirely erroneouij; that the sound of S an<l H
being iniliHcrimiuatcly used by the Siyhalese, the mountain is cRlled by
thl!m either llamanala or Samanaln, i. e, the rock of _Soml\n; and tl111t
in l'ali itH name is Sonmn6-kuta, nnd in Sanskrit Samanta-k11ta-porwata,
thii meaning, in each of the three languages, being exactly the same.
Fonning the Ki;lani-g1mga. t Forming the Kalu-gangn.
t KNOX here followed the current native truclitibn. Buddha's death
too!t place near the city Kusinara, in the yc11r 543 u. c. The exact site

"His great festival is in the month of March, at thei.r .

New Year's tide, The places where he is commemorated
are two, not temples-but the one a mountain, and the other
.a tree; either to the one or the other they at this time go
with their wives and children, for dignity and merit-one
being esteemed equal with the other.
"The mountain is at the south end of the country, called
Hammalella; but, by Christian people, Adam's Peak, the
highest in the whole island; where, as has been said before,
is the print of the Bud<lou's foot, which he left on the top
of that mountain in a rock, from whence he ascended to
heaven; upon this footstep they give worship, light up
lamps, and offer sacrifices, laying them upon it as upon ari
altar. t The benefit of the sacrifices that are offered hero
do belong unto the Moors pilgrims, who come over from the -=-
other coast to beg, this having -been given them heretofore

of thin city he~ not yet been fixed. Different authorities euppose it to
have been in the Pr.ovince of Assam, the kingdom of Nepa~ or at
Hurdwar near Delhi. Ii
The Bo-tree at Akuradhepure, the oldest historical tree in the world,
planted n. c. 288.
t " A bcoutiful pagoda formerly stood upon the top of this hill,
respecting which many traditions ere circulated, and many storiee t.old,
They ssy thnt it woe the abode of Bhood, who wu a dieciple of the apostle
'l'homlll!. They odd, that he stood with one foot upon this hill, and
another upon a hill upon the const of lllodura, when such a flood of water
burnt fortl1, as to eeperate the isllllld of Ceylon from the main land.''-
PHILALETHJ::S1 p. 210.

by a former king; so that, at that season, ~ere are great

numbers of them always waiting. there to receive their
accustomed fees."
The Rev. Philip B~ldrous, "Minister of the word of God
in Ceylon," in his "True and _exact Description of Malabar,
Coromandal, and also of the Island of Ceylon, &c.," printed
at Amsterdam in 1672, added but little tQ the stock of
information already known respecting the sacred foot-print.
In March, 1654, he states, tlmt some Dutchmen, who had
gone purposely to examine it, were shewn by the Buddhist
priests a represe~tation of it in gold, and of similar di,
mensions, on which different images were engraven, which
bad before been exhibited upon the impression of the foot
in the rock. But. said they, when these images had been
pourtrayed in gold, they vanished from the stone. t

KNox has here 1 u in some other places, described the Hindus as

Moon. He refers in this instance t.o the Aandiyas, who from about 1690
to 1760, were the custodians of the Peak (sec ante, pnge 39), In their.
dress these fakeers somewhat resembled the Mohammadans, but smeared
their foreheads with ashes: Elsewhere, Knox particularly distinguishes
thP. Moors "who are Mohammadans by religion."
t Thie, according to a Buddhist tradition, i'mplicitly believed by many
of the people, was not the first time impressions vanished from the surface
bf that sacred rock. Each of the three Budd has who preceded Gautama
Bud<lha left the impression of his foot-print on the spot; and each time
an 'impression was mnde, the former one 81mk through the _rock to the
bottom of the mountain, where it still rcmaius, nnd would be clearly
,isiblc, if only the mount11in could be turned upside down to exhibit it. '

The historian Valentyn, in his great work on the Dutch

East Indian possessions, complains much of the want of
, information he found to exist among his countrymen, re-
speeting the. interior of Ceylon; what they had being chiefly
derived from the statements of fugitives and spies.. Of
Adam's Peak, he says:-" This mountain is the Peak.on the
top of which Buddha, so say the SiJJ.halese (or Adam, as
others amongst them say,) left the great and famous foot
print impressed on a certain t:1tone, when he ascended to
heaven. It is to this footstep that so many thousand pilgriis
come from all lands to offer sacrifices." .Elsewhere he
furnishes a notable instance of the inaccuracy of his own
information, by minutely describing the temples and images

* The following is the title of V nlentyn's work:-" Keurlyke beschryving

van Uhoromandel, P~u, Arraknn, Bengnle, Mocha, van 't N edcl'lnndsch
comptoir in Persien; en eenige frnRjc zanken van Perscpolis ovcrblyfzelen,
Een nette beschryving vnn Mnlaka, !t Nederlnnds comptoir op 't Eiland
SumRtro., mitsgaders ecn wydluftige lnndbescbryving van 't Eiland Ceylon,
en een net verh:ial vnn des zelfs keizereo, en zankeo, van ouds hier
voergevollcn; also ook van 't Nederlands comptoir op de kust van Malnbnr,
en van onzen bandcl in Jnpan, en cindelyk een bescbryving vnn Kaap
der Goede Hoope, en't Eiland Mauritius, met de zaaken tot nlle de
voorooemde ryken en lnnden behoorende. Met veele Prentverbeeldingen
en landknnrten opgebeldert. Door FRANCOIS VALENTYN, Onlangs Bedie-
naar des Goddelyken woords in Amboino., Banda enz. Te Amsterdam,
by Gerard Onder de Linden, 1726." This work is in five very lnrge
volumes in folio, and contains many hundred copper plates. One of these,
a whole page plate, represents "Adam's Berg." The mountain is depicted
as exceedingly high and steep, nnd is surmounted by two peaks like ragged

of l\Iulkirigala,:-a. precipitous ~ock 11ear Matara, called by

tlJe Dutch Adam's Berg,-as if they existed on the-mountain
of the Sri'.-pe.da. Philalethee, accepting this statement as
correct, endorses it in hie history; and Upham and others,
following him, perpetuate the error; although Cordiner,t
who is constantly quoted by Philalethes, and who does not

truncated cones, on the top of one of which the foot print is plainly
shcwn. Groves of cocoa-nut and forest trees are scattered l1crc and there ;
and three rivers wind their way to the base of tl1e mountain. One of
these, at the foot of the picture, is meant for the SStagangullo. A compony
of pilgrims arc bathing in the stream a short di~tunce from a waterfall;
and another company just come up, arc preparing to do so. The pilgrims'
path ia broad, and docs not present any appnrcnt ditliculty, beyond its
steepness. Tremendous precipices however flnnk it on either side of the
mountain. About sixty pilgrims arc seen on their w11.y to the foot-print,
Tarying in the perspective from three qunrtcrs of nn inch in size at the
bottom, to a mere speck at top. .T he whole forms a very curious
picture, and is ns unlike the rcnlity as one cnn conceive an artist would
make it, who, never boving seen the Peak, wns asked to design a represcn
tation of it from such ~onfullCd and confiicting accounts as are given by
the historian.
"The History of Ceylon from the eorlic~t period to the ycor Mncccxv;
with cbnractcristic dctuils of the ltcl1gion, Lnwa and .M11nners of the
l"cople, rmd a Collection of their Mor11I .Maxims, and Ancient Proverbs.
Dy PHtLALETHEs 1 A, M., Uxon, 1817."
t "A DeRcription of Ceylon, containing an n.ccount, of the Country,-
Inhabitant11, and Natural Productions, with Narratives of a Tour round
the Mand in 1800, the Campaign of Candy in 1803, and a Journey to
R11mis,iernm in 1804. By the Rev. JAMES Coanr11Ea, A. M., 2 vols,

! i

seem to have been acquainted with Valentyn's work,in that

part of his tour round the island which contains the route
from Matam to Tangalle, describes the same place~ which
was still called by Dutch residents Adam's Brecht or Berg.
To compensate for his own lack of information in regard
to particulars concerning Adam's Peak, Valentyn quotes,
with approval, the following from De Couto:-
"On that mountain in Ceylon called Adnm's Peak is an
impression of the foot, in regard to which authorB hold
different opinions; some, as for instance, M. P. Venetus,
[Marco Polo,] Nicolaus Conti, and other V cnetians, htn-ing
published very many errors concerning it.
"But we have the true story, as gathered from the old
Siyhalese and their books, and it runs thus:-
" This peak, call~d after Adam, is 11. mountain in the midst

H S. C. CH11Tf_in the Ceylon Gazetteer, epitomizes from Cordiner the
following accouht' of this singular rock:-" Adam'.t Berg, a hill of
considerable size, eitunted at the distance of 6 milee north-east of Kaba
watte, in the district of Matura. It ie known amongst the Singbaleso
by the name of Mulgirigal, nnd is mentionl!d in their history as early
as the time of king Saidnitissa, who reigned et Anooraadbepoora from
the year 140 to 122 n. c. The bill is about 300 feet in height, and ia
ascended by a winding flight of stairs, formed of five hundred and forty
five eteps of hewn stones. On the summit, which ie circular and level,
atnnde a Dagoba, and about half wey below it ore two gloomy Wihares
excavated out of the roe~, close together, .and in each of w bicb there ia
(besides several figures ofnatuml size stnnding in a row) acnlosgal image
of Budha, in a recumbent posture, forty-five feet in length, and of a
proportionable breadth, formed of atone."


of certain lands called Dinnvaca, and it~is eo high that one,

as he approaches thhi Island, can see it for more than twelve
miles, It properly begins near Guilemale and Dinavaea,
lying in a westerly direction from them. Guilemale lies
twenty-four hours' journey fr~m Colombo.
"The SiiJhalesc name it Hammancllc Siripade, that is,
tl1c mountain of the foot-impression. It begins from below,
gradually ascending, and divideli itself 011 the summit into
twelve tops, on 0110 of whiel1 is the foot impression. on
citter side of it, tl1cro arc rivulets flowing fl'om fountains
nbo,e 1md branclting off into streams. At the foot of tl1e
mount:1in is a rhcr wl1icl1 flows nearly nil around it.
In thili river, calleJ Sitcgangclc,t the pilgrims, who
come to tl1c foot-impression to make offerings, wash them-
eelvce, and this washing is their baptism; they believing
that by it they arc cleansed.
"On the summit of one of these peaks is a plain,t and in .
the midst of the plain, is a tank of water, called ella- ,v
mallacandoere, sui.;rounded on the top with large stones;

DE CovTo fa here confounding the mountuin range with the mountain

of the foot impression.. 'l'hcrp is but one summit, and ono top . on tho
linmmunellc, aud that is tho Peak itscl
t 1'his river docs not flow fi(lm Adam's Peak, but has it~ source in the
D~na-Sumannla mountain, and flows through the ravine which separates
that mountain from Gangullahena, a mountain west of Adam's Peak,
l This answers io tho plain on the top of Diabetma.
This tank lies in II ru"ine on the southern side of Ili;ramitiplina,
About two miles further south is the village W elligallc, 'J.'he stream

AD.Al\l'S PEAK: 7/S

in the 'midst thereof is the shape of a great t"ootstep which

they call Siripade, the foot much larger than a usual foot, and
of such a form that it appears to he. imprel!Sed in the stone,
the same as if a seal was impressed in white wax.
"Multitudes of pilgrims, a.,
well }loors as Heathens,
flocking together here eYen faom Perdin and Chinn, come to
this river for tho purpose of clcnnsing themselves, . and _
putting on ne,v nnd fine clothing. After clennsing them.
sches, they ascend a very high mountain. At n. little
distance bcrore reaching the top, they come to some steps,
on which nre erected ns it were h\"O stone columns; o,cr
the!!e another stone is bid, to which is su~pended a largo
bell, made of the finest Cliinese met:i.1; to this hangs a great
clapper, bored lhrough; through this hole passes a_ rope
made of leather, which each one must pull, the sound of the
bell indicating whether he who pulls it is cleno or not;
for if he is still unclean, they believe that the bell will give
no sound, in which case he must return to the river and
cleanse himself with greater ceremony. The Devils seduce
them thus, although there is no one to whom the bell gives
no sound.

which 1upplie1 this villugo with water, la believed to take Its rise at
Wellemolakandura; "kandura" signifying Rpring or ht'ad aourco of water,
There is no foot-print here. DE CotJTo is confused by hi1 twelve
tops to the sumil'.lit of lii, Hammanclle, 11,;ramitipAna, the pilgri 111
station which gives its name to tho pfaee, is on the summit of a ridge
wbich is divided from tl11, Somanafa by a narrow vull.e y; and the foot
print referred to is that on the top of SILlllannla-tbe SrJ',pA<la itself, , .

"As many as four or five hundred go thither together in

pilgrimage, and having an-ived on the top, they can do no
more tlum kiss the stone with great reverence, and return;
they nre not permitted to ascend by the pool or tank of
water, which pool is called in the SiQhalese, 'Darroe-
pockoene ' thnt is, the tak of children, If' women are
barren, they d1ink of this water; but they may not themselves
fetch it, it is brought to them by jogis, To ascend by this
pool or tank would be nn unpardonable sin,
"The l\Ioors also make offerings here, saying that it is tlie
footstep of Adam; that he ascended to heaven from thence,
and that he left his last foot-print in that stone,t This story
emanates from an old Eastern tradition, that Adam, when he
was driven out of Paradise was sent to an Island in India
calletl Scrandive (that is, the Island of Ceylon).
"~lure P. Venctus says, that the Moors believe that
Adam was buried here, He says further, from the account
of these heathens, that the son of n King Sogomon Barcaon,
despising earthly dignities, resorted to this mountain for the
purpose of leading n holy life; that from thence he went
up to heaven; and that his father commanded that pagoda1:1

Daru' children; 'pokama,' pon,J. 'l'hiR well is about 25 or 30 feet

from the top of the Peak, on its north west siclc. It is reached by a ateep
path from the norLhcru angle of the platform which eurrouncls the Sd-
t "The fakirs of the :Mol1a111maclan religion take impressions of the
footstep on a pic~e of whiLc cloth that hns been previously covered with
1,ulverided aunclau-."-llAaDY's M,muul of llucldhism, p, 212,
ADAM'S l'EAK, ' '11 ''

ehould be built and images made in hil!I memory, from wbioh

eprang the idolatry of India. But the Sivhaleee, having
been asked about thi", laugh at it; and their old , writinge,
and principally their ballads, wherein are preserved their
antiquities, and which they sing daily, (in order not to forget
them,) tell quite a different t9:le.
"They say that there was a king who reigned over the
whole Enst, who had been married many years and ~ad no
children; that in his old age, he obtained a son from God,
who was the most beautiful creature that could be.
"This king, having charged hie astrologers to make the
horoscope of his son, found that the child would be holy,
and that he would deapis!) the kingdoms of his father and
become a pilgrim; at which the father becoming grieved,
resolved to confine his son in some court, and so prevent
him from hnving a sightofo.nything; he accordingly confined
him from his fifth year in walled gardens, and had him
brought up in the company of many noble youths of hie
age, who were kept always near him, in order that no one
else might speak to him.
'' He was thus brought up till his sixteenth year, without
having any knowledge of sickness, misery or death. Having
arrived at the years of discretion, and understanding more
things than were to be seen about him, he requested of bis
father that he might be permitted to eee the townl!I and
villages of his kingdom, This was granted, with directions
that the guards in charge of him should bring him to the city
and keep an eye upon him. On his way to the city he was
78 .A.DAM'S 'PEAK.

met by a cripple, respecting whom hti inquired as to the cause

of his condition. Hie companions said, that the ma1(wa11
born so, and that it was very common to see such sights, and
that there were also men who were born blind, &c. At
another time he saw an old man, hunchbacked, leaning on a
stick, his body aleo trembling. The prince inquired the
reason of this, and they told him that it came from old age.
He aleo saw a corpse, which wns being taken for burial wit~
much weeping and lamentation, and inquired what it all
meant, and whether he and they should also die? They
said yes; at which the prince became very sorrowful; and
while in this sorrowful state there appeared to him in a vision
a pilgrim who advised him to forsake the world and lead a
solitary life.
"Being much disturbed by this vision, be determined to
find means to effect his escape, in the guise or a pilgrim, into
uninhabited places. Concerning his flight and wanderings
the Si9haleee recount many fables, adding at last, that he
came to Ceylon. with a great concourse of' followers, and
resorted to this mountain, where he spent many years of a
very holy life, so that the Siv.halese adored him as they
would a God. When aibont to leave the Island for other
lands, his followers implored him to leave them something
which might cause them to remember and think of him with

Thia seems to h11ve reference to the legend which describes the

impression of a foot-print m11<le by Buddha in the bed of the :Kt;lani-ganga,
at tl1e time of his third visit to Ceylon, and before he departed for

' ,\
ADAM'8 PEAK. '19

reverence; he thereupon kept hie foot in this water tank;

and left the impression to them for a remembrance. Their
historians give this prince many names, but hie proper name
was Drama Rnj11; and after he beorune a e11int, that of'
'Budhu,' which signifies tho 'Sage.'" t
After referring to what is quoted in the note at page 64',
De Couto continues:-" The mountain of' Adam has to~varde
its base a marsh from which the four principal rivers of' the .
island have their source. The Portuguese give it the nnme
of the Peak of Adam, but the Sitihalesc name it ' Dewa.
Gorata,' that is, God's country.'' The correct term for such
an expression in Sit1halcse is. 'Dcyyang6 rata,' _and it is
applicable much to the mountain, as to the
whole countrf from beyond Gilimale, which is still called
by the natives Samnn's Country; the shrine of that deity,

Samanala to leave behind him the venerated Srl-pfLda on the summit of

that mountain. '!'he two accounts arc fused or confused together iu
almost all the accounts d1irivcd from the oral traditions of the natives.
There is here again a confusion, arising from the mixing up of
traditions of Buddha with those of Dhurma-r6ja. Dhurma-rLja-galla is
the name given to a mountain about midway between Dinhctma and
Sftngangulla-hena. Its steepest part is ascended by tho aid nf 130 etep1
cut in the living rock; by these step~, on the hare rock, ia the outline
of a human figure, with an inscription above it. The purport of the
inscription ia that the atcpa were cut by order of Dhwma-raja, who died
here while on a .pilgrimage to the Srf-pacia.
tFor the above translation from Valentyn'a work I am indebted to
Mr. R. A. VnCuYLENDEaG, the.talented priucipal clerk incha~geofthe
Record Office attached to the Colonial Secretariat at Colombo.

almost on the top of the Peak, being fully as much reverenclild

by the Si\).haleee as the foot-print that is just above it.
During the reign of Wimaladharma Suriya 11., A. D, 1684-
1706, that monarch, who is praised by the historians for hie
piety, made a state pilgrimage from Kandy "to pay hie
adoration on Adam's Mount, and to offer a salver (sombcro)
of masey silver with other presents." He was accompanied
by a train of nearly 300 tusker elephants, which were kept
by him merely f~r the parade of the Court; most of them
being ordinal'ily distributed among the temples in the
neighbourhood of Kandy, where, for purposes of -devotion,
he was a frequent attendant.




' .
,.... ; ,

11 The mountains of this glorious land ..!.,
Are conscious beings to mine eye,
, :-,..
When at the break of day they et1111d
Like giants, looking through ,he sky
To hail the sun's unrisen car
.1 ~ '.
While one by one, 111 star by etar
Their peaks in ether glow,"
.. --~- J. Mo'RTG0111a1',

. .
: _WELLA,-R1nm ScENERY,-AwissA'wEr.Ai .'

' THE shrine-crowned Samanala is distant in a clirect line

from Colombo, the Maritime Capital of Ceylon, about 46
miles, and rises to a height of 73528 feet above the level
of the sea; where, in clear weather, it has been seen at a
. distance of thirty leagues. t It forms the crowning point of

"459 from the Clock-tower, Colombo,

t It ie etntcd in the Rajawalia, that Wijaya, the Indian invade; and
- fi.ret king of Ceylon, made for the island [a. c. 643] in consequence of
seeing from his ship the large rock called Somanta-kuta, whereupon_ he


tl1e south-western r~nge of the mountain zone, and was for

a long time considered the 'highest, as it certainly is the most
conspicuous mountain in the Island. t Although not often
visible during the southwcst monsoon, (May to November),.
it is generally, during tlie intervening months, more or less
distinctly seen from Chilaw on tl1e northwest to Dondra-
head on the south coast, a distance of one hundred and fifty

and his followers concluded amongst themselves that the country would
be a good one to reside in, and accordingly they bore up for it, and
landed at Tamm~nna Nuwarn, on the nortbwest coast,
Mohammad lhn Bututn, in the narrative of his travel!, mentions that
being driven from the l\,Ialdives, he "arrived at last at the Island of
Ceylon, a place well known, and in which is situated the _mountain of
Sercndib, 'fbis appeared to us like a pillar of smoke, when we were at a
distance of inine days from it."
" On carrying the eye onwards to the landward horizon, it is seen
to be bounded by a noble mountain range, between thirty and forty miles
distant, culminating, if the voyager has made the Island near Point-de,
Galle, in a conicni summit named the Haycock, which in gencrnl eft'ect
may be compared with the Schcballion in Scotland, as seen fi.-om the East;
and ifbe make the coast nearer Colombo, in Adam's Peak,-a summit so
eminent, that I do not re~ember to have seen anything that will bear
comparison with it, . except perhaps Monte Viso, in the Maritime Alps,
as seen in the western horizon by the traveller when descending toward1
Turin.''-Rcv. Dr. l\I.Acv1cAB on the Geology, Scenery and Soil of
Ceylon. .Appendiz to Ceylon Almanac, 1854, p. 26.
t It i1, in fact, the fourth in altitude. P~durutalngnla, the highest,
springing from the Nuwara Eliya plnin,s, being 8,295 feet above the sea
level. The others are Kirigalpotta, 7,8368, and Totap~lla, 7,720 feet in
. h ,. . il
I: hc1g t.

\ \

miles, On the western coast, the low lying champaign region

of which reaches from the sea almost to the ruountain'd base,
the range from which it springs forms a ~agnificent purple-
tinted back-ground, The Peak, thel'e lifted high in lonely
grandeur, and shrouded at intervals from sight by the mists
that rise from the surrounding valleys, or by the low clouds
drifting in the monsoon wind, has been associated by the
fervid imaginations of Oriental races with legends of the most
romantic kind. With some of these, and with descriptions
of the mountain, tbe writer was familiar in early life; and
. when his lot was cast in Ceylon, he determined, if possible,
) to make the ascent to the " S~i-p6.da,"-the Sacred Foot-
! print,-and thencefrom see what the intrepid blind traveller
1 Holman, who visited it in 1830,-. described in graphic terms

The first Englishman who ascended Adnm'a Penk wns Lieut. MALCOLM
of the 1st Ceylon Rifle Regiment, who rencbed the summit on the 27th
.April, ls/7. The account of hia ascent will be found in Appendix C,
Lieut. HoLMAll, R.N. in the 3rd volume of his Travela Round the World,
p. 228, thus writes:-",We reached the summit just before tbe sun
began to breuk, and a aplcndid acene opened upon us. The ineulut~d
mountain rising up into a penked cone of 7,420 f~ct nbove the level of
the aea, flnnked on one sido- by lofty rnngcs, n'ud 011 the other by a
champaign country atrctching to the ahorc that formed the margin of nn
immense expanse of ocran. I coul<l not see this ijight with the 11isuaz
orbs, but I turnc<l towards it with indescribable 'cnthusiu~m. I atood
upon the summit of the Pesk ;_ and felt all it& hcnutillft rushing into my
very heart of henrts." On hia return from the Peak Holman mentions
that bis aenant purchased a fowl from a native for ai,1. In 1870 the
bnunr charge at the some place for a very middling sizotl fowl wns I,, a,l,

he felt. But time wore on, and many a wistful glance did
he make towards that Alpine height, wondering when,
if ever, he should be able, from the shrine a-top, to behold
the beauties of the wide-spread scenery below; nor was it
until twenty weary years had passed away that he was at
length enabled to accompfo1h hie long-cherished purpose,
. Thie was done in the Easter-week of 1869 (March 24-31)
in company of Messrs. Larknm, Giles; and Deslandes,
gentlemen connected with the Public Works Department of 0

the colony; a. second excursion was made in the m~nth of

September following, when the writer was accompanied by
his son, and Mr. Gullett, the talented correspondent at Galle
of the leading Australian Journals; and a third was under
taken during the Christmas holidays, in company of Mr.
E. Gower of Colombo. The narrative of these pilgrimages,
as _given in .the following pages, will, he trusts, prove not
only interesting to the general reader, but also be useful
as a guide to pilgrim-visitors hereafter.
Ou the first excursion three of us started from Colombo at
6 P. )1.; in the Ratnapura Royal Mail, a vehicle constructed
on the char-a--banc principle, and with the addition of another
passenger, with baggnge, mails, driver and horsekeeper to
boot, we we1e somewhat too much of a load for the wretched

Notes of these journeys appeared in the "Ceylon Ohserve1" at the

time; those of the first by the present writer under the signature of
"PrLGBIM BaowN," and of the second by one of his companions-an
extr,act from which is given in chapter I. ~

,, ,

animals with which the coach was singly horsed, We _did

the distance fr~m Colombo to Ratnapura, 66 miles, at the
rate of exactly four miles the hour, inclusive of the hnlf,
hour we rested at Awissawe!a. Starting from Awiseitwe!a
at past midnight, already considerably ernmped by our six
hours' journey, we arranged for sleeping the remainder of the
way, if sleep we could, in the fo,llo,ving manner: No. 1
coiled on the driver's seat; No. 2 in the ,veil of the eoach 0 -
on the top of tlte boxes and portmanteaux; and Noe. 3 and
4 on the side-seats parallel with him; their three pairs of legs
. protruding over the back of the macl1ine, and the whole party
presenting a moat extraordinary group to the eyee of any
who in the bright moonlight might have seen them as they
were dragged by each gaunt horse at a funeral paee from
stage to stage. Not unfrequently we came to a dead stop
on a soft piece of road, ~r where a length of hill proved an
obstacle too much for the animal's strength to surmount:
and certainly had the road not been in very fair order, we
should have had to liave bivouacked by the way, instead of
breakfasting at the bungalow of our excellent host and fellow-
pilgrim, whose house was to be our headquarters, and who
was anxiously awaiting us a mile on the road before we

It is only fair to state, that since the time or the excun,ion referred to,
there has been an improvcm,int in both horses and coaches in the R11tna
pura Royal Mail. But a more unco~fortnblc night journey can still
scarcely be made, ns the writer and his companion found to their cost on
their Christma~ journeys to and fro.

drew up in front of the low hill on the brow or which stands

Ratnapura Fort.
The morning, a couple of hours before sunrise," was raw,
cold, and misty, but as it advanced, and the sun rose behind
the mountains, they came out clear and sharp in the rosy
golden-tinted sky; and when we saw three small looking py-
ramidal peaks of apparently just the same level, nlling the
space formed by a gap in the nearest range through which
the Kalu-ganga (black river) winds its way, it was hard to
believe that one of them, about twelve miles off in I\ direct
line, hut distant nearly thirty by the road, was indeed Adam's
Peak itself, the lofty sky-piercing cone seen in the distant
mountain view from Colombo and its adjacent Cinnamon
Gardens: yet so it wn1:1, and to reach the top of that Peak
we purposed starting on the morrow's dawn. The peaks
we saw, belonged, in fact, to two distinct mountains. One,
the D~na, nearly faces the other, and has two
summits, the highest of which is called the Ihilse Peak.
These two being brought into line with the true Peak nt
the place where we caught sight of them, the intervening
distances bad the effect of reducing the apparent altitude
of the two hindermost to the exact level of the foremost.
This night journey by coach is anything but agreeable;

"PTOLEMY describes, in his "System of Geography," two chains of

mountains, one of them surrounding Adam's Peak, which he designates
aa Malroa, the names by which the hills that environ it are known in the
.Mahawanso,"-Sir J; E. TENNENT'& Ceylon, vol. i. p. 535-G
' I
.\ \

and the traveller who has time at hie command would do

.well to proceed leisurely from stage to stage and make
himself acquainted wita the places of interest that lie along
-~ his route, This-diverging from the Bridge of Doats that
lends to the great, but since the opening of the Rapwny
between Colombo and Kandy, now little used highway to the
mountain capital,-mns partially along the left bank of the
K<;lani-ganga, and forms, as far as AwissaweJa, a portion of
what used to be known as the old Kandy roncl. The extended
views and occasional glimpses of river scenery tl1at greet
the eye from the road, now skirting and now receding from
the flowing stream, l1cre narrow and rapid and there
broadened into a placid lake-like bend, are exquisitely bean
tiful, ,and go far to justify the phrase that the Island of
Ceylon is the" Eden of the Eastern wave."
Distant about three miles from G1andpass (the road lead~
ing from Colombo to the Bridge of Boat::1) the traveller passes
by Panabakkery, once an extensive Government brick and
tile manufactory, and also the training station for the
elephant establishment belonging to the Public Works
Department, where every now and again might be witnessed
the operations by which the old tamed giants of the forest
brought into subjection their newly caught companions, and
intelligently, a::1 well as literally by brute force, instructed
them in the duties they were thenceforth to perform in the
service of their lord and master, Man.
A little beyond Panabakkery, is an ancient Buddhist
temple, the Kitsirimcwan K~laniya viharo, probably

originally built by king Kitsirimewan,after whom it is named,

and who reigned A, D, 302-330. To visit it the traveiler
has to branch off from the main up one of the minor roads.
The resident priest, in lately making some excavations on
the spot, dug up a stone, upon which was a Sighalese inscrip-
tion partly effaced, but which, as far as has hitherto been
1J1ade out, indicates that the temple had been repaired by or
under the directions of Prakkrama Bahu I., in the lattc.r
half of the twelfth century. About two miles further from
Colombo, on the north bank of the river, is the village
K;lani, from ,vhich place, the river derives its name.
Formerly the capital, and for ages the chief seat of the
worship of the deified king Vibhishana, the friend of Rama,
and traitorous brother and successor to Rawana on the throne
of Lanka [B. c. 2381] it still possesses as a memorial of its
antiquity, a dagoba, which B, c. 280 was erected by the
tributary king Yatalatissa over one asserted by Buddhists
to have been built on the same spot by the Naga king
Mal16dara, B. c. 580. Connected with, and contiguous to
the dagoba, are a vihara and monastery, the Raja-maha
K;laniya, so-called to distinguish it from the Kitsirimewan
K;la~iya, on the opposite side of the river. The approach to
this vihara is up a noble flight of broad stone slabs, and
through an ancient gateway; but the steps, gateway and
dagoba, are the only remains of antiquity; the rest oft.he
buildings are of modern date, the older structures having
been ruthlessly dest~yed during the l\Ialabar invasions, as
well as in the wars. ,yith the Portugu_ese, and the intestine
\ \ -


struggles for power among the Sivhalese themsehee. There

is also a recently built lofty tower or belfry of a curious
composite order of architecture. What the place once was
has been described in glowing terms in the "S~Ja.lihiui
Sandese," written when Ceylon had attained to perhaps its
highest pitch of prosperity under native rule, during the
reign of Pri'ikkrama Bi'ihu VI.

Who with the three-score four gemm'd ornaments robed ronnd-

Tbe state regalia-wns, mighty monarch, crown'd;
Who 'ncath one white umbrella's canopying shade
Had brought the whole. of Lanka, one kingdom of her made:
Who pride ofhanghty foes had hunibled in the dnst;
Who skill'd wss in each science; in king-craft wise and just;
In u.~e of arms proficient, and perfect master in
The poet's art and dancing ; who far hnd banish'd sin
By knowledge of tlui Pitnkns,-tbe three-foltl cord
That bindij the wondrous words of Buddha the adored;
Who to the people's eyes wss like collyrinm luid
When they beheld his form in majesty display'd;
Who chief of Dambadiva's sovereigns stood eonfcst
And in his godlike splendour shone like S4i!kra blest,

The sites of the s11ots then famous are still pointed out by
priests and people, who every July swarm thither by tens
of thousands; a national pilgrimage to the place made holy
by the preaence and relics of-the founder of thei.r faith,
Externally the yibi'ira is a plain and unpretentious. tiled

A. D. 1410-1462.


building; it contains in its pril)cipal apartment a figure of ..

Buddha in a recumbent posture, upwards of forty feet' in
length, and in the vestibule colossal figures of Hindu deities:
the ceilings are painted over with Bucldhist symbols, and the
walls with scenes from Buddha's life and various mythic
existences before hie latest birth and attainment of the
A place of renown ages before the advent of Buddha, its
sanctity in the eyes of hie followers is thus specially accounted
for. "At the time ofGnutama'sappearance[n, c. 588]Kalany
would seem to have been the capital of a division of the
island called Naga Diwayina, and that its inhabitants called
Nugas [serpent-worshippers] were easily converted, and
afterwards zealously adhered to the Buddhistical doctrines,
for which they were rewarded by various relics and a seeond
visit of the Buddha. In his first visit to Ceylon Gautama
converted the .Nagas and settled a dispute between two
of their .princes, Chul6c1,ara and Mah6dara, who macle an
offering to him of the thro~e composed of gold, inlaid with
precious stones, which had been the original cause of their
quarrel; over this throne a dagoba was built, a:nd is en-
cased ,in the one now standing. At the request of Mini- .
akka, uncle of .the Naga king l\Inh6dara, Gautama made
his third visit to Ceylon, and left the impression of his foot
beneath the water of the river: a deep eddy in the stream is
now pointed out as the spot; it is near the temple, arid the ,
natives say that the ~ir6ling of the current here is the Kalani"'.
gangadeseendingin ho~age to this sacred memorial. Having

\ \

arranged the disputes of the Nu.gas and confirmed their faith,

the prophet departed for Samanala, Dfgganakhya, and the,
other places which had been sanctified by the presence of
former Buddhas,"
The details of a romantic legend connected with the de-
struction of king Tissa at this place [n. c. 200; will be
found in Appendix E. It was here too, that Bhuwanckl\
Bahu VII., the Dl'st native king who allied himself with the
Portuguese for the purpose of making war against l1is
brothel' .Maya nunnai, at Situwuka, met with his death,
A. D. 1542. The occurrence is thus recorded in .the Rujawalia,
"Buwanaika,Bahu Rajah taking the Portuguese to his assh1t-
ancc, marched out with his Si\lhnlese army to attack his
brothel', and on his route halted at K~lani, where there was
n house built upon the river for his residence, and being in
this house with the doors open and wnlking back wnrJ nnd
forward, looking up and down the river, a Portuguese loaded
his musket, and shot the king in the head of which he imme-
diately died," The historian adds, "Hereupon it was said,
that God only knew what was the reason of this tl'eachcry,-
that having been so simple as to make a league with the
Pol'tuguese, and so foolidh as to deliver his grandson the to
protection of the king of the Portugue1Se, thit, judgment fell
upon the said king; ancl on his account that calamity will
be entailed on the people of' Ceylon for generations to come._"

Foanss's Ele've11 Ycul'~ in Ceylon, vol. i. p. Jll2, Jn Appendix D

will be found accounts of Dnddlin's three vi~its to Ceylon,

Eleven milee from Colombo, at the village Kaquwela, 'is

a rcsthouse, pleasantly situated on the banks of the river.
A halt here for 11,n hour will suffice for a visit to an ancient
rock temple, supposed by some to b~ one of those founded
by king ,, after his reconquest of the kingd~m
from the :\Ialabars, n. c. 88, or perhaps, as others think, of
e,en a still greater antiquity. The principal object of
interest is an inscription on the rock, which has hitherto
baffled every attempt made to decipher it, the letters being
cut in the oldest type of Nugari, or rather Pali, character,
the key to which was first discovered by the late Mr. James
From KacJuwela/ to Havwi;illa, the road pas8es throi1gh
several villages, the inhabitants of which a1e potters, ,~ho
carry on a thriving busioess with Colombo in the manufacture
of the common earthenware of the country. .Between the
villages lie tracts of paddy fields and topcs of cocoa-nut palms,
On the riijing of the river during the rainy season, portions
of the road between IIaywi;lla, KatJuwela, and the Bridge , .
of Boats, are more or less flooded. The inconveniences
arising from this state of affaird have led to the opening of 11.
new road, which crossing higher ground sho1tcns the route
to Colombo by about two miles, and cstablit1hes an almost
direct communicatio~ with the Railway terminus,
A littl~ to the left of the road, on the summit of 11 bluff
projecting tol)gue that overlooks t_hc Ha1.;iwi;lla ferry,
are the gra~s-grown \emnins of a small star fort, sup.posed to
. ., I
ha\'C been ori<riually bonstructcd by the Dutch, in the centre

of which is the present resthouse, the keeper whereof, a

good humoured obliging old. native, is jocularly te_rmed the
Commandant. Here good accommodation and very fair
quarters can generally be procured. Round the steep flanks
of the fort the river flows towards its outlet at Mutwal, a
few miles north of Colombo; while landwards a choked up
ditch indicates what in bye-gone days formed its protection
on that side. From its position, previous to the annexation
of the Kandyan Kingdom, it was a point of some importance
as commanding the routes both by lnnd and water from the
interior to Colombo.
During the campaign of 1803, the Kandians succeeded in
taking the fort and village on the 20th August, but their
progress was checked by a detachment of troops under the
command of Lieutenant Mercer of the 51st regiment, who
on the 22~d stormed the battery they had made in a strong
position at the bridge of Putchella, near Ha1Jw9lla, and
drove them back with great slaughter; a success which lcJ
to the immediate recapture of the fort. In the operations
which followed, the British were everywhere successful;
although in defending the almost untenable fortress of
Chilaw, which the Kandiaus attacked in immense numbers
on the 27th August, the little garrison, consisting of only 25
sepoys and two young civilian<!, completely exhausted their
ammunition, and for twenty-four ho~rs before the3" were

CoRD1N.11n.'s Ceylon, vol. ii. pp. 226, 236.


relieved kept the enemy at bay by firing copper coins in11tead

of grape shot. '
It was at Havwc;lla, after tho abovementioned occur-
rences, that Sri Wikrama Raja Siyha, the last King of
Kandy, directed an attack iu person, on the 6th Sepliember,
against the Briti11h forc~s; he having resolved, after the
treacherous massacre of the troops at Kandy, ~n Major
Davie's surrender on the 26th June, to. invade the British
territory and attack Colo1i1bo. After an engagement which
lasted for two hours, the Kandians fled, headed by the king.
During his retreat he ordered the heads of his two principal
chiefs to be struck off, fo1 tiieir want of success, besides,
in his rage at his defeat, indiscriminately slaughtering a
multitude of his subjects, whose bodies were either cast into
ravines or thrown into the river. A richly ornamented
bungalow had been_ erected for' his reception near Hagwc:lla,
previous to the engagement, in front of which two stakes
were placed, on which, in the event of the capture of the
fort, the Engfo1h prisoners wero to 'have been impaled,
}'10111 the ridge that formed tho ra111p11rt1:1 of the fort tho
l'ive1 view i1:1 one of the fiue1:1t to be found iu Ceylon. 'l'lie
stream sweeps g1andly down in its course iu a curve from
southeast to northeast_;_

"'here grateful falls the shade upon the fuir twin shores,
Wlwrc plantains, honey mangoes, yield their luscious sto,es,
,vberethe silk cotton tree, with llowe1ing betel twined,

Ami. the tull areka 11ml cocoa pain'.~ you finrl;


Where uoka, patali, and domba graceful grow 1

Where champac, kina, aal, and erehindi blow 1
Where rcranga, midell, ond iron-wood appear,
And the sweet auger-canea tbeir alender etema uprear i

and ai:i endless variety of magnificent forest trees and palms

and bamboo clumps reflect from either bank their imagos in'
the lucent stream, while in the back-ground rise the purple
bills, their summi~ veiled in clouds, or sharply. outlined in
the clear blue sky.
A break down in our carriage was the cnuso of a day's
detention here on our second joul'.ney. The village smith
was however equal to the emergency, and while the l'epairs
were being effected I we strolled about tho place, admiring
the scenery, and listening to the somewhat monotonous if
not cloleful chants of the goyiyas t reaping their crops of
kurakkan in the neighbouring fields an<l hill slopes. A
most refreshing bath in a secluded nook in the river just
below the fort, was not the least pleasa~ of our cnjoymen ta;
and was moreover an excellent preparative for tho capital
dinner which "the Comman<lunt" provided for us ae the <lay
drew to a close.
Between HnYJW<,llla ancl Awissawe1a the scenery is bolcler ,
and more varied than that already passed, Noble trees
ovcrarch the road, and plantations of jack, breacl- and other
fruit trees, indicate the industry of the inhabitants as well as

S~la-lihini Sondcae. t reosant women.


tl1e fertility _of the soil. In the early days of British enter-
prise, the cultivation of the sugar-cane and the indigo plant
was attempted on an extensive scale in the neighbourhood;
the results were not however so profitable as were anticipated,
and the luckless speculators soon abandoned the scene of their
operations. A pleasantly situated resthouse on the slope of
n hill, nt the foot of which lies the village of Awissu.we}a~
affords the traveller nn opportunity for halting nnd devoting
a day to the inspection of Situ.waka, where some interesting
ruins, together with a rock temple on a mountain opposite,
well repay the trouble of a visit. In the clear atmosphere
of the season of the northcnst monsoon, a fine view of the
Peak is seen from the road near the resthousc. Twenty-
one miles di11tnnt in a straight line, it rises from behind a
range of mountains, which, when the southwest winds pre-
vail, l>ounds the prospect on the horizon to the southeast.
The hills on either side the road converging to this point,
there is an apparent gap on the sky-line, save when, as on
the occasion of our catching a glimpse of the Peak during
our September excursion (the only one we had except when
on the Peak itself,)
"a thousand cubits high
The sloping pyramid ascends the sky,"

It then forms the central and most striking object in the

scenery there beheld.
.t.lfOIBlff DtlJLDIJfG A.'1/ 'I/DK l.lll..t.K J>EWALB, lllEAR D..t.'1/l!IAPDB..t.,


$'s. V~nt

"At. last a temple built in antient daya

Ere JEa woe a town they came untu;
Hnge wae it, but not foir unto the view
Of one beholding froin without, but round'
'l'hc .an tient pince th<'y sow a Apot of.grnunil
Where lourcls grew each si<le the temple door."
I, Moaa11,

'l'nE villnge of Awieist'iwc!n, "a field not to bo trustcd,"-
so named from the chal'Ucter of its adjoining pnddy lamls,
which were liable to sud<lcn inundations,-is situated at the
foot of bluff hills of bluck rock which rise almost pcrpcncli-
cularly from 900 to 1000 feet in height, }'rom the tirno of
the Portuguese to the annexation of the Kandian king<lom
by the Dritiijh, it was a post of importance; the tc,ritories

"The Life an<l Death of Jaaon,"


of the European and Native powers there joining other

on the principal route that led direct to the interior from
Colombo. On the top of a low but steep hill, a picturesque
cantonment was formed by the ;British, of which the ram-
parts and surrounding ditch yet remain.f This is now the
site of the house occupied by the resident Magistrate.t Being
almost iilolatcd, extensive panoramic views of the surround-
ing mountain ranges are here obtained. The Court-house
is at the foot of the hill near the Si'.tawaka. fer,ry. The
juri1odiction of the Court extends over a considerable area of
country; and a few lawyers, the leader of. whom is a Si~-
halese gentleman, ever on hospitable thoughts intent, seem

"In his fifth volume, p. 352, V ALBNTYII mentions the escape of two
Englishmen, after a captivity of twenty-two yenrs, from the capital of
Kandy to the Dutch fortress of Sitawaca."-PmiALBTHKs, p. 10.
t In the Kandyan Campaign of 1803, the natives obtained possession
of the place, and commenced building some rude fortifications; but they
were speedily dislodged by a military party under command of Captain
i In the year 1851 the writer, while staying a few days at this house
with the then resident :Magistrate, l\Ir. N. Robertson, was witness to
what seemed to him and others at the time an extraordinary phenomenon.
About 6 l', M,, there commenced to igsue out of the wall, near th!l ceiling,
from a hole not more than a quarter of an inch in diumeter, countless
myriads of fiying ants; in a very abort time ,1 they so completely filled
the bou~e that every one was compelled ~o ,leave it. A dozen large
bonfires were lighted round the building; and attracted by the blaz~
the. ants poured into these in dense clouds ;. fo~ the space of two houl's.

to hue a fair amount of practice provided them by I\ peopJe

whose love of litigation is an all-absorbing passion. A walk
of' about 250 yards in the rear of tho resthouse leads to a ro-
mantic glen, down which runs and leaps a brawling rivulet.
Here is what is called by the natives Shu.'s bath, and an
adjacent cave, her dressing room; the popular belief being,
that while the disconsolate wife of the hero of the
was confined in a neighbouring grove by Unwann, she was
permitted, as often as she -desirecl, to come here with her
attendants to bathe. It is also, we were informed, called
Bisowala, or the Qu'eens' ,bath, the King's consorts using it
as a bathing place when the
Court resided at Sititwaka. -
In the olden da:ys Awissawe}a formed a portion or suburb
of the adjoining city, Sittiwaka, S1tai's city on the winding
stream-so named after Sha, and the river on the banks of
w hieh it stood; the spot being rendered f'amous, according to
Hindu traditions, because it was there that Indrujit the son
of Rawana, caused a magic figure of Sita to be hcbcadcd, in

"'hen the flight was over, the servants collected from the rooms busket
after basket full of ants' wings, as well as bodies, I he former appearing
to serve but the one purpose of aiding the insects to escape from the
ear1b, since they drop from their bodies immediately afler. It was not
until nearly 8 o'clock, that the house wns ng11in hnbitnblc. The Lirda
from the adjacent forests left their roosting vlaces, and came in flocks
to feed upon the ants that thus made their appearance. Their incredible
numbers made it evident that the hill was an immense breeding plilt'e1
of which t~ey bad held undisturued possession for a length of time.

the hope that Rama, who wa9 waging a destructive war

with Rawana for the recovery of his consort, would iu the
belief of her death be induced to return to Inclia.
"Sitavnca was the ancient residence of kings or rajas.
The kings of Sitavaca were rulers of all the low lands, and ,
were of such paramount importance, that the kings and
chief!! of the hill and wood co.untry were their tributaries. .
The king11 of Sit6.vaca boasted that they were of nobler
blood and finer descent than those of the high lands. They
asserted themselves to be genuine descendants from the
legitimate stock of 11. Prince of Tanasscry, and a daughter
of the royal race of Madura, whilst the Kandians kings
were only bastards and of less honourable extraction, But
it is certain, that when the king of Situvaca was conquered
by tl1e kings of Kandy and U'va, they found it requisite to
pay so much clcfcrence to the people, in fayour of the high
claim9 of the extinguished dynasty, as to undergo the

"In more early periods, when tJ1e island wa.'I under the dominalion of
no less than aixtccn kings, tJ1e one who rcigne4 at Sit/iwaka wns acknow-
ledged as supreme, on account of bis descent from the legitimate etock
of11 prince ofT11noR~ery, in tokenofwhieh he wos presented every year
with a guld orm ring, on which were engraved Bixteen bends; ond a
. meeting of the kings wM olso held at the capital to eelcbrote a great
festival which lasred Bixteen days corresponding with their numbers. In
after times, however, tl1is mark ofhomnge on the p11rt of the other kings
fell by degrees _into disuse, and a spirit of independence began to prevail
among them, though they made no objection to the king of Sitawaka
bearing the ,1010inol title of cmpero1."-S. C. CHITTY's Ceylon Gazett<!er.

' I
~!. :i
: I


ceremony of inauguration in the ancit'nt palace of

This practice was still observed on the arrival of the
Portuguese. Valentyn meutions, p. 229, that the palace _a t
Sitavaca had been repaired by the Dutch, and that the gates, ..
walls and architectural embellishments attested its original
magnificence; though he adds, it was not to be compared
with the ruins of the buildings left by Malabar sovereigns.'"'
From its proximity to the outposts of the Portuguese .
and Dutch, the city underwent a variety of vicissitudes;
it was made a royal residence by Maya Dunnai, about 1534,
and became the capital of the kingdom, under his warlike
son, in 1581; but after its abandonment as the seat of
government by Wimala Dharmn A. n. 1592, it rapidly fell
into decay; th_e inhabitnnts indeed seem to have forsaken
it for the preferable situation of Awissliwe\a. Its ruins nre
now overgrown with jungle; but can still be trnced, ns well
ns the foundation nnd walls of a Portuguese fort, on a
projecting tougue of land formed by the confluence with the
Shawaka-gmJga ofa small stream, in the bed of which rubies,
sapphiies, and other gems have been fouud. This fort was
once n place of some strength, and is described by Dr. Davy,
who explored the place in 1817, and visitcditontwo subse-
quent occasions in 1819.t
Situated on a commanding eminence on the right bank of
the river, opposite the site of the Portuguese fort, are the

PHILAl,ETHE9 1 n, p, ]46,
' t DAVT's Account of the Interior of Ceylon\ pnges 3.52-31S4,

very interesting ruins of the B~r~nqi-k6wila, a ternple built,

or commenced to be built, by the "lion-king," Raja Sivha
I., so named by his father, the king l\!6.ya _Dunnai, but
known and execrntcd in Buddhist annals 111 "the Apostate
Rajah." This king, rcnowne,1 as a warrior from the time
he was eleven years old, to the . day of his deatb, when
he had attained the age of 120 years; resolv.ed upon the
building of this temple, to be dedicated to the worship
of Kali, as an atonement forsome atrocious acts of cruelty ..
committed in the co~rse of his life. The approach of
death seems to have teri-ified him. "Oppressed by tlie
recollection of his monstrous barbarities, he sent for sorne of
the leading Buddhist priests to attend him, and when they
had come into his presence, he interrogated them as to the
hope of pardon for his sine. The priests, whether emboldened
by tl1e sight of the sunken form of their aged persecutor, or

B~r~mji is the Siyhalese for.pi of the llind,1 term Brlin!Ji. The

derivation of the term is doubtful; probably it is a corrupt form of one of
the names of the goddess Kali, the consort of SiviL; and assuming, with
Foau.11, the tradition to he correct which states that this k6wila or temple
was erected by Rija Sigha on the advice of the AanJiyaa, who were
worshippers of Siva, the attributes of BrliniJi, or Kiili, were such as
would peculiarly ottract and suit the constitutional temperament of the
king. lie wonltl believe that by her aid he could destroy bis enemies,
since in sacrificing to her "An enemy may be immolated by proxy;
substituting a bufla.lo or goat, and calling the victim by the nnme of the
~ncmy through tl1e whole ceremony, thereby 'infusing by holy texts,
the soul of the 1memy into the body of the victim: which w.ill, when
- ... .... .

' impelled by the workings of conscious rectitude, replied,

' 'that they could hold out no hope of forgiveness in a future
state.' Sivha, in whose nature the stern will of absolutism
had been too deeply implanted to depart but with the soul
that enshrined it, raised hie eyes lit up with a scarcely
human fire, and in hie rage at their presumption, and as he
deemed it, disloyalty, ordered them all, with the exceptio~
of the chief })rieet, to be shut up in a house and burnt alive.
After incurring in this manner the vengeance of heaven, he
sent for the priests of another temple: these, warned by
the fate of thei1 brethren, responded in a more soothing _
tone to his question:, declaring indeed that so great a sinner
could not hope for absolution but by repentance, but that as
bis majesty felt contrition for his enormities, they would
endeavour, by the force of their prayers, to procure a sojourn
for him in some intermediate region between heaven and
earth, instead of an abode where be would be tormented by
. . I'

immolnted, deprive the foe of life also."'--Mooa'a Hindu Pantheon,

p. 83. Edit. 1864,
K6wila is the tenn applied in Ceylon to a temple dedicated to an
inferior Hindu god or goddess; in eontradistinction to Dewala, which ia
applied to a temple cledicated to a auperior deity. The two word1
however are similarly derived, and have the aame aigni6cation, Tho one
is Tamil, and the other Sanskrit; the Si11halese apply the Tamil term to
Hindu temples built by Tamil~, and u.~e the Sanakrit word for the
temples to Hindu deities built by themaelvea. The officiating priest of'a
Dcwala is generaJly culled a Kapurala, wl1ile that of a K6wila i1 called
a Pattinehami,
104 ~DAM'S PEAK.

devils. Thie answer eeemed to compose the. inquietude of

the dying king, and he not only saved their lives but loaded
them with presents, which they refused to receive. He
requested them nlso not to take to heart the massacre of
their brethren, which he had ordered in a paroxysm of r~ge.
On receiving an assurance of forgiveness, he soon after gave
up the ghost." Some of the native traditions however aver,
that the priests he sent for on the sec(?nd occasion were t.he
Aangiyas, to whoin, for the consolatory nnswer he recdved
from them, he gave the custody of Adam's Peak; that he
recovered from his sickness, and under their advice set about
the building of the Bt,r~n4i-k6wila, which was left incom-
plete at the time or his death.
1Vhichever of the preceding statements as to the origin
of the Dt;r~mji-k6wila is correct, is perhaps a matter not now
possible to determine, but the ruins themselves, although of
no great antiquity, are unquestionably amongst tl1e most
interesting in Ceylon,and are moreover of easy access to
the traveller. Dr. Davy and Captain Forbes both notice
them, but nt the times of their visits the overgrowing jungle
had more.or less concealed th_cm from view. In this respect
we were more fortunate, for the owners of the property, the
priests of the Dalada Maligawa, or Palace of the Toothf at

PaIDHAM's HiRtorical, Political and Statistical Account of Ceylon

and its Dependencies, vol. i. p. 96.
t For an account of this temple,palnce, and its worshipped relic, see
Appendix F.

l{andy,had leased the grounds fora term of99 yeare to the in-
cumbent of a Buddhist vihiira at Cotanchina, near Colombo;
and the lessee was making the most of his bargain. The
jungle was nearly all cleared, and the crops of grain we
sa,v growing seemed to indicn.te considerable fertility of
soil. Our visit was greatly facilitated by the courtesy of
Mr. J, W. Gibson, the Commissioner of Requests and
Police Magistrate of the District, who obligingly accom-
panied us, although the drenching showers which fell were
the cause of no smull discomfort at the time. '\'Ve r.ros!led
the Sitawaka-gm.iga at the ferry, also u.sed os a ford when
the water is low, the track of which is paved with broad
flog stones, said to have been brought from the k6wila; and
after proceeding a short distance along the Yatiyanto!a
road, turned to the right, the ground gradually rii;ing, until
we came to a ravine which forms a kind of base to the
triangular knoll, on the summit of which the ruins are seen.
Across this ravine a singular bridge permits access to tho
precincts of the k6wila. It conijists of five huge stones,
arlmirnbly dressed on their upper surface, encl1 fifteen feet
long, varying in width from two feet to three feet and a
half, and in thickness from twelve to eighteen inches. One
of these is broken through the middle, and a native legend
by way of accounting for the fractureA states, that owing to
a woman crossing it when affected with a natural infirmity,
the goddess to whom the place wa3 dedicated became so
incensed, that she caused the stone to split in two, and
thereby precipitated the offender to the bottom of the ravine,

106 ADAl\l'S PEAK.

The surface of the hil.l, or elope of ground, at some distance

beyond the bridge, is scarped and levelled into a series of
terraces or platforms. The first and lowest is a parallelo-
gram about 280 feet in breadth; the second about 180; on ancl
near the northern end o( this is the third, a square of 80 feet,
and on this.again, perh1Lps twenty feet fl'om its northern side,
the fourth, a square of 20 feet. The sides of each face the
cardinal points, those of the north overlooking what may be
called the apex of the triangle, rountl which the river makes
a sharp curve. Retaining walls of massive carved and
moulded granite stones surrouml the fil'st, third and fourth
plat.forms; and from the angles of the walls of the fourth,
which is wholly pavctl with broad flags, rise the handsome
clustered t>illars which formed the temple. A narrow groove
or channel is cut through one of the carved blocks at the
Southwest angle, the use of which is not very manifest,
unless it was to carry off the blood of animals slaughtered
in sacrifice to the gocldcss. Flights of steps lead to the
platform from the centre of each side, and corresponding
steps are placed in each of the walls of the terraces below.
Traces of such steps are also seen down the steep face
of the hill to the brink of the river, from which, in its
windings above and below, the B\lr~nc:Ji-k6wila must

All Hindu altars, I am informed, have a passage to let out the water .
whieh the Brahmana pour upon them for the purpose of purifying them
from the defilement which they are supposed to contraet when the. gocls
feast upon the qlfcrings which are there placed.

have presented a noble appearance, Ca11tain Forbes is

of opinion, thut the temple was about 30 feet in height
from the topmost platform; and that it consisted of pillars
supporting a cornice, the plan appearing to be as if eight
ornamented pilasters projected two on each side from a. . square pillnr. .Excepting as to the height, which,
including the bnsemcnt wall, now scarcely exceeds fifteen
feet, the description he givcs of. the plan of 'the temple is
correct. The ca.rvings in the stones are deep, and the
mouldings project out boldly. These are nll covered with
delicn.te floral tracery, which mnt1t have required great
manipulative skill on the part of those who had to execute
it. Tho walls of the two terraces below harmoni3e with
that on which the temple stands; the whole having evidently
been designed by an architect of no menn ability. It is
however questionable whether it was ever finally completed.
Bct\~cen the two lower walled terrnccs nu unwnllcd one
int~~!vencs, and from the number of blocks of stone lying
about, some in a rough, and others in a half finished
state, it seems probable that the work was stopped when
near its completion, owing to the struggles with the Portu-
guese and the domestic wars in which the king was cngagell
previous to his death~ and the determination of his succct1sor

'!'he local tradition is, that the works were stopped at the time wl1ln
Kunappu Bandnra raised an army, and advance,! against the king with
a view to his overthrow. 'l'his huppcned while Raja Siyha wus cngugcd
in hc~ciging the Portuguese in Colombe, he l111ving determined upon

to remove the seat of Government to Ka~dy. The new

king, moreover, being aBuddhist, would not be disposed to.
promote t.he interests of an opposing nnd persecuting faith.
'.l'he conjecture that the_ temple was destroyed by the Portu-
guese, is not borne out by the gencrnl appearance of the
place; but from the time of its abandonment up to within a
very recent period, the natives .have made free with its
stones for buil<li,;gs of theii own.
High~r up the river, on the opposite side, is the Maniyav
gnma vihura, a rock temple, the rQute to which is through a

their.expulsion from Ceylon. Kunsppu Ilsndnra wns one of the rnyal

family who escapP.d destruction nt the hunds of Raja Siyhn, when he
resolved upon remo,ing every obstncle to his claims to sole sovereignty
throughout the iHlnnd. Ho hnd made his way to Colombo, nud adopted
the ChrisLinn religion, ancl wns subsequcnLly bnptizcd nt Gon under the
title of Don John. 1'o aid the Portuguese, by whose means, if sueecssfol,
he hoped to gaiu the Kandian throne, he now mnde his way from Jntl'nn to
Knndy, nncl inorcnsir.g his ndherenls at every step, ere long Lhrcntened
Sitawnka itself. Rnja Siglm wns tbus forced to raise the seigc of
Colombo in order to rclic,e his cnpitnl. ))on John, retiring to the south
nnd east:, was pursued hy tbc king, ivhcn the l'ortugncsc, w11tching their
opporLunity, cnpture'd Awissa1ve!a, A desultory wnrfarc followed, which
l11J1te1l for 1omc years, At length, in n final bntllo at Kn,lugnnnnwn, Don
,John routed the forccA of lllija Siyha, nucl that mounrch, wounded by a
thorn in the foot, could. no longer take the field. This wound, combined
with hiA ehngrin aL being defented, ennscd his denlh in a few duys; but,
1weording to \he ltlijn-wulin, hift end wns hnHtenell by the 1.rcnchery of
NIIIIH' ol'JiiN lltL~llllUIIIN,
For 1111 111"c111111t uf the 1ui118 nt !:l!t/1w11kn, In tho timcH ,if'thc Dutch,
~cc Ap11e11tlix 11.

ADAM'S l'EAK, 109

number of paddy fields intersected by nullahs or small ravines,

to cross which we had, at the time of our visit; either to wade
knee and thigh deep in water or be carried'over by natives,
At one place, through which a pretty broad stream was flow-
ing, my weight proved almost too much for the two men who
were my bearers fortho occasion,and wo were ncaily toppling
into the water together, In about half an hour we begon to
ascend the ba~e of a ~ountain, and after a considcmqle rise,
and making our way o\'er a lengthy flight of steep steps
formed of rough blocks of stone, we came to an enclosure
within which was the temple. This WM made out of the
. recess below an immense overhanging boulder, which hnd
- probably been artificially hollo,;cd in parts. A long wall
built up to the rocky roof, and divided so as to form 0110
main hall, wherein_ was a recumbent figure of BudJha thirty
or more feet in length, with several smnllcr apartments for
the. use of the priests; and wing walls at E:ach end, forming a
large open verandah; was the rude architectural device for
constructing n temple here, .The situation was nevertheless
very pictuicsquc; abovo and around, tl10 rocky mounhii11;
streams nud smnll watcrfi,lls ruuniug aud 111mmUl'i11g nnd
leaping in mimic cascades as they pursued their course over
and among the rocks: immediately in front a broad level

King Wnlagnmbahu, after his recovery of the throne, "co.used the

hou!cH of stones, or cnvcft of the rock in which he ln11l lnkcn refuge in
the wil1hrncij~, to be nuule more commo11ioua,"-Ul'n,u,1'e R6jnwuli11,
ll 224,

platform, on which wae erected a banama9uwa, wbere.

eeveral oid men and women and young children were as
sembled to listen to the priest reaJing bana; beyond this a
stretch of cultivated paddy fields, bordered by forest trees,
or t.opee of cocoa.palms; and mountain ranges rising in the
distance on the other side of the \'alley through which the.
S1tliwaka-ga1iga wound its way. It was a scene to which
might be well applied the following li11,es by the author of
"Plcasur~s of l\Iemory:"
"Above, below, ni!l'ial murmurs swell,
From hanging wood, brown henth and bushy tlell I
A thousand nameless rills, that shun the light
Stealing soft music on the ear of night,"

In ndditioa to the colossal figure of Buddha, there were

several smaller ones, many of bronze, not an inch in height,
The principal priest, Dhammadassi l\Iaha Terunwahanse, paid
us every attention; honouring us in the presenco of the
people by epr..eading white cloths on the chairs he b1ought
out for us to rest 011. t We learnt f~om him that the temple
was one of those founded by king alagambahu; that one
of its chief benefi1ctors l1ad been king Kii-ti Sri, the samo

A pagotln-likc building, gencrnlly temporary, in which tl1c priests

reoo or Dann, i. c. the word of Buddha.
t White is tlic roynl colour of C!!ylon; nml the reception of strangers
with the sprcmling of white clolhM is one of' the highest compliments a
SiyhnlcHe cnu offer.


who restored the custody of the Srf-p~da to the Bud-

dhists, and who had given this temple the handsome pair of
clepb.11.nt's tueks, enoh six feet. in length, which were displayed
in front of tho rer.umbent figuro of Duddho.. Iu an outer
hollow he pointed out to us a small shrine dedicated to
Mahascn, tl1c divinity to whoso temple at Kataragamn,
Hindus from all pnrts of tho East flock with fanatic enthu-
siasm during the annual pilgrimage in the months of.Juno,
July, and August; at which time Moor!! and Veddahs also
take a po.rt in the processions held in
his honor. We could
not however make out whether there was any particular
connection between this place and the temple at Kataragnma,
The.iuti:rnal decorations of thia temple, the nppcarnnce of
the priests, and the colossal image, so closely correspond
with tho del!eription given by Captain T. A. Anderson,
formerly of the 19ti1 Rcgimcnt,in hie now rare poem "The
"'anderer in Ceylon," that I do not hcsiti,to to quote him.
'l'ho vaulte_d roof is atutldcd o'er
With various hieroglyphic lore:
'l'ouch'd by the artists' glowing band
Flow'ra of a.II colours here expand I
There some wild legend lhea porlrAy'd,
Ilcre, all the zodiac stands displny'd ;
While every vacant space between
Some uncouth form or slmpe is seen.
With yellow robes and sl1avcn bend
The priest, around thnt altar tread,
Near Buddha's gisnt figure stand
And incense shed with lavish hnnd,


. Then bending at his hallow'd feet

Their wishea, wantR, and vows repeat.
'J'ho' painted robes the figure acrcen,
And but the countenance ia seen,
You may a due proportion trace
1'hronghout his ginnt form and face; .. .,.:;-
No lion look, no cngle eye, i- .~ ' '

Dut thnt serene philantl1r~py 'i

Which plainly indicates a brenat
,vith every milder virtue bleat!".
Returning to Awisslnvela, it may he noted that the road
eo named terminates at the Sitawaka ferry, which forms the
link between it and the Yatiyantota road from the north.
A short distance below the resthouse is the junction with
the Ratnapura road, which trends away in a south-easterly
direction, On this road a traction engine has just been
placed, to run between Badulla, Haputalc, Ratnapura, and
Colombo. If suGccssful in its operations, about which
there can scarcely exist a doubt, it will be speedily followed

The "Ell'TEBrRt:E," maaufilctnrcd by Mr. R. W. Thomson, C. E., of
Edinburgh; imported by ?tlr. Jolin Brown, for the Ouvnh Coffee Company:
landed in Colombo, on tl1e 22ml Janunry, in charge of the engineer
Mr. Jamee Westland. This engine ia of 6 horse power, but can be
worked up to 12, and with a load of 12 tons, in a tr11i11 of four wagr,ons,
will travel on level ground 8 milea an l1our, am) on the inclines in the
interior at from 2 to 4 miles an hour, according to the natnrc of the
grndienta. The first trial trip in Ceylon wns made at Colombe on the
17thFebruary, 1870.


by otherl!I elsewhere, nnd the traffic on the main linel!I of

communication throughout the island will be as completely,
revolutionized in the courso of a few yenrs, R.l!I hns . alrendy
been the case with that between Knndy nnd Colombo, by
means of the Railway.
The first Htagc for halting at, after lenving Awi1,eliweln,
is Puswella, The road undulates nlong the bnse of forest-
clad hille, or through tracts of paddy lands, nrid presents
nothing remarkable, beyond the paintings on the walls of
n way-sido Ambalama,f which represent, nmong other things,
Buddha striding from the top of Adam's Peak, after in-
denting there the print of his left foot, to Siam, where he in
like manner left the impression of his right foot i 'Ihe rest-
house nt- Puswella is perched on the summit of knoll, a
little distance off th~ road, nnd nffords a fnir amount of
accommodation. A secluded pool, a Stone's throw behind
the ret:thouse, at the foot of a small nnd shatly glen into
which a rocky stream pours its crystal wnters, is a capital
bathing place, a desideratum not always obtninnble at n
roacfaide resthouse in Ceylon.
. ,.
'Pus,' a kind of jungle creeper; 'well a,' a tract of snnd.
t A nntivc re~thnuac.
l "'fhc SiamcHc," says Dnlclreus, "exhibit a footlltep imprcRacd npnn
a stone on a mnuntnin, which is an ell and a half long and tbrcc-foul'thA
broad, 'l'he aidcH of it nrc covered with silver; an~ a magnificent temple
is erected in tho neighbourhood, round which many of the priests of the
country, and other people dwell,"


Beyond Puswclla, nnd near the 48th mile poet from

Colombo, is the rher Kuru-gal}ga, a principal tributary to
the Kalu-gayga. By diverging to the left of the main
. roacl at the village Higgahn:.hena,e about half 11 mile before
reaching the bridge, a walk for a mile and a half through
alternating paddy fields and cocoanut plantations will bring
one opposite the Kuruwi!a waterfalls, which arc well
worthy of in,spection. At the time of our visit the waters
were high, ancl the Kuru-gavga was rushing nlong its bed
with n dangerous vc1ucity. :From a g~p in the rocky riuge
that fuced us, and which formed an almost mountainous
embankment to the river, a broad volume of water thunclered
down 11.ncl leapt in broken ma~ses of ever-changing form from
rock to rock, until, after a fall of a hundred and fifty feet
"the torrent with the m1my hues of heaven"
"Bung i!3 lines of foaming light along,"

surged against and mingled with the stream that hurried

11ast to swell the waters of the Kaln-gnl}ga.
Besiclee the waterfall there are in this and an adjacent
rnngc, two remarkable caverns, or grottoes, or euhterrnnean
pnss;1ges, six or seven milei! apart from each other, the

Ht'.n~, or chena, a high jungle ground, cultivntecl at intervnls, upon

which originally grew the Hik, or Hulat;1hik trees, Chickrasiia tabulari1,
Au. Joss.

' I


~ ~)
Obt1 a -- 4-


3, THE T.lKAT4.II, 4, Tlllt. UDIKKA,

l'-"!rminatione of wl1ieh have not been explored, The Rnto-

mahatmaya"' of the district told m, he had examined one fo1
a clilltnnoe of two hundred fathoms, and might have gone
further but-for the an~oyance of bats; and that the native~.
believed the other could be traced for nt lcnst two milee,;
but they had a dread of both, fearing serpents, &c. Possibly
the author of Sindbad the Sailor had heard somethin~ of
tl1ese, nod fancying the streams which ran by them to hnve
gone through instead, worked them up in his hero's ex-
periences of Ceylon; for he speaks of rivers flowing through
mountains; and declares that by one l!Uch he Wal! floated on
a raft into the interior of the Island.
There is a route through the jungle from this place to the
11ilgl'ims' path to the Peak, much frequented by those who
. make the pilgrimnge from the immediate neighbourhood;
but the usual route being from Rntnapmn, we turned back
to the main roacl, and shortly after crossing the bl'idgo, saw
on our left, the Ko.tutiynmbnrliwo. vihara. We found it to.
be of modern date, having been built by Elmc;ligocJo.
Di,awa, the daring chief wl10 tieizcd the person of the last
king of' Kandy, and delivered him, a fettered captive, into
\\ the hand:i of the British; t no net which greatly fncilitnted,

Rat6nahatmnya,' the chief nnthe reYenue oOicer of a 1Can1lin11

DiHtrict. The corresponding officer in the Mnritime l'ro,inoes h11a the
rank of Mudnliya.r.
t "On tl1e 14th Fi,brua.ry 18111, the Brilih forees entere1l tho
Kandinn capital unopposed, 'l'he king having a.woke too late f1-om his

i( it was not the actual imrnediRte cause o( the annexation

of the Kandian kingdom, and for which, as 11lso for other
eminent services, he receivccJ a gold ~edal and chain from
the then Governor, General Sir Rohert Brownrigg, together
with the more substantial though not more prized rewards.

delusive drcnm of security, hrul fled on their oppronch into Duml,ara,

accompanioo 1,y only .a few 1'11111il ndlwrcnts; lcavini: the femnlce of hie
family, with n conei<lcrnble trens11rc to the mercy of the victor. Driven
by hcnvy rain from a mountain where he coocculedhimself ,luring the
day, he descended nod took in a solitnry house in the neighbour
hood ol M~rlnmnhanuwnrn, not nwarc that there wns a force nt hand '
lyiog_ in woit for him. The retreat wns soon discovered by some of
Eli~lcpoln.'s adherents, under the orders of Ekni;li~o<)a, who sur-
roumlcd the ho1~~c in which he hnd hid himself with two of hie wives.
'l'bc door was strongly hnrricndcd, but they bnttercd down the w1ill of
the apartment in which the ,tyrnnt was concc11lc1!; when he wns exposed
by tl1e glnre of torch lights to the derision or his cncmiee. 'l'hcir 11brupt
enlry,-tl1e first time for tifi,cen years 6incc he became king that be hnd
been approached without ec1vile humility, -for .i moment seemed to
coofouod him; but 11s the pnrty pressed forwnrd, he dared them to ~ouch
him. The chief urged on hi8 followers, and the orders to seize lbc king
were soon obeyed. Ekn~ligo<Jn' had ventured to~ to indulge nny
hopek of safety, unless the down foll of the lyrnnt could be accomplished.
If the king should regain authority, be felt certain that he would ha\e
Leen od,le1l to the li:!t of forty-seven headmen, muny of them friend~ of
his own, ,vl10 in the previous yelll' bad been brought from Snffragnm,
and impaled by the tyrnnt's order. Wikrnmn Siyhn, was eoon nfter
con'l"eyed to Vellore, in tl1e Mndrns Presidency, where he died of dropsy
in 1832."-llisToaT or CEYLON, 11ublishcd by the Siyhnlcsc Trnct

or grnnts of lands, and the high native rank of Disdwa.

There is an inscription on a stone, set upon a pillar, record-
ing the piety of the builder, who is also buried here. The
image of Buddha is sedent, and some of liis relics are here
preserved in a karandua or case carefully covered over with
cloths, in order to preserve them from the profanation of the
gaze of vulgar or heretical curiosity, The ~rounds about the
viMra are kept in very neat order, bordered with laurels anci
flowers, and the pansala or priests' residence is of two stories,
the upper one having a balcony in its front, from which was
hung a representation on white cloth of the Sri-pnda, with
the hundred and eight signs, marked i vermilion, that
indicate the possessor of them to be a Buddha. Thcso
correspond with the embossmcnts and ornaments on the
cover of tl:ic sac1cd footstep kept at Palubaddala. The
signg consist.of devices formed from the nppenrance of the
lot~s flower in its various stages of development, the lotus
being, throughout the East, tl1e emblem of' beauty and
The expression "lotus feet" or "lotus-footed," is ono

Governor of a Knndian Province, under tho native kings. This title

is now either extinct, or in abeyance; its Inst holder, th~liyngo1Ja
Dnsn11aynka Rnnnsighn l\ludiynnse, Disawa of Three Kurules and Lower
Bulntgnmn, having died in September 1809. 'l'hc grnndfi1thcr of the highly
intelligent and influentinl Knnclinn Chief, ,vmi,1111 Alexander Abralmm
Ekn~ligo,Jn, or Ekn~ligo,Jn of thnt ilk, tho present Rntemnhatmnyi
of the Kuruwita Kurulc, was the Diaawa refol'rcd to la tho tut,
118 AJ?Al\I'S PEAK.

commonly used when speaking of Buddha's person; and the

idea that
Jluwers upsprang whcra'er liia feet were plnccd"

is repented again and again in the legends and poetry of tho

Siyhalcsc, To l'calise this idea, and indicate the appearance
of flowers as actually marked upon his feet, was bnt to obey
the tendencies of the Oriental mind. The same or a cognate
idea is conveyed in purer form in the .wcli.:knQwn language
of the im1pircd Hebrew prophet, "How beautiful upon the
mountains are the feet of him that bringcth good tidings, that
pnblisheth peace, that bringcth good tidings of good, that
publisheth sal vntion."t Tho doctrines of Bud<lha, when first
11romulgatcd, ~c~e good tidings in comparison with those of
the Brahmans; and whosoever received them, eecurcd to him
or herself, according to his teachings, peace and salvation
-the perfect bli:;s and absolute never-ending repose of
Nirwana. Perhaps this was referred to by the original
symboliscr in the full-developed lotus ~flower in the centre
of the ball of the foot. At any rate this mode of sym-
boli~ation is more poetical ,than that. adopted by Burmese

This ie an iclea firmly impressed upon the mincls of Ducl<lhisti,, who

have a singular method or perpetuating the belief, in the m.anufneture of
a peculiar kiu<l of sandal, from the upright pl'g of which, gripped between
the great and second toe, encb time a step is taken, a spl'ing causes a
DJl'tal-sbnped lotu.~ to start up,
t Isaiah Iii. 7,
ADAl\l'S PEAK. 119

Buddhists; who, while they demand .the iame number of a

hundred and eight marks, depict them in a different form,
.. each form, no doubt, symbolising perfection: thus, the toes
are each marked underneath with a chunk with right handed
whol'li., and the ball of the foot has circles of alternating
hanzas, t and ot.her animals. and figures; which signs the
orthodox auddhists of Burmah now-a-days believe were
actually marked upon the feet of the founder of their reli-
gion, when he lived and moyed and had his being upon earth.
The senior priest of thia viMra, Delgamuwe Terun-
wahanse, is II friendly hospitable old gentleman, well pleased
with the visits of Europeans, of whom he never fails to
inquireconecrning Major Skinner. He evidently entertains
an enthusiastic -regard for the great Road-maker and ex-
Director of Public orks in Cey Ion.
The village .through which the main road passes at this
place. is called ':f'embiliyana, or Ekn~ligocJa, the ancestral
domain of the Ekn~ligocJa family. From thence to within

In the ordinnry Turbi11ella rapa, the whorls run from left to right;
but t.hose cnlled by the natives Wallampory, hnve the whorls reversed,
running from right to left.. 'l'hese were regarded with such reverence
that formerly they sold for their weight in goh.1. Even no1V specimens
cnn scnreely be procured for less thnn four or five pounds sterling.
t The ssered hnnzn, or llrahmnnce goose, is the nntionnl emblem em-
blazoned on the stnndnrd of llurmnh; it hns been from time imm~orinl
an object of veneration there, 811 well as throughout all pnrts of India,
including Ceylon,
120 ADAM'S PEAi{.

a few miles of Batnapurn, the character of the country is

much the Eamc as that already passed through from Awissii..
wcJn. The hills perhaps n.ssume more of a mountain cha..
rncter; their slopes may be nrc bolder, their sides more rocky;
their altitudes greater; and the forest timber with wh~ch
they are clad or crowned is possibly of a heavier growth.
The tmct of paddy lands, for about two miles before
rcacl1ing Ratnapura, is cnllcd by the nnti ves qycralupe,'
tl1c cat's-eye district. It is also famous for rubies and
sapphires. This circumstance, ancl the richness of the beds
of the immediately adjoining streams iti similar precious
products, ga\'c to the city its name,-' Ratnapura,' the city of
gems, A large amount of money, we were informed, had
recently been made by some speculating Moormen from
Kalutarn, in extensive gemming 011crations here, the prin-
cipal of whom, owing to the excitement caused by a too
sudden acquisition of wealth, Imel unfortunately lost hiit
reason. Gold is aJso found in the beds of these streams,
but not in sufficient quantities to pay Europeans for the
cxpense-irrcspectivo of the risk to health-of wnshing it
from the soil; and washing or digging for gold is not so
attracti\'e to the nathc 'mind as the searc-h for gems.
A minot road branches off from the main onc to the right
near to an iron bridge about a mile from Ratnapura. This
leacls to the l\laha Saman Dc,,al~, distant about two miles
from the city, and close to the right bank of the Kalu-gayga;
To this-place a pilgrimage is made by large bodies of natires
every July, when the festival of the ferahQra, lasti~g


fifteen days, with processions of elephants, &o. is held,

At this time a . temporary town is erected for the accom
modation of the pilgrims. This consists principally of two
streets, 260 ynrds long by 45 feet broad, on either side_
of wMch is a continuous row of huts made of bambus and
jungle sticks roofed over with cadjans, or the plaited leaves
of the cocoanut palm. Th.cse roads lead straight up t(!
the eastern side of a quadrangular enclosure (80 ft. E. &
W., by 200 ft. N. & S.), which forms the outer courtyard
to the temple. An inner quadrangle ( 150 ft. by 200 ft.) is
approached from this by a flight of 25 stone steps,f Doth
quadrnuglce are enclosed by dwarf wallii five feet high, abovo
wl1ich are ro_we of palinge alternating with pillars, the whole
protected by a tiled roof to shoot off the rain. Tho gate-
way to the first coneiete of two brick pillars, on the top of
each of which a bo-tree ie growing. On the top of the steps
leading to the second is a narrow verandah, with four carved
wooden pillars, two on each side the doorway. Thie is of
stone, with rudely carved lintel and jnmbe. The inner

For an account or the great Perahora festival at Kandy, to which

thot nt Ratnapura is very similar, aee Appendix I.
t Captain Para.u11 in hill "ork on Ceylon, dcscribea theae 1teps as well
as those which lead up to the temple Crom the river, aa made or marble,
This is a mistake, The steps, which are very roughly dressed, are or the
ordinary atone or the neighbourhood, gneiH or hornblende, 'with here
and there a carved block apparently brought from some ovcrthro~n
building, probably Crom the Portuguese church which once 1tood here,


qundrangle seems originally to have been a low mound,

the eidee of which were artificially raised, so as to form the
foundation platform for a fortification. There is reason to
believe that this was the site of a Dcwalc from very ancient
times, and that upon the captu're of the plnce by the Portu
gucse, its strategical importance led them to convert it into a
stronghold for themselves. t In the centre of the q ua<lrangle

"The earliest mention I have seen made of the Snfl'ragam temple of

Saman (which iR either this or the one on the Pcnk) is, that in the reign
of Dappooln A, . 79:S, a stat11e of ltamachandtn, (nn incarnation of
Vishnu) formed of red anndal wood, was sent from l>ondra to be placed
in the temple of Saman nt SalTragam."-li'oant:a'a Eleven Ycare in Ceylon,
vol. i. p. 18/S. 'l'hc inclemency oC the weather for nine out of the
twelve months of the year being such ea to prevent any one living on the
l'eak, and the shrine there, dedicated to Saman, being open on all aides,
ancl only about tlirce feet high, the probability is that the statue referred
to, was acnt to the te!l'lplc nt Sab11ragamuwa, where it would be better
cared for and preserved. During the season of the pilgrimage to
the Penk, it might bavll been taken thither from Sabaragnmuwa, and
returned when the aca.,on ended.
t CBpt,Kin R1n11no, in the chapter of hia work which gives an account
of the regulnr troops and militia which the Portuguese mai_ntained in the
Island ,,r Ceylon, eaya, that b'csidea the comp at 11,fonicavnry, where, in
timca of pence, at least 4000 men were always atationed, "there waa a
second camp in the Safrragam country, near the kingdom of U'wa; it
compri!cd four companies of Portuguese infantry, amounting to 1/SO
men, and from 4000 to 5000 lascorins; these were under the command
of the Disawa of the Province, who had wi1b hi10 an adjutant and a
chnplain. In theme two camps conBiated tbo chief strength of the
country, cftpccinlly in timo uf pcaco."


they built. their Church, a portion of which is probably

included in the existing Dewa16, Opposite the doorway,
in the centre of the qu~drangle, is a colonnade-fifty-four feet ,
in length, and twenty in breadth, This consists of two outer
dwarf walls, five feet high, with openings near the west end,
and five pillars rising at irregular distances five feet above
the walls; inside these ar~ corresponding rows of five brick
or cabook pillars, with a passage ten feet wide between,
On each side of the colonnade, at the west end, between the
Inst two pillars and the walls, is a kind of misccl dais, intended
probably for the accommodation of priests or musicians, At
the end of the colonnade, a doorwny gives accci,ss to a hall,
about sixty feet long, dimly lighted by two small windows,
and having in its side walls two central doors fadng each
other, A row of seven wooden pillars, three feet dit1tant
from each wall, lca\'cs an a,enue in the midst of the hall
of about fourteen feet width, which leads to five scmicirculur
~teps at ; the foot of' the door of the sanctum, a two-storied
b_uilding, oceupying an area of 20 by 30 feet, the top of
which, viewed from the outside, has a very pngoda-like
appearance. Plaster statues of Hindu deities flunk this <luor,
and on either side of the second step i11 placed one of a
magnificent pair of elephant's tusks, each seven feet in
length. We could not gain admitt,mce to this part of the
lmilding; but Captain Forbes states, that it contains what is
called by courtesy, the golden bow and arrow of the god,
"'c heard that it alao contained a silver-stemmed umbrella,
which i11 former times used to be spread above 'the 11hl'ine

of Saman, on the summit of Samanala, indicating his 'divine

supremacy in the District. Inside thti hall were several
. large long-handled fans, and other articles used in processions,
besides six antique looking gingalls, some of which we found
to be of but very rough and modern manufacture. They
were eighteen inches long, with an inch thickness of met~),
and a bore an inch in diameter. Each was firmly fixed
ujJon a three-fogged ca1riagc raised about eighteen inches
from the gl'Ound.
In the open quadrangle, north of the sanctum, is a well,
enclosed by four old massive walls ( 15 ft. by 24 ft.), each
wall having a narrow arched doorway in its centre. This
is the most archroological feature of the place; the walls are
undoubtedly those originally built by the Portuguese, and
the arched 1loorways differ from anything of the kind to be
seen elsewhere. At the east end of the quadrangle, facing
the two openings in the colonnade, arc two Buddhist temples,
each on a raised platform 16 ft. by 24, with four pillars on
each side, forming nasrow verandahs round a central room,
in which is an image of Buddha, and a karandua containing
i,;omc of his relics. These relfos hold an important position
in the processions at the ,Pcralu;m in the month of July.
Against the ,wall8 of the quadrangle arc several lean-to
buildings, either occupied by the temple attendants, or
used as stores. .
Cordincr, in his description of this Dcwale, says, at the
time of the Kamli:m campaign in 1803, "the apartments
of the Pagoda"-(by which he evidently meant the whole of

the buildings in this quadrangle)-" afforded excellent shelter

for the troops; who found in sev~ral chests, o. greater quantity
of silver and copper coins than they were capable of carrying
o.wo.y. The Malaya, probably from motives of superstition,
refused to receive any share of them: ancl almost all the
indigent ~oolies [ camp followers] disdained the sac1ilege of
either entering the Pagoda, or touching the coin. The idols
had been removed, but a great many beautiful elephants'
tusks, am:1 other curious articles remained, which could not
be brought away."
Scattered about the ground are sundry fragments of
slender gothic pillars, . which clearly formed a part of the
church that once stood here; and near to Qne of the
Buddhist temples stands what looks most suspiciously like
a baptismal font. It consists of a stone pillar ri1:1ing two
feet three inches from the ground, l!quare at the base for
tweh'.e inches,' anrl octagonal above. This supports a font
eighteen inches square on the upper surface; the outer edges
of which a1e moulded, and carved with delicate tracery; and
the sides rounded from the top to the base. The inside i1:1
hollowed into a circular basin fifteen inches in diameter,
and four in depth.
Let into a deep niche in the basement of the raised
quadrangle, a little to tlie north of the flight of steps
lending from the outer courtyard, is a mural stone of some

pescription of Ceylon, vol. ii. p. 262,


historic value, and of singular interest from the strange and

unexpected position in which it is found. On it, sculptured
in bold relief, are two figures, about half the size of life.
They represent the closing event of a mortal combat between
a Portuguese, armed cap-S:-pie, and a SiJJhalese warrior.
Conquered in the encounter, the latter has bee~ stricken
down; his sword and shield are cast despairingly aside; and
his antagonist, trampling under foot his prostrate form, is
now with one final blow about to deprive him of his life,
The inscription below, partly in Roman, ancl partly in
Siyhalese characters, is so much effae~d as to be only very
11a1tially readable; some 1>ortions of the figures are also
damaged, seemingly from the action of the weather upon
the stone. The whole is, however, most spiritedly executed,
and enough of the inscription remains to shew that the name
of the Portuguese soldier was Gomez. The Siyhalcse say,
the prostrate warrior was their champion, one Kuruwita.
Bandti.ra, a dread\)d enemy of the Portuguese, whose soldiers
he had repeatedly cut off, and that some fifty had fallen by
his hand ere he himself was slain. The sculpture was no
doubt executed in Europe by royal or vice-regal command,

and sent hither to do honor to the soldier whose valorous

deed it commemorated.
At the north and eout.h sides of the outer courtyard are
raised platforms, with high canopies, which are profusely
decorated during the pilgrim season. The backgrounds
are then filled with paintings of the gocl8, and in front of
tl1ese, gazed at by admiring multitucles, the dancing girls

, 1

in the service of ibe temple, perform their parts bi the annual .

festival in honor of Saman. On such an occasion one oan
realize the description given by Sr{ Rahula of similar scenes
in honor of Vibhi'.shana at the temple at K1tlani, four cen-
turies and a half ago.
Yet linger for awhile and note the dancing fair
Whose charming, handsnma ears, bright shining gold plates bear;
Whose eyes, long, lustr'!)us, dark, wash'd with collyrium, seem
With deeper, darker lustre, beneath their lids to gleam;
Whose 'tresses, twined with flowers their beauty to enhance,
And fragrant, odours flinging, beholders' hearts entrance.
Upon their dancing stages, in gala garb-nrray'd,
Each vestment strcw'd with jewels, gems dazzlingly display'd,
At every agile motion anrl lissom action light
They scintillate in splendour, seem lambent lnmp-flnmes bright:
Aloft, alow, their arms," ~ssing, waving in the dance
Ancl around them casting many _a swiflsped sidelong glance,
Thci~ narubaras' end-falls they from their broad hips fling,
The full-folds op'ning, closing, at each elastic spring,
While hells from zones gem-spangled their slender waists girt round
In unison chime sweetly, as o'er the scarce touch'd ground
'l'hey clink their golden anklets snd fiRSh their lotus feet
And step in time responsive to music's measured beat,t

A flight of fifty steps leads up from the river to a path in

the outer temple grounds; and on the sides of the c1uadrangles,

The narubara is a graceful kind of waist cloth, the wide end of which,
a.bout a foot in length, falls from the girdle over the hips in a number of
thickly gathered folds or plaits.
t S1,la-lihini Sandcse.
128 .Al)AM'S PEAK.

D6, Temple, and other trees spread their umbrageous

branches over the enclosing walls. Kapuralas and temple
officers arid tenants perform a daily service within the walle,
with the harshestofpipinge and the noisiest beatings oftam-
a-tams. .A. dozen or more elephants are attached to tlie place,
their' chief duty b~ing ~ take a leading part in the annual
processions. The temporalities are large, and the revenue
is collected, allll all the affairs of the temple regulated by
the Kandian Chief lddamalgo~a Abayak6n Atapattu Mu-
diyanse, himself a Bddhist, but the -Basnayaka Nilame, or
luy incumbent of the great Hindu Dewale, which, with a
kind of mutual toleration, Buddhists and Hindus alike agre.e
to conshler one of their most notable plac_ee of holy resort.t

The Ficu, r11lig1'oaa, and the Michelia Champaca.

t Saman b generally believed to be an incarnation of Viahnft, (see
ant.!, p. 13). With reference to tbiedcity I am indebted for the following
note, to the learned Tamil Advocate, ?.Ir. C. Ba1To, "During the domi-
.11ation of the Tamil111 the elastic faith of the Sighalese bad to be extended
ao 11s lo include a large number of the gods of the rulers. And every
vihira bad to receive a number of imagoa of thoae uncouth gods. But
they wllre not received indiscriminately. And if I do not greatly err,
Yiahna was the only g~ who was received without reluctance. His
shrine is the Dcw&le we meet with everywhere attached to Buddhist
temple!;" The adoration of Vishna under the forms of Rama and
Lakshamana, or Saman, was the old traditionary religion of the Sig.balese
before the Vijiyan invasion. Buddhists moreover believe that this god
ia the tutelary divinity of the ialo.nd; that he is a candidate for Bud;lha-
hood, and will, in some future kalpa, be manifested ,urn Buddha; -hence
the readiness with which they allowed hia worship at the time referred to.
But at the aame time many Hindus maintain that Buddha himself waa only
an avo,tir or incnl'Dlltion of VisbnQ,
"" ~~ . _j ~ ,

idnm's ~~nit.

"Amidst the grove that crowns yon tufted hill

,vhicb, were it not for many a mountain nigb
Rising in lofty rnnka, and loftier etill,
Might well itself be deemed of dignity,
The convent's white walls glisten foir on high: .
Here dwclle the c11\oycr, nor rude is he
Nor niggard of his cluicr; the pnsscr by
~ Is welcome still ; nor heedless will he flee
]!'1-om hence, if he delight kind Naturc'e aheen to eee."

. j\ CHAPTEU V. .



THE city of Ratnapura, like the "tang toun o' Kirkaldy ,"
consists principally of clustering rows of houses on either
side of the main road. On the left of the ro1id, a1tpro11cl1ing
from Awissuwe}o., picttncsquely situated in nn arbore~cent
dell, is the residence of the Aasist~nt Government Agent of

130 ADAM'~ PEAK.

the District, near to which is the small episCQpal place of

worship, called hy courtesy, the church. On the right of the
road is the gaol; beyond which, receding towards the bank
of the river, are the rcsthouse and the Government Hoapital,
These arc both newly erected, buildi~gs; and
at the back of the former, fringing the high river-bank, is a
luxmi:int grove of nutmeg trees. \Vithin the walls of the
small fort, surmounting a rocky hillock, about 114 feet above
the lc~el of the sea, arc the Government Kachchc1i, in wl1ich
a meteorological observatory has fately been established, the
District Court, and other official buildings. This fort was
formerly a military station; but the troops have been with-
dmwn; a11d the Police, who have a station ancJ barracks
further on, now guard the Kachcheri, and discharge the
duties formerly entrusted to eolclicrs. The situation of the
city is considered healthy; there is an excellent bazaar; and
a Roman Catholic chapel in a very central position, In the
suburbs there arc many pleasantly detached bungalows, the
residences of file ,T udge, the lawyers, ancl other leauing
inhabitants. An ancient mosque, indicate11 that the faith of
Islam i11 no very recent profession amongst a section of the
community, the majority of whom it may be presumed, from
the ueigl1bouring viharas, and the great Saman Dcwale, are
lluddhi::1ts and Hindus. String:t of bullock bandies con-
tinually pass up and 1lown the road; either on their way to
planting districts llndulln-wnrds, or with coffee to Colombo;
or to nncl from the stores of an enterprising British Colonist,
the depot for the traffic on the ri\'er, the southward riml of .

the road: taken altogether, the city has an aspect of busy

thriving industry, which may be consi<lered an index of the .
prosperity of the District of which it forms the capital.
Many lofty mountain groups and ranges tl)wer arounc1,
and radiate from the point where Adam's Peak iii seen.
Amongst these, a few miles to the northellet of H.atnapura,
is Mount Karango1a, the view from the summit of which
is magnificent. .Bennet, in chapter xlvii. of his work . on
Ceylon, gives the following dcscriptim ot' its t.emple nnd
"The ascent to the first lam.ling i:1 by some hnu<lreds of
broad steps, hewn iu the solid tock, which is covered with
jun~lc, anti pine apple plants. whose leaves arc from five to
six feet in length, a proof of the effect of eha<lo upon that
plant. Upon the fir:1t landing is the residence of the priests,
an extensive and substantial stone building, having a large
interior square, with wide and covered verandahs, into which
the dormitories open.
"A similar but lees inclinctl flight of rock steps lcn<lo1 to the
second landing place, where a rock 'vilutra diaplnys Ilntldha's
recumbent image, surrounded ns usual with Hindu dcitic~.
an:.l having an oblong ta111c bcfo1e it profusely covered with
flowers. Ilut the chief attraction to tho European is n well,
of the purest wnter, of so very cold a temperature, thnt in
fi \'C minutes a bottle of claret wns cooletl as well ns if nn
cxpc1irncc<l l/opc/ar [butle1 J hnd icccl it.
"1''rom hcuco tho nppro:1ch to tho ,mmmit i~ cxtrcnwh
rugged, and covered with the gignutio groundscl ( Sn,rrin

giganteu,) exceeding twenty feet in height, jungle and grass;

both well tenanted wit.h snakes and land leeches; but one
h amply rewarded for toil, trouble, and even danger, by the
magnificent panorama whicl1, on gaining the crown of the
mountain, bul'sts upon the -view. Here, ca'ltellated. Ratna-
pur11, and si1rrotmding country, inte1spersed with every
,aricty of champaign, undulating, and hilly land, intersected
liy the meandering an<l (for boats) mtvigable KalugaJJga;
there, the Peak towering high above the clouds to the
northenstward, and the various villages dispersed upon the
banks of the rher aml its tributary streams, bordered by
extensive nreka, kettule, and eoeoanut tope~, with occasional
p11tches of intervening jungle, scattered among verdant
tracts of pa:1t.ure land, as if by way of contrast to the golden
glare of paddee and mustard fields in their approaching
maturity; and everywhere teeming with abundance; the
nearest plains covered with innumerable herds of bullocks
,and buffaloes, and the distant ones with deer and elephants."
The route fro~ Ratnapura to the Sr1-piida commences
near the 57th mile-post, in a path which st1ikes to the north
just before the road crosses the Uatnapura bridge-a three-
t1pan iron latticed structure, each span 140 feet in length,
with a roadway 18 feet in width.
Our arrangements having been completed overnight, we
thougl1t to h:we started by daylight on the morning of the
26th l\larch. But our interpreter, and chair-bearers, and
commi~sariat coolies and other servants, were by no means
so :mxiou" as onr:1eh-cs fur the trip, and it was not until .


8 A. u. that we were all fairly off. A rather ludiorous OO

currcnce took place immediately ,before. O{!r .host's appu~
who went by the name of the Angel Gabriel, hearing his
ma~ter (our commi.,11mry general) inquire nbout the supply of
tea, in order that nothing ~ight be wanting to ensure every
rcquit!ite for making that refreshing beverage while on the
road, detained one of the coolies until ho hncl bo_iled a lnrge
kcttlcfull of water, with which he made a final aclclition to the
man's load, and it was just a chance that it was discovered, ancl
-the boiling water emptied out, before the man set off. De-
i,;cending from the roacl (n. pretty stiff embankment forming
th,i approach to the bridge) we struck briskly across the field
and were soon into the jungle, where we mounted our
clmirs,-arm-chairs with stout bambus ticcl to the siclcs, each
one borne by four cooliet!. The chair that foll to my lot,

On our two subsequent journeys our start wog here delayed. The
csuse of the firot I give in the words i,f one _of my companions:-" e ,v
made our start from Hntnopurn in rainy wea1her, uml with about fifteen
or twenty coolieR to curry our bnggnge, we bc111.lcd up towards the l'eak,
A trick of one of the coolirs just after starting caused us some amuse-
ment. We llRll some difficul~y in getting the number of men we want.ed,
nnd this one wos the lost whom we obtained, As he came Inst, he found
a loud nwniting him which many of the othmd had tried the w<Jight of,
nnd left ns being rather too heavy for their tastes. Uc trudged along
behinrl ns with his bo:i:, s1i1l lngging more nnd more in the rcnr, and soon
ofrer we turned ofT on to Lhc 1,ilgrims' track, we lost of him al,
together. The interpreter wos sent bnck to hurry' him on, nnd some-
time after returned with another coolill carrying the lond, an~ told us the
13-1 ADAll'S PEAK.

howcver,eoon gnvewo.y, my weight cracking thebambu which

eupported it; nnd not being accustomed to such means of
progrcs11ion, we found them eo uncomfortable in r,mnding
ehnrp rocky cornert1, and in going up and down ascents and
dceccn~, and we had to make such frequent dismounts at
the frail bridges placed across watercourses and ravines-
"cdan~a~," i. c. logs of trees, many of them half rotted, with a
loose swinging bambu or length of jungle creeper for a hand-
rail,-tluit when we had proceeded about five miles, and came
to a bend of the Knlu-gal}ga, which we had to cross, we sent
them back to Ratnapurn, and pcrfor,ncd the rest of our
pilgrimage on foot.
The footpath passes through a condiderable, well-cultivn.ted
tract of paddy landt1, until it reachcs Go1Jigamuwa, when it
skil'tB the base of a range of hills which abut<1 upon the Kalu-
gaJ~a, here called the Ratmone-qlla. On the opposite side
arc the mountains Batugedarakanda and Katugalu. The
river runs rapidly dm,n the narrow intervening vailcy ~ and at

first one hnd lert the bnx in the road nnd had bolted. E,idently the
fellow, on finding that our way turned off tow11rds Adam's Peak, l.111<l,
with a eagacity and discrimination thnt JU credit to his i_ntclleetulll
powers, detcrmioed to run all risks rather than carry his box to the top
ol' the Peak, an~ had set down his load nud 'made !racks.' " On the 1hhd
journey, tlie coolie we Juul despatched from Colombo with provisions,
(our dnys prcviuu~ly, foiled to make his appearance, an,! after waiting for
him in vnin fur twenty-four hourK, we had to proccetl wirb such pro,emler
111< we e1111J.I procure at lhe hnzaar.

this pln.ce the processions or the Perah~ra terminate, the

elephants marchiiig thus far, when the Kapurttla proceeds
to cut the waters of the running stream. Beyond this is the
smnll village Koskolawntta, and opposite it, the mountain
Kirigala, t-so named from a conspicuous patch of white
rock nenr its summit. A narrow track near this leads to
. a ford, which in dry seasons enables the traveller. to mnke
a short cut, and save a qual'ter of a mile's walk. Our guide
took us down this track, but we found the current running
. too strongly, and the water apparently much too deep, to
warrant the risk of an attempt to cross it; we thcl"Cfore
returned, and soon arter, descending a rnvine, came to
the hihaclepana-Qlla, or dola,t a broad brawling mountain
stream, comidcrably swollen by late rains, but pnssable
without much difficulty, with the a~sistanco of large rongh
stepping stones laid at irregular distiinccs across. This
.stream is the boundary between GocJigamuwa and Gili'.malc.
Near the 61st mile is the village Malwala, or, as its name
indicates, "the flower village," a place where flowers arc or

The Kepurilla strikes the water with a goldeo sword. At the same
instant a brazen vessel is dipped into the river whilo tho water is yet
disparted, and a portion is taken up, which is kept in the veeeel until
the following year. The water wbieh was taken at the previous festival
is then poured back into the river.
t 'Kiri,' white, milky; 'gain,' rock.
t '~lle,' e stream free from stones, 'Dola,' a stream, the bed of which
i full of stones end rockR.

were cultivated for offerings to the temples. From thence,

the path lends across the Do~anknncwc-Qlln, aud the Bu-
dola, beyond which the Kajuwattn, a native roadside tnvem
is rP.achcd, where a short halt is usually made. ,v e here
procured some kurumbas, and some of our coolies refreshed
themselves with arrack, obtnincd at the primitive bar of
fence and bambu 11ticks where it was retailed in the hut.
Leaving tl1is, we shortly after reached Dimbulwitiyn; nnd to
cross the i;lla J111d to balance ourselves, cautiously over 1m ugly
cdamJa. The road from this point to where the Kalu-ga~1ga.
is cro.ssccl, was being clcnrc,l and widened when we last
travelled upon it; on the two former occasions it was pretty
well overgrown with jungle. Here, at the ~llapita Totu-
pola, or ferry, we dismissed or chail'-bearers.
Just before reaching this point we observed a rcmnrk,11ble
species of fungus, of a kind which none of us had ever
before seen. The stem was about nine inches long, and an
inch in diameter at the ground. From the top, where the
stem had narrow~d to about a quarter of an inch, a cap
loosely hung like a cup-shaped bell, covered with n fine white
raised reticulation, the interstices of which were fillecl with
a vi~cid liquor of an olive brown colour. F1om the neck,
below the cap, and surrouncling the stem to the ground, was
a globe-shaped mantle, as if an outer skin had been blown

- - - - - - - - - - - - - -- -
Young cocoanuls, containing lmlf a pint or more of the refreshing
cocoanut milk.


out bladder-wise, and then ' pierced through and through

until it became patterned into inimitable lace-work, of a
white colourabove and piuk below. Nothing of the kind
could be more beautiful,
The banks of the river, on either side of the ferry, are
somewhat abrupt, and require cnre to avoid a slip down tho
steep slope of stiff mud of which they con&ist, when the
weather is at all damp. In the dry season the natives
usually ford tho stream, which is then not more than from
two to three feet in depth; but when the rains have been
heavy and continuous, the passage is by the ferry-boat,' a
small frail looking double canoe, Past the 64th mile-post
is the Yatowita 9lla, and beyond it the Mahu-doln., both
which ar<! -crossed by edan1Jas, Between the 65th and fi6th
mile-posts, lies the plain of Gilimal(I, and here, on each of
our journeys, we halted, Por, although from the point at
_Go~ligamuwn, where the road undulates along the base of
the valley through which the Kalu-gavga runs and flows
and eddies its seaward way, ferns arnl slender battalccs
overhang the path, while mosses of an infinite variety
beautify the untrodden ground, and shrubs and flowering
plants enliven the scenery, agreeably shaded here and there
by gigantic forest trees or clumps of tall bambus, and every
now and again diversified by patches of open plains and level
tracts of paddy-ficlds,-the pleasure all this affords the eye

The Bamb111a 1tritlula,


and mind, doei not counterbalance the feeling or fatigue

that begins to mako;rest a.nd refreshment longed for, and
heartily welcomed as soon' as they cnn be obtained.
Gilima1c, famous for itd betel leaves, is, in this particular
portion of it, a leycl fortilc plain, about a milo in circum-
ference, fringed and skirted 'with belts of cocounut and arek!I
palms, and clumps of jack, shaddock, ornngc, plantain, and
various other fruit trees, which flourit1h in luxuriant abund-
ance at the bnso of the lofty hills wl1ich surround it, and
amongst which clusters of nativo dwellings and nestling
,illages may be seen half hi<l<len in their grateful shade.
The spot, and the singular !lhrinking sensitive plant which
here abounds, reminded us of ol<l ,Tames Shirley's lines in his
poem "Narcissus."

"From hence deligl1t cbnveya liim unnwnrea

Into n apncioua gt-een, wl1ose either aide
A hill did gunrd, whilRt with his trees like hnira
'l'he clouds were bnay binding up bis hend,
The flolV<U'B here smile upon him ns he t~nda,
Ami Lut when be looks up hnng down their heads,"

It was here, or in tho immediate neighbourhood, that

Princo Dutngc;munu,' son of Kavantissa, king of R6hunn,
concealed himself when threatened with punishment for

A plnnt of the genus 11/imoia, so called from the shrinking nnd con
tn1clion of its lc11\'c1 on Lcing touched.

the insult offered to his father, after failing in his en.

denvours to induce or provoke him to make war o.gainst the
Malnbars, then ruling in the Northern kingdom, and whose
expulsion from the island it was his great ambition to accom-
11lish; an object which he succeeded in effecting soon after
his accession to the throne, n. c. 164.
'l'hc name of the place, Gilimnlc, signifies" mountnin im
merged," the Snrn11nt11kut11 not being here visible,_ although

This pr incc Gamini, \flan w~s ekillcd in the elephant, horeo, nnd
bow exercises, as l)'ell u in et.rutngems, wns then reRi11ing nt .lil11l111gi111101
and the king hnd etntioneil his (Mecond) eon 'l'ieso, wilh II powerful and
efiicicnt force, nt Digl111wi1pi, for tbo protection of'his <lominions, (ngainst
the invasions of the 1lamilos.)
11 After R i;;ertain period h11cl elnpeecl, prince 04111i11i, having heltl 11

rcvie,v of'lris army, proposed to hie royal father, 'Let me wage wnr with
tire dnmilos.' The king, only looking to Irie (Ron'e) personnl eaft!ty, inter
dieted (the enterprise); replying, '\\'ithin this b11nk of the river i!I
suflicient.' Ilc, however renewed the proposition, even to the thir'tl
time; (which being still rejected) he sent to him n fomulc tl'inkct, with
tbie message: 'It being eJid my Cuther is not II mnn, let him therefore
decorate himself with an ornament of this dcscript.ion,' 'l'lrnt monarch
enraged with him, thus spoke (to his courtiers); 'Order a goltl 1h11i11 to
be mnJe, with which I ahall fottcr him; not being nblc to restrain him
by any other means.' Ilc (the Prince) indignnnt whir his pnre1lt, ru
tiring (from his court) fled to (Kutta in) tbe M11layu. 11:s1rict [Kotmi,lic).
}'l'Om this circ11rnstn11ce of Iris having become ( 1 duttlra') i11imic11l to hi!I
futlrcr, he ncquirccl from that dny tire appcllntion, 'Dutthng{1111ini.'"-
TuaNoua's Mnhnwnnso, p. 145. 'fire Il6.jawaliya, narruting 1lre ~amo
e,ent, add, that tire prince first "flt?d to Gilimali\, nml hn,irfg hid lrinm!lr
there for severnl days, fled from theuco to tho place lallc,I Kntmnlit?,'"

the two summits of the B~na Samanala are. This is

owing to the lowness of the level, which is probably not
more than seventy feet higher than the sea. On the way from
Go1Jigamuwa, at the points where the road rises by the bank
of the Kalu-gavga, all the three peaks are distinctly seen
when the sky is clear; but the lower the path det!cends, the
more the Peak of the Hoiy Foot-print seems to shrink out
of sight, until it is wholly hidden by the mountains that
begirt the Gilimalc plRin.
The bungalow where we breakfastedun our first excurt!ion,
and where, notwithstanding we brought all our supplies with
us, we were most hospitably entertained, and made to
partake of the owner's abundant fare, was the '\Valawwa
or mansion of Laksha l\1udiyansell1ge Punchi Bandura,
)Iahatnmya of GiHmalc. It lies a short distance to the
east of the road passing through the plain, where it is

"Well set with fair fruit benring trees and groves,

all populous with dove~.
And ,vatered'by a wandering clear green stream,"-

the Guruluwan-gai.,1ga,-which flows in a northerly <lfreetion

to join the Hatuln., a tributnry of the Kalu-gayga. While
breakfast was preparing we adjourned to the adj11cent river
for a bath; the stream was broad und rocky, and in some
11arts deep; the water cool, clear and most refl'eshing; and , ,
nbonnding with numerous sm~II fish, of two ltirids in parti
cular;-one, apparently a species of perch, from two to four
inches in length, with red month, tail, and fins, and banded

vertically with alternnte stripes of black and silver from

head to tail; the other smaller and more slender, of a dusky
brown colour with a longitudinal black 1:1tripe on either side.
Both were bold and fearless, and swarmed about us when
we rested, pecking at our limbs with their mouths, and pro-
ducing a sensation as if we were being pricked with a
multitude of blunt pins. Their elegance of form n.nd beauty
of colour should make them . valuable acquisitions to
riums, as mnch so as the Chinese gold and silver fishes, to
which one kind seems to be allied.
On the opposite side of the plain, running south, and
forming its western boundary, flows the Kalu-gai,1ga,-here,
n. t the GiH male Parapa-totupola, very pictmesq ue and sy 1van,
with a fine shelving sandy bed,-a stieam altogether to be
p1efc1"red to bathe in; with its gentle windings, slmcly banks
o'crhung with trees, and placid waters, which

"to their restiug phice Sl!rcnc

Cnme freshening and reflecting all the scene
(A mirror in the depth of flowery shelves:)
So sweet a spot of earth, you might, ( [ ween)
Have guessed some congregation of 1bc elves
To sport hy summer moons bad shaped it for tbcmselve1..''

The Bandura family came originally from the Maritime

Provinces: The cause of their settlement in GiHmalc, we
were informed, was as follows.-The grandson of Ruja-
Siyha II., King Sri Wi'ra Pritkrama N ercndra Si!Jha, the

last of the Siyhalese born so.vercigns of Ceylon, who reigned

A, D. 1685-1707, was con.iidcrably addicted to drinking,
and apt, when in his cups, to resolve upon strange freaks.
He was nevertheless, from a Bddhist point of view, a pious
monarch, who devoutly repaired and endowed viharns, and
otherwise benefited Buddhism and Buddhist priests. Oue
day, when on n visit to Sitawaka, he took it into his head
to wish for a light to be exhibited on the universally
supposed inaccessible summit of the mountain Kunudiya-
pnrvatc. None of the Kandinns would mnkc the attempt,
whereupon one Dandiha, from Pagoda, a village near Cotta,
undertook the tnsk, and after spending much time and
o,ercoming mnny difficulties, succeeded. The king saw the
light, and royally rcwar<lcd Dandu.ra with grants of land:
tl1cse lands his descendants still l'Ctain.
After, to which our liberal host added plantains,
oranges, curdled milk, and a variety of curries, we indulged
in a few hours' res\, ancl did not resume our journey until
3 P. M, Then, divesting ourselves of sundry articles
of drcs,, such as coats, waistcoats ancl neck-tyes, aud
grasping light tough sticl.;s some five feet long, courteous!~
presented to us by our hcist, we went on our way, as light
hearted and merry-and I may add, in our purple, plaid,
crirm:ion and grey woollen shirts, varied-shaped pith and felt
bend-gear, and dissimilar cut nnd coloured nether gnr-
mcnts-as picturesque a qunrtette of pilgrims as ever trodc
the pilgrim's path in that or auy other direction. One of our
number, nrmed with a clonble barrelled gnn, was to sporting

tastes inclined, but the number of pilgrims journeying to

and fro had made hoth bird nnd benst shy of the road we
were taking, and sport we had none; an occasional l!lhot or
two, however, nwoke the echoes of the woodland wilds, and
reverberated amongst the mountains that rose on either side
of us with a grand and sometimes etnrtling effect,
From GiHmalc to Palabaddala, where we purposed_
sleeping, a distance of six miles, the country begins to
assume a more rugged and mountainous appearance; the
ascents becoming higher and steeper, and the descents
deeper nnd more difficult; the route in fact traversing some
of the outlying spurs of mountnins, into a cl1ain of which we
were pcnctrn.ting.
Shortly after leaving Bnndl'ira l\lnhntmnyd.'s ,valnwwa,
we came to the Tunto!n 'fcl'ry, which crosses the Hatuln-
gniJga; her~, at its junction with the Kalu-gavgn, a broad
nnd rapid~but somewhat shallow stream, overhung with
clumps of the tall grncefully waving feathery bamhu, and the
wide-spread branches of many a noble forest tree. Proceed-
ing onwards through a well wooded country, we crossed the
Pnhalewala cdnn~a, and the Saman watte ~lln,-so called,
because the land through which the 91111. flows belongs to the
Saman Dewale. Four low hills followed, from 60 to 100
feet in height, at the bases of which flow '<loins' of various
nnmes. We were now upon the bank of the rushing
l\IaskeliyagaJJga. A bridge was being constructed over

'Muskcliya,' playing ~fthc fishes.


the river i11 lieu. of the oM rocky ford,-a difficult passage

at best, and at .times decidedly dangerous, The site of
the bridge was some distance above the ford; a huge
precipitous boulder formed a natural abutment on one side,
and a masonry one bad been built to correspond on the other,
The river, rushing from the north down a mountain gorge,
strikes and ponds up against a mass of rock that cau!!es it to
make an abrupt bend to the west. In making the bend,
close to the right of the bridge, it swells into a deep lake-like .
pool, the waters of which swarm with _plump, inky colourccl
fish, about 18 inches long, with large well defined scales.
They were called by the natives oropulle, and were said to
be unfit for food; this however is not the case, unless it be at
special seasons; but it is certain they are not held in esti-
mation, and are but rarely eaten. This particular part of
the river is called Nana-wala, the king Sri Wikrama Raja
Si1Jha, the last of the Kandian sovereigns, having used it as
a bathing place. 1
The bridge wat1 about 60 feet in length, in two spans
of 30 feet each, supported in the centre by woo.den piles:
its height above the,watcr was about 30 feet. Coming up
to this, and observing that in its then state one half consisted
of but t\VO round untrimmed trunks of iron wood trees,
between two ancl three feet apart, and the other of two
similarly placed trees, roughly squared; and that the only
side support was a loose swinging hand-rail of jungle cane,
I paused in dismay, not pcrcci\'ing the ford, about a hundred
yards lower down, ancl not at all reli~biog the neces~ity for


venturing along so perilous looking n path. On the oppoL"ite

side howevcl', numbers of pilgrims were assembled, who had
all crossed in safety, and my companions, all more or. less
accustomed to such matters, encouraging me to make the
attempt, on I went, hardly daring to lift one foot after the
othc1, until I reached the squared timber, when I breathed
more freely, and in a second or two f'ch my11clf wonderfully
relieved, as I ngnin trod the solid earth. :From the bridge ii
short ascent led to a pntch of comparatively level ground,
perhaps 100 feet above the level oftlrn scn, where wo wcl'e
overtaken by a ,-mnrt t!howc1, and gladly availed ourselves
of the ,-helter of a boutique on the waysi,le, until it had
pnsscd away.
The charaetcristic features of the ecenel'y from the right
bank of t_hc i1askeliya-g1rnga, where we crossed the stream,
differ coni-id,mibly from those we left behit1d us on our wny
from Gilimale. There, it w11s open, undulatory, park like;
and "from the many jessaminc~, from the ,ariontl ornnge
flowers, from the citron and lime, from the areka, from
innumerable plantt1 and flowering trees arise divers pcrf;nncs,
which blended in the morning dew and wafted on the early
breeze, afforded the most delicate and exquidite frngrnncc."
Here, it was the rising hase of a mountain range thickly
clothed with magnifiGent forest trees, straight as pines, and
from fifty to seventy feet in height. Gigantic creepers

llujor Foaot:s' Eicvcn Yenrs in Ceylon, vol. i. p. 167.

146 ADAM'S l'F.AK.

h,incd ahout the .trunks, ancl with serpentine convolutions

!Ip rend from tree to tree; orchi<ls 1m<l mosses and lichens .
o,eigrcw their bark; while a floral undergrowth breathml
rich odours nnd scented tl1e nir with sweets of a diffel'ent
bnt not Jess fragrant perfume. Passing through the for~st,
and crcstir1g selcral hilJs that rose c>nch higher. than the one
hd1iml, we came to Ali-lu'tntcnne, n tract of dense canes
or Lnttnlecs, crossed in all directions by numer(!US eleplmnt
trnck11. This wns e,idently one of the favourite feeding
grounds of that monarch of the forest, as the name it bore
Jlainly enongh inclic1ted. Beyond this is an exten~ive
marsh, thickly co,ered with large reeds,-" the estuary of
rceJs" uf Ibn Batnta,-a swampy distiict, not at ali plea-
11nnt to pa~s at nny senson, wet or dry, owing to the swarms
of leeches tl1nt infest it: and further on is Bntapola, a pnrt
of the domnin of the Bandura family. Here temporary
bungalows are put up for the accommodation of pilgrims.
On the right of the path in the upwnrd ascent, is one of the
ca,es which Ibn Batuta refers to in his nnrmtive. It is
formed by a strnight fissure, in shape like an immense
inverted v, A, running Jongituclinnlly through a huge
boulder forty feet in l1mgih, from twelve to fifteen feet in
height, nnd proportionally bl"Oarl. In a clistmt range in the
same direction is seen the 1\lnpanan~?lla water-faJI, leaping
clown the mountain side on its way to join the 1\laskeliya-

The clcplrnnt chcua plain,

ADAM'S l>EAIC. 147

"There wa, the river helll'J in bed er wn,tl1

(A precipice of foam from 111oun111i111 bn,wn),
Like tuniults hear,! from sume for distant town:
But softening in nppronch he left hi~ gloom
And murmured plcfll!nntly, nnd l11i<l liiin 1lown
1'0 kiMs those en~y curving b111iks of bloom
'l'hat lent the windwartl nir an exquigite perfume.''

A steep and rough ascent, for a considerable distnnce

from Bn!apoln,-mi<lway in which 11 stone tumulu:i hns been
erected on the spot where the remains of an old priest were
burncd,-brings the pilg1im to Palubad<lnln, "the house of
the old woman," according to Il.m llntuta, "and the farthct1t
inhabited part of the island ot' Ceylon," that hi, when he
tl'llvclled through it, aliout fi\'c hundred and thirty year~ agn.
Although fatiguing, the wnlk from Hatimpura to Pnlil-
baqdala, from tJie rich variety of i!Cenery one IJ!lSSC:l through,
ii:; ve~y eujoyable, especially if the weather be fine: and in
thi.i ret-pect our fir::1t excursion wns all thnt couhl be de~irc<l.
It was not so on the two suLscqnent occasion~. Opportu-
nity sening, nsecond trip wns rcsol\'ctl upon in the wmally
fine and dry mouth of September; hut the cycles of the
i;casons are undergoing a change, and the month turned out
nn exel'ptionally wet one. it was not the 11ilgl'i111 11e11:1011,
and us C11lo111bo coolies were to u11dert11ldng- the
journey further than Rntnnpura, it wns possiblo thnt our
11rogrc.,s might be delayed for wnnt of ns8i::1tancc nlong the
uninhabited district!!; owing however to the good o!ficeti

!..,.__ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ /.

most ;eadily rendered us hy Mr. F. R Saunders, the Asiji,it,.

ant Government _Agent, and the rlirections given to their
subordinates by the Chief priest of the Peak and the Rate-
mahatmaya of the K6ralc in which the Samnnaln is situated,
we were pnt into communication with the Giuuirachchies
(petty heailmeu) ofGocJignmuwa, Gilimalc, and Haghapolla,
(a village near PnlubadJala), and through them were cn~bled
to bire, at different 8tngcs, as many coolies ns we rlesired,
at the rate of 9rl. n. day. gknc;ligo1Ja Ra temahatmayu also
plncetl at our service one of hi11 retniner~, a man whci knew
e\'ery inch of the route, and w1111 in every re~pect a valua.hlc
acquisition to our pnrty.

The services of Huch a man arc invnluable on uny similar journcy in

the juuglc in Ceylon; he wns a c:ipi,tnl shot, nm\ never at a !OR$ for re-
sources; un<I I heni-tily agree with the following tribute p11id him by one
of my companions:-" If c~er there wns a right man in rhc r:gbt pince,
Francina was the mnn, I Heady, willing, active, inexhaustible in expe
dicnt, and che, rful urrder all dim1,11lty, he never foile,I us. llc always
f . wu~ ready to time, always came up smiling, and if under trying circum
~tanc.:Ls, in poRirions somlltimes that would huvc 1educcd .Mark Tapley to
the brink of suidcle, we were ~nnbled to bear discomforrs which vex the
spirit of even II gnod man, with a jolly phil11sophy-e111l we certainly
dicl-wl1y it wus to 1"rn11cinn's dinners in n !Hrge men~ure Lhnt we oweJ it,
Jo'oriitlctl by tho~c dinners we d~licd obslncles, the adverse spirits of 'the
l'cnk, the evil gcuii of the way, um! th~ clerk of' the we111hcr," Our
i111crprckr, l\lr Solo111011 ,Ju~Lin Hchcr11, nloo provcJ 11 11,cl'ul'intclligcnt
11ih111t to 11; lint the pilgri111:1gc k1101;kc1l him up, nm\ he returned to
I:ut1111purn, 11101c futiguc'1 1lm11 lithcr of hi J,~uroplnn cmploy~rs,

.ADAM'S PE.AK. 149

It wa11 Jnte in the afternoon ,vhen "'e started, and we did

ncit reach ~ll~pita Ferry until the sun had set, 'rhe rest of
the way to Gilimale was in the durk; and o.s a drizzling
rain was continually falling, the "chulcs" or torches thnt
we lighted were of no great me. Punchirula., ancl ?tluda-
lihumi, the Ganiuachchies of GocJigamuwa and GiHmal6,
niet us on the road, and the latter provided house-rqom for
us in his bungalow on the plain, where white cloths were'
spread above and around the apartment allotted to onr
use; our train of 11ervnnta and coolies finding shelter in the
ncighboUl'ing huts. Our fir,it care was to get rid of the
leeches which had swarmed over us while tramping along the
slumpy pachl)_'. fields, or through the dripping jungle. The

~o description will con\'cy to the re11clds mind 11 better idcn ofthcso

peats, than the following by worthy old Root:aT ICNox.-" The1-e is a
sort oflcechd of the nature of ours, only diff~ring iu colour nncl bigness;
for they arc ~f 11 durk reddish colour like the .~kin of bncon, And llS big as
a gon~e quill; in length, some two or three inches. 'At first, when they
arc young, they nre no bigger thnn n horsclmir, so thnt they enn scnrco
be seen. In dry wcnther none of them apr,cnr, but immediately upon
the full of rnins, the gr.iss and wood~ are full ol' them, 'l'hcse leeches
seize upon the leg~ of trnvcllcrs, who, going b11refont, nccording to the
custom of thnt Jund, hnve them hnnging upon their leg~ in multitu1leK,
wliich suck their blood till their bellies are full, nnd then drnp otl: 'l'hcy
come in such quantities, th11t the people c.innot pull them off' so fast as
they crawl on: thli blnoll runs pouring down their legs nil the ,woy they
go, am! it iR no little Hmllrt neither; so thnt they would willingly be
withnut, Lhcm if they could, c8peciully those that huve sore~ on their legs;
for they all gather to tlm sure, Some, therefore, will tic II piece ~f lemon

night was boisterous, ancl the rain fell in torrents; and at day-
break we learnt.the l\luskeiiya-gn1Jga was imp11ss1Lble. We
were in the positiun of J aeon of old on his way to Iolchos,

" ... lightly through the w~ll-known woodH he pnsscd,

And cnme out to the open plain nt Inst,
Aml went till night came on him, 11111\ then Rlept
"'ithin a home8tead thnt a poor mnn kept.;
And roRe ag11in at dawn, nnd slept that night
.Nigh the Annurus, and at morro1v's light
Hu~e up and went into the rhe1's brim;
But fearful seemed the pus~nge unto him,
For swift and yellow drn,e the stream n<lown
''l'wixt crumbling bnnkH; ancl tree trunks rongh and 1,rown
Whirl'd in the bnbhling e1ldies here 11111\ there;
Su !wollen wnR I he. stream n mnid might dare
To eross, in fuir days, with unwettcd knee,"

,ve ,vere not, like him, fortunate enough to find a go<ldess

to help us ac1oss; the torrent raged furiously over and

and. salt in a rag, and fnRten i~ unto a !tick, and ever and anon strike it
upon their leg! to make the leeches drop off: others will scrape them olf
with a reed, cut flat and sharp in the fashion of a knife; but this is so trouble-
some, and tluiy come on again so fast nnd ~o numerous, that it is not worth
_their while: nml gener,,lly they suffer them to bite; nml remnin on their
legs during their journey; nnd they ,lo the more pa1ie111ly permit them,
because it is so wholesome fi,r them. \\"hen they come to thPir journey'd
enrl, they rul, nil their lcg! wilh ashes, an,1 so clcnr tbemReh-es of them
at once; but s1ill the blood will remnin dropping a great while after."


among the rocks and boulders, nnd the bridge had, months
ago, been swept away. Shortly nfter the 'bur.-t of the men
soon, in the monthof May, the floods from the mountains,
checked by the bend of the river, rotie rnpidly to R height of'
forty feet, and completely submerging the banks, whirled to
destruction every impediment they met with. On their
sub~idence it was found the bridge wns gone, the masonry
abutment on the right bank destroyed, nnd only R few logs
of the entire timbe1 work of piers nnd pnthwny, left stranded
here and there on either bank.
"~ e at firtit thought the nnti~es were trying to frighten
us from going further, but on ascertnining the state of
affair!! for ourselves, we roturned to Gilimalc, and waited
to see what aeother day would bring forth; in the mean-
time a few pigeons, kingfishers, orioles, jungle crows and
other birds, were shot, and a little taxidermy practi~ed with
a view to the preservation of their skins. Starting early
the next day, we with some difficulty effected a passage;
nlthough in crossing the liatula-gngga, we found that tlll\t
river had fallen four feet during the previous twelve hours.
The ford, where we crot1sed, was fully a hundred and fifty feet
,Yide from bn11k to bank, and we had occasionally to make a

A lil'i<l~e-l1ns ngain and ngnin been put up ltcre; but only to be swept
nwuy ss often ns erected. It is understood to be the intention of the
' Chief priest of the Sd-pada to erect n suspension bridge of a single spnn;
raised sulficicntly high to ensure it ngninst destruction from cntnstr<>pliics
similar to those \Vhich destroyed its predecessors.

jump from one rock to another, in places where a slip woul<l

have been followed by inevitable destruction; unless. one
had .the good fortuno to be caught by or against a length of
c~ble-ratan which had been partially stretched across the
bed of the ril'cr, apparently with a view to rendering n~sist.-
ancc in case of po,siblc accidcnt:1. The worst place W11S ncnr
the, right bank, where a mighty tree had been overthrown, the
trunk of which stretched diagonally over the deepest channel
of the rher, a chasm down which the waters were rushing
and tumbling iii tumultuous foam. A liiri;c limb of the tiee
wns jammed between the rocks on one side of' the channel,
while the roob1 were stuck fast in the other. Up this limb,
ancl along the wet nnd slippery trunk, and down the roots,
each one lm<l to pass ere ho could gain the opposite bank,
It was a nerve trying operation, and under such circum-
stances heavy nailed boot~ certainly do not give one a feeling
of security. Here the shoeless natives had u. decided ad
vantage over us. Scveml of these indeed declined trying
the tree; and ~lingit\g their loads on bambus, waded two anrl

1'his rntRn iM a Rpccics of. Calam,u, occnsionnlly found 300 feet in

ll'ng1h, nn inch in 1li11111~ter, nnd with ftcnrccly any difforcnce in thickncR1
throughout it~ entire length. From itH lightncsR, Rtrength nnd tn11ghm1sM,
it hnM Leen empfoycd by t.hc nntivc! with Htriking success in tlmformntion
of HllHpcnRion bri,lgc! nvcr water-cnurHllM nu I rnviirns. Descriptions of
the~e Lr-idgcM arc given Ly both Sir J, E. Tennent, and Major l?orbcs.
Ju the wo1k by the latter 11 wuod engraving is gi vcn of the one whic!1
crossed the Dllllru-oyn, on the Trincumnllle rontl,

two among the rocks above wliere we crossed, probi11g the

depth of water with long 11tick11 a11 they went, sometimes
sinking to their armpit.I, but alwayi, so zigzagging as to fiod .
the shallowest part of the stream. They kne,v the river
ani we did not; and after all had passed, they declared that
but for our determination to go on, and the number we had
to render help to each other, they would not have Vlnturcd to
try the pas11age. Happily no accident occurred, and we
rer.ched Palabaddala with no further damage than that of
being wet through; with the exception of what happened
to one of the coolies, who, carrying a nitrate of silver bath,
the top of wl1ich was fortunately acrewed .on, in shifting his
load turned it upside down; a slight leakage followed, which
not distinguislring from the rain, he took no notice of; the
consequence was, that the brown skin of his back and chest
become covered with stripes anJ streaks of black, which,
whe_n 11. glimpse of sunlight broke through the clouds, shone
with a bright metallic l11st1e, nncl he w1\s very nearly believ-
ing he had been bewitched, or was undergoing punitihment
from Samnn for venturing through hi11 territoriet1 at ;10 on-
wonted a season. It was a sort of satisfaction to our minds
to find, on the third exeur8ion, that the natives thcm:!ches
ere not without feelings-of apprehension, sure-footed Qij they
are, and nonchalant as they seem to be. At tl1it1 same ford,
although the water was lower, and nothing ncer so fonmingly
boisterous as on our second journey, one of our coolies became
completely panic-stricken. He stood trembling on a rock in
the middle of the 1:1trenm, perspiration pouring out at every


pore rrom sheer drearl: move he could not; and we had .to
send two men to relieve him of his load, anything hut a
henvy one, and help him ove1: but ho would go no further,
ho hacl had enough of the pilgrimage, and we were obliged to
proceed without him.
Palabadclala,-or according to same authorities, P11la-bat,
dola,-stands on an ele\'atecl plateau, 1, l00 or 1,200 feet
above the sea. It consists or a village or hamlet, containing
several small irregul,,r streets, with sundry spacious open
bimgalows for the accommodation of pilgrims passing to and
from the Peak. Its ordinary population, according to Baba
Sinho, the intelligent Ganarachchi of IIaghapola, wns about
250; but thousands throng into it during the pilgrim season,
especially in the months of February, March and April,
In August 1866, the place was nearly. all burnt down by an
accidental fire; but wattle and daub huts, with cadjan roofs,
are soon run up again, and one good has perhaps resulted
from the fire, in that several of the bungalows are now
substantially roofed with tiles.
The following legend is connected with the place, and
accounts for its name. L_ong, long ago, a very poor woman
was desirous of performing the pilgrimage to the Srt:-p:ida,
but, owing to her extreme poverty, could take nothing with
her except some common jungle leaves, which in times of
distress the natives occasionally resort to for food; these she
boiled, and rolled up in a plaintain leaf; and having arrived
thus far, when about to partake of her food, she found
the boiled leaves Jiad been miraculously turoed into rice.

Thenceforward it wae called Pala-bat_-dola, "the plnce of

rice nnd vegetables," a n11me which it hae ever since retuincd,
The fact that rice wae substituted for the lcnves, is, no doubt,
correctly enough recorded; but the chauge ,vne one whic:h
it needed no miracle to effect; although if miracles were
needed at the time, the supply, as a matter of course, would
be created to meet the demand,
To the south of the hamlet, separated from it by a fi.ehl a
few hundred feet in brendth, is a quadrangular platform
about 90 feet long and 7 2 broad, raised three feet from the
ground, and approached by six roughly hewn steps, On
this is placed the Vihiira, a small modern building, adjoining
which is the D:lgoba, formed of' brick, about I:.! foet in height
and 70 in circumt'erence. In front of the dagoba is a stone
slab, 3ft. 6in. by 1ft. Siu., rah1ed 3ft. 6in. from the ground:
faint traces of 1\n inscription are ob11ervable u11on it, and it
is carefully l'.oofed over; it is used as au altar, on which the
Buddhists make their floral offerings to the dagoba. 'fhis
is apparently of cunsiderable antiquity, hut much dilnpidated;
it was partially grown over with n shrubby vegetation, the
roots of which were penetrating through and throutening to
de11troy it,
The vihli.ra contains a fac11imile in copper of a former
golden and gem-adorned cover aml rcpret1entation of the
Sri'-paJa, long since lost, or destroyed. Engravings, and
embossmentt! in silver, represent the 108 marks upon the sole
of the foot, which indicate their possessor to be a Buddha.
In this in11tance these are all rc11ret1entcd by lotus buds and

flowers, in vnrious stages of Jevelopment, A brass rim was

lyin~ by it in pieees, richly ehased nod engraved, and nt
one time adorned with precious stones; but the sockets they
once filled were now either empty, or filled with imitations
in glass. There was also an imi1ge of Buddha, in a stand~ng
position, about two feet high, made of an amalgam ~lied
"lokade," consisting of copper, brass, and three other metals,
the names of which the priests Jid not know. A silver
dagoba-11h11.pcd ~arandua, with a golden top, containing an
image of Buddha in bronze; and n shrine, covering a sedcnt
llucl<lha, about 11ix inches high, made of a stone callc<l
"kirigarunde," stood in front of the copper Sri'-pada. This
sh1inc was filled with dead flower$, and had certainly not
been lookc<l into for some time; for when the priest opened
it, to give us an opportunity of examining the figure, out
jumped a rat, and a family of young ones were discovered
left behind in their ne11t. The two officiating priests,
Uattembc unanse, and H11twelle ununse, re11ide in the central
str~et of the hamlet. ' W c were, on each of our visits, much
beholden to them for accommodation and information. They
are literally worshipped by the people, (and so, in fact, are
Buddhist prie11ts, by Buddhists, in all other places), to a

The Buddhns, sacred books, and the priesthood, are regnrde<l as

the three most prceions gems. 1'-hey ure oil associated in the three-fold
f'onnulnry rcpente,l by the Buddhist when he names, us an nei of worship,
the tri.111 to which he looks 1\.~ the ol\jectof his confidence and his refuge.".
-lbaDY's E11stc1"11 Monachism, p. 166.

greater extent even than the Sri-pada, and the da1goba;

and it was painfully pitiable to see men, women 1md children,
making their offerings of flowers, oil, money and valuables;
and bowing down in ndorntion before them.
It being nearly sunset when we arrived, and every i:iorner
apparently occupied, we were for a while puzzled, where to
find a resting pince, At last having told the interpreter to
make known our wants to the principal priest, ho was good
enough to allot to our use an unfinit!hcd house, which, al-
though its walls were ofundried clay, and one side was minus
both door and door-frame, was, happily for us, roofc<l in, and
gave us all the shelter we were actually in need of, In a
few minutes two rude bed-frames were also supplied, as well
ns a small table; and while our servants were preparing
dinner, we strolled out to observe what was going on around.
The pilgrims came and went, in a continuous stream of
companies of families, or villnges, some of them in regular
proccsz.<ion, headed by a party bearing an ornamented 1:1hrinc,
and accompanied by a band of shrill hornnnwa, tam-tam and
doula players, blowing and beating, and tormenting one's
tympanums with their noisy discords. All found quarters,
any where and every where, as best they coul,1. Amongst

The boranawa i~ a kind ofcl11rio11ett; the tum-tarn a smnll puir of

ketile drums slung in front or a mnn, and beaten with two ~lender ~ticks,
the extremities of which Hre bent into circles; tbo doula is an, oblong
drum, gener11lly beaten 11t one end with a dick, and on the other with
the hum!.

them were a few Hindu11, and a 11prinkling of !\'loormcn,

Some of these latter, with an eye to bui;iness, had ex tempo
rized a bazaar, where almost everything in a small way could
be bought by those who were so disposed.
" The place afforded a very interesting view. Situated
just at the commencement of the upwaid slope, the altitude
was scarcely sufficient to command much of a view of the
low country, but the prospect given of the mountain range
before us was fine indeed. A long barrier of mountains,
covered with dark forests, lay in our front, and it was up
one of the passes of these that our to-morrow's route would
lie. About half way lip the slope a long wall of perpendi-
cular rock stretched along the mountain front, anJ over this
cliff, many torrents were streaming in far resounding water-
falls, on which the evening sun-light was pleasantly playing.
At the extteme left of the range a noble mountain erected
its head to the clouds. 1 The mountain I refer to is called
Kunudiyaparvate. It extends from the low country in
one sheer, unbroken slope, to a height of upwards of 5;000
feet, enormous buttr~ss to the mountain range behind.
Towards its top it rises in precipitous rocks, and the black
shining surface of these lofty clifls were on the evening
that I watched them, all glowing in the lat1t rays of the sun,

The above extract is from a sketeb of our seeon<l excursion published

by one ofmy companions. It will be understood that all simillll' matter
distinguished by marks of quotation, but to which no name or authority-
is given, is from the same pen.


then setting behind thci western hille. Shortly after,v'arde

the cloucla lowered cin the mountain, nnd thd beautiful view
became lost in the night."
Our appearance rather excited the curiosity of the people,
and when we dined, we ate our meal in state-a state which
we would ha,e didpensed with had it been possible, for we
were gazed upon the whole time by as many fellow 11ilgrimsas
could crowd their heads in at the open doorway. They were
not however otherwise rude or uncourteous; but did all that
lay in their power to assist us in our wants. As the moon
rose, it being nearly full, and the sky clear1 the nppenrance
of the place wns animated enough ;-here, companies of men,
women and children, clustered round their cooking fires,
eating their food, or chanting Buddhist legends;-therc,
light!ld by the glare of numerous torches, throngs intently
liateriing to inen reading aloud from olas:-in one place, a
number looking on and applauding the musicinns, as they
danced an accompaniment to their music;-in another, de-
votees surrounding a portable shrine, worshipping the small
image it contained, and depoi;oiting their offerings in a cup or
basin placed before it. '\Ve did not-escape the notice of the
tarn-tarn beat_el's, who formed up before, and treated us to
their be1t performances; nnd the wny in which the two
dancers, each beating a pair of kettle-drums slung before
him, rattled away wit.It stick and elbow nnd pnlm, and kept
time with the seated douln, or big drum beater, and the
hol'anawa blower, was marvellously strange and grotesque.
Rewarding them with a few rupees, by way of getting rid

of them, we laid down to try and sleep; but the continual

noise occasioned by . fresh ban<li, of pilgrims arriving and
departing, was of so disturbing o. nature, that we no sooner
dozed off than we were awakened, and were only too
glad at last to hail the rising of the sun as a signal to pro-
ceed ourselves. It must be ownecl, our beds were not of the
most sleep-inducing' kind. Two of us lay on frames, the
canes of which were at least three inches apart; a couple of
rough plnnks, ancl n. door taken off its hinges, served the
otl1er two: but we had not expected luxuries; we had pro-
vided ourselves with rugs, and for the rest supposed we
should have to rough it; and we found our suppositions here
and there fully realised; The unfini11hed house we occupied
was one being built for t~e 1priests, and on our subsequent
visits we found the i:-ooins pleasant quarters enough. The
worthy unanses g11ve us a hospitable welcome, and the best
accommodation the pince atfmd~d, and we were abundantly

; I
~dam's ~~nit.

11 Where'er we gaze, around, above, below,

What r~nbow tints, what magic chnrma are r?undl
Rock, ri.ver, forest, mountain sll nbound,
And bluest .skies, thnt hnrmonize the whole:
Benenth, the distant torrent's rushing 1ound
'fells where the volumed entnrnct doth roll
Uctwecn those hanging rocb, that shock yet ple111e. the soul,"
).) --- DtB01',




AFTER performing our morning ablutions in the presence

of a number of persons, who wntched our proceedings in-'
tently, if not admiringly, we took, from n stand point nenr
the vihara, nnd while wniting for coffee, a rupid survey -
of the scenery around. To the north of Pnlabaddala. rises
Kunudiya-parvatc, the monarch of nll the mountain ranges
within view. Running south nnd shouldering agnim1t it, as


it were, i11 a range consisting of tho Kondagala, Nili-

hcla, and Kc;killagala mountains. 'fo the southwest are
the mountains Dcw~nagal:i, l\Iorangala, N awemeneagala,
nnd Kanugaln-kanda. In the distance, southwards, beyond
Ratnap'uru, arc tbe two .high mountain's Amliuldeniaknnda
and Kanugala-knnda; and through the valley . between
them, is seen another high range one of the moun-
tains of which appeared to have a double summit, not
unlike thnt of the B~na Samanala. Our path lay up by
Kondagala and over ~ilihela. Passing out of Palabaddala
by the cast, a glimpse of the top of the Peak is caught
nbove the mountains, and is hailed with tlhouts of" Sadhu! "t
by all true pilgrims, both going and returning. As the
crow flies, the distance between the two points is not more
than three and a half miles'; but the height to be sur-
mounted was still 6,250 feet above where we 1,tood; and by
the pilgrims' path, the distance to ,be tra\'ersed was at least
ele,cn . miles. The intervening country forms n po.rt of
whnt is knowu ns the "wilclemcss of the Peak." A walk
of a furlong and a half, partly through paddy fields, brought
us to nn upper branch of the K1ilu-gai.,1ga, which is cros~ed
by a well-constructecl rustic bridge, about thirty feet in ~pan,
and three feet wide, floored with short mopas (t,ticks an inch in

Qurerc "G11llcnakanda." It is sometimes ,lifficult to catch the exnct

names of 11lnce1 when A}lokcn in n language not familiar to lhe listener.
t S{ulhu I '-njnyous exel11m11tioo. ,. Wcll-llone ! Good! In a t'elii;ious
~nse, eq11iv11lc11t pcrhnps to Ilnllcluj~lt !

' \
ADA!\l'S PEAK. 163

diameter). The river here runs-down a steep and somewl1at

gloomy looking rocky ravine, and rrom this point, about
a hundred feet higher than Palabnddala, the difficulties of
the journey may be said to begin. Immediately after passing
the bridge, the ascent is by a steep climb up the mountain
side, here called Pawam_ili-hcla; half an hour of this ___ .
work, and pasoing a huge o,erhanging rock, we ~me to the
village Uda Pawan-t;lla, consisting of a few bungalows on
narrow plateaux, rising one above another, They belong to
the Bnndara family; and arc of essential service to pil~rim~,
who gene.rally halt at tl1em for a while, Just below, there is
a email plantation of coffee, growing under the shnde of tall
forest tree~, among which some eper.imcns of the cotton
family are conspicuous. This is the last regularly inhabited
station, the elevation being about 1,500 feet above the sea,
,vhen we first passed it, the bungnlows were crowded, and as
we did not caro to stop, we pushed along up the path, which
is simply the not always dry rocky bed of a mountnin
torrent, with here and there n few laclderd of junglo sticks
to nssiBt the traveller up a more than 01dinary precipitous
piece, elsewhere with notches cut in the rock to afford a
foot-hold;"' and for the rest an asecn'ton and over gnarled and

"The walk from Gilimnle to Polabnddnl& is hy no menu1 an ensy

one, although mul'h inferior in difficulty and steepness to tlmt immcdintely
auccceding...... This pnrt of the rood is by far the most difficult nnd
precipitous; in lnct, much moro so considering the extent, tlmn nnything
I could have Mnpposed posMible. I hnd ascended Den L11mo11d nnd

interlacing roots of trees, and stones and steps of every size

and ahnpe, from three inehea to three feet in height, the
average gradient being one in two--aome parts of which can
scarcely be o,ercomc othcrwi:1e than by crawling up on all
Two wearying miles of this kind of toil brought us to the
Nilihcla amhnlama, a welcome halting place on a level of
a few yards length; nnd a station celehrnted for the loud
and reiterated echoes thrown back from it:1 surrounding
mountain walls nod stupendous precipices. Here we rested,
and while partaking of a roughly prepared breakfast, entered
into con\'crsntion, through our interpreter, with some of our
fellow-pilgrims. One oM man, leading l1is family, told us
this was his 51st trip; another, that he was returning from
hi:1 52nd; and a third, whom we subsequently overtook, old,
feeble, and tottering, and supported by son and grandson,
was making bis 56th journey.
Not far from the ambalama, near a bend of the path, a small ,
patch of cleared jungle Icade to the ledge of a te1rible
precipice; where it is said a fair and sprightly girl having
carrlessly stepped aside, fell over and was dashed to death
in the abyss below. Her name was Xilihela, and her fate is

Snowlon, the latter after a lmrd day's walk, which I eonsider~d no

ordinary achie,ement; but anything like the abcer.t from Palo.bnddala to
. Diy11betma, I bod neve1 before; dreamt of. It w~s a constnnt suceessicm
of tl1e most precipitous bill~ to, be climbed, one af1er ,the other, with
wearisome uniformity anu unvarying uiffieulty."-History of Ceylon, b,.
w; K111G11To11, i84s, p. 301. 1
\ ..
.ADAM'S PEAK. 16.5

commemorated by the place being named after her. It is

customary accordingly for the pilgrims as they pass to shout
out Ni:Jihell\-akkc! "sister Nilihda!" and in a second a dis-
tinct double echo comes back,-a voice they think, from the
spiiit of the girl, in answer to their call; the fancied answer
being 'eiiiut! '-coming. The elevation hero i~ about 2,700
feet. "The precipice is almost hidden by the vegetation
which grows on its face. Looking over it you view a valley
of immense depth, all filled with lofty forests, and on the
opposite side of the chasm you are fronted by the long lofty
precipice vi~ible to us the previous evening from Palitbadalla.
Here we had a splendid view of the [8] wntcrfulls, which
now ran full and strong, from the effects of the night's heavy
rain. One was a broad deep stream, which leaped at two
long bounds into the chasm below, where its roar was
deepened by the reverberations reflected from the 1mrround-
ing walls. Others were thin gauzy films of foam, others
long drawn threads of silver, and each had a tone which
contributed to the loud deep harmony of the whole."
"The e,eJJing mists, with censeless chnnge,
Now clothed the mount11i11s' lofty rnnge,
Now left their forehcnds bnre,

"To show how these strenms depend on the-immcdinte rains, I may

here mention, tho.t on visiting the snme pince the next do.y, on our ri>turn,
we saw thut nearly nil of the tall@ had disnppeared, o.ncl the pince of the
_largest one was now only mnrkcd by the bare dry rocks over which it
roo.rcd on the preceding day.''
166 ADAM'S PEA}{,

.And round tbo skirts tl.ieir mantle furled

Or on the Hble w1tt<>rs eurlecl,
Or, on the eddying breezes whirle1l
Dispersed in middle air,
And, oft eonclensed at once they lower, ,.
,vhen, brief and fierco, tho mouutain shower
Pours like a torrent down,
And when return tl1e sun'd gliid beams
"'hiten'd with foam a thousand streams
Lc:ap from the mountain's crO\vn." ,,

The next object in tbc ascent to wliicli our a.ttention was

drawn was a stone or pebble tumulu:!, which we at first sup-
posed marked the Inst resting place of some pilgrim who had
died on the rond; we were however mi:.stnken in our surmise,
It seems it is the prnctice for ench pilgrim to deposit a small
stone hero, nnd to pray to Saman-Dcwiyo to grant him a
renewnl of strength nnd enable him to proceed nnd finish his
pilgrimage, These small mounds arc of frequent occurrence
further on. A long pointed jutting !!lab of rock was next
pointed out to u~, called Uruhota, "the pig's snout." Not
very long ngo, our informant said, the resemblance between
the rock arid a hog't1 snout was remarkable, but from some
causc,-probably to facilitate the asccnt,-thc end had been
broken off by some one, nnd the name is no longer applicable.
l3cyond this is the site of the G~tnnctul-gala ambalama.

This no longer exists, but on a rock below where it stood, is

" The Lorcl of the Isles.'' By Sir W Al,TER ScoTT,


a rough insr.ription after the opposite fashion;

what the charaeter11 mennt we could not learn.
The elevation wM about 3,100 feet.
Proceeding onwards, the mountuin still rises
for five or six hundred feet, when there is a dip, and in a
nenrly level hollow, of the length of nbout a hundred and
eighty y1mls,-a part of the pilgrims' path in faet,-:--is the
Knlu-gal}ga-d6wa, the source of the Kalu-gnJJga. At this
elevation, 3,600, or 3,600 feet above the sea, we duly halted
at the spring which here welled out its crystal waters, in
order to quench our thirst, and otherwise refresh ourselvei!.
Nern the point where we entered this smnll dell or rnvine,
the down, n mere rill of water, runs down n chnnnel to the
south west. The headman and the nntives all agreed in call-
ing this the source of the Kalu-gn1Jga,-its highest,.or head
waters. Babn Sinfio said he had himself iraced its course
<lown to Gillmalc, and he wns therefore quite certnin about
it. From this 'down' a toilsome half mile of uphill walking
brougllt us to the top of the well known mountnin Diya
,Ye were now on the summit of the wnter-shed of this
part of the country. The streams we hnd hitherto crossed
run in a south or southwesterly'direetion; flowing more or
less directly towards the main branch of the Knlu-gal}ga,
Enst of Diyabetmn, "the division of the waters," they took a
northwesterly course, to be ultimately absorbed by the

'Dowa,' the source of a river.


Kuru-gnvga, as it winds its wny through the Kuruwiti

Kornlc. The small plain on the top of the about
3,800 feet above sea-level. . The fiist object that catches
the eye upon entering this plain on a clear day, is the Peak,
Shonts of rcvcrcnti11l salutation arc then chornsscd by the
pilgrims as the object of their journey thus bursts upon
their sight. Its appearance reminded us of l\lilton's dc-
ecription of the eastern gate of Paradiso. 'l'rue, it was no
"rock of alabaster," yet was it, and the pilgrims' path, and
the shrine, 1$Urmounting all
"pilml np to the r.lmulA
Con~pic!UOUA fnr, wimling with one ascent
Accessible from earth, one entrance high;
1'be rest was crnggy cliff, thnt overhung
Still as it rose, impossible to climu."

On the l!!o11th of the plain st:mds a dilapidated bungalow,

once a good substantial rest-house, built, the Gay-arachchi
told ns, for a lady, by Dasanayaka Nilnmc, in the Rajakariya
times, This lady, we understood, was the universally
esteemed wife of the Governor, General Sir. Robert Brown-
rigg. Onr informant seemed to take an interest in the
place, and added that his father was one of those who were
obliged to assidt in its construction, Uooflcss, doorlcse, and

A royal or Go'rcrnment service; under which system works were

executed by the compulsory labour of the inhabitants. This system was
abolished in 1832.



windowless, it is now utterly nbandoned, the interior being

choked up with rank vcgetatiou,

Mr. K:v1a11TO!f1 who visited tbe Peak obout 1844, 1mcl atnyed a night
in this building, thus notices it. "'rho Ambolom at Diyubetmo, is a largo
uncomfortable tilcrl building, having two rooms surrounded hy 11 kincl of
walled ,crnndnh ofpeculin1ly forbidding 119pcct. Th,i interior of it, aa
may be eoRily imagined, is n tlnmp, clo~c uocomfortublc cell, the floor
being nf corth, nn<l so thoroughly Hntir.&tccl with the hcnvy d.:,u of' the
district, thnt the guido informc,l m<', it was nevl!r known to be dry.
1'he nmbuh1m stnnils in the corner of n s11u1II pluin, clenrcd of ils brush
wood for s short di~tnnce round the buil,Jing The tcmper.iturc of tl10
pince wns so refreshing, that [ felt compuratively little futigncd by my
ex1irtion, whilHt the poor coolies who nccomra1;ied me, sot upon the dnmp
cold earth the very pil!tures of misery uml chilliness. 'l'wo of tho n11111ber
were busil7 e;1gogcd in encfonvours to obtnin n spnrk from the flint nml
steel, in which however.they di,! not snccccd; nnd seeming utterly un-
conscious ofnny other wny of warming themselves, ihcy hucl1llcd together
inn eorncr .uncl lny clown to sleep. Il11ving dincll upon a little brcrul
iuid cold b~con, which we hod fortunatuly brought with us, wosl1cd
down with lilmtio1rn from the brnncly 11:L~k, I wrappc1l my blanket ro11111l
ml!, and endeavourl!cl to compose myself t,o rest upon the bumboo pint
Corm supported by four ruggcl sticks, that served me for choir, tnl,lc,
eouch no,I Kiilebonrd. This wns a vain nttempt however; for what with
the noise of elephants, ehcctuhs, monkeys, jungle enta, jungle fowls nnd
crowK, it wus utterly impos~iblc even to doze, bcKido the plcRRont ex
pcctntion ofhuviug some of the former ns viKitunt~ (for our mud edifice wna
without cloors) ,luring tlie long dork night tlmt wns nppronching. I lny
with my wnlking stick in my bond during thnt tcdiou~ night, li~tcning hnur
sftcr hour to the roar of the elephanh, and the screams of tire chcetnhs,
which were often, to all uppearnncc, within n very &hort distnnel! of


A <lcsccnt of about forty feet brouglit us to Diyabetma

Di;pata, a rocky 11trcamlct, when WO again commenced an
nsccnt, croesing ri,lgc nftcr ridge on our upward route,
Between these ran strcnms, the most remarkable of which
id the Idilrntu11ane, a brpacl watcr-cour;ie, fifty feet in width,.
ofbare, smooth, slab rock. This name was given to the place
because of a legend which asserts that Bud,lha, on one his
vi~its to Samanala, stuyc<l here awhile to mend his robes;
while so occupied, his terrible opponent, the great demon
"'asawarti-1m'i.rnya, first causell the rock to rise to Lar his way;
finding that to be useless, he then caused a torrent of water
to rush down upon the spot wherehe was seated. Buddha,
seeing the flood approaching, merely traced a semicircle
before him with the needle he was using, when the waters
parted right and left, a11<l the malice of the <lemon was
again <lcfoatc<l. On our second excursion, a sheet of water
was rnpi,lly rippling an<l running down the ~mooth rocky
_Led, an<l close to the place where we crossed, the stream

the l111u~e. However, it ie a long lane that has no turning,' and a still
lon:;rcr night that has no end,-morning dawned at last, and the mists
which had encirelcd'the mountain on which I stood the whole of the
preceding evening, like a vast sea of quiet foam, gradually wore away,
and a magnificent view rewarded us for the tedium of the preceding night
To the south and west was a long succe~sion of iil'egular hills, terminated
by an extended plain, which appenied fading off in the distance, lill
.terminated by the sea, whilst, in the north ii high range of hills abruptly
ended the prospect,"
'.J'hc needle rock.

divided in two, one bmncn running north, imd the other

northwest, uniting again a little distance lower down.
The islet thus formed was pointed out to us as the spot
where Buddha sat, and was alleged to be a convincing p1oof
of the truth of the miracle recorded in the legend. The
spot is considered sacred by Buddbists, who upon reaching
it, cel'emonionsly bore their ears over a hole near the
middle of the river bed, The height above the sea is about
3,900 feet.
A few yard:! further brought us to the foot of the Dhar-
ma-ruja-gala, an all but perpemli,mla\' mouutuin mass, with
three flights of in-cut steps to pilgrims to surmount
it. Counting these, we found 21 at the bottom, 9 a little
further on, and 100 leading to the top.t From tho murticed
holes by the 1:1ide of the top flight, it is evident stanchions
and chains were once .intended to be, and p1obably had l,een,
placed. But there is nothing of the sort. there now, and on
a glll'1ty 'day the ascent or descent of this partionlnr spot must
be one of some little hnzard, if not of actual danger. To the
left of the step3, ascending, is cut in outline, on the face of
the rock, the figure of a man with hi:1 hands joined above

Ilock of the righteous king.

f Duddhisls l,elieve that these steps cannot be counted. A humlrcd
different people mlly count them, they say, but their numbers will always
differ. A similar belief is hdd by some pcor,lc in Englnud, in rcglll'd to
Stonehenge-the remains of the Dl'uidicnl temple on Sali;lmry pluiu.

his head, pointing to,vards and io adoration of the still

afar-off' Foot-print. Above this figure is an inscr_iption in
Siyhalcse, very mul'h obliterated and weather-worn, but
eaid to record the death of him, n. king, whose figure is
carved below, who there died, and wl10se name the rock now
There is a very curious tradition connected with the
mountain range of which the Dharma-1uja-gala forms n.
11ortion. It is to the fullowing cff1Jct. To the left of the
Dhnrma-raja-gala, some dititnuce in the jungle, is a tree,
round the roots of whic~ three serpents 111~ continually twin-
ing; about the distance of five bowshots from this tree is
another, contact with which produces in~tant death. t Sur-
rounding the place arc quantities uf the .bones of those who
have in this manner met their death. An exploration of the
neighbourhood might lead to interesting results. Possibly
this Golgotha of the hills may be one of those places to
which the elephants retire to die. The whole of' the sur-
rounding country is marked by their presence, :u,d we had
seen their spo~r and other indicutions of their presence, all
along the route since "c left Palubaddaln. "It is certain"
says Sir J. E. Tennent, "that frequenters of the forest,
whether European or Si,Jhalese, nrc consistent in their as-

The tr111lition is given in full, I am informcd1 in a native work, an

ol,) an<l rare ola, but my informant could not recollect the r.arne of the
t This is prolinLly nn allusion to the cleadly Upns tree.
ADAM'S PEAK. . -173

surances, thnt they have never fo,,m<l tbe rcm11iris or an

elephant tbnt ha<l <lic<l a natural death, 11
On a fine clear day, the view from tbe small platform.
where the steps on the Dharma-r11j1L-gala ttirmiuate,. is very
striking, To the north the towc1ing Kunu<liyn-parvatc; its
square rocky summit like the fracture on a mighty pillar
from which, in a eonvuhion of nature, the capitu:l ha<l been
broken off; its western fuce a steep, tremendous, appulling-
looking precipice: thc1c it stim<ls, tho frowning tcn1pc11t-
battercd Wal'<fon of that amphithe1Ltl'C of l'OCk nn<J mountain,
c11ves anJ waterfalls an<l ru1,1hing streams, a!ll legcn<ls,
mystery and nwc. To the south, of a nearly equal altitmlc,
is theB~na Samanala, with its alleged demon-haunted double
summit. Circling roun<l between both lie a multitude or

"The Singhalese have_ a further supers1itio11 in relation to the close

of life in the elephant: they believe that, on -feeling the npproach of
dissolut(on, he repuirs to a solitary vnlley, o.nd thel'e resigns himself to
denth. A native who o.i,eompnnicd l\Ir. Cripps, when, in the
forests of Anarnjnpooru, intimated to him thnt he wns tl,cn in the immu-
diate vicinity of the spot I to which the elephants come to die,' but thnt
it was so mysteriously concculccl, thnt, ah hough cv.>ry one believed in its
existence, no one had C\'cr succccclc1l in pcnctrnting to it. At the corrnl
which I ha,c dcsel'ilied at Korn_egnllc, in 1847, Dchignmc, one of the
Kandyan chiefs, assured me it was the univcrsnl belicl of his countrymen,
that the elephants, when about to die, resorted to o. ,nlley in Sntrragnm,
nmong the mountni11s to-the cast of A,lam's Peak, wliid1 wns ren~hcd hy
a narrow puss wi1h walls of rock on either side, o.nd thut there, by the
side of a luke of clear wntcr, 1hcy took their Inst rcpos!), It was not
without interest that I aft.,rwa1ds recognised this trudition in the story
of :Siubad of the Sea, who in his Se1enth Yoyngc, after conveying tho

mountain tops of minor elevation. In front, below, facing

westwards, is a mighty chasm, from whose depths, and from
the valleys between the smaller mountains, rises the c~aseless
roar of the rush of many waters. These were the most
striking features of that wide-spread mountain panorama,
Concerning Kunudiya-parvnte, there is the following legend.
Bnddba, struck by its singular appearance, at first intended
to leave the impression of his foot on the summit of its
crowning rock. Suspecting this, W asawarti-marayu. placed
there the Cl\rcass of a dead rat-snake; whereupon Buddha.
turned from the place in di~gust, and evc1 since the waters
from the mountain ha,c run foul and di1ty-wheuce the
name, Kunidiya, "dirty water." The upper part of the
mountain also bears the name of Unudiya, "hot water."

presents of Ilaroun al Rnsehi<l to the king of Scrcndib, is Wl'l'ckcd on bis

return from Ceylon, and sold as II slave to II m:~~tcr who employs him in
ehooting elcplumts for the sake of their ivo1y; till one dny the tree on
which he was stationed having been uprootecl by one of the herd, be fell
ecnsclcss to the grohnd, and the great elephant approaching ~vound his
trunk ar,iund him nnd cnrriecl him n,vny, ceasing not to proceed until
lie land tnken him to n place whCJre, bis terror hnving subsi,lctl, he
found himself amongst tl~c bones of cleplrnnts, am! knew tlmt this was
their burial pince, It is clirio11~ to find this ICJgend or Ceylon ju whnt
ball, not inaptly, been described as the 'Arabian O,lyssey' of Sinbacl;
the original of which cvidc!lltly embmlies tlrn rom,mtic recitals of the
~ailors returning from the niwigution of tbc In,lian seas, in the micldlc
nge~, ,vhicl1 were current amongst the l\fogsuhnans, and are reproducecl
in various forms throughout the tales of the Arabi:m Nights.''.-Nnturul
Ilistory of Ceylon, hy Sir J. E. 'l'E!'lliEliT, pp. 235-237.

It would be interesting to nscertain whether there is a hot

mineral_ spring here; if eo, the name it bears would be
much moro rationally accounted for, than by the tale
Buddhistio lore hns handed down to present dnys.
Respecting B~na Samanala, the highest of whose summits
overhang~ its base, and is sometimes called the False Peak,
from being visible when intervening mists or clouds hide
the Samanta-kuta from view, it is alleged that no human
being has ever yet succeeded in scaling its topmQst hciqht.
The name of this is D~y:1guhawa, or cave of the God. Mnjor
Forbes states, that once a priest, confluent in his sacred
character, ascended so far that the light was observed which
he had kindled at night beneath this overhanging summit
of the haunted mountain, but that next day he returned a
confirmed maniac, unable to give any account of what he
had seen. ll e adds, " There is nothing incredible in this
story, for the dreaded mountain is apparently easier of ascent
than Samanala; and we need not ho surprised at the
melancholy fate of the priest, if we take into coneidcration
how strongly the mind of a native (nurtured in tho belief.
of demons) would naturally be acted on when alone in an
untrodden solitude, liauntcd by vague terrors of superstition,
and the just d1ead of savage animalt1, 11
An ascent of some fifty feet brings the pilgrim to the crest

In 1857 n company of Iluddhist priests resolved to mnke the attempt,

'J'he hearts of some failed when they reached the foot o,f the mountain,
and they wcut no further. 'l'he rest proceeded, and found the ascent

of the ridge or ,vhich the Dhnrma-raja-gnln. forms a pnrt.

On the other @i<lo there is a rapid descent ot' somo hun<lrcd
ntHl twenty feet, to the Gnngulc-hcnc<:lln, midway to which
is the Tclihilenn, n. rocky cave, where trll<lition snys nn
nnchmt king who lmtl fm~nkcn hi11 throne fo1 nn nseotio lifo,
tnnk 1111 hi:,1 Rhutlo, Al'to1 c1nii~in~ thu ~111\ 1 nn1l n~1fon11ing
nhnnt I\ h11n1ht)ll llllll ll\l\'ftllty fmJt 1 I\ f\l\V p1111tll OIi thu tn)I or
tho ri1lgo pt1l11t 1111t tho 11it.c or Uf'o1111cr l'cst-hou~e) lrno,vn US
the Gnngule-hcnu nmbnlnnm, An elcvn1ic111 nf nbont 4,100
feet is here utfain0tl, f1om which a steep tlcsccnt of fifty feet
lcn<ls to the Uitn or Sita.-gangula-" the cold watc1 fall,"-
ncross n portion of which, nnd cnrriccl n short distance up the
precipitous gully from which we lmd just debouched, was
the first of the chains, which from this point nro slung nt
intcrrnls to nst1it1t the pilg1ims in the moflt difficult parts of
their journey. :From the length of this clmin, mndo of stout
hnlf~inch iron, wit.It linl<s n sp,m lung, wo imagined it might
hnvo 01iginnlly been 11lung on the sito of tho h111Hlrocl 11t1ips,
very likely bcforo 1 thoso slcp11 wmo cnt, Hince 1if'tor their
. form11tion, the nccc11sity fo1 such ni<I would, ton. eunsidc1u.blo
extent, be done nwny with.

Ly no menna clifficnlt; but terror acizc,I them when on or nenr the top,
and they Mwoonecl nway. While i11 thia Mtntc one believu,1 tl111t he a11w
ruvcolccl In him a mugniliccnt tcmph, n<lorneil througho11t with gol,I 11ml
prcciune gmna, nncl in tlic inturior, rc.~pkmlcnt beyond 11II clde, 11 ~M-p'1cln,
to wlilch tlmt 1111 I lie !-lntnnnnln wnM not in nny w11y tn ho compnrml,
Tliia I# probal,ly the cnvc rurcrre,l t11 by ll,n IJ11t,1lt11, "" tlint tho
king !SH,uk,

ADAM'S PEAK. 1'7'7

Large irregular mnssea of rock, filling a spnn of perhaps

two hundred feet in brcn<lth, form the bed through which
the river stormily forces itself at the point where it is crot!scd.
The ropid wnte1s seem to rush out of spocc ns they !cop f10111
the brow of n high rocky 1itlgc obo\'O, nnd ore quiek1y
h11l'rh11l off 1luwn tho t1IO(lp m\'ino holow, whioh (llll'1'i(lt1 thllm
tm tlwh w1iy to tho )\11l'llwlj1L l1'nll!!, wlwr~ nt lhl1lt jmll'llun
with the 1':urugnvga, they l,Nn' the nnme of' llnpnt-\'lla,
There is n stern grnntlenr in t.hc scene, the effect of which is
l1cightencd by the durk fo1est bnuka on either linnd, nn<l the
l1igh back~round in the distance, nn immense mountuin wnll,
-n shec1 bare precipice many hundrc<l feet in depth, The
roclcs nn<l Louldcrs arc piled about one another in strnngc
confusion, and form n number of c11vcrnous <lens, which
indcntifica the spot ns thnt named by Ibn Bal iitn, the" pluco
of' ecven caves." 1\'hcn crossc<l at tl10 dry s<'nson, tho
nppcnr11ncc of thcso rocks i~ moro likely to nttrnct attention
thnn thnt of.tl10 river itself.
l 1 ilgrima of nil clnHses here mnke n linlt; their speciul
ohjcct in doing so being to butho in the strunin, nnd to
put on clean clot.he!!; since any neglect in these mnttera
woul<l nullify nil the merit of their pilgrimage, l\tnch wor
ship is ulso ut the same time pni<l to the dcwns or guar<linn
spirits of' the rock an<l stream, nnd many were tl1e prostrn
tions we saw mn<lc by young nncl ol<l nlikc; fol' lnrgc numbers
wcro congrcgntu<l, of bot.Ii sexes nnd of' nil ngc'-', from the
Lnl,o of n fow m1111tl1" 0!11, to the tottoriug sngo or 11cvc11t.y,
nll(I the ancient <lnrnc of even ri}lcr ycnrw,

--------------.. --" .. . . -- -------T'"- --


A variety of rensons have been assigned for this practice,

Some consider that the name of the stream refers to Si'ta
the wife of Rama, who in the courae of her cnptivity was
detained in tbispart of the country; nn :l that it is owing to
her having performed her nbluti.ons in its waters that they
possess the peculiar sanctifying powcrl! attributed to them.
'.l'his corresponds with the belief in lndin, where we know
that the mountain springs in which she b:i.thccl, when
she and her brother-in-law nccompanie rl her lmsb:ind iii his
exile, arc to this <lay objects of veneration nmong the
Hindus. It is to this fact that Kalidnsa alludes, in tho
opening lines of the l\lcgha Duta :f -
"Where Ritmngiri's cool dnrk woodB cxtentl
Antl those pure streams, where Sftn bathed, descend."

Others ngain believe in the tradition, that somewhere in

the mountains near, possessed a garden, watc1ed by
the sources of the river, which teemecl with all precious fruit11
and delightful produc~; while a third party, holding to an-
other tradition, fix at its source either tbe site of the garden.
of Eden, or of a garden cultimted by Adam after his ex-
1mlsion from Paradise. Il~th have their faith confirmed by

The pince where Queen Sfta wns hill.Jen wns calletl Asoka-wanc.
The preciee site c,f this pince not been detcrminetl.
t The Megba D1ita, or Cloud .Messenger, written in Sanskrit abnut
liG n.c. Translntetl into En:,liHh by Professor H. H.'.', 2d
edit, 18-13.

the alleged ract, that fruite,-king-cocoanuts, oranges, limes,

&c,-are occasionally brought down by the stream, the place
of whose growth they consider is inaccessible; and more-
over believe, that any one venturesome enough to explore
it would ne,ver return, At any rate, one could almost
imagine, tliat it was from the spot where we stayed awhile
to admire the peculiar features of the scenery, and. with ~
knowledge of the traditions last alluded to, that the Bard
of Sheffield wrote the following lines, so tl'Uthfully does
the latter portion describe. what we saw on our second visit.
"There, on Euphrates, in its ancient course
Three beauteous rivers roll'd their confluent force,
Whose streams, w;hile man the blissful garden trod
Ado~n'd the earthly Paradise of God ;
But since he fell, within their triple bound,
Fenced a lone region of forbidden ground.
:Meeting at once where high athwart their bed
Repulsive rocks a curving barrier spread,
'l'he embattled floods, by mutual whirlpools crost,
In hoary foam and surging mist were lost;
Thence like an Alpine cataract of snow;
White down the precipice they dnsh'd below;
There, in tumultuous billows broken wide,
They spent their rage, and yoked their four-fold tide,
'l'hrougb one majestic channel calm and free
The sister rivers sought the parent sea."

"The World before the Flood." The Sltn,gnngula, the Bapnt\!lla.

and the Kll,ru-gngga, add their streams to and unite in the Kalu-gavga,
before it reaches the sea.

in proso as truthful, my companion wrote, "The bed of

the river is of the wildest character,' Overshadowed by
lofty forests, and flanked on each side by towering moun-
tain slopes, the flooded stream roared. and blustered, as it
tore its foaming course over and amongst the enormous
angular mnsses of rock by which its bed is obstructed:" and
if ever tho injunction was needed, as regarded mere phy-
sical actions, to "wnlk cirC'umspectly," we found it to bo
eo when crossing tl1c Sita-ganguln, in tho state 1foscribcd,

"Huge tcrraccH of grnnitc blnck

Afforded rude nnd cumbrous trnck;
For from the mountnin honr,
Ilurl'd hcndlong in some night of fenr
""hen ycll'll the wolf nnd tied the deer,
LooHc crags hncl toppled o'er;
Amt some chnncc-poised nnd billnnccd lny
So thnt n stripling nrm might ewny
A moss no host coul<l rni11c,
Jn nnturc'A rngc nt \-nndom thrown
Yet trembling like the Druids' stone
Ou its prccnrious bnHc,""'

Tl1e bed of the river being p~ssed, we found ourselves at

the base of a shoulder of the Bt}na Samanala, from which
rose an ascent as steep, as rugged, and ne difficult, as any
portion of that up which we had already toiled since leaving
PaUibaddala, even if it was not more so, Again and again

"The Lord of the Isle~.' Dy Sir WALTER ScoTT,

' I

we were on the point of euccumbing to fatigue, but as often,

after a halt of a few seconds, we again strode on-" Excelsior"
our cry ,-until, after passing the Yakkllhattawegala, an
immense perpendicular rock frowning above the path on the
left of the ascent, we stood on the summit of the ridge, and
entered H\!ramitipana, where we purposed resting our wearied
limbs. The heat was excessive, and some of us almost vowed
never to undertake such a journey again; but six months
later the experience of perhaps the most fatigued of the
number was as follows:-
From the S1ta-gangula to H~ramitip1'tna, "we had before
us a long series of high rough steps of rock, winding up
the gorge. Bu~ owing to the heavy drenching rain then
falling, e. mountain torrent was now rushing down, and
each step was a small waterfall. Consequently, in forc-
ing our way up this gorge, we had to plunge through a
shower bath at every step. Not that we carecl for the
wetting. In fact we were always wet. It would be hn.rd
to say which would be most wetted by the contact-we or
the torrent. Dry clothes we had long looked upon with
scorn, as tokens of effeminacy and luxury. But even dis-
regarding the wet, it was not very easy to make head against
that water. However we at last reached the top, where we
took possession of the bungalow buildings of H<;ramitipana."

On tbis journey, nnd on the subsequent one as well, from the time of
our leaving Rntnapura, it rained more or le,~ the greater part of every
~nr. After once getting drenched, our plan was to ~trip off' our wet clothes

It was mid-day when we reached this spot on our first

excursion, and we had not accomplished more than about
eight and a half miles in more than six hours, and there were
yet perhaps two and a half to be traversed ere we II the sacred
.impress of the lotus foot could see," in its temple-1,1hrine at
the top of the Samanala, which stood full before us in all the
sublimity of its majestic height and size, To attempt to
go further was out of the question, and besides, our coolies
with commissariat supplies had not yet come up, and we
were hungry as well as weary.
The station, built in the shape of a quadrangle, 70 feet
by 30, in its inner square, was filled to overflowing, and as
we could obtain no room under any sheltering roof, we were
fain to do as hundreds of others were doing, and bivouac
in the open, with umbrellas to screen our heads from the
sun's burning rays-the intensity of which was little Iese
than in Colombo, although we were now 4,350 feet or more
above the level of the sea. C~sting oureelve~ down on mate
courteously spread for us, we watched the animated scene

at each baiting place, and wring them Ill! dry as we could, and while we
rested or stayed, to enjoy the comforts of warm dry suits, which with
our rugs, were earefully packed in a large water-proof wrapper. When
we proceeded, we again got into our dnmp suits, but the active exertions
which immediately followed, prevented any inconvenient or evil results.
The chief difference in our two journeys was, tbnt in September we hnd
much mist nnd little sunshine with the rain; in December we hnd more
sunshine and ~carccly any mist.
ADAM'S PEAK;, . 183

around. Huge copper and brass and iron cnldrons were

seething their contents over dozen,_. of fires inside and ou.t-
side the bung1LlO\VS on each side of the quadrangle j thousand&
of natives were busy enting, or arranging themselves in
their best fot the final ascent; companies were continually
coming nnd going; singing or ehnnting on their way stnnzas
of the Samanala-hi;lln ; the noise of the tnm-tnm and doula
and horan~Wt\ was incessant, and ever and anon nrosc the cry
of" Sit.dim! Saclhu !"-the shout of many voices saluting the
sacred shrine nbove, the outline of which was perfectly
distinct, ns also was that of the long and many-coloured string - -
of natives, winding up and down the mountain side, cager to
attain the end of thch journey, or ns cager to return, now
the great object of th~ir pilgrimage had been attained. We
lind not lain long however, before we attracted the notice
of a kind motherly looking Sighalesc lady, who sent of

The Samnnnlu-h~lla is one of the popular bnllnds of the Sighnlese,

ha1ing about ns much poetry in its composition, in the eRtimntion of
educated natives, 115 the street Honga of London, the productions of the
bnrds of the Scven-Di11h, linvc in compnrison with the songs aml bullnda
of the classic poet.~ of England. Dut for all that they cntch the attention,
and arc rivetted in the 1ncmo1ics of those for whom they are spcciully
written, The Samannla-lu,lla consists of forty-eight four-lino @tn11zn11,
ench of which contains a recitation of an nttribu te of Burldhn, or of an
incide11t connected with his l'i~it to the Samannl.:i, or nn allukion t<, S11man,
or the fcnturcs of the country, the usunl occurrcuccs on the journey, &c.,
and concludca with the determination of the singer to worship tho 'Sid
pa Sam110ala'-tl1e sacred foot of Samannla.

us a brimming bowl.of hot rice conjce, boiled in cocoa-nut

milk, a dii!h we found by no means unpalatable, and certainly
very refreshing in its immediate effects. For this she would
accept nothing more than thanks; and we subsequently
asc<'rtaincd that the whole of the accommodation of the place
as well as the food distributed, was given gratis by a Head-
man of the Dbtrict;-a ,cry meritorious and charitable act
on l1is part, which we, with oil the other . pilgrims there
ast!emblcd, most gratefully accepted,
.Dy the time our servants hacl arrived, (and it was a
marvel to us how they came at 1111 with such heavy load;i
upon their heads) an exodus of n part of the pilgrims had
taken place, nnd we took po~session of the q1,1arters they
vacntcd, a @pace in a cock-loft of loo_sc planks
below the tiles of the principal ambalama or bui1galow. Tiiis
' nmbalama (a building about 60 ft. by 30, with lcan-to's at
each end), is unwallcd ou three of its sides; the roof is sup-
ported by six rows of pillars, on the four inner rows of which is
laid the planking that forms the upstairs apartment; a clear
open s~acc of about five feet all round this planking, ena-
bles those above to see nearly every thing that is going on
below ; the staircase leading to the cock-loft is the notchell
trunk of a 'tree. Here we spread our rugs and lay dowu
awhile to rest, some fifty of our dusky coloured brethren
sharing the apartment with us. Breakfast, tiffin, dinner,
or whatever the meal might be called, was ere long served,
our boxes doing duty for tables, and our rugs for chairs;
and however 1ude the accessories might be, the viands were

good, nnd the cooking excellent; the only drawback to our

enjoyment being the diecovery that we hnd exhausted our
stock of beer And brandy ; we had howe,er ample supplies
of tea and coffee, and except that they took longer in
getting ready, they were 1>erhaps quite as good, if not better,
than the more ardent beverages. Refreshed hy rest and
the meal we had partaken of, we amused ourselves, for the
remainder of the dJy, in watching the proceedings of our
fellow pilgrims,-who appeared to be equally as much
amused with ours,-and in admiring the grand<?tH of the
surrounding scenery: the most attractive feature in which
was the Samanala mountain, broad nnd huge nm) high,
from the centre of whose long stretching ridge rose what
-- - here preMented the appearance of a bell-t!haped conic mass,
the venerated shrine-capped Peak, to Yi8it which we had
joined the pilgrim throng.

"There stood in that romantic .clime

[The] mountain awfully sublime;
;'/ O'er many a league the baAcment ~prencl,
It tower'rl [oc'r] many an uiry bend
Pure in>aYen that. [worshipp'cl] eone
A <lindem of glory shone;
Reflecting in the night,fall'n sky
The beams of day's departed eye;
Or holding, ere the day begun,
Commu11ion with the unrisen sun."

,;The lleign of Summer.'' By JAMES MonQo~nY,

186 ADAM'S PEAi{,

The sunset was magnificent, though our horizon to'tl10

wcs_t was bounded by the tops of the hills we had just eur-
mo11nte1l, but the wooded slopes and the high towering cone
of the Snmnnala, as well ns the rugged Jirccipitous sides of
Kunudiyn-parvntc, were aglow with brighest tints of green
and purple, brown and rc<I; and no sooner had "he of the
thousand rays" sunk beneath the bounding sea-line of the
west, than the temple nbove us was lighted up, an_d looked,
ns it WM, I\ mighty Phnros in the blue serene. As the
shades of evening rapiclly ndYnnccd, suddenly "the silver.
moon in splendour shone," rising just above and eclipsing
with its brilliant glory the lamp-lit temple that had just
attracted our ~ttcntion; then sparkling . np and down and
zigzngging on the mountain's side, came the flaring torcl1es .
of parties of ascending and descending pilgrims: while
light, flercy clouds gathel'ed rouml the "shining monarch of
tl1e night" to lie wondrously illumined by the lustre of his
rnyR; and in the concrwe vault above, now thick besprcnt
,vith flashing stars,

"Unnumbcr'<l orbR _of IMng fire appcnr

Ami roll in glittc1ing grnndenr o'er the sphere,"

Altogether, the beauty ~f the night excelled anything tlmt

. any of our party had evE1r either witnes11ed or imagined,

The moon in ori11ntnl poetry ie nlways spoken of in the masculine

gentler, while uight is personified as a female.
l 1, I
/ , I


But soon the mists from the valleys crept up the mountains'
sides, and gradually veiled from our eyes the enchanting
scenes upon which they had been gazing.
, "Sweetly sail
The twilight shadows o'er the darkening scene,
Earth, air, and ocean, all .alike serene.
Dipt in the hues of annset, wreathed in zones,
The clouds are resting on their mountain thrones ;
One peak alone exalts its [eone-liko] erest
A golden parniliHe nbovo _lbe rest;
'!'hither the day, with lingering 1tcpa, re1ire1,
And in its own blue element expires.''

Feelings well nigh Pkin to n.we had by imperceptible

degrees stolen upon our souls while contemplating the subli-
mities of nat_ure above and around, and in this mood it was
that we sought in our respective resting places, "tired
nature's sweet restorer, balmy sleep."
But wh~? we wrapped our rugs round us and lay down in
our qua1ters, the wish was to the thought, that
Somnus soon would o'er us steal,
Our eyelids in soft slumbers seal,

for while the noise continuou;ily kept on, the smoke from the
greenwood fires underneath us ascended through the chinks
between, nnd clung nbout the planks nJong which we wore
stretched; nncl its obnoxious pungency, niixod with the

"Orecnlnud.'' By JAMEi l\Io:1ToOMBnY,


other mal-oclours tliat arose from the densely stowed thronge

belo,v, and the utter neglect of sanitary measures around,
gave grievous offence to tha eyes aml nostrils. Looked at
from our platform, the natives on the ground below wt>re
literally packed together as close as herrings in a barrel;
and we certainly felt that, where we were qunrtercd, we were
undergoing the procct!s of being cured like flitchcs of bacon,
Despite every drawback, exhau11tcd nature at fell under
the influence~ of the drowi!y god, and we ha<l enjoyed a to-
lerably sound two hours' rest, when the arrival of a fresh
party, either coming or going, produced such a hubbub and
commotion in the place that we were thoroughly roused.
Such rest and accommodation were, however with all their
drawbacks, infinitely to be preferred to om subsequent ex-
periences. On our Septemhe1 journcy "whan we stopped at
the top, we soon began to discover that we had arrived at a
far cooler climate than that we left at the bottom of the
mountain. A thermometer we had with us indicated 64 and
afterwards went down to 59.. The bungalow was streaming
,~et; the roof lcakcq at every joint; it seemed considerably
wetter in:;ide than out;" the planks forming the floor of the
central loft dripped heavily, and every drip was like liquid
soot; "and a green damp growth that cc,atcd the wall~ and
tJ,e sodden floor clid not tend to make the place look any more
comfortable, Outside, a cold penetrating mist was driving
past, and enveloped every, thing, altogether obscuring the
prospect, Certainly not a nice place to spend a night in,
We thought that on the whole we might indulge oureel ves

in tba luxury of llry clothes, but hnd to w1,it nlmost llll hour
for tho portmanteau to arrhe in whicb they wcro pnekcd. -.
We spent the timo in wnlking up and down, and lnughing
al the decidedly unhappy look of the coolie~. Poor beggart1,
they felt tl1e cold very much. Thdr attiro was not cnlcu
lated for such a climate. There we had nn advantage over
them, and they would no doubt 'gladly have exchanged tho
primitive simplicity of their rig for tl,c trousers of civilisation,
,ve told them to light np some fires, and they mndc som_o
attempts, but the:ic natives do not nppcar to possess the fire-
making in@tinet, and some of their trials were very un~ueces:!-
ful. However they at last suceee(fod in filling the place with
damp and smoke, which had the most pungent action on tho
eyes and nostrilt1. If 'they could not extract l1cat from tho
wet wood, tliey seemed pretty satisfied to get smoko, and
began to look somcwhnt more contented. Tho couches
which we had that night would not have satisfied a Sybarite.
Our 11ccommodation altogether was rather defective. Tho
mist drove right through the building, and the only advan-
tage we posse:;sed by being inside instead of out, was that
we were nearly stifled and blinded by the smoke." "'o lay
on some clamp rough planks placed on the muddy floor, over
which we spread our watcr-proof11 and rugs; and although
sleep visited the eyelids of some, the rest wero thankful
enough when the d1cary night had passell. For-

"Y:oml the gusty night wind blew,

J\lnny nn nwful JlllUHe between

And the moon'8 bcwild~r'd bark

By the midnight teu;ipest tost,
Jn a ee:\ of rnpours dark
JII a gulf ofclouds "'as lost."

In December, the bungalow was dry; nlthougli .rain fell

heavily .during the night; but there wns no dense driving
mi!lt or gusty squalls, nnd that was about nil that could be
,mid in ite fovou1,

"The ,vB11derer of Switzerland." By JAMES MoKTGOMEKY,

" Emerging frnm the cl\vcrn'd glen
. From Btcep to Rtcep I 1lowly 'climb,
.Ami fnr "hove the l11uint1 of men,
I trct1I In nir ,nhlime 1
Jfonenth my P"th the 8W11ll11w1 ,weep,
Yet higher crags impend,
And wild flowel'11 from the fiun.ret peep,
Aud rills dcRrend.
Now on the ridgcR bare nnd bleak,
Cool rountl my temples sighs the gnle;'
Ye winds! that wander o'er the Peak,
Ye mountnin spirit:11 I hail I''




J>.ur-KArALLA.-Snn,sv. OF Suux DEWJTo'.-Tm: Sm'-
PA'DA. - Tm~ RAsmu Gv.'. -TnE KtroA>IITA, - ScENERT
OF TIIE Sx1Es.-Susn1f!E.-T11E SnAoow.-TnE V1Ew,

THE moon was still high in the heavens when we woke

on the night of our fir11t visit, and shining with unusual
\\ brilliancy ( or so it t'eemcd to us in the pure at~osphcrc of

"The Peuk Mountains." Dy JAMEB Mo:uaor,n:ar.


so unu11na1 a l1eigh~); and bright wns the sl1een of the rnnny

11tnrs of magnitude whose rnys the Jni-ger orb paled not in
1:1tcllar ;,pnce. Scarcely n cloud wns ,isihle; ancl feeling in-
,igoratc<l by our short rest, we resolved forthwith to resume

""'ith trengthened confidence, the mnrch be~an. ,

A Yistn-pnth, thnt thr01;gh the forest ,ed,
'fhe pilgrims traek'd, till on the mnu11t11i11's height
They met the sun, new-risen, in gloriou light;
J-:111p11rpled mists nlo:1g th.-i hm,ls,mpe roll',I,
Aud 1111 the nrieut flumed with cloulls of gold."

11\'rami!ipanil which signifies "the l'ock of staves/' or

"the lamp of walking sticks," was, ,~c were also told, "the
place for the lightin~ of the torchl's ;"t and we, who haJ
been wondering what the narrow eighteen-inch or two-foot
rolls were, which we hnd noticed mm1t o,f tlw pilgrims cnrriccl
with them, now ,mw thut they were turchcs,-t11lies fillccl

" The "'oriel, he fore the Flood."

t A frie111l who mncle the nscent some the nml twenty years ago,
inform11 me, chut iron rml~, to he u&ecl :ui wnlking sti1!ks, used to be aold
to tl,e pilg, ims at this elation, at the rate of n rix-dollnr, or 1a. 6J., eacb:.
nn1l that on the arrival of the pilgri,ns at the foot-print, 1hey mnde nff'er-
ings uf the11e sticks to tl1e Srf-pncla. When ns many ns fii'ty were thua
eolleclcd, they were s,mt lmck to lli;rnmitipnna, by nn ogent nf the
priest, to be rc-~old; and this woulu hnppen three or fonr .limes ndny,or
even more frequently, nccin,-ling to eircumHtnnees. 'I'he revt'nnc from
such a dourec mudt ha,e been pretty profitnble, as long a~ it lasied.
, , ADAM'S PEAK. 198

with a resinous substance,-here first brought into use., and

giving out a strong flaring blnze when lighted. Speedily
providing ourselves with a supply of these, ~nd leaving our
heavy baigage in charge of n knngnni, we set out accom
panied by our interpreter, nnd a few servants. to carry up
our overcoats and rugs, which, for this part of the journey,
they rolled up and slung upon their backs.
A email valley with a steep dip, but not more than fifty
feet b~low II~rami!ipima, separates the SamanaJa from the
mountain of the False Peak, or thnt ridge of it from which
we were descending. The first portion of the oppo1>it~ ascent
is through several gullies seven or eight feet in depth, ana
extremely narrow, cut through the soil nt the bnso of the
mountain by the torrents which pour down in the rainy
scnson; these nlternnte with etecp rocks on whose faces
brond iron lndders arc' clumped, or with nngular boulders,
up nnd ovc1 which the trnvcller must scrnmble the best way
be cnn, Tbe nsccnt, nearly tlrn whole of which lies through
a densely wooded forest~ mny be divided into four pnrts,
-1, the fnce of the mountain, us steep as nnything we hnd
yet surn1onnted ;-2, the shoulder, somewhat easier tmvcl-
ling ;-3, the cone, the AkaFagauwa, or "sky league," an
awful steep climb ;-and 4, the Peak, an nil but alisolute
As we wended on our way, taking great hcccl to our
steps, e~pecinlly when a descending party seemed to block

A ~sponsible bend coolie:


tl1e path, we were much struck by a peculiar and incessant

clacking sound which came from t.he woods on either side; and
we arrived at the conclusion that it was produced by swnrms
of some insect or other, just as the "knife" or "seiesor-
grindcr"-the Cicada-fills the air in the lowlands with it~
shrill car-piercing notes, Very weird-like was our proces-
sion, as the torches flashed down their light iut:> the gullies,
or glinted on the cli~ti which frowned above and about us;
and nervous was the clutch with which we hclcl on to the
ehai11s that hclpccl us up some ugsome rock, with steps cu~
here ancl there in its ad11mantine face; 01 gripped the ladder
whose sloping irons gave but. a slippery hold to the soles of
our boots, admirably adapted although those irons were to
the nakecl feet of the natives, whose toes are trainecl to nil
the uses of fingers, as far as mere holcling is concerned.
Thus on and on we went, until we arrived _at a mound which
we were tolcl by our guide was the grave of the first man who
mnde a pilgrimagc to the Sri-pada, and who became a Saint
in consequence; but he was not able to inform us whether
the party canoniz_fd was a Budclhi$t, a Hindu, 01 a Moham-
madan. It is more than probable that the mound is the

Capt. PamHAM writes, (p. 6J4 of bis work on Ceylon), "On the
summit of the continued ridge, called Aandiyamalle-tenne, is the grave of
an Aandiya or mendicant priest, now n Mahommc<lan saint, who cloReil
liis pilgrimage, doubtless to his great content, so near the pince at which.
the futhcr uf mankind and the first of l\1ahommcdnn [Jrophcts, had, in bis
belief, been compelled, itana pede ill uno, to perform so long and uncom-
fortable a pcuuncc. After his body bad lain for three months on this

place of interment of one of the last nnnied religionisu, who

are somewhnt !lpt to revere us sRints sueh notnbilities of their~.:
faith ns happen to dio whilst on their journey, when )eel to
undertake a pilgrimage. lmmedi11tely nfter, we entered
Aandiya-mala-tenne, "the plain where the Anndiya die<l,"
n small plateau where once stood a two-roomed bungnlow,
now only n ruinous mound. 'l'hi11 pince no doubt obtniucd
its name from the fakeers whom Rnja, Si1Jhn the Apostnto
mnde custoclinns of the Peak. Here we mnde a short halt,-
ad<ling one more group to tl1e many nlrencly there, tlie whole
forming 11 picture such as Salvntor Rosa woul<l hnve been
<lelightecl to tiansfer to canvnss,-nll pausing at its immediate
. . "to vi~w thnt towering Peak
1'bat enstwardsjrcars his regal brow
And_shndows half th1: vnle below :
One moment basking in the blaze
His mnjcsty of form displays
1').ten with a robe of splendid clouds
Iji~ giant bulk again enshrou,ls.
,vith filial awe the 1ndians still
View thut mysterious holy bill.

epot, resisting the most inveterate cause of decomposition, it was dis

covered by a hermit from the wilds below, who had undertaken, 11 an
additional penance, the task of rcuching the Peak, through trackless ,
deserts, thorns, rocks, under caverns, and over bnrriers of every kind,
where man had never trod before; nnd he it was who came upon the
dead body, and performed the Inst office of hu_manity over the eaintcd

With them thrice hullow'd is the sod

'l"hot Buddha's sainted fooll!tep trod,
Their pril'st, their propl1ct, KUil their god I
Upon the mountnin's rocky crest,
The sucrcd .mnrk yet.lies imprest,
Hence every rank, and sex, nnd'nge,
Perform the pious pilgri11111ge
.And ycurly flock from far und wi,le
To climJJ the dark rock'~ rugged side,
Defying dungcr', ,vant and toil,
To worship ou thut sacred soil."*

Again bracing ourselves to the task before us, we set out, .

and cold as the _night was in those uriper regions of the air,
we were all soon in a streaming perspiration i1om the violence
of our exertions in surmounting the difficult.ies of the path,
which consisted of nothing but a series of chains, ladders
and rocks, and rock~, ladders and chains, until all but
breathless we reached what may be termed the neck of the
Peak itself. In this part' of the ascent one comes every no1v
and rtgain to the edge of a precipitous cliff, from whence a
magnificent view is obtained of the conntry below. At first,
the sudJcnnt>ss of the opening, as it were on to space, the
c.,,:tent of the prospect, an'd the height one is conscious of
ha,ing attained, is apt to produce a sensation of giddines;i ;
which a few moments in general suffices to dispel._ ""hen
about forty yards from the neck of the Peak, n divergence

"Tho ,vumlcrcr in Ceylon." Hy Cuptuin 'l'. A. ANDER80:1,


from the upward path for about the eame distance, lea.:le to
a rocky cave called l\IQnik,lena, where it is euppoaed gems
of great value may be found. The top of this so-called
cave is II large projecting horizontal slab of rock, in size
about 20 feet by 10, of considerable thicknese, and about
eight feet high from the ground. ,vhcn seated un<lcrncnih
thil', should the possibility of its falling in occur to the
mind, a feeling of nervousness may result, which it is as,
well, at once, resolutely to shake off.
In the neck of the Peak, a temporary shed of bambu and
thatch had been put up. This we found crammed choke-full
of pilgrims who had preceded us, either going or returning,
the latter halting for a short brenthing space before attempt-
ing the final and most trying part of the pilgrimage. Here
once stood the ~hela-kauuwa,. or post of the ~hela tree,
where the pilgrims were accustomed to register vows, marking
them with ch~nam t on the post, before they made the final
ai;cent. As this post is no longer there, it having either
fallen, or been thrown over the precipice, they now content
themselves with marking a piece of rock which has been
substituted for iq

The name Mc,nik-lcna, signifies "the cave of gems."

t Chunam, a fine kind of shell-lime, eaten with betel lesf and arcka-
nut, as II mastieatory.
i A story goes among _the natives, that _some seventy or eighty years .
ego, one of the Ilangakkon Mud;11iyars of l\lntara, went on pilgrimnge
to the Sr1-padn, and proceeded as fo~ as the ~hcla-kanuwn, when looking
up the pcr1>endicular ascent he was struek with fear, nnd would go no

Passing out from this, we at once camo to the Maha-

. giri-dnm-[or dan]-kapala,-" the great-rock-chain-narrow
p:iss"-a ledge with a scl\nt foot-hold and a jutting corner,
then a small bare sloping slab, and then the chains, and the
ladder, which more than all else affect and test the pilgrims
nerves. This constitutes the final ascent, and is divided
into five portions; the sloping slab just mentionc:d; leugths
of chains to assist one up a well nigh perpendicular flight of
sixty 11teps cut in the living rock; another sloping slab of
rock, with here and there a few built-up stones; a further
flight of forty in-cut steps, still steeper than the last; and
a third slab rock imm~diately outside the wall that encloses
the Sri:-pada. On either side of the steps several lengths
of chains, ten on one side, and the samP. number on the
other, each from. six to eight fathoms long, and formed of
various large oblong and triangular fashioned links, hang
i clustering down flat against the side of the nearly vertical
cliffs; and by their aid, and, on the topmost flight, the addi-
tional assistance of a chain on stanchions forming a lo.w. iron
balustrade, all arc bound to drag themselves up or let them-
selves down the precipitous wall of rock that forms the
1mthway to the pilgrims' goal abo'Vc, Those who prefer it,

further, but returned, cursing Buddha in the most reproncl1ful manner,

for being so cruelly unkind as to place hi., foot-print on so dangerous
a place; remarking at the snme time, how much better it would hn,c been
lmd he left the impression of his foot on 11 stone at the field of Bntugedarn,
the village next t<> ll.ntnupura, 011 the oppoHite bank of tLe Kalu-gagga.

, I

may indeed, at one spot, take a slightly different but more

' awfully perilous route, up a broad iron ladder close by, fixed
neither straight on, nor at an angle in front of, bt o.t a slant
falling to the right, sideways from the rock; the slightest
slip from which will hurl the pilgrim to destruction in the
abyss below. And up this ladder one of our party actually
made the ascent. I did not see him, being in the rear, and
too busy on my own account to pay much attention to the
proceedings of oth<1rs; but when I sriw the ]adder, its bang
to one side made me shudder, and I gladly turned to the
chnins. When about half way up the final flight, down came -
a company of returning pilgrims. To proceed-onwards was
impossible, ~nd to recede I dare not; so clutching firm hold
of the chains with both hand8, with the toes of one foot
hitched on to a step, and those of the other pressing against
the hare verticul rock, I swung aside until all had pn_ssed, nnd
then swarmed np ~vith an alacrity which made me wonder nt
myself. Arrh-ed at the top, I was heartily congratulated
by my companions as I entered tho opening in the southern
angle of the wall which surrounds the platform, from the
mid,;t of wbich springs the mnss of gneiss and hornblende that
bears on its top the far.famed impress-the "SR1'-PA'DA"-
to behold which we had thus far toiled and won our way . .
We now liad time to look about US and mark the novelty
of the scene. The platform or terrace round the central
rock is enclo8ed by an irregular hexagonal wall, five feet
high, and about seventy feet in length from the. north.
eastern to the southeastern angle, by forty-five feet across

at its greatest breadth. Gigantic rhodoclendrons overhang

the wall on the eastern side. of the Peak. Their bending
trunks seem, to the Buddhist mind, to bow to the foot-print;
. and to offer, in homnge and adoration, their wealth of c1own-
ing crimson flowers to the pedal impress of the founder of
their faith, The area withih the walls, as well as the central .
rock it11elf", was crowded with devotees. Numerous strenmere,
and flags of quaint ancl strange device, flaunted in the breeze,
suspended from the ch:i.ins which serve as stays to support
and protect the temple roof against the violence of the mon-
soon winds ; and many additional ones were hung on ropes
temporarily rol'e here and tbel'e, On iL jutting point of rock,
a few paces from the entrance gnp in the wall, was a shrine
three feet in height,dedicated to Saman Dewiy6, the tutelary
deity of the district, at whose request Buddha came hither
and stamped hii! foot-print on the pinnacle immediately above;
and thither every pilgrim rushed to fall prostrate in adora-
tion, as soon 11s he or she had gained the level of tlie terrace,
as well as to de~osit certain offerings brought with them for
the occasion.
Behind, ancl a little above this shrine, is the Kudainita,
a large iron stanchion let into a crevice in the rock, on
which, in former times it was customary, during the pilgrim
season, to fix the silver-handled mbrella which is now kept
at the Saman Dewale in Ratnapura.
Standards, supporting from 11 series of spreading iron
branches circle above circle of big tin lamps, each th1ew
their cumulated glare in front of the shrine, and of' the steps
ADAM'S . PEAK. 201

which led to the foot-print; and these were constantly being

fed with oil, and greMe, and incense, the fumes of which filled
the air with a heavy and almost sickening. odour. Before. --
these standards, tam-tams and doulas, and hor~nawas were
beaten and blown without pause; and a more demoniacal-
looking personage than one of the leading hor~nawa players
we never saw. One of his eyes protruded from disease; his
whole face was pitted and seamed with scars from small-pox,
and his cheeks were puffed out like bladders blown to almost
bursting tension. If, as an ancient writer baa declare~,.
the foot-print is that of none of those to whom it is usually -
attributed, but Satan's own, then in sober truth the Arch-
fiend could not have chosen a woro1e or more truculent-
looking piper to render due mL1sicnl honors to his mumlnne
Just below the temple, two large bells are suspended
together, between short _heavy beams.- One of theso is
cracked, but the other was continually being rung by pil-
grims, who thereby intimated the number of their ascents,
as well as proclaimed their purity ; the legend being that
the bell refuses to sound if attempted to be rung by an
unclean per~on. Ten rough blocks of stone lead up to a
kind of altar-table of wood, fixed outside the temple, in
front of, but a little below, the toes of the foot-print, on
which are placed what may perhaps be termed the honorary

MosEs of Chor~ne, who, in hiM History of .Ar_menh, and Epitome of

Geography, writes concerning i~ "ibidem $atanw la.psum nai:rnnt."

-----------------------------1 <

offerings of the pilgrims, These are chiefly floral, and at the

time of our visit eonsisted almost entirely of the unbroken or
just-burst flo,ver spnthes of the areka palm. Above and
o,crlooking all, was the pagoda-11haped Swi!'ls-cottagc-looking
shrine that screened the hollow in the rock, -the so-called
Sacred.Foot-print,-worshippcd alike by Buddhists, Hindus,
am] l\lohammadans, us the i1ripre~s there left of the foot of
Bu<ldha, Siva, or the Fiithcr of Mankind.
The Sri-pada rock, t.hc Sainanto.-kutn, the pinnacle or npex
of the Sam:ma!a, is of an irregular pyramidal form, very
considcrubly ~tcepcr to the south and west, than to the north
and east. Ita ba:oe is about R hundred and t~vcnty feet in
circumference, its greatest length beini nbout forty, ancl its
brc~dtb nbout thirty feet, )Ve estimated its height to be ten
f~ct above the level of the surrounding torr.ace or platform,
1'he Rat1hili-gc, or temple, is a small quadrangular bui}J.
iug, twelve feet by ten, and is, in fact, ~othing more than
n tiled canopy supported on pillars, between each of which
is a small balustrade,-baluetrades and pillars alike shewing
signs of age and the effocts of the weather ;t nod neither
the one nor the other at all impl'ove<l by beiug cal'Ved all
over with the names and initinls of visitors ri.nd pilgrims,
The roof was coiled with white cloth, and similar cloths were

" 1'he gol<len covered house."

t 'l'his is about to be taken down nnd a new one put up in. its place,
lt is understood that the old one will be preserved in th,i grounds of the
Assistant Go\crmnent Agent's house at R11tn11pura,

stretched between some of the pillars. The entrance to the .

interior is on the north-west, and cloee to this is a greiLt iron - -
bowl, two feet in diameter, which is kept filled with water -
from tl1e well below. The indentation of the foot-print it
to the west of the centle of the interior. The heel is much
hioher than the toe~, nm] the artificiality of the whole is
palpable. A thick i-aised edging of cement marks the rude
outline of a foot, five feet se~en inches long, and two feet
seven inches broad at the point the heel begins to curve.
The interstices between the toes arc al:10 forme<l of-ceme_n t,
and the whole of the markings of the foot every now ancl
again need repair. The inner portion of the heel and instl'p
are the only parts that are clearly natural rock. But as
there are none so blind as those who will not sec, the marks
of theartificcr'11 hands a~e invisible to the thousands who como
to worllhipthe venerated relic, which is just about the t1ize of
tl1c foot of tl{c colossal images they adore in their principal
vihams. ,, A white cloth concealed the SJ't-p6.da from view,
except when the pilgrims were about to present offerings in
the shap j of money or v11l11ables. These they were allowed
to deposit in the foot-print itself, from which however they
were at once carefully swept out by the attendant unnnsc.

This edging of eement,.as well as the artificial markings between the

toea, is perhaps rendered necessary, in order to make the foot print
correepnnd with the dcscri_ption given of it in the Sn1nnnta kutn -wnn111111ll,
where it. is said to be as clear and well defined "118 a royal ae11I id, iiu-
pre~sed on wax."

After due prostrations and the repetition of the prescribed

Buddhist forrnuhu, the priest bestowed hie benediction, and
thede\'Otcesjoyfully withdrew tomakeroomforothers; when,
returning to the terrace, they collected around smull fires,
into family groups, while they rested to recruit from their
fatigues, previous to attempting the homeward descent; for

Or. D"vt tl111N lllMo1llmM II Mo1110 ho wltlll'""l'II 1111 c,n~ c,f' tlilo
111111ln11M :-" 'i'hu 1111rly 111' plli,r1l111M thnt 111111 Jnt 1111hl'1 111111IMto1I of, ,
H1v1r11l nwn 11111I wn111011 1 nll 1111Llvo SlnghnluNo of tho lntc1-lo1,.ncntly drcnHc1l
In clcnn clutheH, 1'1wy h11111e1lintcly proccc<lcd tn their devotions, A
prfost, in his yellow rob\ls, stood on the rock close to the imprcsAion of
the fimt, with his fi1ee to the people, who bntl r1mico1l the111Rclvcs In II row
below ; ftome on their kneeft, with tlwir hnn,ls uplif'tml, noil joined pnl111 to
11nlrn, nn<l other, bent!ing furwur<lH, with tlicir hnnilH in the silrno attitude
uf <lcrntion. '].'lie priest, in II lou<l clcnr voice, sentence by sentence,
rccitetl the articles or their rcligiouM faith, an<l duties; and, in response,
they repented the some after him. When he had finishe<l, they rnise<l a
loud ehnut ; 11ml, he retiring, they went through the snme ceremony by
themselves, with one of their pnrty for their lemler.
"An interesting scene followed this: wives aff~ctionntely and respect-
fully snlutetl their busbnmls, nn<l children their pan11ts, anil friends one
another. An ol<l grcy,hemle<l ~omnn fir,t ma<le her saloms to II really
venerable old 111011 ; she was moved to tears, 11nd ulmoPt kissed hi, feet:
be affl'ctionatcly rniseil her up. SevP.ral mitl<lle 11ged men tb,m salomed
the palri,irchnl pnir; these men were snlamerl by still younger men, who
bad. first pai1l their re~peets to the uM people; and lastly, those nearly of
the ;ame stan<ling slightly salnmeil each other, anti. cxchongecl betel-leaves,
11,e intenlinn of theHe salutations I wos inrurme,l, wss of II morn! ki'n<l,--
to conlirmthe ticft of kimlre,1,-to ktrcngthcn fomi'y love nrul frienalHhip,
111111 nmovo n11i111o"i1.ics,"-Acco1111t of the Interior of Coyl,111, p. :.144,
/ ,I ADAM'S PEAK. 205

although t.he moon-lit night seems to ho the favourite time

'for making the ascent, few or none care to sleep. till day-
break on the Plak, the belief being that only priests nnd
: Europeans can do so with i111pu11ity.
It was pointed out to an attendant priest by a vii:1itor some
ycar1:1 ago, that as there is a hollow under the in11tcp of n
man's foot, so there Bhould be a corresponding height in any
i111prus~ion mnllo by thnt member of tho bocly upon any.
yhilJi11g non-olu~tio 1111h11tanco; 11ml tluit in .a foot l!ixtyijovcn
inches long, thcro should be a prop01tionnte rise in the centre
of the foot-mark, which is not the case in the Sripuda.
The (Jricst admitted that ordinarily it should be so; but
that the ascent to the top of the Saman11.ln was in places
ove1 soft and Btiek:r Boil, and that the hollow of Buddha'1:1 foot
had been clogged with mud or clay as be C!1ffiC up, BO that
such a riBe could not be Bhewn when the yielding rock was
moulded by the pedal pressure of the All-Buprcme. The
answer was by no means bad, as an off-hand reply to the
, objection of an uubelicver. But the priest either forgot the
: declarations in} ncred olas about Buddha's power of passing
through the air whenever he pleased, or of hi1:1 mode of pro-
gression when moving ordinarily from place to place; or he
may have presumed upon the ignorance in regard to such
Bubjccts of the 'individual he w~ spenking to. Now,
according to Huddhi13tic lcgenda, the manner in which the
Great Teacher walkecl, excited universal admiration. If

~ IIAanY'e Mnnunl of BmlllhiMm, r, 366.


there were thorns, rockiJ, or other obstruction,, they removed

themselves spontaneously; if there was mud it dried up; if
holes they disappeared; if elevations they melted away like
butter that sees fire; and the air was filled with choice and
delicate perfumes, If he passed any body in pain, the pain,
however intense, ceased in an instant: and when his foot
touched the ground, a lotus sprang up at every step! His
foot came to the ground as lightly as cotton wool! He
could wnlk in a space not larger than a mustard seed ; and
yet with as much ease as a man may cross his door-step, he
on one occasion pl!lctid his foot on the en:rth, then on the
rock Yugamlhara, then on the top of Mcru I Of the height
of Meru an icle~ is to be gathered from the statement, that
a pebble would take four months to drop from the top to
the base!
'fbc Kusa J ataka describes the way Buddha walked as

" At once (rom oil' the couch be roRc
f And 011 the earth th11t did, wcll-plcnacd, hi1 hnppy IU!vcutgr~>ct,
lie suught iu mf\lcHty to .i1lacc hiN cvcr,111crcd foct I
Ere he, the Lord Supreme, who i~ with every merit grace1l,
Ilia 1hining (ect upon the ground majesticnlly placed,
To bear that cvcr-a11cred twain ere they on earth had trod,
A aevenbudded lot111 bur1t all blooming frum the sod I "t

K. J., 1tanzaa 66, r,7,

t The Ku~a Jatal,a w111 written A,D, 1610, by AtrouWAlU MoHOTTALA,
an autlior who occupies in SiyhalcMc literature the poaition held by Pope
in thnt uf Englnn!l. It is a poem of 687 (our-lino stnn1.n1, dcNcriptlve


, _:'j. r
' : .



ADAM'8 PJ<;AK.. 207,

Thinking over the strange incongruities of the ecene before

us, we ensconced ourselves in a sheltering angle at a corner
of the terrace wall, not far from the small hut occupied
by the .resident priests, one t1ide of which rests on the base
of the terminal rock of the Samanala; and glnd of' our
over-coats, and .the thick rugs with which we were p1 ovicled
as a protection against the cold, we endeavoured to compose
ourselves to rest, if not to sleep.

of one of the existences of Buddha previous to his final birth and

assumption of the Bu<ldha-hnod; and in the opinion of competent judges
"the unity of its plan, the steady progress of the nnrrntive, and a certain - -
unuffeeted display of genuine feeling in _its principal characters, entitle it
to r:mk as a poem of the highest merit." A brief account of the author
and his writings is given iii pages ccvii.-ccxi. of the Introduction to the
Si<lat Sangarlt.wa, by JANES D'AtwlB, Esq., Advocate of the Supreme
Court, Ceylon, whose untiring researches and manifold writings on the
language, literature, history and religion of the Sighalese, have _won .for
him a reputation among Occidental scholars that has never before been
attained by any of his countrymen, and placed him in a foremost rank
amongst the highly distinguished Orientaliste of the pre1ent day. An
elegant English metrical translation of the Kma "Jataka was published in
the Ceulon ObHer11er, in the year 1865. It is understood to have been
from the pen of T. STEELE, Esq., of the Ceylon Civil Service; and it is
hoped that ere long it may appear in a more permanent form, with the
author's latest touches to add to its value. To the kindness of this
gentleman I am indebted for the extract in the text.
In the accompanying sketch of the ground plan of the Samanta-ltu\a,
a, is the Raghili-ge, or temple; l>, the bells; c, the shrine of Saman-dewiycS;
d, the prieste' house; e, the entrance from Ratnapura; and/, the entrance~
from the Kaodian Districts.

' .;,.

But our interpreter and servants were not so well sereened

from the cold as we ,vere, and it wns not long before they
sought ont and obtnined permission for us to occupy a
two-roomed houl!e on the southeastern slope of the mountain,
to which we descended by some rough steps, which terminate ,
the road to the Peak f1om the Knnrlian Dit!tricts-a route so,
. comparatively easy, that a man may almost ride to the door,
of the building we now took possesl!ion of. Here we found
a Police Constable, and 'o. Priest; tlie latter attached to the
temple, and the fo,rmcr placed on duty to rep1ese.nt the
majesty of the law, and to protect the offm-ings made to the
Sri-pada from the depredations of a litigant party, who claim
them on behalf of a former chief.priest. Thil! priest it seems
had been deposed from office, and another elected in his
stead; but the deposed, although he_ had vacated the office
and allowed hi<! successor to take posse~sion, had been per
suaded to dispute the validity of his deposal; and in the

It was up this road that, iri- 1814, 1\folligodde, the newly appoii1ted
firHt Adikur and Di8awa of Sab1Lragamuwa, eote1ed the Province, when
Ehcylapola his prCJdecessor, rebelled against tho last king of Kandy .
Upon receiving the order to suppress the rebellion, D1. DAVY says
".Mollirroddc obeyed wiLh alacrity; he entered Snffragi.m over the loftiest
point :r the island, and the most ditllcult pass-the summit of Adam's
Peak. 'l'he hearts of the natives failed them on his approach; and he_
met with but little opposition. Eheylapola, with pome of his adherents,
fle,I to Columbo, and 1\folligod,16 returned to Kandy with a crowd of
prisoners, forty-seven of whom were impaled."-Account of the Interior
of Ceylon, p. 321.
/ ~-

ADAl\fS PEAK. 209

Ptevious season, he, or his supporters, had ma~e a foray upon

the temple, and succeeded in carrying away the offerings,
which nre, in the nggrega tc, of consi<lerable value. T,, prevent
a similar procedure this season, the law had been appealed
to, and by order of the District Judge, the V!llne of all the
offerings must be paid into Court, until the right to them of
one or other of the claimants hns been legally decided.
Notwithstanding all our wraps nnd rugs, the cold was so
intense that we shivered ngain, and our teeth rattled toge-
ther like castanets: so thnt we joyfully 1velcomed the nppenr-
ance of a fire, and watched with an unwonted interest - -
the preparations made for boiling-a caldron of rice ~onjee.
Priest, policeman, pilgrims, interpreter, coolies, and nll
connected with our 1iarty, crowdetl into the small rooms,
whose bare mud walls and low roof rc~intled one of an Irish
cabin; a resemblance heightened in its effect by the._.croou-
ing way in which, with coat collars turned up about our
ears, and rugs drawn over our heads, we huddled together
over the clifficult-to-be-kindled and slow-burning embers,
and stoically endured the eye-smarting, sneeze-exciting,
larynx-irritating, cough-causing smok_e they emitted, for the
sake of the wa1mth which gradually began to temper the
biting keenness of the surrounding atmosphere,

Through the obliging courtesy of the lenrned Advoente of the

Supreme Court, lllr. c; L . Ferdinunds, one of the lending Counsel
engaged in the cnse, I am enabled to give, in Appendix J, some interest-
ing documents relating to the 010de of appointment, and eucceuion to
the office of Chief-priest of t~e Peak.


Tl1c wntcr for the cooking wne bl'ou.gl1t f'1om the well-
( 11omc eay epring, hut I donb_t the possibility of there being
a @pring nt such an clc,ated point for above all immediate
Eurtounding mountniIJ tops)-a little di:;tance northwest of,
nnd about thirty feet below the terrace wnll. This wate1 is
said to pos~ess many and peculiar properties, a111l ie held in
as much l'cpuk by pilgrims as is the precious water from the
holy ,veil Zcm-zcm nt l\focca by every hadji amongst. the
faithful and turbaned Islamites. In due course the conjee
was ready nnd handed roun<l: nm! what with it, nnd the
fires, about which we r,nt and stood, anrl the smoke which
filled the rooms, we at last r1'gaincd something like our
natural warmth, and began to feel ourselves again.
"re had just resolved upon lyi~g down, as best ,ve might,
for a elccp, when a l'ne@senger came to say that the house
was wanted for the accommodation of the family of the
Ratcmahntmaya of Kuruwit1 K6rale, who had just made the
a,ccnt; and out we had to turn, which we did willingly
enough, for Indies, young and old, were now the parties to
be accommodated. This Ratcmahatmaya, an able, active
and intelligent Knndian Chief, was educated at the Colombo
Academy, and is believed to be a Chri:;tian, although his
family are Buddhists; bis prescnc~ thel'cfore appeared more
that of tl1e natural protector of his family, than as a co-wor-
shipper with them, He offered to obtain for our use the

An appu onee told his muter, opologet.ically, that be went on pilgri-

mage to the l{~loni ,il,li.rn and dagohn, "to please the womons."


priests' house on the Peak, but thi11 we would not consent

to. ' Returning therefore once more to the terrace, we
stationed ourselves near the entrance at tho southern angle,
and watched the companies of pilgrims as they came up,
The ascent from the bambu shed at the ~hela-kanuwa
is mm ally made without a pause; the peril appearing so great
that any check, allowing a glance around or beneath, might
bring on gi<l<liness and result in fatal falls, l\Iany, if not
most of the women were completely worn out with fatigue
by the time they had attained this point; they had therefore
to be assisted up the acclivity by their male companions,
who hauled them on to the terrace, and bore them, faint ancl - -
utterly exhausted, to the nearest shrine, where tl1cy bent
them down and forced them to mako the requisite prostra-
tions, and then carried them, all senseless as they were-
some in death-like swoons-to be recovered by the care_ and ~

Under ordinary circumstances, weather permitting, any on<J with a ,

cool head and steady nerves, may go up ancl down these clim with perfect
safety. But accidents do sometimes occur, though happily but mrcly.
Major Porbe~ mentions, that in 1815, "several nativea were bloivn O\'Cl'
the precipice, and yet continued clinging to one of the chains during a
heavy gn~t of wind ; but in ench a sitn,,tion, no n~sistnnec could bo
rendered, and they nil perished.'' And Dr. Da\'y wnH iufonncd, that only
a fortnight before his vi~it to the Peak, in April 1817, two natives .
looking down the precipice," became gi,l<ly, and frightened, fell, nndwero
dashed to pieces." In April, 1869, three natives were enid to bo blown
down the pn.-cipicc by the force ot: a fierce st.orm that then cn1i1c on ;
and it was nllcgc<l, at the enm<i time several others pcrishc<I fiom
fatigue, and the intenijity of the cold to whic~ they ,vcrc exposed.

attentionor tl1eir rriend8, wherever they could find Q vacant

11pace to go to,
The heavens above us were clear, the. stais were shining
bright, and the -gl01ious full-orbed moon was scarcely past
the zenith. From the Peak, ablaze with light, to the H(?ra-
mitip1ina station, similarly lighted up, the whole of the
pilgrims' path was filled as it were with a living chain of fire, ..
connecting the two points together, and formed by the
torches of the multitu<les going to and fro. On our right, to
the north, abo\e; aml beyond H9rami~ip:tna, towered Unu-
cliya, the gigantic rocky Alp that crowns the Kunudiya-
parvatc; to our left, and almost rivalling in height the moun-
tain just mentioned, was the B~na Samanala. These, with
the Peak on whicb we stood, l!ublimest of them all, rose
sharp and distinct, from two to three thousand feet above
the clouds, which like an immense plain of snow, with .
irregular rifts blown into fantastic shapes along the level,
hi<l all belo,v from view. The mother-of-pearl tint of the
apparent plain, the moon-lighted tops of the fleecy rifts, the
darkened shacle of their c1\verned sides, and the shadows
they threw upon the motionless mantle of cloud and mist
tlms suspended in mid-ah-, ancl spread westwa1ds t_o an
illimitable distance, was a spectacle that once seen can never
be forgotten, and well illustrated the inspired assertion of
the Royal P.,almist, that "the heavens declare the glory of
God, ancl the firmament shewcth his handywork."
The wonderful beauty of this scenery of the i,kics did not
however pre,ent us from noticing what was going on around.



On the Rat6mahatmaya's family eoming up to. view the

foot-print, one of their retinue unceremoniously swept from
off the altar-table the whole of the floral offerings previously
placed there, an1\ pitched them over the terrace wall, in
order to make room for those his party were nbout to
present. The chief himself seemed to take little heed of
anything but the welfare of the ladies of his fnmily, the
younger members of which were evidently greatly interested,
and not a little amused, by the novelty of all they saw.
They were w:elcomcd by the musicians with a special burst
of wild discords, improvised to do them honor in the presence
of the assembled crowd.
:,/ The night had considerably advanced, and the east,-
hitherto bounded hy the dark mountain ranges whose out-
lines broke black against the deep blue sky,-began to shew
indications that day-break was at hand.

/ The clou<lless blue paled into grey,

'l'he g,cy to amber tints gave way
Then flushed a rlJsy red;
The red grew crimson, then aflame
With brighter brightness all became,
While <lawn anil dayspring spread,

As the advancing light became more and more diffused,

the mountain chai~s of the central zone grew more distinct,
and the stars above grew dimmer and yet more dim. Then,
heralding the advent of the sun from his tabernael~ at the
end of the heavens, the. morning star arose from behinc.l

the (12 miles) distant KirignJlepo.tah (7;871 ft. high) and

rn.pidly mounted upwards in the crorulean nrch
"As if an o.ngel-~entinel of night
1''rom co.rtb to heaven had wing'd hiH homewo.rd flight
Glorious first, but lessening by the wo.y
And lost insensibly in higher do.y ,"t

Behind the mountain ranges, the light grew stronger,

bronder, nnd more nnd more intense, until, from north to
south, the arc o~ the horizon glowed like a molten looking
glass; and rising from the Nuwara Eliya plains (6,600 ft.
above the sea), the purple dome of P~durutalagala (8,~95 ft.
high, and 22 miles distant in a direct line), could be distinctly
traced behind the peak of a northern range:
"tbe heavens
,vax'd more nnd more resplendent, till on enrtb
ller mountain peaks burn'd ns with rosy /1Hme.

The morning star had

attained an altitude of about hventy
degrees above the mountain tops, and had already paled in

Or "Kiribat-gal-kandn." Tho Knn<lians in the neighbourhood of this

mountain say, that when any i~portnnt personage livin;; near it iii about
to die, n great voice is hcartl to proceed during the night from its interior,
This they nllcge has hnppened thrice within the. memory of living men;
once, a few dnyA before the death of Doloswnla Disnwa; again, at the
death of Galle ~ayaks unanse, in 1836; and II third time, a few days
before the death of the late Sumnngnln Nayakn unlinse, in 18.58, both of
whom were Chief-priests of Adam'8 l'eak.
t "The Worl<l bcforc the Flood,"

brilliancy, when, with electric speed, a seeming stl'enm of

golden fire ran right and left through the fringe of forest
trees which marged agninst the sky the brows of the mighty.
hills in tho distant east, and from the 'core of the arc, behinu
the peak of Totapella( 7,720 ft, in height ancl 21 milesdistnnt),
the light increased and r,ulinted, until ntlnst, with a vehement
blaze, n:nd an indescribable flush of effulgenoy,-nll ~he more
intense and int-Olernble to sight from the darkness of the
mountain in its front,-the sun itself burst with a blinding
flash on the eyes of tl1e multitude who had assembled on the
enstcrn side of the dizzy pinnacle where we stood, to gaze
upon tho brightness of his coming, and watch his going
., forth on his circuit to the ends of the enrth,

"With. ~uch ravi.hing light

' And mnntling crim~on in trnnspnrent 'nir
/ 'l'he splendon shut before us. , -.
/ . ERch mount did seem
i Colossal ruby, whereon so inwrought
The sunbenms glow'd, yet soft., it flnmcd intense
In extnsy of glory.''

Old legeuds state, and devotees believe, that as the sun

. rises, he seven times salutes the Foot-print on the Samanala
Peak. We noticed several yellow-robed unanses intently
looking ~t -the blazing orb that rose before us; n.nd could
well understand how eat!ily their dazzled eyes would le11d
their minds to endorse th-e mythic tale. Well, too, ~uld we

appreciate nt that moment, the thought that 11rompted the

lines of the Lntir~ate Southey, in his Sonnet on the Sun.

"I marvel not, 0 Sun! thnt unto thee

Jn adoration men should bow the knee,
!.) For like a god thou nrt, and oo thy way
Of glory shcclilcst with benignnnt ray
Beauty and lifo and joyance from above,..

But .it wns E~ste1 Sunday morning, ancl we did not forget
the cnmt then throughout the Christinn world,
nor fi1il to br<'nthc n prayer that tl~o S1111 of HightcouPnes11
who then arol!e with healing in his wi11g14, triumphing over
!( the night of Death and the darkness of the Grave, would
hasten tlic tii~e when the knowh:dge of his glory, here and
elsewhe1e, i;l1ould fill the lnnd, as the waters of the sea fill
the channels of the migl1ty deep.
The lustre of the moon wa~ meanwhile fading fast; and
warmer tints began to tinge the still cloud-covered west;
but we who had witnesi.:ed the wondrous glories of both
night and morn, and under their subliming influences had
hut slightly felt the effects of f~tiguc and want of sleep, now
. found our bodies yielding 'to nnture'11 just requirements~ and
therefore hnl!ted to return. ,v e thus missed two sights, the
magnificence of either of which nmply repays whatever toil
a traveller may endure to behold them. 'fo see these was
partly the reason why the present writer again, and yet once
more ngnin, journeyed to the Peak, The weather was such
on the second cxC1ursion, .that he did not a1c1cend to the Sri-

, 1
ADAM'S PEAK, 21 '7.

Pada, but contente<l himself with making observations about

the base of the mountain, and around The
following however is an extract from the graphic account
written by one of his two companions who then went up.
"Having just returned from an excursion to Adam's Peak,
I am told that it is the correct thing to write an a<'count of
my journey. Everybody does, so they say. Giving all th~
weight to this argument that it deserves, I don't know that
1 could add much of interest to the literature respecting the
Peak. Like Canning's knife-grinder, I have 'no story to
tell.' And yet pcrhnps my journey possessee some elements
of novelty, from tho s<'n~on in which it was taken, and the
weather by which it was accompnnicd, The season was of
the wettest~ the ground was saturated by the rains which
were constantly falling, the jungle was in a streaming state,
the mountai'.!l water-courses were swollen, a,nd the rivers in
,high flood. The prospect also which we obtained from the
) :top of thi Peak, although doubtless it has often been wit-
nessed before,has not,so far as I am aware of, been described.
Many no doubt have seen it, but they have not cared to
write the description. It was not the prospect which so
many visitors have sketched, that wide outlook over subjected
mountains and rolling hills and far stretching forest, and open
plain, and meandering i.;hining rivers, all enclosed in tho
.remote distance by the blue rim of tho all-surrounding ocean.
,It was not .this same view, ns it is seen in calm -beauty,
sleeping in the ail ver light of the me1i<lian moon, which sheds
.over all a pale faint lustre; softening irregularities, impartin"'
- 0

to nll tJ10 ~De an air of repose~ and harmoni@ing all into a

picture of lovcliocse and pence. Not the view of daybreak,
when the wan light of morning is ascending in the east, the
shades of night hastening away before the march of the
morning light, although still lingering in places where
sheltered by the shadows of intervening hills, while the dawn
i.1 advancing and

'' jocund clny

Stands tiptoe on the misty mountnin tops,"

-and the great redorh of the sun is bursting irito view, and its
rmeate beams are leaping from hill to hill and chasing far
away the last vestiges of darkness and night. These views
many have seen and many have described. That which we
saw was not like these, but what it was, its like will be
described .The day broke dark and dreary. The same
thick cloud wrapped all the prospect. It was evident that
though we might go up the Peak, we should see nothing
from the top; but my younger companion ancl I determined .
to make the ascent. At any rate we shoul<l see the road,
and should also have reached the summit, and so have
defeated the prognostications of many friends who prophesied
t11at we should never get there. Accordingly we set out,
The road up to n<.'arly the top, as also for the least few miles.
of our yesterday's journey, bore traces of the late presence
of an C\'iclently large number of elephants, and the co~lies,
as we went on, endeavoured by constant shoqt.ings to scare
-them from our path. The road was not difficult. It wa11, in

fact, a Jong rough, rocky stail'case.

mathematically, ascending the terms of
,van owere, to ,peak
infhiite 1erie1-
of steps. On nearing the top and getting on the rock..
cut steps, by the sides of which t.he numerous chains lie-
intended to as:!!ist the ascent, the coolies wbo were accom, evidently considering that our lives were . only
safe in.their hands, made a frantic rush at us, caught hold and
.t ried to hurry us at railway pace up the steps. We objected
to this and preferred to take our own time .. well! we
reached the top and looked around at the prospect. The
view was one of the thickest cloml, above us, below us, and
all around. ,v c were upon a little point of rock, a small
air-suspende!l island in an ocean of mists. We knew that
there were precipices; but we could not see them;
that there was a wide stretching prospect below us, but it was
all invisible . . A etrong westerly storm-wind blew in wild
but fitful gusts, a.nd howled and raved as it swept past us
and beat on the rocky surfacet1 of the weather-assailed penk
When we were leaving to start on our excursion, we
were informed that we should never reach the summit. It
was impossible to do so in such weather, the fury of which
was indicated by the fact that the iron chains at the top were-
110 In.shed by the tcmpe:it that their clanking coul<l be heard
two miles off. I believe that up to this hour one of my-.
companions fondly clings to the belief in thic1 statement,
Indeed the idea ii! rather a poetic one, and creditable to the
imagination that originated it. I think it is rather sublime
to think 0 the mountain aesailecl by spirits, of the ato(m;

rocking to itl!I base when smitten by the tempest blowl!I, and

the chains l!IWinging _and clanking in har11h horrified accom-
paniment. The fiction i, grand, but it is a fiction, They
don't clank at all. Not. a clank. '!'hey thtire lie and rust
in motionless idleness, nnd would clo so if all the tenants of
the cave 1Eolus were to spend their utmost rage upon and
around that high summit.
",v e strolled about the little enclosed platform, climbed
up to the shrine, nnd examined the sacred foot-print. The
latter is what Mr. ".ackford Squeers would call a rum
aml a holy thing.' Still, I was not altogether satisfied
with it, It is, I think, some five and a half feet long, but
liow is it that it is not bigger? "\-Vhy do they stop at five
and a half feet? This would only give a stature to Buddha
or Sivi:t of some forty feet. But I like to think of Siva as
rather a tall party. Then, the @hape of the thing? Why
do they call it a foot-print at all? Certainly, by adding a
lot of cement, and 'bib of tile, and by other devices, -they
have ma<le it look something that may pass for being a very.
lame of a foot on a rather large sc~le, but
who was the first imdginative genius who thought tl1at
that depression in the rock resembled a foot in any way?,

The l'hains certainly did not elank when the writer or the preceding
sketeb wwi on the Peak. But there is nothing to hinder them doing so;'
when the wind i~ blowing strongly from particullll' quarter!, since they .
hang loosely down from their fastenings at the top of the cliif; and tho'
natives. po,ithely 118llert that at such times they clank loudly.

ADAM'S -PEAK. 221:

The eame mark might ae well be the impreesion of any

other part of the body as the foot . If' Buddha or Siva had
eat down on the rock, the impression made by the divine
comboy might have been not unlike that. Down at Pat,.
baddaia they show in the temple what they call afacsimile
of the foot-print. The fact is, that it is no facsimile at
all. It is perhaps the fac1:1imile of what the foot-print
ought to have been, if it was to preserve resemblance at all.
The whole affair, with its patchwork of oement and tile,
smacks of Brummngem rather too much . But yet we ought
not to laugh at thfa specimen of superstition and credulity.
There was a period wh~n our own anc~ators believed in t.he
miraculous virtues of bit!:! of the 'true cross,' at a time when
there were enough piece~ of wood in Europe under that
name to have built a three-decker, and enough 'true nails'
to have fur,nished the iron for engines, boHers, screw, anchors,
cablee, and standing rigging. We should think of these
things, and not judge hart!bly of uneducated credulity.
" While we were upon the platform my attention was
attracted by the, devotions the coolies were paying to the
shrine. They had brought with them some offerings, the
flower shoots of some palms, 9:Dd these they now laid reveren
tially before the foot-print. To see these poor coolies with
such earnestness, and such apparent reve1ence and trust,
make their lowly prayer1:1, suggested to my min_d many
mixed reflcetio,ns. It looked strange, contemplated from the
stand-point or the sceptical nineteenth century. What
with one 1:1ide and the other, the claims of the one, the

ecepticism and criticism of' the other, they seem to have tell .
eo little for an honest mnn to believe in now; and yet these
poor fellows seemed quite satisfied to believe that this was
the foot-print of the great Buddha."
On our third visit, we started from Hi;ramitipana at
earliest dawn, and although we thus missed the glories of
the sunrise, we had the opportunity wo hoped for of seeing
the marvellous Shadow of the Peak projected above the low-
lying mist clourls. and stretching beyond the bounds of the
Island far away into the smTouncling ocean. Faint, and
not very dearly defined at first, as the ~unlight became
stronger, the outline and body of the gigantic pyramid~
shaped umbra grew sharper, darker, anrl more distinct; and
as the sun rose higher in the hea\'ens, tho ~itanic shadow
seemed actually to rise in the atmosphere; to tilt up and
gradually fall back upon the mountain, shrinking and
dwarfing in dimensions as it drelV closer and yet closer to its
mighty parent, until, absorbed in the forests with which the
mountain is clad, it wiis wholly lost to view. So singular a
sight,-ooe so strangely magnificent, and even awe-inspiring,
can be seen nowhere elee in the Island, perhaps nowl1ere
.else in the world.

Tbe Rev. J. Nicholson, who mat1,e t.he nscent in 1863, ihnH de~
scribes this scene: -"As the sun rose in the heavens, each peak and hill
gained a share of his rays, and threw its shadow upon its fellow, or into the
..-alley; but the loogest and the best was that tbrown from 'the holy,
shrine.' Right beyond, at DD immense di~tance, the dark sLadow was
ADAM'S PEA~- 223

Ae tl1e mist and clouds dispersed, ~he extensive views

that opened out became enblimely grand. North and east,
below and beyond us, were range upon range of mountains,
the valleys and slopes of which, from Maskeliya to Ramboddo,
from Dimbula to Hnputale, were the homes of the ente1prisiug
men ,vhose capital and industry have, within thirty years,
made Cey Ion the third, if' not the second, largest Coffeo
pro<lucingcountry in the world. Sweeping round to tlio south
were the similar ranges of Snb~ragamnwa and the Morawnk
K6ralc, where, before similar energy and enterprise, the
pl'imroval forests have disappeared, and in their stead now
grows the coffee bush. pown the sideso,fthemountnins were
seen the rushing waterfalls, the nearer ones broad bands of
glistening foam, and those afar mere shining threads and
filaments of silver as they shimmered in the light of day.
To the south and west the circling ocean met the eye,-from
Point-de Galle, soon to become the great steam-harbour of
, the Eastern world, to Kalntara, Colombo, Negombo and
Chilaw, the sites of which, with the aid of a good glass and
a map, could easily be made out ;-while in between lay the
vast expanse of hill and dale, watered by the K~lani-gaygn,

spread. Photographed as it were upon the clouds, as fur as vision could

reach, there wns the picture of the sacred summit.. With one hand I
could cover a mountain, while the shadow from my small hody was fear
ful indeed. I could h!irdly take it as a. compliment it' any friend were to

express his desire to me-' May your sha,low never grow less! But as
that shadow shortened with the advancing light, we hastened on our
homeward march.''
224 ADAM'S PEAK. .

the Kn)u.:gavga, and other streams, the ebiof of which sprang

from the ranges that immediately surrounded the isolated
11innaele upon which we stood. Standing there, and seeing
11.ll this, we felt there was not the slightest exaggeration in
what Sir Emerson Tennent has written upon this scene, and.
which he thus sums up:-" The pan01ama from tlrn summit
of Adam's Peak is, perhap11, the grandest in the world, as no
other mountain, although surpae1:1ing it in altitude, presents
the same unobstructed view over land and sea. Around it,'
to the north and east, the traveller looks down on the zouo
of lofty hills that encircle the Kandian kingdom, whilst to the
westward tho eye is carried far over undulating pln.ins,
threaded by rivers liko cords of silver, till in tho purple
distance the glitter of the sunbeams on the sea marks the
line of the Indian Ocean."

"Steep the desce11t and weariaume the way r
The twisted boughs forbade the light of d11y; , , .
Upright and t111l the trees of nges grow,
While nil is loneliness nnd wn11te bl!low :
']'here ns the mnssy folinge, far nloof
Displny',l n d1trk impenetrnble roof,
So, gnmled nnd rigid, elnspt 11nd intcrwound
. An uncouth mnze ofrootii embo~R'1I the ground; __.
Midw11y be11e11th, the sylvan wild n11Rume~
A 111ihfor nMpeet, Hhrul;M 1111d flow'retR bloom'i.l 1
Opening~ of Mky, 01111 little plots of green, '
And showers of sunbeams through the leaves were 1eeu."




. Cor.D as wo were, anll fatigued ns we felt, on our l\forch

trip, we divested our~el ves of rugs unll overconts, nnd staff in
hand, turned westwards on our homeward j~urney. Down
the cliff went two of my companions, holding on. by the

"The World before the Flood,"


chains; .and down the slanting lnudcr went .he who had
adventured up it. Arrived at. the brow of the precipice, and
seeing below me but one step for my foot, and infinite space
beyond, I stopped short. Calling to 'the intc1pretcr for
assistance, for without it I could not go down, an active
Yidahn readily came forward, and with his and the inter- ,
pretcr't! help, I accomplhihed the descent. This hesitation
on my pnrt was neither the result of fear nor of dizziness,
hut of the stiffened state of my limbs, which began to f~il
and flag, an(} shew symptoms of inability to act simultane-
ously with the volition that directed their movements. It
behoved me therefore to he cautious. Just as I went over
the brink, my ears were saluted by a most melancholy
whining howl. Our commissary-general's dog, answering
to the name of "Tinker," who had made the pilgrimage
with us, and scrambled up to the top of the Samanta-kuta,
wliere he found a solitary canine friend to keep him company,
on coming to this spot shrank back, nnd gave doleful vent
to hit1 dismay at the perils before him, and hit! grief at being
forsaken ;-for there we were obliged to leave him.
,v e observed in our descent that some of the links of the
chains, nnd irons of the ladders, had short inscriptions en-
graved upon them; 'and that. on the rocks here and there
longer ancl more elaborate inscriptions had been cut. ,v e
were informed that in the one case they simply recorded

A petty headman, or Bubordinate officer.


the .names of those who had fixed or repaired those useful

aids to the ascent; and in the other gave an account of
pilgrims who had visited the Peak, some of whom had died
when they had reached thus far.
We got back to Hc;ramitipuna in considerably less time
than it took us to ascend from it the preyious' night; but we
found the journey down the Sainanala, much more painful
and trying than the clamber up, We had obsel'ved the pro-
ceding day, that from some place below the station, on the.
side on which we entered it coming from Palabaddala, the
pilgrims brought up their supplies of water; and on returning
from the Peak, in going down towards the Sita-gangula, we
saw a descent to our left, which mistaking for the proper
path, one of us went partially down before l1e 4iscovered
his error. About fifty or sixty feet below, he !law a cleal'ing
in a small dell, in the centre of which was a square kind of
tank; and this dell he determined to examine on the occasion
of his third visit. The result of the oxaruination was, that
( he identified the station H"ramitipuna, and this place, as
that described by Ibn Ba tu.ta, as "the ridge of Alexander,
in which is a caYe and a well of water," at the entrance to
the mountain Serendib. The olcl Moor's account is somc-
what confused, his notes or recollections not always carrying
his facts exactly in their due order; but half-wa,v down the
de~cent, on the left hand, is a well, excavated in the rock,
in which we found about five feet of, and which
swarmed with tadpoles. Possibly Datu.ta found it in the
same condition, for he speaks of the well, at the en'trance,

full of 6,;h, of which "no one takes nny," . At the bottom

ef the dell is a cleared space; in the centre of this is a
square tank, or well, il1e sides of which formed of
blocks of stime, six or eight feet long. Beyond this,
almo11t facing the descent, some twenty feet up the oppo-
site mountain's side, is a cave: To tl,is my companion and
I forced 011r ,vay through the jungle, and cnme to the con-
clusion, that thil3 wns the cave of Khfzr, where, Batuta says,
"the pilgriml3 leave their provisions, and whatever clt1c they.
have, and then ascend about two miles to the top of the
mountain, to the place of\ Adam's) foot." In the preceding
sentence he says, "Near this [ cnve 1and on each side of
the path, is a cistern cut in the rock." Now, no other phu:e
that we saw, or heard of~-and we were pnrticubrly minute
in onr inqnirice,-answers to such a description. There
nre the two wells, aml the cave; and tl1e dit1tanee to the
foot print is nlso pretty fairly estimated. 1\faking due
allowanco for a few mispl11cements of positions, which old
tra,cllers,-who m~re often than otherwise wrote from mcl'o
rccollection,-werc prone to, the account lbn Batuta givcl3
of the route to the Pe:ik, will in its general accuracy, bear

It is quite posKible thnt the route has been Rlightly varied since
Ibn Bntiit.a wrote. I um i11cline1I to think th ,t tbe path originully led
direct to the <lt:11 above <l~scribc<l, from Ramc 11oint lower down the a~cent
to ll~rnmitapfmn, nnil that the nscent to the Peak was also mn<le direct
from it. Hr;ramitip{inn is however a better Hiluute<l 1111d more healthy
po~ition fol" a pilgrim s,1ntion.

. co!Uparison with that of any narrative of a.~y writor of the

nge in which he lived.
'he siopcs of the mountain lending to H~rami~ip,tna nre
thickly clad with noble forest trees. The ~~gotation on the.
crest of the ridge~ as well as the undergrowth amongst the
trees . consists principally of several vncieties of the Nilloo.
plant. which we found in full bloo~- in the month of
September. when too, it is evidently a favorite food of ~ome
of the denizen!! of the forest, for the shrubs bore marks of '
having Leen browsed upon in all directions, The Datura
arborea also aclJecl it.a quota of rungnificent white gigantic
trumpet-shaped flowers to the floral Leauty of the spot; niul
the headman and interpreter pointed out to us other flowering
plimta. some of' which are used Ly the natives for medicinal
purposes; imch as the Adutod,i, the Agl\l-adara, the Pa.watta,
and the W mta-hira. t

'l'he Nilloo ( Sirobila11thts) is a brittlll jointcil plant, well known in the

inountnin districts of Ceylon, where it formes a complete undergrowth in
the fo1e~t. Whcu iu bloom tbe red and blue 11.ow,m with which it is
covered are a 8ingu!arly be11utiful foature in the landscape, and are
eagerly searched by the honey bees. Sollie species are said to flower
only once in five, scv~n, or nine years; and after ripening their sticd
they Jie.
t The a.hove arc the native name~. The Adatode. andthe Agal-Adnra,
arc species of the lfalabar nut; the l'awatta is the Pavella indica, WillJ.,
the Wacta-hir,i, !s II kind of hedge plant, the botnnir.:1d name of w)1ich 1
am ignornut of.

Stopping at the- station on our Mnrch excursion just

sufficiently 1011g to bo able to get a cup of coffee, we started
for tho Sha-gangulo., where WO purposed hathing and
breakfasting. T,vo of my companion11, younger and lighter
than L. and myself, soon shot ahead; but we found (and eo
did they) that the going do,vn was a very different matter to
the going up;-then, it was only the lifting muscles that
were brought into action, now it was the lowering ones,
with the whole weight of our bodies to be sustained, at each
descending step, upon our already strained ankles and trou- .
bled knees. '\Vith the perspiration streaming from every
pore, and with feet !!Wollen and inflamed, we hobbled and
stumbled on our way, objects of compassion to many who
passed us, an:l especially to one old sympathizing native-our
bcnisons on his venerable head !-who pausing to look at us
for a few seconds, drew from his wallet a fine ornnge, and
with a smile of encouragement handed us th~ refreshing
fruit,-B gift we most gratefully accepted. By the time wo
arrived at the river, I was obliged to seek the assistance
of a coolie, in addition to that of the 11,lpcnstock I grasped,
Having resolved upon B bath licrc, we sc~ambled up the
bare 11mooth rock in search of a convenient pool, out of sigl1t .
of tlie pilgrims at the ford, and in so doing, I came to grief;
for on pagsing one of the fissures between the boulder..., my
foot slipped, and down I went, feet first, into an ugly~look-
ing hole filled with water, drugging my attendant coolie in
with and upon me. Instinctively throwing my arms across
the chasm, (about three feet wiclc), I brought myself up

'. when immeri,ed to the waist, although I touched no bottom

with my feet, The coolio quickly recovered himselfand
helped me out; but I alij)ped again at the first step I at
tempted, nnd this timo went souse up to the arm-pits,
receiving blows upon my elbows and knee3 which did not
facilitate my after progress, Helped out again, I stripped
off boots nnd socks, and made my way bare.foot to where my
companions were disporting themselves; laughing merrily
nt my mishaps, which they had witnessed though a crevice
bet.ween the rocks; an amusement in which I could not help
joining, for the whole affair was irresistibly ludicrous. A
brisk shampooing, combined with the bracing coldness of the
waters, g1eatly revived us, and our subsequent breakfast on
the rocks below w~s not the least relished meal of our trip.
In a small stream which here joins the Sita-gangula, we
observed some good-sized crabs, about four inches broad
in the body, and'were not a little amused at the voracity
with which one seized with both clnws the wing and breast
bone of a fowl, and commer.ced tearing off with its mouth
the fragment of flesh that had been left upon it.
The nsccnt from the river to the Dharma-rnja-gala was
comparatively ensy work-a gentle shove behind from one
of the following coolies being a most efficient upward help,
,vhen we reached the rock, an English-speaking 'Siy.halese
who there overtook us, ~ravely declar~d that no two people
could arrive nt the eamo number in counting the steps, it
being a standing miracle, ordained by Buddha, that theil."
number should never be exactly known, Unbelievers as.
232 ADAM'_s PEA!{.

wo were, and cine of' our party hnvin~ counted them on t.ho
journey up, wo agreed, for the. eatisfnction of our informiint,
to count them interpreter also counting with ue.
,vhcn we came to the bottom and comparc<l notes, ca,ch one's
count corresponded with the othcr'e_;,exactly .130; a matter
of fact which evidently excceuingly puzzled our casual
acquaintance in the smart jacket and comboy,
After passing tho ruined rcsthonse at, when
ncnr the site of Gi;to.netul-galn ambo_lamn, a beautiful vic,v
of ,the country below ie obtained from an opening on the left
of the path. 'rho whole of Gilimnlc lies mapped out before
the eye, with glimpses of the meandering through
its plains. Purthcr on, at a lower elevation, on the right
of the path, a similar view is obtained of the Kuruwiti
valley, watered by the Kuru-ga)Jga, But more welcome to
our longing eyes than scenery, however beautiful or pie- "
turcsqnc, was the ru~tie Nilihcla ambalamo., when we co.1110
within view of it. For our progress, slow from the first,
had now- bccomo most pninfnlly so. D. and G. had. long
since distanced L. and myself,-and g,radunlly our pncc hail
become reJuced to that of a snail's gallop, The old man
who had mnde his 56th pilgrimage, dcerepid from nge, and
bowed and bent with infirmity, wns, with thq help of hie et.nff,
and son and granson, pl'Oeeeding ns fast as ourselves, nnd it
became a question whether he or we would reach Pala- first, aR we passed ancl re.passed cnch othm on the
rocky path. He had gone on to the foot-print, while we
stayed at Hi;,ipana, and had returned and recruited

there, and ~tarted on hie way back to Ratnapura before us; .

but we had overtaken him after leaving Diyabetma, Some
extra steep places, I could only, as an emerald islander
would say, face backwards, holding on by the coolie; others
I literally crawled down crab-fashion. For first,. an ankle
gave way, and then n knee, and when we cnme to a some-
what level pntch of tho length of a ynrd or two, we found
ourselve11 etnggering to and fro, fr~m positivo inability to
walk as was our ordinary wont,
A little beyond this, os we were toiling on~ dog "Tinker"
came bonnr1ing up. He had somehow contrived to o,er-
come hi11 difficulties, and his demonstrations of joy at having
come up with us were excessi\'e; tho stump of lii11 tnil
wagged with a rapidity that threatent!d to disjoint it alto-
gether; and his jumps nnd fawnings about us hn<l in them -
an odd mixture of the ludicrous with the rathetic. Suon '.
after, L., seeing that my ho.lti,ngs were becoming more and
more frequent, generously voluntlercd, o.lthough sciirccly
less fatigued than myself, to make n push forward and send
back coolies tu help me on. This he did, o.nd the welcome
help come none too soon; for though I perseveringly hobbled
on, upon the principle that e.neh step brought me ncnrcr to
my journey's end, when about three-quarters of R mile from
Palt'ibn<lclala, both ankles and knees had so completely ghen
way, that even with the nssi.;tnnce of a coolie nnd my staff, I ..
could seucely mo,e a step. Support.ed under the rirm pits
on either side, and gently forced forward from behind, I at
last reached J>aliiba1hlula, where our former qunrteri; had


been placecl at ~i1r disposal, nod where my c~mpanione were

nlrcndy at rest. ;; :
Before the arrival of tlie additional coolie", when paeeing
through Uda Pawen-9lla, where there is a large open tiled
nmbalam~, the old gentleman wlio had made his 51 et
y,ilgrimnge, nnd was there halting with his f.'lmily, came for-
ward nnd lccl me to a seat. . He l!aw at a glance the plight
I was in, nnd probably fancied that I was worse than nctunlly
was the case, for he 1:1oon bcg1m t.o question me, wl1ilc a crowd
gnthcrerl round to hear the result of his inquiries. But as
none of the natives present understood English, and my
knowledge of SiJJhil.lese was by 110 mean~ extensive, ,~e had
to fall back upon the language of l!igns, for a proper under-
standing of each other. First he felt my pulse, and then
pointed to and felt my anklcr,i; at this I shook my heu.d, ~nd
!lnid, Naral<i (ba,l); ho then pointed to my knees nnd thighs,
to which I rc11pnnclcd, Uohomi. narnki (very bnd); this, if I
have any skill in the interpretation of looks, brought into
play many expressions of sympathy and commieseration.
He then pointed to my chest, wh~reupon I smiled, and l!aid
Bondi (good). Hondi and Bohomi-honili were repented in
cheering tones by him and by the bye-standers; and all seemed
to think that if the chest was not affocte<l, it did not signify
much what ailed the muscles. ,vith a benevolent smil1, and a
hearty hand-i,,hake, he bade me good-bye, and I saw him no
more; but the recollection of his kindness, and of hie
sympathetic conduct, will be lasting. He was without a
doubt, one of the good Samaritans of a country, of whom it

ls many respects a libel to Hy-no matter upon what high
,,authority-that in it "man is only vile." .My coolie now cut
up and handed me, at the instigation, I believe, of my worthy
native friend, some pieces of sugar-cane, the juice of which
I found both refreshing and reviving. After munching
these, and part.aking of .a draught of water, I again set out,
and in a few minutes met the help that had been sent me.
That morning's journey is one which none of us is likely
ever to forget, for none had ever experienced in so great a
degree such intensity of muscular pain or such severity of
fatigue, Our frequent halts had however enabled us to
note more closely the features of the track we tra~ersed;
and we found that in m9:ny places it narrowed to a mere
ridge of a rock, bounded on eithe1 hand by a tremendous
prcci1iice, the terrors of which were happily hidden by a
luxuriant growth of jungle am) forest.
The mosses and ferns, some of which were gathered and
brought home by G., were l!ingularly graceful; and one of
the latter proved to be a rare and seldom seen specimen,
Tiny flowers, with stalks so slender and delicate that they
looked like filaments of gossamer bri~htly shining among
the rain-drops with whose moisture they were bedewed,
clung to the faces of the rocks, encrusting them with
an exquisite gem-like efflorescence, which would baffle the
efforts of the most skilful artist to 'imitate. Admiring
their beauty, we gathered samples of all within re,ch; but
unfortunately, the coolie to whom thGy were entrusted,
contrived to lol!e them. e strongly suspected that, not
236 Al>AM'S . PEAK.

~ppreciating our tastes, or our love of the beautiful as

manifested botanically, he 11imply deemed them a lot of
nlueless .weeds, and as soon as he safely could, rid himself
of the trouble of carryin.g them by throwing them away.
The forests were magnificent, eeipeciully where iron-
wood ahoundcd, t Perhaps no tree i:i more beautiful than
this, when on a trunk fifty feet in height, with a gi;th on
the gronnd '1f four or five, and with branches symmetrically
tapering to a point above, the whole mass of its leaves pre-
sents to the eye a gorgeciu~ cone of carmined foliage, of
almost every po:isible hue, from palest pink to deep blood
red. In other tiea~ons, when the leaves are not thus full of
eiap, they are more of a sober sage-green colour, which
aumirably contrasts with the profuse bloom of flowers with
which the tree is then covered. These in appearance arc
not mneh unlike some kinds of white roses, the large petals
eiurroundin~ IL cluster of prominent dclieatc yellow stamens.
They emit an 11grccablc, but l!Omcwhat strong perfume, and
are favorite flowers for offerings lo.t Buddhist temples.
The river seenery was varied and exceedin~ly pieturesque.
The view:1 at the ferry before reaching Gilimale, and at the
eipots where we there bathed, were charming, but both were
eclipsed by th.c greater beauties di!<playecl at the junction
of the Hatula with the Kalu-gr..\lga; while at Maskeliya,

}'or a""ivid dc~cription of Ceylon forest ~cencry, sec Appendix K.;

nn<l for nn account of tl1c B01any of Adam's Peak, Appendix L.
t Sing. Na gahn. l\lcsun fcrrca, L.

, I

'. and'. at the Kalu-gnJJga at Pal6.badd11la, and the Sita

, gangula, and othe~ highland streams, the aspoot of the coun-
try is wholly chiinged; nnd the sylvan gives place to the
wild and the grand, occa11ioned by the pre11ence in and around
them of rocks and boulderd and frowning precipices and
mountains huge, aud towering Alps, ancl gloomy forests
lu the higher part:! of each of the mountains we had
descended, we saw numerout1 traces of elephants, and were
at first puzzled to make out why their paths through the
cane brakes on either side of our track were so frequent and
so close. A little consideration however shewed; that in
these places, evidently fuvorite feeding grounds, the saga-
cioul! brutes, who always- choose for themselves the easiest
posdible gradients, had made a aeries of zigzags up. the
ridge; and as these crossed our path every few feet, _we
understood at once both the steepness and the narrowness
of the ridge we were descending, and a very little diver-
gence to the right or left gave us ocular proof of the fact.
\Ve once thought we heard their trumpetings in the dis-
tance; anJ all alon~ the region of their tracks the pilgrim!!
shouted and chanted lustily, evidently with the view of
keeping them out of the way.
There was one piece of fun which the wags of a party
were very fond of. Dropping ?ehind their companions; they
would send up a loud in1itation trumpeting, and startle those
before them into swifter movements down the mountain slope.
Some however, like ourselves, were u~able to quicken their

paces, and there were on.e or two poor women whom we

passed, lying prostrate on the rocks, wl10 seemed ns if they
would gasp out their lives ere they could reach their homes;
they were however carefully tended by their accompanying
Of butterflies, although suppo11cd to be i~ the region of
their homes, we saw but few; they were principally of the
l. large-winged blue and purple-coloured varieties. The pest
,,i' of leeches, the dread and torment of the route in <lamp and
rainy seasons, we nt this time luckily escaped, owing to the
dryness and the heat; not more than two or thl"Ce of those
Ttiracious blood11uckcrs having assailed our persons. We
saw one or two reptiles, the green whip-snake, and a
rat-snake; and on our third journey a tic-polouga was found
in the ambalama at Nilihela. At Uda Pawen-(_llla we saw
an exceedingly ugly-looking centipede, at leadt eight inches
long, with legs spread out for half au inch on each side of
its body. Some crabs were also seen at the same place,
apparently of the same kind as the_ one we noticed at Sita-
Comparing notes with, and laughing at one another's ,
experiences, we spent the afternoon of ,Easter Mon<la.y, and
before retii-i'Qg to our primitive sleeping bunks, each had bis
limbs shampooed, and well rubbed with an embrocation of
diluted Arnica, which one of us was provided with. The
recollection of this excellent re'i!torativc was suggested by a
visit paid us by a' wederalc,' a nati vc medical man, who had
I1eard one of us was ill and came to proffer hi11 services. Our
ADAM'8 PEAK; 289

rascnle of coolies grinned at t.he fun as we . winced under

their hande while they operated upon ue; for the muscles
of our thighs nnd the calves of our legs ached to agony,
and our nerves shrank and quivered with pain nt the slight-
. est touch; but we felt all the better afterwards, and slept
more soundly that ~ight than we had done during the three
Expert cragsmen, hardy mountaineers, and members of the
Alpine club, may smile at this account of our sufferi~g@; and
we should doubtless have not felt anything like what we did
had we been in proper training for the work we undertook;
but as we saw numbers of lithe wiry-looking Siyhalese
suffering in _a similar manncr,--pain manifest in every step
they took, with their swollen ankles, feet., and limbs,-we
have reason to think that the pilgrimage to and from the
Peak, on foot as we performed it,is a feat that would fatigue
even the hardiest and -the best trained mountain-climbers
amongst our countrymen, when we woke the following
morning each movement was etill the cause or considerable
pain; but another shampooing, and a cup of coffee, enabled
usto make an early start; and as the remainder of our jour-
ney was on much more level ground, as we warmed with
exercise we managed to get on more vigorously than we
at first anticipated.
On our second excursion the return to Palabaddala was
lonesome There were none ori the path besides ourt1elvee,
and we were struck by the quietude of everything around.
At Nilihela, where on our upward route we saw eight

water-falls leaping down the -mountAin precipices, there waa:

now not even a rill, hut

"deep the hu~h; the torrent'a channel dry

Prl'aents a stony steep, the ecbo'a buuut."

An old woman, and n child or two, stared in ~onderment as

we passed Uda Pawen9lla; and the priests and good peot1lc
at Pala.baddala rejoiced at our return, for they had tried to
dissuade us from going, and prognosticated that evils would
surely befnt1 us for not listening to their persuasions. One
accident certainly did occur, and it was irreparable. The
cootie who carried the box of glass plates and photographs .
taken on the journey, slipped, stumbled, and felt, just
before reaching the bridge ahove tho villngo; the box flew
c,ff his head, struck against a rock, and in an instant the
whole of its contents were shivered to atoms. It was 11,
f;Crions Joss to the nrtist, and my readers also lose the
advantage which suc'b illustrations would have afforded in
their perusal of these pages. Anotl\er nccident also occur-
red, hut not to our party; although the medical am] surgical
kno~ledge which one of our number happened to possess was
thereby brought into ncti\'c operation. Qn our way up we.
had passed a poor purl,lind oh) man, who was then staying
at Udn. Pawcn-~lla. After our return to Palabaddaln, at.out
8 or 9 r. lit, the same man was brought into the village in
a most pitiable plight. He too, in venturing to come to the
village, had slipped, and fallen on or down the rock$; his


scalp, and temple, and check bone, were laid open by the
accident, a1id hie face was covered with clotted gore. .He
WM certainly a very deplorable louking object when pre~
sented to us; but by the use nnd applicntion of sponge,
scissors, lint, lotion, sticking-plnstcr nnd bandngcs, he wns in
a short time mnde tolernbly coJDfortable. The result how-
ever, was, that all the hnlt, maimed, ailing, withered, ol<l,
blind and dccrcpid or the ,illnge, immediately swarmed in
an<l ~olicited aid, and to the best of our ability we prescribed
an<l doctored right ancl left, until our drugs nnd medicnments
were exhausted; then, but not till then, did our would-be
patients leave us to ourselves.
On our third journey, we were accompnnied by ono of
tho Banduras from GilimnltJ, After wo hnd visited tho
Penk, aml were preparing to return from I-l~ramit,ipiinn, tho
co~lie who had been @ent on from Colombo with pro,i~ions,
made his appearance. He hnd come up to liutnnpura the
day after we left, and followed our steps thus far; but lm<l
left his load on the rocks half wny between Si'tn-gnngula
and H~rami!ipana, not being able to cnrry it further, owing
to an ittack of fever and ague, with which he wns then
shaking. ,v c gave him a strong dose of brandy nnd qui-
nine, nnd then hasted down to look after his load; for though
there was no likelihood of any human being making free
with it nt that season of the year, we did not lee! quite so
sure about the elcphan~, whose spoor indicated th11t they
were not far off. ,v C hnd, be~ides, j1;st fiuii;hcd our ijtock

of pro,cn<ler, and the contents of that box w~re of special

C ,,

interest to n ot tl1ot particular juncture. Finding it where

the man hacl left it, and waiting to see all our party eofely
over, we were detained some time in crossing the S1ta
gangula; while there, the Colombo coolie pointed out to us
a cave in the river bed, formed by 'three or four rocks piled
agaiosteach other, where, foodless a111l fireless, he had 11pent the
preceding night, the river roaring on either 11ide, and the rnin
pelting down on the .rock above hiin. It was the dreariest
re11ting-placc conceivable; but we saw several similar caves
about; anll in ~ry weather, a party on a moonlight night might
do worse than .encamp in the rocky caves tliere, supposing
always they were well supplied with food and fil'e, From
thence our journey that day wns most fatiguing, and th1ough
constont rain. ,v e were not able to proceed as far as
Palabaddala, but halted at Uda Paweu-;lla, where B:mdara.
made us as comfort!l,ble as circumstances would permit; and
although our lodging was on the cold ground, and om bed
but a water-proof wra11Per,
., we had nevertheles11, a. roof over-
head, and a good supply of creature comforts; and conscious
that we might have fared much worse, we contrived to enjoy
ourselve~, an<l slept soundly through the night.
From Palaba.ddala to :Ratnapura the return jo11rney is
. comparnthely easy. My companions on the first excursion
re-crossed the Maskeliya by the unfinished bridge, wl1ile I
11referred the river's bed; on the second and third occasion
we all hacl to do the same. After crossing in December we
snw in the jungle on the river bank a 1cmnrkaLle spider, or
what we suppo:!ed to he one, ~vhich we regrcttecl that we
ADA)l'S PEAK;. 243

c.ould not aecure. Ite body was oblong, about an inch in

length, and two-third11 of an inch broad; of a pale green
colour, with a black atripe down the centre:. aa it held on to
the cane on which we anw it, ita lega exten<led an inch in front
and an inch behind. ,v
e halteu and bathed, and were well
1hampooed, and breakrasted or dined, and alept at Gilimale,
on each occai;ion, as circumstancee permitted or rendered

"Meantime unnumber'd glittering streamlets plny'd

And hurled every where their wuters aheen
Th11t as they bieker'd through the sunny glndc
Though restless still tbemseh-~s, a lulling murm'!r mnile."
Tn0Mto111, , I

On our second journey, when nearing the lj:llnpita ferry

acroae the Kalu-gaygn, we were overtaken by a IDOl5t violent
thunder storm,

'1The woo<ls grew dark, u though they knew no noon;

'l'be thumler growled about the high l>rowu bill,
And the thin, wasted, shining Mummer rills
Grew joyful with the coming of the rain,
.And doubtfully Willi shifting every vune
with changing gusts of win~,
'!'ill come the storm blu~t, furious and blind
Twix.t gorges of the mountuins, m1cl drove bnek
.'l'he light sea-breeze; ~hem w1tx1.-d the bc1tvenM bln.c~-
Until the lightning leapt from clllml to cloud,
With cluttering thumll'I', nntl tll<' pilt'illlp crow<~
244 A.DAM'S I>EAK.

Degon to turn rrom 1tecly l,fue to grey

Anil tow11rtl thu 80.& tho tlnmdur tlruw 11w11y,
J,ouviug the Ourth wlnJ blo,ving Htcndily
'J'ho r11ln-ulou<l1 rrom Ulympu,."

Right p;la<l were we to take shelter in the f1.1rry-keeper'11

hut until its fury had abated; an<l thankful too, thnt we ha<l
eucotmterecl nothing like it while in the mountains.
At Dimbulwitiya, about six and a ha.If miles from Ratna- ,
purn, we met, while hall ing on our fir1:1t journey, ,v
wntto Anunu.yak1i Uminse, the second in rank of the priet1t
hood of the Peak. He w1is on his way to the l:M-puda, tra-
velling in state,-banner-bearers and musici:ms before him,
himself' borne in a palanquin by four tall coolies, tw~ attend-
ant priests on foot behind, an<l a retinue of se1vants and
fullowe11:1 in the rear. Shrewd and intelligent in look, and
in the full prime an<l vigour of manhood, he eyed us keenly,
and on learnin~ that we were 1cturning from the pilgrimage,
became greatly interested, questioning us as to the. state of
the roads, &c. Whim we that clay regained our starting-point
at Ratnapnra, we wc1e glad enp11gh that our march of fifteen
miles was <lone. D.'s bung,1low, the creature comforts he
there provialllll, an<l the delicious bed1:1 we that night slept
on, are things to be remembered a1 those p1oductive of a
heartfelt. sntisfaetion, such as one meets with only on very
rare occasiJ111:1 in the comse of a busy bi1t with11I somewlrnt
monotouou!I life. The next <luy we visited the gem pits aud

:iluan1s'M "J,ile 1111cl Death of Jnsun.''


gold diggings of Ratnnpura; but aa there were neither geni-

mers' nor gold washers at work, wo had to draw upon our
, im11ginations for pictures of the treasures thllt possibly lay
hidden beneath our feet. \Vo ea,, however some fine speci-
mens of the Talipot palm, that
"yuJton of the stately tribe,
Who once a century <lisploye
His ftow'rs to m11n'a oclmiriug gue;
1''or none of wom11n bol'II behold
His buds a second time unfold.
,vith areh on arch successive eruwn'J
'l'hc f,,l<ling l~avcs the top surrnund,
1'~ach leo.t' a fan-like circle forms,
An am1,le screen from sun an<l si;,rm1,
Ily N uture kindly .lent lo bless
'l'he unrejoicing wilderness 1

'fhe,Coryph11 umbro.eulifcra, "the et.em of whiob 1nmetime1 attain,

the height of 100 feet, and each of ils enorwou1,f11n,like leave-. when
laid upon the ground, will form a semicircle of 16 feet in diameter, and
cover an area of nearly 200 superficiul feet. 'l'he tree fl.owera but once
and dies; 11nd the natives firmly believe that the bursting.of the eheath,
which eontains II nmg11zi11~ of seeds, is accompanied by a loud explo~ion.
The le11ves nlone ore converted by the bi11halcee to purposca of utility.
01' them tbcy form eovcl'ings for their hom1ce, 1111d pol't11ble tont.a of a
rudo lmt effective chu111ctcr; nml on occnsiuns of ceremony, each chief
1111d hcadmnn un w11lking abroad is 11ttcudetl by 11 ti,llowor, who holda
ab,,,c hi~ hen1I an elahurutcly, 0111111nentcd fa111, formed fiom a Riuglu. leaf
of the talpat. But the must interesting u~e to which they ar\l applied i1
WI euhstitutes for p,1pcr, both fur books and for ordiu111y purpoece. ln
the preparation of olas, which is the tel'IU 111:plicd to them whcu 10

A lr l1er bountoou cnro l1n1l 1r1'Cnd

A shelter ror tho trnvcllor' bead,
lJeneuth whose u111l.11illuted lonf
Ilia languid rorm might find relier.""''

One had only quite recently burst into bloom; the central
flower spathe towered straight up from the stem; am]_ was
eurroundcd by others in gracefully drooping circles, the
whole forming a most magnificent floral plume. Its appear-
ance exactly corresponded with the description given of this
noble palm by Mr. A. M. Ferguson in his Souvenirs of
Ceylon. "The trunk rose about ninety feet in height. The
grand E!pikc with its immense mass of primrose coloured
blossoms rising thiity feet. high, formed a rich contrut to
tho dark green of the foliage fro~n which .it sprang, and
presented a spectacle perhaps the most glorious which tho
range of the vegetable kingdom can prc:icnt."

employed, -the lea\'ea are takl'n whilst still tender, and, after separating the
central ribs, they are cut into strips and boiled in spring water. 'J'hey
are dried fir.1t in the shade, and afterwards in the sun, then made
into rolls, and kl'rt in store, or ~cnt to the mmket for sale. Berore,
however, they are fit ror writing on, they ure ijubjected to a second
rrocl's9, ealled madema. A smooth log or areca-palm is tied l1orizontnlly
between two trees, each ola is then damrml, and A weight being attuchl-d
to one end or it, it is drnwn backwards ond forward~ by the other till tho
surfi1cc becomes perfectly smooth nod relished; and during the process,
M the moisture driea up, it is necesdary to renew it till the effect is
complete. The ~moothing or II single bla 1Till occupy from fifteen lo
twenty minutes."-Sir J. E. 'l'Esio::in'~ Ceylon, vol. i. pp. 109, 110.
"'" T11e\Yantlcl'cr in Ceylon."

"A gentle river wound its quiet way
'l'hrough thi, sequester'd glode, meandering wide I
' Smooth as amirror here the 1urfoee lay:
' Where the pure lotus,. floating in its pride,
Enjoy'd the hrenth of heaven,' thesun'a warm beam, -
And the cool fi-effhness of its nntive stream,
Here o'er greep meods who~e tresses waved oubpreadi
With Rilent lupse the glossy waters run 1-
: Here in fleet motion o'er a pebbly bed,
' Glitling, they glance and ripple to the sun:
The stirring breeze that swept them in its flight
Rai,ed on the .stream a shower of sparkling light."
THE PoBT'~ r1r.or11.Lo.

1 1 1

BEING pressed for time on our March excursion, we

returned to Cblombo by tho Ratnapura Coach i a cour!!e
adopted, for the same reason, on our Chri!!tmas and Now-
y ear's trip. But in September we determined upon taking
the river route to Kalutar11, and from thence to return to
Colombo, by the Galle road. ,v
e accordingly engaged a

pada-boat, ~nd as the rest house is very near the river, this
mas brought for our accommodation to a landing place close
Ly. Sen cling our horse home by rond, for he would not _enter
the boat, we dismounted om carriage from its wheels aucl
stowing it with our boxes in the centre of the boat, took up
our q11artert1 in t.he fore part., while our servants and a portion 1
of tl1e crew occupied thr. hinder encl. The crew consisted of a
tinclal or steersman, nnd six rower,1; a complement which
allowed four to be always working the sweeps on the over-
l1nn~ing prow, while two rested, spell ancl spell about. A
good supply of fresh 'rice straw, covered with empty coffee
bags, o,er which we spread our rug!', mnile excellent couches;
while a clay l1cnrth near the stern, with a few bricks nnd
earthenware pane, eel'Ved all the purposes ofn kitchen. Our
arrangement,1 being quickly completed, we 1e1tarted from our
mooring shortly after <layhreak. It was a lovely morning,
although the night had been rainy; it seemed indeed as if
we were now about to have a return of fine weather, so
anf'piciously broke
" the dewy mol'll
With breath nil incen~c, &nd with check all bloom
Laughing the clouds nway with playful scorn
And lhing as if earth c~ntained no tomb
An<l glowing into dny," BYRO!l,

A large flat-bottomed bnrge, about fifty feet long, with a roofing of

~ ca.Ijans, raised sufficiently high in the centre to allow a man 'to stand
upright; the 11nds of this nrc ~ep11r11tely made so M to slide buckwards
and forwards over the central portion,
. ADAM'S PEAK. 24~.

A little delay oceurred when we had advanced a coupli, -of

miles. The tindo.l went ashore to pray at the Saman D6wl&l6
for a sare paBBage down the river, nnd e11peoially to entreat
the god's protection against the dangers of the rapids lower
down. Heathen as the mo.n was, he herein set o.n example
which it would be well for more enlightened Christian folk
to follow; for . there enn be no doubt that, o.s

"To grease the wheel delnyeth non~,"

"To church to pmy doth hioder none,"

two pithy sayings, which the mother of the great Reformer,

Luther, wo.s in the habit of impressing on the minds and .. _
memories of her off11pring. In .bout an hour we pa@sed the
junction of the Ho.1Jgomu,gauga with the Knlu-go.JJgll;
there ,vas here o. perceptible increo.@e in the strength of the
current, and some care was required to avoid rocks, which,
as tbe river was pretty high from the lo.te rnins, were not
visible above water. About 1 P. M. we passed the junction
of the Kuru-gavga, and halr-an-hour Inter shot swiftly down
P~nigalo.-f_llla, the first of the rapids, amongst the rocks of
which our tindal, with n.n additional steersmnn, and all his
men on the qui vive, skilfully guided his apparently unwieldy

About three miles up this river is the Potgulu-vihara, or 11 vili6.ra of

libraries," the belief being that there was once here o. lnrgc collection of
all the Buddhistico.l writings. It iR in this vihtira that tl1e inouth of one
of the supposed subterranean jinssnges exists, referred to at page 114.


craft. Hero, on the right-bank or the river, is the~Kiri-

~lle-dcwaM, where the natives are accustomed to make offer..
ings to Saman, as well as _at the Saman-dc,vtile, higher up
the stream. About 4, p, 111., we passed the Naragala~lla,
the second and largest or the rapids; and at 5, the Kotapata,.
~Ila, the third. Besides these, there ,are several minor
rapids, which obstruct the navigation, called by the boatmen
"holombuwas." Darkness coming on, and the moon not
rising until after midnight, the tindal _would go no further;
the boat was therefore moored for the night to the stem.
of an overhanging cocoauut tree. Submitting to circum-
stance,:1, we dined on board, antl after 1,assing a pleasant .
evening together, were lulled to sleep by the gentle plashing
or the waters against the sides of the boat, as tbe river
ripplingly rnn by. Before the break or day, we were again
astir, and ere long bad passed a remarkable rock in the
middle of the river, split or as it were cloven in two in a
vertical direction, There is an inscription upon the face
or the rock in very ancient characters; and from the position
or the letters it is evident that_ the fracture took place sub-
scq uent to the time or their engraving. The belier amongst
the natives is that the rock was split by the hard swearing or
some perjured individuals. They ~ave indeed a proverbial
saying, tqat "perjurers can swear hard enough to eplit a
The sun hnd not risen when we found ourselves alongside
the Kalutal'a bridge, a sort or wooden-pile causeway, nbout
three-quarters or a mile in length, the roadway of which
ADAM'S . PEAK. 2~1

was not mueh more than six feet above wntermnrk at the
time;- and here we had to ,vait a,vhile, until a drawbridge,
, over the principal channel of the river, was raised, to allow
our plida-boat to pass; this being done, a quarter of nn
hour's further rowing brought us by 6 A, M, to the mouth
of the river, close to the Kalutara Resthouse. .
The scenery all down the Kalu-gaygn, from Ratnapura to
Ka.lutara, is most varied, picturesque, and beautiful, The
Peak range is seen again and again, the Samanala and the
B~na Samanala combining and grouping in different ways.
Other ranges seem here to close in upon a~d narrow the
stream, there to recede from _and allow it to spread out in
lake-like bays, Long, straight river vistas, bordered by dense
forests, were succeeded by-sweeps and reaches with shelving
cultivated banks; and at every turn. new beauties were
revealed to our admiring gaze.
Monkeys of several species sat chattering among the trees
or sprang from bough to bough, as we glided by; and
an occ.asional charge of small shot among the Ieave!i!,
that may have alarmed but certainly could not hurt them,
gave us an opportunity of seeing the prodigious leaps which
some of the larger quadrumanl\ can make, when under the
influence of fear.
There were places passed, to which the following lines
are applicable to the very letter:

"Sweet was the accnc I aplU't the cedarR atood,

A sunny islet open'iJ in the wood;

With vernal tints the wild briar thicket glows,

For here the desert fiourish'd as ihe rose;
Prom sapling trees with lucid foliage crnwn'd
Gay lights and shadows twinkled on the ground;
Up tho to.11 stems luxuriant creepers run
To bang their silver blossoms in the sun;
Deep velvet verdure clad the turf beneath
Where trodden flowers their richest mlours breathe;
O'er all Lhe bees, with murmuring music, flew.
From bell to bel~ to sip the trcllllured dew;
"'hilcinsect myriads, in the solar gleams,
Glanced to and fro, like intermingling beams;
So fresh, so pure, the woods, tbe sky, the air,
It sccm'd a place where angels might repair,
And tune their harps beneath those tranquil shades,
To morning songs or moonlight serenades."

Biids of bright plumage were continually glancing in the

sunbeams; in their flight like" flashing rays of rainbow light;''
this .was particularly the case with the kingfishers, many
species of which we sa,v dart into the stream from the over.:
hanging branches where they watohecl their finny prey.
Nor were there w~nting other sights and scenes. Small;
frail-looking canoes were being paddled about here and there
near the numerous landing places that lc<l to adjacent villages.
S:1wycr1J anu carpenters were busy on both banks felling
and cutting timber, and preparing it in floats to be taken to
l\Ioratuwa or Kalutara. Vihul'as and Dcwalcs peered out
-------- - - - -
* "The \Vorl<l before tl1c Plood,"
ADAM'S PEAK. 253'.

from elustering trees on knolls and create of hills r near each

of which a few boats or canoes were sure to be seen moored.
Rafts of timber and bambus were floating down the stream in
charge of one or two men, who were nearly as much in the
water as out, except when perched on one end of the float in a
small hut in which they could scarcely squeeze themselves.
Large pada boats similar to the one we were in, were being
poled up the river, slowly creeping alongside the banks, where
the force of the current was less than elsewhere, their crews
now helping themselves on with a haul at the canes and
creepers which fringed the water's edge, and anon avniling
of a slant of wind, when they quickly stretched a wide
spread sail on light elastic bambu masts. Altogether, to
quote the words of my companion-"! can imagine nothing
more delightful to a lover of nature tha~ our boating trip
down this river. . Its banks are lined with clumps of th~
tall bambus, nodding to their own image in the stream
below; with lofty forest trees, many of them richly OV1lr
grown with a foliage not their own-ferns, orchids, parasites
of many kinds,-nnd with others, up which climbers as
cended in stout twisted cables, and then fell in cascades of
green foliage from branch to branch, and hung in heavy
ma11ses to the surface of the river, Besides these, there
were, a11 one descended the river, more and more of the
kitul palms, the arrow-like arekas, and the bending 11tem_e
of the cocoanuts, All with a background of hills,
and the whole repeated again by reflection in the surface of
the smooth gliding water. And so we came slowly down

the middle of the stream, and shot hurriedly through the

rapids, till the increasing roar of the ocean surf told us
that we were nearing Kalutara."
The pleasant town of Kalutara is twenty-six miles distant
from Colombo ; .the healthiness of its situation, facing the
sea-breeze from the eouthweet, has always recommended it
to Europeans as one of the sanataria of the Island, and not
a few deem a residence in its neighbourhood preferable to a
visit to the colder region of Nuwara Eliya. The resthouse,
formerly the residence of the District Judge, is one of the
most commodious in Ceylon. View~ of picturesq~1e scenery
are to: be had in all direct.ions from the surrounding emi-
nences ; the most extended being that from a vih6.ra, about
six miles ofF, on the top of the steep rocky hill, Vehera-gala-
knnda, "the mountain of the temple rock," the residence of
a Buddhist priest, celebrated amongst the SiJJhalese for his
extraordinary medical knowledge. The old fort on the
promontory commanding the mouth of the river, has its own
peculiar historic interest. It was originally the !!ite of a
Buddhist Viliu.ra, destroyed by the Portuguese for the pur-
pose of converting the place into a fort . .1A mile or two_ from
the town, a very singular Banyan tree, in front of a Moorish
mosque, droops from an over-hanging branch its aerial roots
like a thick veil right across the road. Co\}oa-nut planta-
tions, gardens, ro.periee, distilleries, fisheries, busily occupy
the inhabitants; so many of whom are Moormen, that l\Iadam
Icla Pfeiffer, led astray by the venerable bearded faces of
the numerous Israclitish-looking ancients whom she saw,

I. says, in her description ~f the town, that its population

consist~ principally of J e,vs. A District Court and Minor
Courts of Justice and a. Jail, provide for the litigants and'
the criminals of a numerous population; while schools and
places of worship~ well attended by children and adults,
ehe,v that the educational and spiritual wants of the people
are not neglected.
The low pile bridge, already referred to, was constructed
to supersede the old "tarn," or ferry, across the Kalu-g1u.;iga,
and forms a connecting link of the Galle !Ind Colombo road,
the beauty of which, as it skirts the sea-coast, and passes
through groves of palms, and noble forest, or cultivated
bread and jack-fruit trees, calls forth tho admiration of
every traveller. About a mile and a quarter from the bridge,
in a. prominent position on the road side, is a. Dharma
Salawa, or preaching hall, belonging to the '\Vaskaduwa
Buddhist community, presided over by Saranapala Unnnse
of the Ama.rapura sect, whose principal pupil is the learned
Subhuti U n:inse, known in the literary world as the editor
of n recent edition of the Abhidbanappadip1ka, an ancient
Pali dictionary, composed a.bout A.J). 1153, by the thera.
Moggelana. A drive of nearly eight miles further brings
one to the town of Panadure; a. thriving populous place,

There are three derivations given for this name; one pana' roek,
'dura' distance, referring to the rock Guna-gala or "elkrock," seen at
.a distance from the resthouse of about two miles 011t at sea: tl1e second is
connected with a legend, which states that Dewol-dewiy6 elliling hither

and the head quarten of a Police Magistracy. . Here is the

Gal-kanda, an extensive vihlirn, presided over by Guna-
ratana Umtnse,a priest of portly presence and much affability.
Being but sixteen mil~s from Colombo, P{mndure is a very
favorite. spot for an occasional visit. Folk from the capital,
whose business will not allow of long absences, can with
ease run down on the Saturday and 'return on the Monday
morning. The resthouse is admirably situated, fMing the
mouth of a broad estunry, bounded by a sand bank, against
which the waves of the ocean fret themselves and break into
foamy surf; the resthouse keeper is proverbial for the soli-
citude with which he studies the con1fort of his visitors;
excellent bathing is always attainable; fresh fish' may be had
in abundance, morning, noon, and night; and a trip in a
canoe up the estuary to visit the curious cane-wicker fish-
kraals, or the rocks from whence the oysters are obtained,
is most interesting nnd enjoyable.
Crossing the estuary by the bridge, a further drive of
four miles lends to tho town of Momfuwa. Hero wo enter

with seven 11hipa, and being wrecked, and escaping on seven atone raft&,
Raw a lamp shining at a d6walc, and endeavoured to effect a landing; bqt
the goddess Pattini, the presiding deit.y of the dcwalc, objecting to De\Vol-
dewiyo landing near her domnins, cS:uscd the light of the lnmp to recede
as the dewiyo drew nelll'; whereupon newoJ,dewiyo desisted, remarking
"plna durayi," the lamp is too ti1r. The third is connected with the
time of the invasion of Ceylon by Wijaya, and refers to aome event con-
nected with the breaking of lamps, respecting which I have not been nble
to obtain pnrticulnrit,

'the region of Cinnamon; and from thence' to Colombo the

road passes by or through almost continuous gardens of thi11 -
' renowned laurel,-the cultivation of the cocoanut palm dis-
tinguishing the western, while that of the fragrant cinnamon
bush marks the eastern side of the road. l\fora~uwa, for
-a purely native town, is perhaps the handsomest in Ceylon.
The great bulk of' its population of upwards of 12,000 souls
consists chiefly of carpenters of the fidher caste, who devote
themselves to the manufacture of furniture, and casks and
barrels for the export of coffee and cocoanut oil; but it also
numbers among its inhabitants some of the most prosperous
and wealthy of the SiJJhalese community; and the,ie, emu-
lous of one another, have erected mansions on dther side
of th',l main road, in a style which shews at a glance the
opulence of their owners. Amongst the most eminent of
the inhabitants was the late Jeronis de Soyza, :Mudaliyar of
the Governor's Gate, whose dwelling-house on the outskirts
of the town might be considered the model of' a Sighalese
mansion, with its garden and oriental grounds. To his
munificence the inhabitants are mainly indebted for the
noble Anglican church which 'adorns the town,-a sacred
edifice that surpasses in its ecclesio-architectural beauty
all others in Ceylon. His liberalityt was in like manner

'Mora,' a small but plensnnt fruit; 'ntuwa,' a grdnnry or store.

t }'or an account of the procession and fOte in Colombo aud l\lorntuwn,
after Governor Sir George Anderson hod conferred upon Mr._po Soyza
the rank of l\ludaliyar, &ee Appendix M.

manifested, in the . establishment of echool,, the erection or

ambalamaa, the making of roads, and in every kind of im
provement that conduced to the welfare of hie countrymen.
The Wesleyane and the Roman Catholics form a large
and influential section of the population here, and possess
spacious places of worship, and well attended schools.
Next to Moratuwa lies the village of Rn.tmalana, forme~ly
as its name imports," a forest of red flowe,re," but now famous
for its extensive cinnamon cultivation; and for it~ paneala.
or monastery, where a college of priests is assembled under
the presidency of Hikkaduwe Samangala, the Chief priest of
Ada1n'a Peak, elected to that office in 1866, because, in the
opinion of his brethren-an opinion shared by all the literati
of Ceylon-"his reputntion for piety and scholarship stands
super-eminent among the priesthood of the Malwatta es-
tablishments of the Island of Ceylon." The pansala is

There are two sectil of Duddhist priests in Ceylon, the Siamese and -
the Amsrapura; the former baa two establishments, the Malw11tte, and the
Aagiriya. Of Lhese, the latter establishment is the more ancient, and wu
originally located in a dell on Aagiiiya, "the hone l'Olk,'' a hill in the out-
skirts of the town of Kandy. The former w11s established by King Kirti Sn,
on the re-estublishment, or resuscitation of Duddhism which took place in
hia reign. It was pl11ced under the charge of the Saygh11 Raja, W ~liwita,
Chief-prie!t of Adam's Pe11k, at Mal-watta, "the flower garden,"-a place
bordering the Kandy lake, given by the ki,ng to be prepared as a residence
for the priests from Si11m, upon their arriv11I in Ceylon; and the privilege
w111 conferred upon it of taking precedence over the Asgiriya establishment,
la members were supposed to be more subs.,rvient to the royal will;
but the doctrin_es and practices of both are precisely the Bllme, The
;,-) . , . _ _ , ; , _ _ _ _

pleasantly situated a.bout half a mile to the east of tlie road,

s_urrounded by groves of fruit bearing and other trees. we
paid our respect1:1 to the learned Chief-priest on our return
from the pilgrimage. He was agreeably surprised to learn
that we had succeeded in reaching the Sa.menala., as the
reports he had received about the weather, and the state of
the roads, ~ad led him to believe that we would be forced to
return without accomplishing the object of our journey.
A few miles further on, on the western side of the road, is
Mount Lavinia, a rocky headland projecting into the sea, on
which is situated what Sir Emerson Tennent describes as
"the remains of what was once the marine palace of the
Governors of Ceylon; an edifice in every way worthy of the
great man by whom it was erected-Sir Edward Barnes."

Amarapura sect waa established about the year 1808, by a priest named
Ambagahapitiya, who, with eight others, obtaioed tha Upasrunpada orders
from the Saygha Raja of Amarapura at Durmab. The two sects are die.
- tinguished from e&ch other by !1 slight ditrcrenc~ in dress and personal
appearance. 'fhe Siamese priests leave their right shoulders uncovered
by their robes, and shave their eyebrows; those of Amarnpura cover
. both shoulders with their rob~~. and leave their eyebrows in their
natural 11l11te. The Amarapura sect has prospered principally in the
Maritime provinces of the Island, where, ainco thoir establishment, their
numbers have increased until they are about equal to those of the Siamese
fraternity, which word is perhaps the better distinguisbing term,_ since
their differences are not doetrinal but merely ritual. They have a few
members in Sabaragamuwa and U'va; but there, and io all the other
Kandian districts, the priesthood of the Siamese ordioation form a pre
ponderating majority.
260 ADAM'S pgAK.

After being dismantled by orders from the home govern-

mcnt, then undergoing n. "paroxyinn of economy,'' it under-
went a vnricty of changes, and was bought nnd eold, again
anil ugain, u11til a speculative purchaser ventured to r~pair .
it throughout, for the purpose of converting it into a private
boardinghouse. It did not, however; remain long in his ~
hal\Cls; and being once more put up for sale, has now become
the property of a company, WQO let out its apartments to
invalids and others desirous of recruiting their health, or
. of enjoying the sea-breezes more fully than is possible
elt1ewhere, for many miles along the coast. And for both
these purpo:1es, as well as for pic-nic parties from Colombo, it
is most admirably adapted. A cool airy barrack, officers'
quarters, and tho rifle butts of the European regiment
stationed in Ceylon, acljoin Mount Lavinia.
l\Ionnt Attidiya, a residence ntarly opposite, but a little
cli::itance inland, once as famed for the beauty of its grounds
as for the hospitality of its ownel'-a gentleman then high
up in the Ceylon Civil Service-is now an abandoned ruin.
At Galkitis11t the village next pass.ed through,"the tra-
veller has the opportunity of seeing a temple which may
serve a.a an example of modern Buddhist buildings of this
class in Ceylon. It ill situated on a gentle eminence close
by tlrn high road, surrounded by groves of ironwood,

ThP. name iA deri,,ed from the words Gal-kta,a, "atone,key";

kcssa,' being an nl,d nml obsolete term for key. 1'here is a legend that
an import11nt key WM hid,lcn here in ancient times.

muruta.e, champnca, _and other tree11, offerings of whoee

flowers form 110 remarkable a feature in the worship of the
Siv.halese: The modest pansola in which the priests and
their nttendants re11ide is built in the hollow, and the ascent
to the Wihara above it is by steps excavated in the hill.
The latter is protected by a low wall decorated with my-
thological symbols, and the edifice itself is of the humblest
dimensions, with whitened walls and a projecting tiled roof.
In an inner apartment dimly lighted by lamps, where the air
ill heavy with the perfume of the ye1low champac flowers,
arc the pilamas or statues of the god, One huge recumbent
figure, twenty feet in length, represents Buddha, in that
state of blissful repose which constitutes the elysium of his
devotees; a second shows him seated under the sacred ho-tree
in Uruwela; and a third erect, and with the right hand raieed
and tlie two fore-fingers extended (as is the custom of the
popes in conferring their benediction), exhibits him in the act
of exhorting his earliest disciples. One qundrangular apart-
ment which surrounds the enclosed adytus is lighted by
windows, so as to exhibit a series of paintings on the inner
wall, illustrative of the narratives contained in thejataka,, __
or legends of the lluccessive / births of Buddha; the whole
executed in the barbarous and conventional style which
from time immemorial has marked thia peculiar school of
ecclesiastical art.
"As usual, within the outer enclosure there i:, a small
Hindu dtwale (which in this instance ill dedicated to the
worship of the Katarngam deviyo), and near to it grows
262- .ADAM'S PEAK,

one of the eacred ho-trees, that, Hke every other Ceylon~ in

is eaid .to have been raised from a lleed of the patriarchal
tree planted by Mahindo, at Anaraja.poora, more than two-
tbousand years ago. The whole establishment is on the
most unpretending ecale; for nine months of the year the
priests visit the houses of the villagers in search of alms,
and during tbe otl1er three, when tl1e violence of the rain
prevents their perambulations, their food il5 brought to
tl1em in the pansala; or else they reside with some of their
wealthier parishioners, who provide them once a year with
a eet of yellow robes." ,
From the populous village of Galkissa the traveller enters
the subu1bs of the ea11ital, and soon begins to find himself
among the residences of the European inhabitants of Co-,
Jombo. Chief among tl1ese is the mar;ision long known as
Bagatelle, where a generation ago the father of tl1e present
eeuior member of the Ceylon. Civil Service dispensed with
laiv1sb hand molit libe.ral hospitu:litiel5. It is now the property
of Mr. Charles De Soyza, only son and inheritor of the
vast wealth of the Mudaliyar to whom reference was made
when treating of Moraiuwa. Rebuilt am;l extended, it il5 ,
l1ere that its opulent owner had the distinguished honor of
entertaining m.. Uoyal Highness the Duke of Edinburgh on
the occasion of his visit to Ceylon in April oftho present year
[ 1870 J. f A drive of two miles along what ilS'now called the
' '

Sir J, E111zaso11 TB!llll!'NT'a Ceylon, vol. ii. pp. 144-146, 1

t For an account of this entertainment, see .Appendix N.
.ADAM'S PE.AX. 263

Kollupitiya road, bringll one on to the Galle Face, or Fau,

so called by the Dutch from its being in front of the forti-
fications that faced the direction of Galle. This fine open
space--the general parade ground for the troops, and great
lung of Colombo, is nearly a mile io length, and half a mile
or more in breadth, and is traversed by three excellent roacls,
-one in the centre, one by the sea-side, and one past the neat
Gothic church belong"ing to the Church Missionary Society,
the bridge 1eading to Slave Island, the Lake, and the
Garrison Burial Ground;-all converging together and
uniting in one that once led past the frowning Dutch batteries,
the deep broad moat; and the quaint old gate, that gave
access to the inner defences of the Fort of Colombo.
The road that nr,ce led past I write,-for while this work
has been in hand, the fortifications of Colombo,or thntportion
of them which overlooked the Galle Face, have di.sappeared,-
have been razed and levelled with the ground; the moat
from whence the earth work of the batteries was originally
dug has received back into its bosom the soil r~nt from it
a century and a half ago; the pick and the mine and the
mamotyt have so far restored th~ ,eite of moat and mound
to its pristine state, that no one bbw can say with Captain
"Upon that further point of land,
See yonder frowning fortrese stand,

'Kollu,' a kind of pulse used for reeding bones; pitiya,' a plain,

t A kind ofshort-bandled hoe.

Whose mouldering but _m"njeetie walls'

Its former grandeur yet rcealls
.As when the conquerors of the isle
First rear'tl the firm commanding pile,
To keep their slippery footing sure,
An infant empire tu secure;
To overawe a savage foe
And their superior science ,how.
Now like a vcternn decay'd
,vho once the sword of valour swny'J,
You trnce uprm its eveniog hour,
The vestige of its noontide power!"

There was a certain stern picturesqueness about the

frowning old walls and massive batteries, with their embattled
crests and grim gaping embrasures, and ancient guns, all of
which modern science has rendered useless, but which of yore
bcgirt the town with a cincture of impregnable strength; and
one grew so accustomed to their appearance, that now they
exist no longer, a feeling of regret at their destruction will
occasionally obtrude itself upon the mind, especially as the
work of demolition progresses, and day by day familiar objects
are for ever lost to sight. The ancients af the place may
mourn departed glories, as did the sages among the return-
ing Israelites when they recollected \he Jerusalem of their
younger days; but the glory of the latter times, it was pre-
dicted, should exceed by far those of the former: It needs
no prophet to make known the advantage~ to Colombo that
must accrue fro_m the changes which are being made. Like
a butterfly emerging from its chrysalis, the city stript of it:!

warlike garniture, becomes daily more and more beautiful

to view; and with the magnificent approach to it from
Kollupitiya across the Galle Face, with its public and
other buildings nestling as it were in the groves of Tulip
trees that adorn nnd shade its broad and busy streets, it
appears to the eye of the traveller one of the fairest and
most pleasantly situated, as it certainly also is the healthiest
by far of all the cities of the East.

The Suriya. ;Theapesia populnea.

"See Crowning o'er the vale below,
Yon rifted mountain's cloudy b1owl
On its most elevated crest,
Perched like the soaring eagle's nest,
Half blended with the skiey blue;
And scarce within uur re11eh of view,
There Buddha's lonely temple stands
ReYered by all the neighbouring lands I
A path that skirts along the base,
Winds up the mountain to the place;
Be toil and danger then forgot,
And let us gaiQ th~ hallow'd spot.."

JUST as in Moscow the Russians have a facsimile of the
Church of the Holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem, to which the
faithful of the Rus$0-Greek communionI make pilgrimages,

"The Wanderer in Ceylon."


and honestly, if ignorantly, believe that the merit which they

acquire in such pilgrimages is only but in a very slight degree
'less than what they would have gained bad they gone direct
. to the hallowed fane in the sacred city itself; S!) in Ceylon
there are numerous facsimiles of the SrS:-pada, to which the
old and infirm, and those Buddhists who cannot undertake
the journey to the Samanala, reverently repair, and tnake
their offerings of flowers and perfumes; and although they
admit that the merit of such offerings is inferior to that of
those offered on the Sr1-pada itself, at the summit of the
Samanala, such as it is they e11gerly covet it, distinguishing
the quality of their pious merit-bringing gifts by the term
"uddesika puja," or substitutionary offerings.
Fa Hian, the Chinese pilgrim of the fifth century, refers
to the foot-print on the Samanala, and also to one impressed
by Buddha on some place north of the city of Anuradhapura;
this latter has not been identified, but was probably a fac-
simile, to which no great sanctity was attached.
At Kurun~gala, the capital city of the island from A. D,
l 319 to 134 7, there is a facsimile of the Sri-pada, on the
top of the enormous J:.:tugala, or Elephant's rock, so named
from its having become so rounded and worn by time, that
although 600 feet in height, it has acquired the form of a
couchant elephant, Here was situated an ancient temple,
to which access was had by means of steep paths and steps
hewn out of the solid stone. This is still the resort of
Buddhists from many parts or the island, their chief object
of veneration being the facsimile Srl-pada; and from this point

they can see the towering alp of Adam's Peak, although

distant about forty miles, This copy is said to have been
originally cut to gratify the pious desires pf a daughter of
one of the kings, who was unable to perform the pilgrimage,
to the Peak and personaily make her offerings on the holy
foot-print. Lamenting her inability, the priests had com-
passion upon her, and resolved that a copy of the foot-print
should be cut on the summit of ~tugala; this was done; the
distress of the Princess was removed, and the place soon
became recognized as a legitimate place of pilgrimage. It
wns from this place that the usurping king Vo.sthimi Kuma-
ro.yo., was .killed by being precipitated headlong by a band of
assassins, when on his way to join an assembly of priests to
which he had been invited. Unsuspicious of danger he
accepted the invitation o.nd was thus treacherously slain.
This usurpation, tradition says, led to the next monarch
forsaking the place and removing the capital to Gampola.
There is another facsimile at the Alu vihara in Mata.le; of
the rocks of which Major Forbes gives the following account:
"Amongst the recesses of these crags the doctrines of Gau-
tama Buddha were first reduced to writing, and under their
huge masses many temples -tvere formed o.t a very early
period. These temples were destroyed by the British troops
in 1803, and only two out of eight have been since restored.
On one_ of the highest pinnacles is'a print of Buddha's foot-
step, similar to that on Adall)'s Peak, from which it is
copied; and a small hollow is formed in the rock near it,
for the purpose of rccei ving the offerings of the pious, On

, a neighbourina 0 arc, the remains of a d'-oaoba, and amidst

0 era"
its scattered fragments a atone cut into tw.enty-five compart~
ments; in the centre one of these the relio of Buddha had
been placed, and the remaining eella in the stone had
contained the offerings made when the relic waa deposited.
Through the middle of the Aluewihare rocks there is 11.
broad natural street of unequal height; to reach this you
must ascend a flight of rude steps, then pass through a cre-
vice, and again ascend until you come upon a flat rock,
which i~ pointed out as the spot where the Ki11g '\\.,.o.lagam-
bahoo assembled the priests, who here compared their texts,
which were then, or soon afterwards, committed to writing,
and form the Banapota or Buddhist Bible, This took place
about ninety-two years n.c.; and for two hundred and
fourteen years previous to that time, if not from the date of ---
" Gautama'a death, his doctrines had descended by tradition
At tl,e Natha dewale in Kandy, is a third copy of the
foot-print, This was formerly on the Senkadagala, a hill
behind the Kandy Kachcheri. The rock bearing the im-
press waa a few years ago conveyed to the dewale where it
ia now seen,
A fourth facsimile exists, (some aay it ia an original one),
on the top of a mountain on Gannoruwa, close to Peradenia;
and a fifth on the summit of a mountain at Allagala. Thie

"Eleven Y cars in Ceylon," vol. i. p. 346.


is known to have been made by the zealous restorer of

Buddhism, the Sangha Raja Saranankara, who about 124
years ngo brought over to Ceyion Siamese priests of the
Upaaampada order, and revived the religion of the country
after a long period of dormant inactivity and declension.
A sixth copy was cut on the top of the Kotimbulwala
vihara rock in the Atakalnn K6ral6 of the Sabaragamuwa
district. This was the work of a pious priest who resided
in the vihnra about eighty years ago. It was originally a
mere outline; but the late chief priest of the vihara had it
cut deeper, and made more of a facsimile than it had pre-
viously been.
At Dewanagala in the Four K6rales there are two
facsimiles, the origin of which I have not ascertained. There
is also one at Khettarama vihara, about a quarter of a mile
inland from the 37th mile-atone on the Galle rand, made by
llahngoda Dlmmmadaaai Terunansc, of the :Malwatta cstab~
In the Southern P1ovince, there nrc two copies; one at .
Ram~oda, on a rock adjoining the high road to Galle, near
the Police Court at Balapitimodare ; and another at Badde-
gama, about fourteen miles aouthenst from Galle. The
Rev. James Selkirk says of this," I went with the in-

terpreter thia evening to a small temple, about two miles

from Baddagama, where is a mark of the Sri-pada, ~r blessed

"Recollections of Ceylon," 1844; p. 468.


foot, similar to the one which. is on the top of Adam's

Peak, and to which such vast crowds of worshippers are
'drawn every year. It appears that a priest in this neigh
bourhood, some years ago, went to the Peak, and took
tho measure of the .' foot,' and on hie return got a stone
mason to cut one out similar to it. Thie was erected on the
top of a hill in this neighbourhood, ~nd enclosed witbin a
small building. Great numbers of people come at certain
seasons of the year to make offerings to it. I measured the
length of it, and found it to be seventy-two inches; the
breadth is thirty-six inches. The length of each of the
toes, whi~h are all alike.,.is fifteen inches, and the breadth
of each seven inches and a half. When I asked the priest,
who resides at a pansala near the place, what sort of a body
the person mat have had who had so enormous a foot, he
said, with much gravity, 'Don't you know that our Duduha
is eighteen cubits high? By the cubit is here meant two
feet three inches."
There is al1:10 another impression of a so-called foot-print
at Sitakanda in the Magam pat tu; but this is alleged to be
not from the foot of a Buddha, but of some other giant. Of
this I have not been able to obtain any definite information,
In the neighbourhood of the place where the impression is
asserted to exist, there are, close together, a hot and a cold

it has been computed that during the season about 100,000 Buddhists
11~d otbere make the annual pilgrimage to the Sr[-p&da on the aummil
of Adam's Peak.

epring, respecting which I ain indebted to the Assistant.

Government Agent at Hambavtota for the following infor
mation.-" The Mahap~I~ssa hot Ppring is found in a deserted
hamlet, four miles from Ridiyagama, and about eighteen from
Hambavtota, The water gushes forth in great plenty in a
small tract of 'open ground in the heart of the jungle. It
appeared to me to have a temperature as high as that of the
Hot Wells at Bath, considerably, if a conjecture may be
hazarded, nbovc 100. I had no thermometer with me at
the time of my visit. As it issues from the ground it is
perfectly clear and limpid; but in the pool, a few feet below
where it accumulates, it acquires a dark blue tinge.
,vhen rice is boiled in it the grains arc said to be dyed blue,
The pool is much frequented by elephants, elk, and wild
buffaloes. At the time of my visit three wild peacocks,
which abound in Magam Pattu, were hopping about briskly,
or, as the Si-ohalese say, dancing, in front of the spring.
The water tastes as if it had some mineral salts in solution,
w\tich is no doubt the case. In the spring itself is a quantity
of decayed leaves and twigs, although no large trees are
near at hand. It is possible the leaves may have been
conveY.ed by the action of the water from some point higher
up. People. acquainted with both places say, that the
water of the Mahap~l~ssa spring much resembles in taste
and appearance, that of the Kannea hot-wells near- Trinco.
malie. For persons troubled with rheumatic, and skin, and
such' like ailments, all of which are but too common in
Ceylon, bathing in the Mahap~l~ssa spring would, no doubt,

be _beneficial In any case, the 11pring is a natural pheno-

menon of a kind rare in Ctiylon (where traces of volcanic
agency are very scanty) and is well worth the attention of
the ourious. It is much to be wished that a . careful
analysis of the water could be made; but, so far as I am
aware, this has not yet been done.
"About 400 yards from the hot spring, is another spriJ;1g, of
deliciously cool water. Springs of any sort ~re rare in Magam
Pattu, which suffers much from drought at all times, I do
not doubt there was at one period a populous village near
these springs. The place is now however deserted; and
what was once a scene of thriving industry and plenty, is
a dense jungle abandoned to the elephants, the cheetah, and
other wild tenants of the forest."

. 2x



. 11 Tut veneration with which this majestic mountain [Adam's

PeakJhas been regarded for ages, took its rise in all probability
amongst the aborigines. of Ceylon, whom the sublimities of nature,
awaking the instinct of worship, impelled to do homage to the
mountains and the sun. Under the influence of such feelings the
aspect of this solitary alp, towering above the loftiest ranges of
the hills, and often shrouded in storms and thunder-clouds, was
calculated to convert awe into adoration.
"In a later age the religious interest became eoncentrated on a
. single spot to commemorate some individual identified with the
' '"1ational faith, and thus the hollow in the lofty rock tliat crowns
) ihe summit was said by the Brahmans to be the footstep of Siva,
by the Buddhists, of Buddha, by the Chinese, of Fo~, by the
Gnostics, of left, by the Mahometans, of Adam, whilst the Por
tugucse authorities were divided between the conflicting claims of
St. Thomas, and the Eunuch of Candace, Queen of Ethiopia.
"The phases of this local superstition can be traced with curious
accuracy through its s~ccessive transmitters. In the Buddhist
annals, the sojourn of Buddha in Ceylon, and the imp1-ession of the
'ari-pada,' his sacred foot-mark, left on departing, are recorded
in tha\ portion of the l',Jal1awanao which was written by Maha-
naaina prior to B. c. 301, and the story is' repeated in the other


eacred books of the Sivhalcse, The Raja-Tarangini states that

in the first century of tho Chrll!tlu.n era, a king of Kashmir, about
the year 24, resorted to Ceylon to adore the rello on Adam's Peak,
The Chineso traveller, Fa Hlan, who visited Ceylon A, D, 418,
says that two foot mar~s of Fol! were then venerated In the Island,
one on the sacred mountain, and the second towards the north of
the island. Oo the continent of India both Fa Rian and Hiouen
Thsang examined many other sri-padas; and Wang Ta-youen
adheres to the story of their Buddhist origin, ahhough later Chi-
nese writers, probably fro1n intercourse with the Mahometans,
borrow the idea that it was the foot-print of Pwankoo, "the
first man," in their system of myth.ology. In the twelfth century,
the patriot King Prakrama Babu L "made a journey on foot to
worship the shrine on Samanhela, and caused a temple to be
erected on its summit;' and the mountain wns visited by the
King Kirti Nissanga, for the same devout purpose, in 1o.. D. 1201,
and by Prakrama III. A. D. 1267. Nor was the faith of the
Sivhalese in its sanctity shaken even by the temporary apostasy
and persecution of the tyrant Raja Sivha I., who, at the close of
the sixteenth century, abjured Buddhism, adopted the worship of
Brahma, and Installed eomo Aandee fakil'II in the desecrated
shrine upon tl1e Peak,
"Strange to lj8y, the origin of the Mahometan tradition, as to its
being the footstep of Adam, is to be traced to a Christian source,
In framing their theological system, the Gnostics, who, even
during the lifetime of the Apostles, corrupted Christianity by an
admixture of the mysticism of Plato; assigned a position of sin
gular pre-eminence to Adam, who, as 'Ieu, the primal ma,r,' next
to the '.1Yoor' and 'Logo,,' was made to rank as the third
emanation from the Deity. Amongst the details of their worship

they cultivat.ed the veneration for monumental relics I and In the

precious manuscript of the fourth century, which contains the
Coptlo version of the discourse on 11 ~'aitl,ful Wiadom,n attrlbuted
by Tertulilan to the great Gnoatlc hereslarch Valontlnua, there
occurs the earlic,st recorded mention of the aacred footprint of
Adam, The Saviour is there represented as informing the Virgin
Mary that he has appointed the spirit Kalapataraoth as guardian
over the footstep (skemmut) 'imprmed by the foot of led, and
placed him in charge of the books of left, written b_y. Enoch in
"The Gnostics in their subsequent dispersion under the persecu-
tion of the emperors, appear to have communicated to the Arabs
this mystical veneration for Adam as the great protopla,e of the
human race; and in the religious code of Me.homet, Adam, as the
pure creation of the Lord's breath, takes precedence o.s the Ewel'
ule~biya, 'the greatest of all patriarchs and prophets,' and the
Kalife-y-Ekber, 'the first of God's vicegerents upon earth.' The
Me.hometans believe that on his expulsion from Paradise, Adam
passed many years in expiatory exile upon a mountain in India
before his re-union with Eve on Mount Arafath, which overhangs
Mocco.. A11 the Koran, In the passages in which Is recorded the
foll of Adam, mo.kca no mention of the spot at wliich he took up
hia abode on earth, it may be inferred that in th~ age of Mahomet,
his followers had not adop~ed Ceylon aa the locality of the aacred
footstep ; but when the .4-rab seamen, returning from India, brought
home accounts of the mysterious relic on the summit of .Al-rahoun,
as they termed ~dam's Peak, it appears to have fixed in the minds
of their- counirymen the precise locality of Adam's penitence.
The most ancient Arabian records of travel that have come down
to u11 mention th:e scene with solemnity ; but it was not till the .

tenth century that Ceylon became the establi11hed re11ort ot Mabo-

metan pilgrims, nnd Ibn Batutn, about the year 1340, relates that
at Shiraz he visited the tomb of the Imam Abu~Abd..All~, who .
first taught the way to Serendib.
"At the d~, the Buddhists are ~e guardinn11 of the
Sri-padn, but around the object of common adoration the devotees
of all races meet, not in furious contention like the Latina and
Greeks at the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem, but in pious appre
cintion of the one solitary object on which they ce.n unite in
peaceful worship."-Sm J. E:111ERSOM TENNENT's Ceylon, vol ii.

pp. 132-137.


WHEN we ,ailed, however, (from the Maldive Islands) the wind

changed upon us, and we were near being lost; .but arrived at
last at the isiand of Ceylon, a place well known, and in which
is situated the mountain of SerendS:b. This appeared to us like
a pillar of smoke, when we were at a distance of nine days from
it. When we get near the land, we saw a harbour, into which we
endeavoured to put, but were threatened by the Reis, who was in
the ship. The reason of this was, the harbour was in a district
b~longing to an infidel prince, who had no intercourse with the
captains of Moham~edan vessels, as other infidel princes had. He

.) i ProfeasoT Lee'a translation, f'rom which this chapter le taken, la not from the
orib,inal _MS., but from three copies of en abridgement, or what "Mohammed Jbn
Fat'b Allah El Bailun{ states that be extracted from the epltomo of the Klitib
Mohammed lbn Jazzi El Keib!, (upon whom be the mercy of God,) from the travels
oftbe theologian Abu Abd Allah El 1,awat{ ofTangiers, known by the nrname or
Ibn Batuta." The date of hla &Trival at Ceylon la not atated; but It mey be very
nc&Tly ascertained from several clrcnmetancea elsewl1ere mentioned. He re11ld@d
for some time at Delhi, where be waa appointed Jndge, and In 1842 we sent by
the Emperor of Hindustan on an Embassy to the Emperor of Chine. On hla way
be met with many adventUTea and actentlons, before reaching Kal!cnt, where ha
waited three months for the ahip that waa to con\"ey him to China. Then, after bev,
Ing embarked hi1 anite, and the presenta with which be was entrusted, while

wa11 likewise a very 11tupid being. He bad also ships with which
be oceasional1y transport.ed his troops against the Mobammedans.
Besirles nll this, we were in danger of drow_ning, un1ee11 we could
enter tha port : I said to the' Reis, therefore, Allow me to come on
sl1ore, nnd I will ensure thy safety, and that of those about thee,
with the King. To this he consented, nnd myself, with some of
my followers only, were brnught on shore. The infidels lhcn eBme
nbout us nnd !!aid : What nrc you ? I answered, I nm a relation.
of tl1e King of the Maabnr districts, and am on a voyage to
visit him: whntever is in the ship, is n present for the King of
l\laal,nr. They then went to their king, and told him this. He
therefore sent for me, and I went to_him. He is the king of the
city of Bnttala, which is small, and surrounded by two wooden
fences. The whole of i-ts shore nbounds with cinnamon wo6d,
bakam, and the -imlnnji aloe ; which, however, is not equal to the
Kamari, or the KakuH, in scent. The merchants of l\foaba1 and
the Mnabnr districts ti-ansport it witb~ut any other price thnn a
few articles of eloihing, ~hich are given as presents to the king.

performing hie devotion prevlotu to embarking bimself, a great 1tonn arose, aad
the ship wu driten to eea without him. Thi caused another loug detention, But
at Jut, uoortainingthat the vesael bad reached China, after a further delay be made
bia way to the Maldive l$landa. There be 1ettled down, merried four wive1, ll!ld
wu made a Judge. A child wu born to him, and he became a magnate in the
land, But hie proepetlty became bia bane; for the Vizier, dreading bia own los,
or Influence, grew eo boetlle, that he reeolved to vieit the "Maabar districts ot
JJindostan," who11e king WIIS married to 11 1l1ter of one of bi wl\'es. Taking
ell tho abovq circumstances lato account, be could ecarccly have reached Ceylon
before 1347; the probal,illty Indeed 11 that it waa later; for the capital or the
i,,land was, at the time of bi viit, Kankar, or Ganga-sri-pura, the modem
_GamJIOI&, wWcb city waa not made the capital until 134 7,

This may be attributed to the circumstance, that It ill brought

down. by the mountain torrents, and left In great heaps UJ>On the
shore, Between this city and the Maabar districts, there is a .
voyage of one day and night. The king of Ceylon, Ayari Shakarf
by name, has considerable forces by sea. When I was first ad-
mitt.ed to his presence, ho rose and received me bonourably, and
said: You al'e to be my guest for three dnys. Security shall be
forwarded to the people of the ship, because your rolatiou, the
king of the Maabar, is my friend. After thanking bim, I rcmainetl
with him, and was treat.ed with increasing respect. .
One day, when I was admitt.ed to his presence, h!,'l had with
him a great number of pearls, which had been brought from the

It is not quite clear who the individual here called the king of Ceylon waa,
Perhaps Ibn Batuta assigned to him the ronk of king from the meaning of the name I
.Arya,' signifying in the S11,nekrlt, ntble; and cho.kra-vml,' w1lvers11J monMcb,
Major Forbea, in the Epitome of the History of Ceylon appended Jo vol. II, of bl1
work, mcntiona that In the reib'll of Bhuwanekal11tbu I (A. p. I 303-1814,) Kula~
ahkar11, the king of Pandi, aent an army comma11ded by A'rra-Chakra-vartl
to Invade Ceylon; and that be took the capital Ynp11,b11, and carried off' the Dalada 1
which,' ~e presented to hie sovereign. Thie relic was recovered by Prnkrnmabtlbu
III. the succeeding king, who went in peraon to treat with the I.Ing of P~n,11 for
;ts restitution. It ia not stated whether the Pandian king retalnecl posaeasion of
Putta!am or not. The Malabara or Tamils of Ce~lon were settled In conai,lerable
numbers aloog the nortbweet coast, and the foad ing mao, or chief, may ba,e been
named Cbakr11-varti, which ia a common enough name to this llny amenget tbo
Jaffnese; or tho Piindian General may hava remaieed at PuttuJam as the repre1en-
tative of !110 king of Pii.ndl. In the reign of a eub~cquent mooarcb, Bhuwaneka
bobu lV. (A. u. 1347-1361,) the capitol of Ceylon was remo\"ed to Gangtl-sirl-
pura or Gampola, wbkh may ha\"~ bren the Kankar, referred to by Ibn Batul11,
further on; but as the word DIOOD only" the royal river city," they moy bavo
beeu applied to olher cities on the banks of a river as well as GJmpoln,

pearl-fishery,and these his companions were sorting. He asked

me, whether I had ever seen
peal'l-diving, io any country which
I had ,isited. I said, yes, I had, in the island of Finas. He
Mid : .Do not be shy ; ask for what you wish. I answered : My
only desire in coming to this island was, to visit the blessed foot
of our forefather Adam; whom these people call Baba, while
they style Eve, Mama. This, replied he, is easy enough. We
will send some one with you, who shall conduct you thither.
The ship (said I) which brought me here, shall return to the
llaabar; and when I return, you sbaH send me there .in one of
your ships. He answered, It shall be so. When I told this to
the commander of the ship, he refused to accede to it ; and said,
I will wait for you 1 should you be absent a whole year. This I
told to the King, who said: He may stny at my charge until you
return. He then gave me a_ palanquin, which his servants carded
upon their shoulders. He also sent with me four Jogees, who
were in the habit of visiting the foot-mark every year; with these
went four Bro.bruins, and ten of the King's companions, with
fifteen men carrying provisions. As to water, there is plenty of it
to be found on the road. We then proceeded on our joumey: and
on the fh-st day crossed a 1her in a boat made of reeds, aud
entered the city of Manar llandaH, which is handsome, a[!d
situotcd at the extremity of the territory of the infidel king, who
had entertained and sent us out. We then proceeded to the port
of Salawat,t which is a small town, The roads, however, over

Probahly Annema<looe. Sir 1, E. TESXEH aaya Minner! Munda!, But this

Ilea In an Op[lOllte direction to the route to Cbllaw, whllB Annemadooe la about ,
midway between ruttaJam and that town, t Chilaw,

,rhich we travelled, were rough and abounding with water. In

these there were many elephants : bnt they never touched either
pilgrims or strangers, in consequence of the blessing obtained by
the Sheikh Abu Abd Allah lbn Khafff, the first who opened t.his
road of pilgrimage t.o the foot. The infidels would not formerly
allow the Moho.mmeda.ns to make this pilgrimage, but injured
them ; nor would they either sell, or give them any thing to eat.
But when it happened that the elephants killed all the companions
of ibis Sheikh. one of them sparing and carrying him on his back
from among the mountains to an inhabited district, the infidels
ever after thought highly of the Mohammedans, admitted them
into thllir houses, and fed them. And to this very day they speak
of the Sheikh in the most extravagant terms of respect, and call
him "the greatest Sheikh." After this we arrived at the city of
Kankar, which is the seat of the Emperor of Ceylon. It is built
in a valley betw~en two hills, upon an estuary called the estuary

In thia 1tatement Ilin Datuta ie Cully bome . out by Robert l!:nox, who 1171,
1peaking of the charity oC the Si9hele,ie, In bis chapter "coilcemlug their rellgloue
dbc~rine1, opiniona and practices," part ill, eh. 5. "Nor are they charitable only
to the poor o( their own nation; but aa I &aid to othen, and particularly to the
:Moorish beggars, who are Mahometan1 by religion; theae have a temple In Kandy,
A certain former king gave this temple this privilege-that every freeholder should
contribute a ponnam (fanam, l!d.) to lt; 11I1d theae Moon go to every house In the
land to receive it [except In Dolosbage]1 11I1d, IC the house be ehut, they have
power to break it open, and to take oC gooda to the nine of It. They come nry
confidently when they beg, and say they cowe to fnlfil the pcople'a charity; end
the people do liberally relieve them for charity' sake. .. ,Theae Moora pllgrlme have
m1ny piecea oC land given to them, by well diepoeed penone, out oC charity, where
,they build holl8Ca end live; end thie land becomea theire from geoeraUon to
gcoeration, cor ever."
. 286 ADAM'S PE.AX.

of ruoics, and in which rubies are found, Without the city ie the
moiquo oft~ Sheikh Othman of Shiraz, which both the Emperor
and tho pcoplo of tho cit1 visit, and for which the1 have groat
Tho Emperor is an infidel, and is known by the of K;inar,
Ilo has a white olcphant, upon wl1ich he rides on feast days,
having firsi placed on his head some very large rubies, This is
the only white cl~phant l l1ad ever seen; The ruby and carbuncle
are found only in this country. These are not allowed to be ex
ported, on account of the great estimation in wliich they are held ;
nor arc tl1ey el110whcre dug up. But the ruby is found all over
Ceylon. It is considered as property, and is sold by the inhabit.
ants. When they dig for the ruby, they find a white stone nbound-
ing with fissures. Within this the ruby is placed. They cut it
out, and givo it to tl10 polishers, who polish it until the ruby is
separated from the stoue, Of this there is the red, the yellow1
and the cerulonn.t They call it the :M:an(ko.m. It is a custom
among thoin, tl1at every ruby amountin~ in vnlue to six of tho
golden dinars current in those parts, shnll go to the Emperor,
who gives its vo.luo a~d tnkcs it. What f111ls sho1t of this goes to
liis attendants. All tho women in the island of Ceylon have

Thl1 dC9Cl')ptlen In eoma rei,pocla an1wer1 to Gaanpulft, and In oth1r1 to R1t-

na11ura. Tbay ara hoth un the l,a11k1 or a rlvor, with hlll, on a.ltl1ar 1ida, No11r
both 1, an ancient moJW1uo, Ratnapura la ccrlalnly noar "the estuary of rubies,"
or district where 1uch gcm1 are r~und I but then, on the other hand, I am not
1,ra~ that It cvu wu the ca11ltal, whlcb Gnmpola ccrtftiuly wna. May not tl,11 be
the record or a not very clear recollection, In which the two places ar~ confounded
wilh uch olhcr? I
t Tlic topaz and th~ 111ppbire,
.ADAM'S PEAK. 28'1

traces of coloured rubies, which they put upon their band11 and
legs as chains, in the .place of bracelets and anole-ringa. I once
aaw upon the hoad of the whito olephant 11oven rubie11, each at
which was larger than a hen's egg. I also anw in the po1111es11ion
of the klug Ayar[ Shnkartl, a saucer made of ruby, as large all the
pnlm of the hand, in which he kept oil of aloes, I was much
surprised at it, when the King said to me, Wo have them much
larger than this.

There seems to have been at one time, a cooelderable oomber o( these large
rubie9, carbuncles, or emethya1e, In Ceylon, Coemae, describing the adveotorea of
Sopatcr, the first traveller who gave an account o( the hlend from penonel know-
ledb-e, ,aya, "There ere two kings ruling at uppoalte ends ot the Island, one of
-whom poeseae1 the hyacinth, ae large ea a pine cono, the colour of llrc, end
fluhlng from a dietanc~, eepeclelly when catching tho beame of tho sun-a match-
lees sight." . Marco Pulo eey"," tho king of Ceylon le reputed to have the grandcat
_ruby that wae ever ecen, e epan In length, tho thlckue6e of a man'e arm I brilliant
beyond deacrlptlon, and without a single 6aw, It hu the 1ppoar11nce of a glo\\lng
llre, nnd lt1 worth cannot lie eatlmated In mon~y, The Grand Khou Kublai, aen,
ambamdore to oft'er (or It tht nlue of a city I but the king wouhl not part with
it for ell the treaaurea of the world, na It was a Jowel banded do\Vn by hie anccatora
from the throne." Jord11n de Severec, abont the year 1323, reprots the atory, of
the ruby being "BO large that It could not be graaped In the clo~ed hand." Whet
became o( lt la nut known, In tho fourteenth century however, the Chlneae
annalM, m11ko mcutlon of an offlcor who woe ecnt to Coylon by tho omperor, to
purchase a "carbuncle" of unusual Juetro. "Thla aerved ea the boll on the em-
peror' cap, and woe transmitted to aucccHding emperora on thelt. acceaslon aa a
precious heirloom, end worn on the birthday and at the grand courta held on the
flrat day of the yeer. It was upwards o( an ounco lo weight, and cost 100,(100
,trlngao(caah. Esch time a grand levee waa held, during the darkneee of the lilght,
the red lustre filled the palace,and it waa (dr thta reason dealgnated The Red Palace-
lllunilnator.'" Pcrhapa the moat extraordinary statement reapectlng I Ceylon ruby
u that given by Yalentyn, the Dutch hletorlllJl, who eaya one o(the two Engllahm~o
288- ADAM'S fEAK.

We then proceeded from Knnkar, and came t.o a ca~e known by

the name of Ista Mahmud, then. t.o the estuary of Buzuta, .which
la their language signifies monkeys, animals which are in great
numbers in the mountains of these parts. These monkeys are
black, and have long tails: the beard ~f the males is like that of
a man. I was t.old by the Sheikh Othman and his son, two pious
and credible persons, that the monkeys have a leader, whom they
follow ns if he were their king. About his head is tied a turban
composed of the leaves of-trees; and he reclines upon a statr. At
his right and left hand ~1e four monkeys, with rods in their hands,
nil of which stand at his head whenever the leading monkey site.
His wives and child1en are daily brought in on these occasions,
who sit down before him ; then comos a number of monkeys, which
sit and form a sort of n.sscmbly about him. One of the four
monkeys then addresses them, 1111d they disperse. After this each
of them comes with a nt, n lemon, or some of the mountain fruit,
which he throws down before the lender. He then cats, together
with his wives, children, and the four principal monkeys ; they
then nll disperse. One of tl\e Jogees also told me, that he once
saw the four monkeys standing in the presence of the leader,

who effected their escape from Kandy at S(IA~aka, after twenty-two years' captivity,
related" "that he had seen a ruby that had been found by a peasant, which waa of
1uch immense aize, that for some time he bad in hia simplicity u1ed it for a whet-
1tone, without knowing what it wae I" But Robert Knox, who wa1 11 captive in
Kandy about the 1ame tlm, makee no mention of such a gem; and it is very
unlikely that had It been l11 axlatence, he would not have heard of It, or have failed
to have given somo account of It in hi Interesting account of hia captivity in the
Qurere Batugedan,

and beating another monkey with rods , arter thia they plucked
off' all his hair. I waa also told by respectable persom1, that if
one of the11e monkeys happ~ns to attack,. and be too strong for a
young woman, he will ravish bcr.
We next proceeded to the estuary of reeds, where ,rubies ar~
also found. The next place we arrived at is koown by "The
house of the old woman,"t which is the farthest inhabited part 0
the islaod of Ceylon. Our next stage was the cave of Baba Tahir
who was one or the pious: the neitt, the cave of Sibak, an infidel
king, who retired to this place for the purposes of devotion,
Here we s"w the fierce leech, which they call the zalaw. It
ren1ains on trees, .or in the grass near water. When any one
comes near to it, it. spring~ upon him, and the part of t.he body
attacked will bleed profusely. People generally provide them-
selves with a lemon for this occasion, which they squeeze o,;er
him, and then he dro~ off. The place upon which the leech has
fastened they cut out with a wooden knife made for that purpose.
, It is told of " pilgrim who passed by this place, that a leech
fastened upon him, so that the akin s,ve!led ; and, as he did not
squeeze the lemon on him, the blood flowed out Rnd he died.
We next came to a place called the seven caves, and after this
io the ridge .of Alexander, in which is a cave and a well of water.
At this place is the entrance to the mountain, This mountain of
Serendib is one or the largest in the world: we saw it fl'om the
sea at the distance of , nine day~. When we ascended it, we 1!8W ~

Thie ia evidently a confused account of lha Veddahl and their c~tom1, Bntuta waa now In their country. Babaragemuw1, through which bt W'II
Journeying, being, aa lta nnme Imports," the Veddah villago.'
t "PaM.haddala," .,ide p, 15.f. ... '


the clouds passiog between us and its foot, On it is a great

number of trees, the loaves of which never fall. There .are also /
ffowers of various colour!I, with the red rose, about the siz~ of the
palm of the haod, upon the leaves of wbich they think they can
read the n11mo of God and of hi1 Prophet. Tbere are two road1
on the mountain leading to the foot (of Adam); the one is kno1\"D
by "the way of. Bnh6.," the other, by "the way of lUitmu,'' by
which they mean Adam and Eve. The way called that of Mama
is ell.Sy: to it the travellers eome, upon their first viaitfog the place;
but every one who has travelled only upon this, is con3iderell as
if ho hlMl not mlMle pilgrimage at all. The way narned Baba
is rough, and difficult of ascent. At the foot of the mount11in
where the entrance is, there is b. minaret named after Alexander,
and a fountain or water. The ancients have cut something like
steps, upon wbich one may ascend, and have fixed in iron pins, to
which chains are appended ; nnd upon these those who ascend
take hold. Of these cbains there are ten in number, the last of
which .is termed "the chain of' witness," because, when one has
arrived et this, and looks down, the frightful notion seizes him,
tbnt 110 shall fall. After the tenth chain is the cave of Khizr,
in which there is a large space; an'd at the entrance a well of
water, full of fish, which is also called after his name. Of those,
however, no one takes ~y. Near this, nnd on each side of the
path, is a cistern cut in the rock. In this cave of Khizr the
pilgrims leave their provisions, and whatever else they have, and
then ascend about two miles to the top of the mountain, to the
J:>lace of (Adam's) foot. The holy foot (mark) is in a stone, so


' i

t.hat. its place is depreseed. The length of the impreeslon 11

eleven sp11ns. The Chinese came here at s01na former tlmt-, and
cut out from thl.s stone the place of the great toe, t~gcther with
the atone about it, and placed It In a temple In the city of Z11lt6n1
and pilgrimages are made to it from the moet dislant parts of
China. In the rock, too, in which the lmpreselon of the foot ls,
there are nine excavations which have been cut out: into these
the infidel pilg1ims put gold, rubies, and other jewels: nnd hence .
you will see the Fakeers, who have come as pilg1im11 to the well
of Khiz1, racing to get first to the excavations, in order to obtain
what may be in them. We, however, found nothing but a litlle
gold with some rubies, which we gave to our guide,
It is cust.omary for the pilgrims to remain in the cave of Khizl'
for three days; and du1i1Jg this time to visit the foot both
mornii,g and ernning. !.' This we did; and when the three days
were expired we returned by the path ofMama,t and came down
to the cave of Shi~ham, who is Sheth, the sou of Adl\m,t After,

Davl1 In hie work on China and the Cblneae, eaye that the lnh1blt1nta of the
flowery land 1uppooe, that et the baee ot Adam' P.ak ie I temple In ,rhleh the rnf
body of B11ddh1 repoeee on lie elde, and ~hat neer It are hie teeth and other rellee.'
, . t Sir J. Emerson Tennent eomewhat vaguely epealus of lbo Batut1'e urent "from
Gampola to Adam' Peak." Thie wouldimply that he aeeended by Eve'e route;
whereas It 11 plainly ohewn that he made the ucent eia Ratn_apura ; be hlm11elf
lljlYd he" returned by the path ofM,lmil:."

i Vide page (3. But other Mohammedan writen hold dltferent opinion,.
Tbua l,lasudl, A D, !148, make~ mention or Mount . Rahwnn (El Rohoun) on
whicb Adnm deaceoded when expelled from Paradise, adding, thal r1ee of Hint
du., lo tbe Island of Ceylon, de8CC11ded from Adan,, derive their origin tron1 the
children of Cain, and the analogy between the . tradhlone of the Ar1b1 ancl .
~ I'


&11!11 we arrived at tho t1sh port, then at tho vlllago K11rk6n, or

thou at the village of Dlldlnuh, then Bt thu village or At I~alanjn,
where the t.omb of Ali6 Abd Allah lhn Khaftf le situated, AU
theso villages and tilled lands are upon the mountain. At its
foot, and near the path, is a cypress, which is lurge and never
drops the lent: But ns t.o its le1LVcs, tbero is no getting to them
by any means; and thceo people's heads are turned with some
1trauge and falee notions respecting them. I saw a number of
Jogeea about the tree, wniting for the fnlling of ono ; for they
suppose that any person 011.ting one of them, will grow young again,
however old he may be, licnenth this mountain is the great estuary
at which the rubies a1e obtained; its water appea1e wonderfully blu~
to the eye.t

Bnddhlb may probably be traced to that period of ~arly blltory when both
people were Samanean1, .maintaining, according to the authority or tbe Mef-.Ub:
el-olum, that tbe worlil had no h!igl~nlng, that soul, traosmigrated from ona body
to another, and that the earth 11 conatantly decliolng.-Bird' A11nlvereary Dia-
cnree, Joum. Bombay A&. Socy, No, 6. The Rev, Spence Hardy, in hie Manual
of Buddhism, p. 212, commenting upon this, In connection with the Sri-pitde, eaye,
"It I.a probe.hie tbat R~11 Sl!Jhl, A, D, 1581 would deelroy tha Sr{-pad~ then ill
e:itlstence along with the other objects of Buddliiti.aJ veneration tbBt foll beneath
bi1 hand." But be seems, In this ln1t11oce, to have overlooked the fact, that the
foot-print wu venerated by t~e Aandiyu u that of their Supreme deity Siv4,
and Lhcrcl'ore It was nut at all likely, when Ritja Sll)b& gave the Samanala int.o
\heir cutody, that be bad previously desecrated or destroyed the relic which they
vencraled and worshipped quite a, moch aa did the Budtlbiste,
Possibly Bo-troe, or perhap1 the fancied Sansevi, the tree of life, rcApectlng
,rblcb, eeo p. 35,
t Probably the K\llanl-gal)ga, In wbnae bead waters and tributary atreema,
rubies and lll)lphlres aod other precioua atones arc etill found.

... : ,.From this place we proceeded, and in two da7s arrlYed at the
clty of Dlnaur, which is large, and inhabited by merchants. In
' this la an idol, known by the same name, placed in a large tempiej
and in which there are about a thousand Brahmina and Jogeo1,
and five hundred young women, daughtera of tho nobility of India,
who sing and dance alluight before the image, The officers of the
city revenue attend upon the image. The idol is of gold, and as
large 88 a man. In the pl11ce of eyes it has two large rubiesJ
which, 88 I was told, shine in thu night-time like two lightf'.d

Dondera bead, or Dewandere, the Island' end, also called Dew{ Newera, "the
Sunium of Ceylon, and the southern extremity of the Island, ls covered with the
ruins of a temple, which was once one of the most celebrated in Ceylon. The head
land Itself baa been the resort of devotees and pilgrims, t'rom the most remote ages 1-
Ptolemy describea it as Dagana, ' ucred to t~e moon,' and the Buddhists constructed
there one of their earlieet dagobu, the reatoratlon or which was the care of 1uCOOMlve
eovereigna. But the moat important temple wae a shrine which, lo vflry early time,
had beeo. erected by the Hindue In honour ofViahou. It was In the height or" lta
splendour, when, lo 1587, the place was d~vaatatfld In the coune of the marauding
expedition by which De Souza d' Arroncbes eougbt to create a dlven,loo, during the
eiege uf Colombo by Rdja . Slgha II. The blatorlane of the period etate, that at that
time Dondera was the most renowned place of pllgrhnage In Ceylon I Adam' Peak
ecarcely excepted, The temple, they aay, was so vaot, that from the sea, It ho.d the
llppearaoce of a city. The pagoda wu raised on vaulted arches, richly decorated
aud roofed with plates of gilded copper, It was eocompu'led by a quadrangular
cloister, opening under verandahs, upon a terrftce and gardeoe with odorlreroua
Bhrubo and trees, whose flowers .,;ere gstbered by the priests fur proces9lons. De
Sonza entered the gates without resistance; and his soldlera tore down the statue,
'Which were more than a thousand in number, 'fhe temple and Its bullcllngs were
overtbrowo, Its arcbee and its colonnades were demollahed, and Its gatas 11.nd tower
levelled with the ground, The plunde1 wae lmmen11e, In Ivory, gems, Jewels, undal-
wood, and ornaments of gold, A.s the wt Indignity that could be oft'crecl to the
294: ADAM'S. PEAK~

From this place we travelled to Karn,. which ie a large town;

then to Kolambu (Colombo), which ie the finest and largest city In
Serend{b. Afler three days we arrived at the city of Bo.ttala, from
which we had been sent by ita king, with hie servants, to visit
(Adam's) foot. Thie we entered, and were received honourably by.
tho king, who furnished us with provisions.

1&md plaee, oow-1 were ll11nghtered In the. ooartl, and the ean ot tbe idol, wi~l\
other eomhutlble materiala, being tired, the ehrlne wu reduced to ubea. A atom,
cloonray exqulaltely earve<l, and a ,mall bulldlng, wboee extraordinary etrengt'IJ.
Jeaisted the violence or tho deetroy~.n, are all that now remain ,tending I but the
ground ror a coneld,rable dletlnce le 1trewn with ruln11, consplcuoue among wbic!J
are nnmben ot finely cut columne or granite. Tba dagoba which 1tood on the
erown or the bill, le mound ot 8bapelese debrie,"-Slr J, E:iualllOM TENMEMT'1
Ceylon, voL IL l'P 113-114,
. _Point-de-Galle.
ADAM'S PEA.It. 29.S.
_,.. I 'V

, N OTL- While the preceding aheet ,ru paasing through .the

presa, the writer wBB favoured with the f'ollowlog infol'Jllation,
obligingly obtru.oed and forwarded by H. S. O. Russell, Eaq., the
Government Agent of the Central Province. It will be fouod to
throw some additional light upon the aubject of the Hindu wor11hip
of the Foot-print of Siva upon the summit of Adam's. Peak ; the
origin of which is involved in _considerable obscurity. It should
be~ in connection with the aubjeci discussed in chapter L,
pages 27-40.

In Ceylon there are places dedicated to Sivit auch u Trinco
~alee or Thadchanakaylaysam (.a;L:9'6!Rll'a;i!96'JIT4Fui) _Thlrukka1eh.
charam (fi}!5fr.l1a;.i.!F1TLr>) &c. There is a Pur11.nam, (4JT1T61113ru,) in
Sanskrit (which is the mother language of T11.mul) relating to
Thadchaniikaylasam or Trincomalee, called Thadchaoa-kaylaya-
manmeium (,i15.'...5,=-a;i!96!JIT ,eill),ri;m-u5JUJLD.)
The following is found recorded in the 6th and 7th chapter, of'
that book.
"In the middle of the mountain called Sivanolipatham, three
rivers or kankai rise out of Siviln's foot (u,rpt:o.)
From my (Sivan's) foot, three rivers issue out, and the names
are Mavillie-kankai ( ll),rd}.;9Ga;1EJa;(J)i!i) Manikka-ka.nkai ( ll)/T61ffll ia
G.ernba;(J)a;) and Karary-kankai (a;,r/Jtill1flGa;1i.J6ro,e;), Mavillie-kankai
flows towards the North. reaches Sivan's place at Trincoma.lee, and
falls into the sea south of it.
Manikka-kankai flows towards the East and passes by Kather
kamum ( a;/p!ltTLt;LD) a place dedicated to Supennania-swamy, son of
SiYa, and then falls into the Eastern sea.

lravary-kankai flows t.owards the West, and passes into the pllice
of Sid, called Therukkaehcharum (situat.ed at Mantotte in Mannar),
These three kankais are highly meritorious streams."
The names of these three rive1~, lhe dir~ctions they take in
their course, their connection with the above-named three famous
places dedictated to Sivan'a worship; the name "Sivanolipatham"
. by which this peak i11 usually knowo, and the fact of these four
placea ond the three rivers bt:!ng recognised by Sivaites as places.
peculiaily adopted for tho wo1ship of Siva, at the present as welJ
as in the ancient times, sbew beyond cloubt that the mountain in the
Central Province of the ldland of Ceylon which is called f:iivanoli-
patbaio in Tamul, and Adam's Peak in English, is the very moun-
tain ~pokcn of_ in the Sanskrit work Thedchana-kaylaya,manmcl~m
written several centuries ago.
ADAM'S PEAK; . 297


S~i~As OF KING KntTissJtL

Otfn Great and Supreme Omniscient Sovereign Buddha; the

Teacher of the th1-ee worlds, who ls distinguished by the beautil!i
of thirty-two most noble marks, ai:id eighty secondary sigos, and
circular beams of light, and rows of glories, who is pleasing to
the eyes o.f all beings, and who is skilful in the distribution of
the noble and glorious ambrosia of his doctrines, who is well_ con
ducted, and is of a felicitqus a.dveot, having completed all the
thirty preliminary courses of paramitas, such as donations, observ-
ances and the like,.during a period of four asm1khyas nnd a hundred
thousands of kalpas, vanquished the maroya with all his hosts,
attained into the state of omniscient Bucldhaship, and who in the
eighth year ascended the centre of the firmament, and ea.rue hero by.
emitting forth: clusters ot' his condensed beams of six coloura, and
cnrefully stamped the print of his glorious foot, endued with a
hundrccland eight auspicious marks, such ns the noble sign of a circle
and others, upon the summit of the Snmantaku~a mountain, which
represents a crown of blue sapphire gems, woru upon the head of
the lady of the glorious Island of Lanka, beautified with various
rivers a.ncl cataracts, filled with clear water of cool springs, adorned
with groves of multitudes of noble t1ees, loaded with flower~, nnd
enriched with much sweet fragrilnce of well blossomed fll1mJe11ts,


When our 1\Io.,t High and Supreme 1\fouarch Ktrtissri Rajn.sigha1

-whose fame, glory, and majesty pervade all directi<?ns, like the
moon, the jasmin flowers, and rows of white han,a birds, and
arc similar to the rays of the su~ that dispel the darkness of the
multitudes of enemies, and who represents the central gem that
adorns the pcnrl necklace of mnny hundreds. of kings from the
prime llonarcb ,vijaya Ruja, of the solm'. race, that occupied the
throne of the glorious Iijlaud of Lanka, the incomparijble abode
for the three kiuds of relics, such as paribh6gika like the glorious
footprint, sarfrtka and uddeaika,-hnd, like .the king or the gods
alighted upon the midst of' the firmament, reigning in the great
city called Senkhanda Saila Sriwardlia1iapura, which is the desire.
of the eyes of multitudes, and abounds with all the glorious marks
of a city ;-engaged in the most nohle pleasure of 11r~tccting the
religion of the Omniscient Buddha, by causing the decayed and
ruined temples or the glorious Island of Lanka to be cle~red of the
thorns with which they wero covered, and to bo repaired; and
by causing the erection of great temples, monuments, ho-trees, and
houses of imogcs anew, by enacting rules for celebrating constant
offerings and services in the holy places, such as those in Anu-
ratlbapura, Mahiynngana, Kalyunipura, and others; and having
presented them with gold, silver, pearls, gems, and such otbc1
things; and by worshipping and honoring them; and by offering
as presents such living and non-living things as gold, silver,
pearls, gems, clothes, jewels, elephants, ho1scs, etatcs1 fields, men.
sc1vauts, and female-servants, in honor of tl1e glo1ious tooth relic,
resembling a golden honey-making bee, which constantly dwelt
in the pink lotus mouth of the Omniscient Supreme Buddha, pas~
scssing an odoriferous sweet frngrancc ; whose holy feet arc enve~
loped in the shining clear light of the gems that embclliijh the

oroWJ11 of the great Brnhmnh, the occupant of' a throne of' lotuses,
and ~r Asur88 and men; and by causing the colobratlon of off~ringe
and services in its honor; and by enhancing the prospel'ity of the
state and religion:-His Majesty having l1eard that for a long time
constant offerings .and services had not been celebrat_ed Qn tho
peak of the Samantakuta momitain, where was situated tbe print-
murk of the holy foot of the Supreme Buddha, who is liko a l'oynl
lion that breaks open the brains of tho wicked rdigioni~ts., the
elephants ;-it having come in' the time of the divine Sovereign
Rajasivhu. of S!tawli.ku. into the possession of the Aamjiyns who
daub over their bodies with asheB 1 as protypical of their being
burnt and reduced into ashes by tho most cl'uel and very dreadful
hell-fire ;-was pleased to grant as 11n offering to it, the village called
KuHo.pitiya, the sowing extent of which is one hundred and
sixty-fivo nmunams of paddy, situated in Nawihlun K6rnle of the
District of Sabnrngamuwa; including the houses, gardens, tree~,
vegetation, dry lands, nnd fields in this village, in order that
offerings and services may be celebrated . and well established in
this pince, until the time of tho extinction of tho religion, urimo-
-leste!l by the monarchs tho.t will, hcrenfter, ascend tbo thl'ono of
the glorious Island of Lanka; and tho.t it may boa living for thoso
who supply the sci-vices in that pince :-Granted with tllCl object of
gaining the happincsa of swarga and nirvana on this Wednesday,
the twci'fth day of the increasing moon of the month of .Nil,ini,
being the twenty-third day oftho sun'll entering tho sign of Cancer,
(Aug. 4,) in this yco.r named prajapati; which is the two thousand
two hundred and ninety-fourth _o f the year of the glo1ious Buddha,
(A. D. 1751); g\ven in charge of the Lord SarannnkaraofW\Jliwita,
resident at the Temple of Up6satharama, who is adorned with the
mn:.;nificent qualities o'f Sila (ohservance) and A'cMra (good
300 ADAM'S ~EAK.

conduct), that the oft'crlogll may be ~lchratcd and kept up by the

eucceuion of his pupilage. . Thill ill the eno.ctment, and this eonct
!Jlcnt iiJ thus recorded.
Signcd,for this being a true Copy, by Se.ranaokara Unnanse
of W ~liwita, who had it in his charge.
(Signed.) WELIWITA,
Translated by C. AI.,v1s.
ADAM'S , PEAK. 801

., I ' ., .. i
D. ~.~ i~~\ 11,., :,,~: ,',i:,~,I, '\

Buou's THREE V1s1Ts >ro CEnox.

. Tms glorious Island of Lanka, was the residenoe of Yakahaa

during the non-Buddhistic periods of the world, and men dwelt .
there only in the B11ddhistic periods. By some of the Buddhas, at
the very first attainmerit to perfection of wisdom, the yakshae we1e
subdued, and the Island became the abode of men, There were
other Buddhas who personally visited it, subdued the yakshas,
made it the abode of men, and established their religion there,

And this Island of Lanka is like the Buddhas' own treasury of

the three gems, a~ it ie eertaiu that the southern branches of the
eacred trees, and the doctrines, the relics, and the religion of
infinite and innumerable Buddhas, are established here.
2. The residence therefore of false religionists in this Islend
of Lanka is certainly as unstable as that of the former yakshas
was unstable. Although, occasionally, a king of a false religion
may usurp the sovereignty of the Island of Lanka, and l'eign over
it, yet it is the authoritative mandate of the Buddhas, that the
dynasty of such kings should never be permanent,
3, As this Island therefore is suitable only to the kings of the
true religion, the permanence of the hereditary succession of
their dynasty is s11re. For such reasons as these, the kings
reigning over Lanka should be assiduous in upholding the l'eligion

Tr&DHla!ed by the Rev, C. ALw1s from the Sar111aj1111 Gund-lanltdra, eh, zxlv,

with that great love and veneration wl1ich is natural towards

B11ddho, and ought to preserve . the horitage of their dynast;y by
keeping the influence of their jurisdiction and that of the religion,
4, . Leaving aside the periods of other Budd has of former times,
thii Island was called O'jadwipa at the time of tlie l{tik~sanda
Buddho, wJio in this Kalpa attained to the perfection of wisdom,
Anurudhupura wns then called Abhaynpurn; the kiog thereof was
numed Abhaya. The present grove l\lahn-mcwuna had the
Mme of,l\Iuha-drtha-'l\ana; the city was on the cast of this grove;
Tbo name of Piynlkulu, or the Mihintnla rock, wns Dewnkutn,
5. At that time n pestilcntinl disease of fever struck such cities
ns Abhnyn1mrn, over all this Islnnd, abounding with large popu-
lntion and great wealth and riches ; and when n greo.t aflliction ~f
the people prevailed, such as wns in the city of Wis{1la at the time_
of our Buddha, people began to die, And the yukshns, being
nnl\ble, on account of the influence of Buddha, to enter the Island,
stood circumumbulnting round it, scnttered over the seu, erecting
themselves up nnd observing the smell of the human carcnses,
6. At that time Ko.kusanda Iluddha, knowing the exceeding
unhappy state of the inhabitants of this Island, O'jndwipa, and
bdng impcilcd by great compassion towards them, repaired thither
in an instant through the nir, nccompo.nicd by n retinue of about
40,000 holy'pricsts, and descended npon Dcwakuta (Mihintaln),
and stood there like 'the moon attended by stars; ho illuminntcd
the ten directions with his beams of six colours, an1l determined
with his eupcrnnt.urnl intluonco, "T,ct nil tlrn men of thi~ IBl11nd of
O'jmlwlp11 MOO mo, 111111 II" MOOII M !hoy HOO me let nil their .,.li~f'IUOH
vnniijh, rmd being soun1l in hcnlth, let them all como in an instant
nn<l stnnd rouncl me."
7. A111l nt nn ii111tn11t, simultaneously with the thought of tbnt

determinatiort, all the inhabitants of the Island IBW Bu\ldha like

those who see the moon in the sky. .And the epidemic of fever
vanished, and they all, like those who had received Bmbrosial,
every man from the place where he had been lying, collected
themselves round the rock, as those who collect themselves 'into a
hall in the midst of a town.
8. At this moment the kings, sub-kings and great ministers
worshipped and invited him into the grove Mahn-tfrtha-wana
(l'lfaha-mewuna), nnd conducted him thither in great pomp, and
completed for him a. beautiful t.cmporary court, and erected a mag-
nificent throne for Buddha with forty thousand other seats, and
presented the grove to Buddha with great ceremony,
9. In tlint instant the great earth gave a shock nnd sprang
up, and nll thG trees throughout the grove stood ombollishocl with
supernutural flowers from their roots oven to their topmost twigs,
And the sentient beings, who were delighted at this miracle, with
the most profound voneratiqn, made the groat. priesthood, with Bud.
dha at their head, take the repast of the alms of Chatumadhura, and
presented to Buddha perfumes and flowers and other things, in
proportion to the ~calth whi~h each man possessed, standing at
a reverential distance.
10. At that moment Buddha preached his doctrine, and rescued
forty thousand souls from transmigration j he spent the day in that
place, and in the afternoon, repaired to the site of the great sacred
tree, and rested there for a moment under the blissful influence of
dylma, when he rose and thought, "I will follow the practice
of the procetling BuJclho~," aocl then stretched his right bond
towm1lY the <lii'cction of the sncrod Uo-troo, aml determined with
his aupernaturnl influence,'" Lot the sanctified priestess Ruchinnuda,
the chief over those priestesses of my religion who performed
304 ADAM'S . PEAK.

min,clea, appear here conveying the southern branch . of the great

eacred Bo-tree."
l I, At that instant also the sancti6.ed priestess perceiving the
determination which Buddha had exercised, caueed the king Khe,
mawati of the city of Khemawati, to make a streak of yellow ,
orpiment round the southern branch of the sacred Bo-t1ee, and
so got it by self-cutting, o.nd placed it in the sacred hand which the
Buddha had out-stretched.
12. Tbcn Buddlm looked at the face of king Abhaya, and said,
c; 0 great monarch, follow the practices of former blessed and

prosperous kings of this Island like thyself," and caused that

sovereign to plant the sacred tree. Thence, on its northern di'rec-
tion, he sat down in the site of L6wamabapay6., which at that
time was called Sirlsa-Malaka, preached his doctrine, and rescued
twenty thousand souls from trnosmigrntiou. He proceeded thence
and sat on the site of Thuparnm11, and rose from the blissful
influence of dydna, and preached his doctrine, and rescued in that
place ten thousand persons from transmigration, And he delivered
hi!! dharmakara (waterstrniningvessol), saying, "Build ye a monu
ment here and worship the same, and make offerings to it, and be
rescued from transmigration." And he left in this Island the
sanctified pliestefis Ruchinanda, together with five hund1ed priest-
esses, and the high and holy priest ?tln.hadewa, with ten thousand
priest!. Thence he proceeded to Dewakutn (Mihintala), and stand-.
in~ upon the sit.e or' the Batnmn.hasnla monument advised all the
inlm~itants of the Island, nnd returned to the sight
of all the Ii vi ng bci ngs.
13. From that time forth during the whole of that Buddhntc,
every succeeding king who was born hero, continued to worship
the three gem~, and went to the city of Nirwana.
ADAM'S -i>EA_K.- 80.$

14. Now at the time of the second Buddha; Konagamn, ihi11

Island was called WarRdwipa; the name.of the Maha-mewuna gmve
wus Maha-anoma grove. The city on the south of the groYe wa:s
named Woo.dh11m1innka. It was enriched with all sorts of wenlll~
by its king S11mindhn. And D6wo.k6ta was called S11mnnnkut11.
15. At thut time this noble I~land ofLo.nka, which wns inha-
bited by four noble tribes of men, nnd full of females liko go1Messce1
of cows and buffaloes, o.nd of nll eorls of woalth 1 bnving hnd no
rnin for somo interval of time, WIIB ov<'rsptond with II grc11t famine
like tho famine cnlled Bcminitiya Siiyu n~ tho time of our lludtllm,
and there wns a grcnt. tlistrcss from wnnt of food,
16. A'4 the end of all the discourses of Budtlha ls aimed at
(one or the other of) the three mo.rks i he obscl'Ved the timo nml
sil.w the distress by famine to which men hail come; and, conelnding
that "sentient beings could he established in foith when they had
a sorrow,'' here through the air attended hy thirty thousand
BllnCtificd.pric~ts, and Rtood on the very site of the foot,mnrks of
former Bmldhas, on tho ~ummit of Surno.nakuta (Mihintahi), and
looked at the ten directions, and said, "Let rain fitll in this Island
just at this ve1y moment, and let all the tanks and dnms be fi1lcd."
17. :At tho.t iostant, simulto.neously with the thougllt. of our
Lord, hundreds of blue condensorJ clouds of rnin bego.n to present
themselves to the sight, as if the reflections of mountains nppenrcd
in the mirror of the sky. Humlreile and thousands of pillurs of
rniny clouds begnn to siiew themsehcA, resembling a pressure of
pillars of blue s11pphire stones sprending in tho bosom of tho eky,
and the cloucls began to roar in the sky, as if the gods hntl begun
to play mt18ic RB Rn ofl'oring to Buddhn.

The four car11inal, and the lntcncuing, and the zenith aud nndiT JK>ints.
i 306 ADAM'S PEAK,

18, Tboue1111ds ofrainLows began to appear aa ao many dhino

nrcl1el!, whfoh 111(' gods had built as an off'~ring to Buddha. A11d
myriad11 of ligh111inga began to shew thcmselvc11 in different
directious, resembling rows of banners which the gods had
offc1-cd. Thonso.nds of torrents of wator pro<'eedcd, Lursting the
blne con,lenscd cloml:t of rnin liko heops of st1ing11 uf pearls which
god3 offer to llud1lhn. Tbousand3 of ptacocks began to erect their
tails, as if they hc!J feather umbrellns over theit heads, t"o1 tho
purpose of protecting thtmsclvcs from the wetting of the 1ain.
19, At that i11st1111t ilnoughout the wholcofthidslnnd ve1y tl1ick
nnd hen\y showers of min fell, and filled the tauks,, rhcr~, and
cnnnls; and torrent-streams of fresh water 11oods began to run in
diff.:rcut directions, as if they had been rcddcmcd by rage, and we1e
moving nuout to find out where their enemy, the heat, wa, dwelling.
20. 'fhu11 Buddha having extinguished tho heat by an unusual
1,howcr, cnu5ed the rain to cease, and then, in the sight of all
li\ing beings, hc_stoocl on the summit oftbe r~ck like a statue of
gol,I, and c11tcrc1l the state of S11mo.p11tti of aqueous, and
emitting streams of w11tc1 f1om his own body, also administered n
l1cnli11g to the population. And all the living inhabitants of the
Islnnd, who were delighted at the pcrfo1mance of this miracle,
collected thcmsch-es together round Buddha, and wor~hipped J1im 1
immcrging themselves under the Learns of his toe-nails, an_d carried
liim in their arms unto the l\foha-anoma gro,e.
21. On tlmt very day Dud_dba received tl1e grove, with a shock
of tl1e gr<'nt ea1th, and made his repast, and at the conclusion of i't,
tleli vcrcd his doctrines and rescued thirty thousand souls . out of
tran~migmtion: and iu the aflcrnoon, as was mentioned before, he
determined in his hcurt, and caused Ly his supernntuml influence,
tl1c southern Lrnnch ofl1i11 so.c1cd fig-free to Le self-cut as aforesaid,

through the instrnment.ality of the monarch Sobh1ma In: the city of

Sobhana, and brought in an inst.ant by fhe hundred priestl!l'lse1.1, witb
the sanctified priestess Knnako.datta at their hcatl, a.nd having cnnscd
the king Samindha. to plant the sacred tree, and taking seat on the
site of the L6wamalulpu.yn, wl1ich at th11t time was called
rnalaka, he delivered his doctiines, and having given to twenty
thousand persons the fruits of the puths of Nitwana, proceeded
thence and sat 'on the siw of Thupurama, Slid expounded the
doctrines, and liberated ten thousand souls fiom tl'lllllilmlgrntion,
and left in this Islnod his waist-band as I\ relic, together with. five
hundred priestesses, with the high and holy priestess Kanakndatta
at their head, and one thousand priests, with the great high p11icst
Sudh111ma at their head. Thence he came and stood on the 11ite
of the great stona monument called Sudassauamalnka, advi8cd all'
the living beings, and returned fl'Om this !~land int-0 ,Jambudwipa.
22. From that time forth iu that Buddhate all the p1inces thut
were bom here, together with nll tho people, continued to wor,hip
the three gems and filled the city of Nirwuna,.
23. MoreoYer, in the time of Kusyapa, who became Buddha
in the third place, this Island WIIB designated as l\fond11dwlpa1 the.
grove :\foha-mcwuna hnd the 1mme of Maha Sugnra; the city on the
west of it was ea.lied Wisulu.pura, in which a monarch of the
name of Jayanta reigned; Sumanakuta. was cnllcd.Subhnkutu. At'
that time the inhabitants of this Island, with their kings, sub-kings,.
a.nd great ministers, were divided into two parties, nnd were jealous
of one another, and cal'l'icd on a civil war. They engn.gcd armies
composed of four elements nnd arrayed in arms, and begun to stl'iko
one another, saying "we will kill them snu make oceans of blood."
24. Then BuJJha having l!Ccn many pcl'sons pm:i~h in that
civil war, impelled by great commisseration, rcpniie1l thithor

tl1rough the air, accompanied by_ twenty thousand sanetific,l dis-

ciples, de><ccuded upon Snbhskuta, and ci-eatcd a thick d1U'kn(.>ss,
1uul determined in hi1.1 heart with his supernatural influence, "Let.
no two 1icr11ons sec each other," and put th(.>m into a trance with
the darkncs~ and then dispelled the darkness.
25. And the people resumed the battle. Then he eau~cd the
wbole Island to smoke, and seeing that the rage of the pco11le did
not subside, he entered into the state of Samapatti of the igneous
Kasina, and emitted streams of fire out of his body, which was
twenty cubits high, and tcrrifi(.>d them 1_,y making the wlwlc Island
like a hon:Kl sot io on(.> blaze of fire.
26. Then the people seeing the monnta!ns of fire movio~ 11hout in
the air, and the sp1ll'ks of fire ince1.1~11utly thrown at every house, ~aid,
"0 men! what ,~onstornatiop is this i' It i, like the day of the de-
struction of the '*orld; we arc fighting against ench ot11cr for the seke,
of a kingdom, and that king~lom is now burning; our wives and
children arc burning_; our wealth is buming ; fields and g:udcns are
burning; and we oursclrns shall be lmmcd presently; andwhat wars
shall we eany on ?" And they trembling for fe11r of death, dropped
down the weapons which they h11d io their hands, and were mo,ed
with affection to,+1mls each other, 11nd the armies came to peace.
2i. Thus Buddha, like one taking up a thorn by means of a
tl1om, extingui,;hcd tho fire of their rage by his miraculous tire,
au,1 then quenched hQth the fir(.>s, anti made himself vi,;iblo to all
the lhiug beings.

" Sim ilia 1i11,;/;bua curaN/ur," There I nothing new under the nn, Aeeord-
lni; tu 1hi. statement, ll111l1\bo was the ftrI llouucupnlhi.t, and lluhnemnnn only
an imitator.

28, At that moment all men having seen Buddha, 1tood up

with closed hands upon their heads, aocl enquired of him, "Lord,
art thou the god of fire, or art thou the deity of the sun? Thy face is
like a full moon, thy body is like a maes of ambrosia; but on tho
contra1y, the fi1-o that issued out of thy bo1ly is exceeding flerco,
Can a fire spring out of water? Lord, what sort of personage art
thou ?" And when they learned that ho was Buddha, 'th('.Jiupreme
ove1 the universe, they exulted with joy.
29. Afo1rwards Bud<lha on thnt day caused the great earth to
~hake, an,I received the same g1ove, aud at the concluaion of his
repast he awakened the minds of the faithful by the warmth of
liis preachiug, as heat exp11nds the blossoms of flower!!, And he
gave to twenty thouseuds of souls the fruits of the paths (to Nir-
waua). And in the afternoon, be having proceeded to the site of the
g reat and glorious sacred tree, and having, as before,.dete1mined iu
his hea,~t, with his supernatural influence caused the southern
branch of the sacred Nigrodha tree to be self-cut by king Brahma-
datta of Benares, and brought in an instant by five hundred
priestesses, at whose hcatl was the sanctifiml priestess Sutlharma,
and planted by the monarch Jaynnta; and then by the discourse
which he deli,ered, sitting on the site of the L6w6.malu'tp6.ya, called
at that Buddhate Asoka-malaka, ho rescued four thousand souls
from transmigration, and proceeded to the site of, ancl
preached his doctrines and gave to a thousand souls tho f,uits of the
paths (to Nirwunn), nnd left in this I~land his own bathing tobo,
and the sanctified priestess Sudharma, with five hundred pl'iest,.
esses, and the great snnetificu priest S11rwananda, with a thou&nnd
c;ither p1ic8ts; and then lmving stood on the sito of tlie third grcnt
stone monument Somana~~a-malnka, he 11Clvised gods m11l men,
~ngetiter witl.i all the inhubito.:1ts of the Mandad'wrpu, a11cl rose up

into the bosom of the sky and returned to Dambauiwa, like the
moon attcndc(l by stars.
30. Tims also in the Buddhate of the Kssynpa Buddhn, which
existed for twenty thousand years, the living beings born here
with passion continued to worr,hip the three gems, and filled the
city of Nirwana.
Thus should be known briefly tho history of the visits of the
first three Budtlhas that were born in this Kalpn..
De,cribed in l'it.jawaliyn.
31. Moreover our great Buddha Gautsma, who became Hud!lha
in the fourtl~ period of this Knlpn, ,isitcd this !Hland of Lanka on
the day of full moon of I.he month of Durutu (Janunry), the ninth
of his Buddhaship, and stood in the ah over the midst of a greitt
army of Yakshas in the full- blossomed grove of Mahunngn.-wana,
three y'>duns in length and one in bren.dth, situated on tho bn.nk.
of the river Mahuwaluka (l\fahaw'-'li), where, when they had com-
menced a bn.ttle against one another on account of s'>mo dispute,~
"they were shouting with hon.'!ts like the ron.ring of thunders, and
looking here nnd tl1!.'re with various hostile wenpons in their hands,.
posecssing hearts like flames of fire, slinking the shl'unk copper
coloured hair of \he heacl, raising up the 1111ils of contrncted cl'uel.
brows like the bow of Pluto, revolving the red eyes like inflamed
bnlls of fire, having checks blistered with strokes of the extremities
of tusks liko crescent moons, tremulously shaking tongues tlnowu
out of their hollow m~uths, with disordc1ly teeth closed by the
outward turned red lips, and revolving circular plates set at their
ears,-he shewed himself in the air like a golden rock enveloped
with many thousands of rainbows, lightnings and evening clouds,
and caused a roaring of the sky n.nd earth louder thn.n their clamour,
and crcntcd a fourfolll thick dmkncss, 11.nd torrifictl the ynkslms,

iike Pisachas who bad offended WaiHrawnna. -AgAin he di,pellod

the darkneH, and. made himself visible to them in tho womb of the
sky, like tho disc of the rising sun, and struck terror among the
army of yakshas by volumes of smoke emitted from hie body,
aud then again he stood in their sight like the fnco of the moon,
clear of the five obstructions, issuing nmhrosial beams.
32. At this moment the army of ynkshns, who had seon the1e
mirncfos, suw lluddhn nnd pl'nyod him1 snying, 11 0 Lord, who al't
grent and possessed of such iufluenee as this, remo,o these cnlami~
ties from us, nnd ghe us sufoty." 'fheu Buddha add~-csscd himself
to the yak8hns, who had supplicated him for safety, and said, "0
yuk~has, if ye nil wish for sufoty, bestow on mo as much space on
the ground as .will suffice for me to sit," nnd having obtained n1
much spnco ns would suffice him to sit, ho removed the constcma-
tion among the yuks.has, nud sat in th.e midst of 1heh- nl'my, upon
the skin c:nrpet spread on the piece of ground given by them; the
place where Buddha sat being the site of the Mahiyangnnl\ monu-
ment; and fl'om the _four edges of the akin ca1pet lie emitted
four atrenms of fire, which sp1eading on all the ten directions,
struck terror among the ynksbns, and dispersed them in diff'oreut
directions. Buddhn then collt.!cted them on the scn-ahoro, nnd
shcwed them ns if the isle of Y nkgiri had been cnueod lo be
brought nenr by his supernatural influence ; ho then prosonte<l
thnt isle of Y nkgiri to them, nnd settled the great ynksbn anny in
it, but he l'Cmaiucd the1e on the sco-shoro.
33. At thnt instant the chief of the gods, Snmana, re~ldent at
the penk of S11m1111nl11, (Adam's Peak), together with u.11 the aed11l,
domicilia1-y, and other gods dwelling on t1-ccs, mountains nnd other
places, ar1fred there; 111111 when they stood there making offer-
iugs of lights, iuctinse, pcrf~mes, flowers, oud such other things;
312 .ADAl\1'S PEAK.

'Ilmldlm, wl10 \\'IUI. sit.ting In that p)ac(l, deeb~red his sound doctrioes
to all the go1ls and goddcsse11, presided ovor -by tl1e chief god
Sumaun, nud est11Lli11hed numerous Kclas ( ten millions) of the
multitude of the god11 In tho ,,njoymcnt of the frultH of the patl111,
and admitted nn Asankya of gods Into tho Initiatory SilrJ,
34. The cl1hf god 8umann, who on that day attained unto tho
holy path of S6wan, Lcsought for n. rclio suitable for himsdf to
worship and make offc1ings to. Then the meritorious Supremo
Buddha rubbed his head anrl gave a handful of hair relics to the
chief god Sumana to worship aud make offerings to, and circunium-
bulated three times round the Island of Lanka, like a meteor that
moved rapidly in the darkness, and gave it. his protection, and
returned to Jnmbudwipa on that very day.
35. Then tho chief god, great Sumana, placed in a golden shrino
the h1mtlful of hair relic which he hod obtained, nud collected a
J1cnp of gems on tl1c spot where Buddha hail sat for subduing
yukshas, and on the top of that heap of gems he interred the
shrine with the l1air relic, and built thereupon a d11goba of blue
sapphire gems, and mado immense offerings to it.
Tl1e first vi~it of Buddha to the Island of Lanka.

36. :Moreover in the fifth ycnr of our Buddha, who is a refuge

to the 1efugeless, 1m1l in the fifteenth day of the waning inoon of
tl1e month of Bhaga (March,), two Nuga kings, Chul6dara and_ Mah6-
dara, mntemnl uncle and nephew, commenced a war on account of
a gem throne, taking with them separate armies of eighty kelas of
Nngns dwelling in water and in lam\ being twenty kelas of
Nugas from K9lnni, together with thirty kelas from Wadunnagala,
against thirty kclas of Maninuga isle; and the two armies boesting
,iolcutly, like two oceans stir1cd up by the ,ehemcnce of the wind

and rushing upon the Jand, arranged line by line like the rows of the
waves moving thereon, takiog various weapons, 11uch as swords,
shields, darts, circular swords, clubs, bows, spears, lances, javelins,
crowbars, maces, and arrows, and waving them like continuous flash-
ings of lightnings, rendering the whole battle-field a universal
shout, aml continually running forward with b1avery of heart.,
intoxicated with the pride of each outvieing the other, and pressing
hard each upon the other.
37, Then our Budilha saw by inspiration the affliction suffered
by the army of Nagas who were thus boastingly assembled in the
bi:.ttle field of the civil war; and impelled by compassion towards
. them, he started in the morning of that day from Jetawana-
. arama, and came through the air under the shade of that very
Kiripalu tree, which had been standing near the gate of the
temple of Jetawana, and which the king of the gods, Samirdhi
Sumana, who -had been residing. on that self-same Kiripalu tree,
rooted up and held over his head, and descended at the isle of
Maninaga, and presented himself in the midst of the two Naga
armies, who had the sharpest battle, and seated himself in the air
, under the shade of the blue-sapphire-banner-like Kil'ipalu tree, He
' then created a darkness for the purpose of frightenin_g the Nagas, and
afterwards threw a light upon them like that of the rising sun, The
Nagas being thus frightened by the darkness, he shewcd them many
wonders, and prcachf:d bis doct1-ines, and reconciled the two armies.
38. Then all the Naga people, having thrown their weapons
. out of their bands, brought, in company with the virgins,
various kinds of splendid offerings and presents, and bestowed them
upon him : and they prayed Buddha to descend on the .ground ;
and he, sitting upon the gem throne which the Nagas had bestowed
upon him, made a repast of the divine food which the Nagas ga,e


him, and preached his doctrines to eighty kelas of Nagas, and es~b~
lished them in tho Initiatory ,ila. And In tl1at Nliga eompany, the
Nagn. king Manink, the maternal uncle of the Nuga king Maho.
darn, supplicated Buddha to visit K4;ilnni.
39. Afterwards Buddha, having by his silence consented to the
imitation, mnde the KiriJ>Rlu tree, and the gem throne, pari
bMgika monumentR, that tl1ey might worsl1ip aml.mako offerings
to them, in ordc1 that their advancing merits might increase; and
ho sat on the gem throne, leaning agn.inst the Kiripalu_ tree.
40. Thus hnving quelled the dissensions of the Nd.gas, he left as
paribh6gika monuments both the gem throne which he hn.<l received,
and the tree, which the god had brought from Jetawana
with him, holding it as a shade over his head, in order that the eighty
kelas of Naga!, and their females inhabiting the three Naga abodes,
which have the three Naga kings, Chul6dara, Mah6dar11, and Ma-
niakkha, as their chief's, may worship and make offerings to them, in
whatever way they choose. And he established protection to the
glorious Island of' Lanka, and 1eturned to Jetawana Vihara in the
city of Sowet in Damhn.diva.
41. Thus, the geril. throne and the Kiripalu. tree, which our
Buddha received when he came to Maninaga isle, on his second
visit to Lanka, were placed in the oceanic Nliga abode, and on
the sea shore, as paribh6gika monuments.
This is the account of the second visit of our Buddha to the
Island of Lanka.

.Articles or relics that have been sanctified by ha,lng been used or owned by-


42. Moreover our gl'eat Buddha, the teacher ot the three

worlds, who ha.s a glorious faee like a lotus, residing in the Vihara
of J~tnwana, thus thought about his thhd visit to the Island of
Lanka; namely, "when I am deatl (my) tooth relic, the jaw
"bone r_elic, the forehead relic, and about a drona or other relics,
"which the inhabitants or the city of Rambagam will recehe
"at my demise; the hair relics and many other 1olics, ~viii be
'' settled iu the glorious Island of Lanka; nnd many hundreds.
"and thousands of monasteries will be established there. And
"as a great many peoplo, such as Kshastrias, Iirahmnns, ,vaisyas,
" Shuddras, and many others, who will delight iu the three gems
'' will dwell there, I ought therefore to go to the Itlland of Ln.nka,
"and visit the sites where the six.teen great places will have to
"be situated, and indulge myself in the enjoyment of Sam6.potti,
"and then return here."
43. So in the eighth year of his Buddhaship he, at the invitnt.ion
of the great priest Sunaparanta together with five hundred sancti-
fied thorns, mounted upon five hundred golden palanquins which the
, god s~kraia. had created and presented to them, came to tho territory
of Sunu.parnnt., and received the hall named Cha.nd11na-mamlal,!1,
malaka, built by some merchRnts in the monastery of Muhulu ;
a.nd there be preached his doctrines to sentient beings, and estab-
lished them in the enjoyment of the fruits of the paths, and
dwelt there several days, aud went to the market town of Suppamh
at the imitntion of the priest Purna, and preached the doctrines to
the people there. While he was returning to the city of Sewet;
he came to the bank ot the 1iver N el'mada, and thme he; at tho

A m_easllN containing about a qnarter o( a ~uaool.


reques~ ofthe Naga king Nermada, who uwelt in the river, par-
took of the divine food presontP.d by him, and gave him some
practical admonitions, and established a great multitude of Nagas.
in the initiatory observance pf religion. And o.t the request of the
N.lgti, king Nermada, he ~ade 11n imprint of his glorious right
foot, endowed with a hundred and eight auspicious signs, on a
beautiful str.1nd like a heap of pearl dust, on the bank of that ri 'er,
on which the rippling waves strike and break themselves, and he
provided the N-agas with the means of acquiring merits.
44. When the spreading waves strike over the heap of sand
on which the glorious foot was imprinted on the shore of that
river in the Y onaka country, the glorious foot-mark is covered by
the water, and when the waves rctilc, the imprint of the foot with
all its auspicious signs rco.ppcars, like a seal impressed upon the
surface of a lump of cxtrcll'!cly white bccsswax, without the slightest
diminution of any of the blissful marks, satisfying the eyes of
every one who sees it. And it imparts abundant. happiness to the
worltl up to thi11 day. This is o. pa1ibhogiko. memorial.
45. And ft-am that place he proceeded to the rock of 8achcha-
baddha, and at the request ofa certain priest called Sachchabaddha,
he imprinted on the top of the thick blue rock of that name his
glorious foot, endowed with a hundred and eight auspicious signs,
such as, Swastika, aud so forth, as if a foot smeared with
ointment bad been pressed upon a lump of wet clay, without the
defect of a single jot of the parts of those auspicious marks, so as
to be clear to the bodily eye of every one that sees them, This
also is a mcmol'ial of the foot of my Buddha.
46. Thence Buddha, proceeding from the said Sachchaba<ldha
mountain, recollected the invitation which the Nnga king Ma-
niakkha,-who enjoys the Naga prosperity in that Nag& region

which had arisen contiguous to the liew stream of water named the
K\llani river, perhaps from its resemblance to an auspicious body of -
water emptying itself into the ocean, having fallen at the foot.of
the rock after the entire washing and purification of the noble moun-
tain Samantakuta, (Adam's Peak) of the Island of Lanka, when tho
water of the auspicious consecration was poured on tho top of its
head for purification, previous to its sacred investmeut with the
mark of the glorious foot,-hn.d made on a former occasion, when
he had gone to Mauiuaga isle, for the purpose 0 assisting his
nephew l\fah6dara, the prince of the Nilgas, in a war which he was
carryiug on against the Naga Prioce Chul6uara, having seen
Buddha, who had mercifully come there,-that be should visit
K~lani ;-and on the day of full moon of the month of Wesak
- - (May) he bego.n to proceed, attended by five hundred sanctified
priest!!, including the eighty dignitaries.
47. In the place where Buddha was residing, there was, close
to his bed chamber, a n~ble Naga named Sumnna, enjoying great
happiness, constantly attendeu by sixteen thousand Naga virgins;
and he, having seen the personal gracefulness of Buddha,
greatly admired him ; and he had his mother as an object of
veneration, and rendered her such services as worshipping and
honouring her, o.nd shampooing her feet.
48. When Buddha was about to depart, he invited this noble
Naga who stood by, aud said "Follow us with thy retinue." And
this noble Naga immediately obeyed these words, and said "Yea,
my Lord," and took his train of about sixty millions of Nagas, and
proceed,d, holding over his head a full blossomed champack tree,
so.that th-e rays of the sun might not st1ike against the glo1ious
person of Buddha.
49. Aftcrward11 the meritorious Buddha, having arrived at the

Nigg city of the Nuga king Maninkkha at the K~Iani river in the
l:!!land of Lanka, set upon the throne comploted with all sorts of
~ms in _th~ golden court, miraculously brought into existence by
?tlanlakkha, and remained with his attendant priests on the site of
the l{\?lani monument, and made refoctioo of the divine food pre-
B<?ntcd to him by the noble Nago., and delivered to him some
practical admonitions ; and, at 'the request of that noble Naga, he
made an impress.ion of his glorious foot under that river of K!},
in order that the Nuga king might make offerings to him, and
he initiated many thousands of other Na.gas into the threcf?ld
refuge, and re.maincd sitting there incroasiug their merit.6.
50. Theo the great god Sumana, resident nt the divine man-
sion on the summit of the peak Samanala (Adam's Peak), who had
beard of these circumstances, came with his numerous retinue
of gods to the site of the l{~laoi monument, hi-.ving prepared and,
brought things for offerings to him, and saw Buddha; and took
drurns and other musical iush umcots, and offered him immense
diline fragrant flowers, lamps, incense, ani other things, and
worshipped him, by applying to the ground five places of the body,
and prayed Buddha to come to the Samanala mountain, while
the Na.,"&S remaiiied worshipping him.
51. Thou the great god Sumana, rcsidout of the Samanala
mountain, addressed him in six such stanzas ns the;ie, standing
before Buddha, with clo~cd hands upon hisherul,addressing him time,
52. "0 groat Dutldha, the Io1ll of tho whole universe, it was
"wilh thy eompa,iNlon to HC11tlont hulng" that tho11 ha<l,it ontoroil
"the impaKsable occun ofSan!nru, l\nd moved nbout du1ing an Im
"mcnso pc1iod of time, 11ulfc1ing pnins f1'0m the moment of thy
"ol,taining, at the foot of the Di11auknra Buddha, the H11nction to
AD~'\l'S PEAK. 819

"becomo Buddha, and complot.ed the full thirty ptiranaita,. I am in-

" eluded also among the number of all the sentient heinga, auoh a,i
"Gods, Brahmae, Asurae, Mon, Niigiie, Supernaa, Yakshaa, Rak-
" shas, Siddhas, Widdhyadharas, and others who enjoy the benefirial
" rewards from that compassion of thine. Have mercy there
"fore upon m<.'1 and in that visible mountainous foroet, uplifted
"and graceful in all glory, beauteous in green foliage, tender
"leaves, waterfalls, and rainbows, pressod by the striking of wind,
" delightful with clusters of lotuses and flnshings of lightnings,
"resounding with the noiso of gentle breezes and of the ronring
" clouds, resembling the black peak of a rainy cloud over the easte1n
horizon, sprinkled by the fall of the extremely white ambrosial
" showers of rain, situated in the midst of that visible wilderness
"like a peacock's neck, being an object eligible for the ceremoni<.'s at
." the offerings mnde to Buddha, being- an abode for gods and
"goddesses engaged in divine sports, giving plensure to multi-
" tudes of gods performing dances that properly correspond to the
" airs of the music variously produced by the simultanoous playing
"of the five kinds of sonorous instruments of atata, witata, witatata,
" ghana and susira, constantly kept up by describing various
".kinds of objects, such ae trees, creepers, rivors, quadrupeds, and
"birds, and singing the airs agreeable to these on the summit of
" that peaked mountain Samantnkuta, appearing like a noble
Airiiwana elephant,f whose whole body is entirely blanched with
"the whito colour of the falling of dews, and who stretches forth,

".A.'t1t1," 11 tam-tnm bentun with the h11nd1 only 1 'wltat11,' 11 t11m-t11m beaten
,vltb 1tlcka only 1 'wltatitta,' one baaton with the hand on 001 aide, and a 1tluk
on the other; 'ghane,' helb; '1u1lra,' trumpetl,
f 'Ihe name of.the elephant rldd~n by the god 89krala.

"like row11 of proboeces, a multitude of rivers that fall in diff'ercnt

.. directions, graceful with rows of waves rising up at the points of
" rocks, splendid with a multitude of round and rising rocks like
" frontal globes, And of root-stems of \'Al'ious sbapcs like a rnul-
" titude of tusks, dignified with cataracts, like the genily dropping
"exudation of juice; and w!th slabs of great stones, like temples;-
" impress there this thy tender, dclicnte and glorious foot, a~d
"improve the prosperous condition of the period of five thousand
53. Tho lord of the biped race, who gives commands conducive
to the happinL'SS of the whole universe, accepted the prayer
offered by tho noble god StJmana in stanzas like these, and when
ho was proceeding from the city of K~lani, having ascended
the air, attended by five hundred sanctified priests, including the
eigbty dignified disciples, like the great Brahmah Sahampati, .
attended by tho train of Bmhmas, the noble god Sumnnn covered
himself on one shoulder with a vesture of various lustres, d1essed
himself with divine ornaments of undiminiHhed splendour, and
habited with long broad and white divine silk gnrments, 11.nd
bimself looking like a pillar of cloud emitting torrents of rain
water, cnvelopeu with rainbows and flashings of lightnings, stood
on the right hnnd side of the o~niacient Burldha, bending himself
with the ut1nost marks of veneration, and giving him his h1md,
,'i4, Then in front of him proceeded in attendance many
hundreds 11.nd thousands of female deities, exhibiting various feats
of dancing, fol'ming themselves into different concerts, shewing
their gestures comformably to the nine sentiments of dancing,
,descriptive of the six acts of the foot, sixty-four of the hands, eight
of the eyes, and five of the head, 11.nd standing in the midst of a

great BSsembly of performers, produoing alN corresponding t,o the

various tunes,-in the same way proceeded many hundreds and
thousands of divine soldiers in attendance, habited in their uniforms_,
overtaking one another, simultaneously raising various loud sounds
of the five kinds of musical instruments, as if they were giving a
violent shock upon the whole terrestrial clement,-in the same way
pr9Cceded many hundreds and thousands of goddesses and com-
panies of gods in attendance, carrying articles for offe1-ings, such as
umbrellas, fans, banner~, bundles of feathers, palm-leaved fnns,
spreading fans, gold and silver pitchers, pots full of scented wat.or,
nosegays, g11rlands, .and silver torches and other things.
55. In the same way proceeded Si;kkras, Brnhmas, great
Iswaru, Nagiis, Yakshas, Rakshas, Siddhas, Widdhyadharas, and
other~, collecting themselves together and attended by their retinues
constantly spreading like canopies in the hollow of the firmament
nosegays. of fragrant flowers, and young branches of asokn trees,
tender leaves of the honey mango trees, hon-wood trees, bauyan
trees, and creepers of spotted betel, and throwing, like rain, gold and
silver flowers, pearl@, gems, and camphor, and seatto1-ing about for
offerings an immense quantity of such precious articles as godlike
ornaments, divine crowns, and their upper vestures; whil-ling round
their heads numberless divine garments like swarms of white cranes
moving about the summit of a golden rock, snapping their fingers,
p1oducing sounds by the clapping of their hands, giving shouts of
acclamu.tions of joy, and filling all the points of the compass with
the noise of excessive singing, intoxicated by the sports of sudhu.
Thus the bands of gods proceeded through the air, together with
the company of the disciples, Buddha being at their l1ead, as if
the rocks of Mcru and Yagundara had landed on the shore of the
great ocean, and bent their course towards the pcu.k of Samau11la.


. 66,. And in this way, while the sound adviser of All the sentient
beings, the aovorolgn of the world, the lord of the biped races, had
ascended the ~rial path, and waa proceeding, the or}) of the sun
mnde tbe eluatcrs of his beams aa soft as the light of the moon,
WJd stood in the sky like a white umbrella hclcl over his head for
the purpose of preventing the heat, then gentle drops of rain
began to fall slowly like a sprinkling of water upon an altar of
flowers thnt hnd been elev1.1t.ed to the clouded sky. And gentle
breezes mixed with perfumes began to blow from vnrious dfreetions,
to cool the whole universe like one orb of odour.
57. Thus Buddha suffering the pomps of tho immense offerings
wliich the gods performed, by pl'csenting various miracles in the
whole firmnment, filled the entire universe with the clusters of
Buddha's dense beams of six colours, namely blue, yellow, scarlet,
white, red and ,-ariegatcd, arrived at the summit of the peak
Samantakuta, and stood with his fal'~ towards the west, attended
by five hundred disciples, like the orb of the rising sun enveloped
in a collection of the lustre of Buddha's beams which come
over the top of tho eastern rock, and which hnd looked towards the
way of the interval of the western ocean ; and Buddha, at the
prayer of th\l great Suman!\, the noble king of tho gods, clearly
imprcsl'Cd upon the summit of the Samantakutn mountain, his soft
and ruddy pink coloured left foot, with all its beauties, which in
length is about ~hree inches less than two carpenter's cubits,
endowed with a hundred and eight auspicious signs.
58. So lie properly gratified the noble god Maha Sumnna,
together with innumerable sentient beings such o.s Brahmas and godR,

Two rect three Inches la said to be the measure or a Sil,ihalese carpenter's .

cubit I bat some aaert that antiently the meMure waa two feet nine lncbea.

and set hiB glorious foot aa a Beal that is impreeBed, purporting that
the Island of Lanka was his own treaaury, full of the three gems.
At.that moment, at the festival of the noble peaked mountain Sama-
~ala, the rocks, trees, rivers, cataracts, pools, bt'OQks, earth, sea, and
aky, like an army attendant upon it, clothed themselves with the un
folded garments of various hues of the six coloured mys of Bud-
dha's beams, anointed with the ointment of the pouring of flowers
of divine fragrance, adorned themselves with the jewolry of the
showers of divine gems, dcco1ated themselves with g,ulands of
flowers of fully expanded and unwontcd blossoms, playingon tbe
five kinds of musical instruments like tho roaring of the sea, singing
agreeably to the measurcme11t of the hum of the bees, clnpping
their hands as with. the clash of rain clouds, shouting with npplause
like the roaring of the earth ; and in the continual spl'inkling of
unusual rains they disported themsel~es among the wu.te1s.
59. Then the Omniscient Buddha, attended by the train of the
great"pl'iests, depi\l'ted f1om that ph\ce, and r-,sted duriug the heat
of the day in the cave of Bhagawa-leue on the side of that peak of
Samanala, making it also a parihh6gika memorial, and p1oceoding
from that place went to the district of Ruhuuu., and ento1ed
with his train into the state of samu.patti, 011 the site whore the
monument of Dighanakha was to be erected, and rested there for
a moment.
60. Hnving rested in this way fo1 a momont's timo in the state
of s11m;.patti, together with his five hundred attendant sanctifiecl
p1iests, at the site of Dighanakha, and having ph\ced in that spot
the deity Mahasena as guu.rdiao, and thence liko a Gurulu-rajn.
attended by a multitude of Garundas, ascended the aerial path and
come to the city of Anuradhnpu1'll, he sat, l;iy the earth, on
the site where the great glorious sac!'ed ho-tree was to Le placed

in the midst of the grove Maha M~ghawaoa, and on the site where
Ratnamnli .monument was to be ~rected, and appointed there a
deity or the name of W(snla as guardino, and he proceeded thence
and rcste1I, by shaking the earth ns bllfore, in the state of Nir61lha
1mmltpntti, at the 11\te where the Thuparamn monume11t wns to be .
built; and having appointed in that place, as guardian, a god of the
onme of, he proceeded thence Md rested for a
moment in the state of snmapatti at the site of Mirisnweti Vihlira
attended by five hundred snnctiflod priests, including the eighty
dignifie1l disciples; then ho rose from the 1>tnto of samltpatti there,
and preached his doctrines to an innumerable multitudo of gods
who had collected themselves together in that pince, nnd led them
into the four rown1ds of the four paths, nod commanded the god
In1lrn to gu111d thnt pince, nnd thus awakened the minds of the people.
61. Froin thnt pince he proceedell and rested n, moment with
his retinue at the site where LowamaMpltya wns to be erected, at
the site where the house of L~habat wns to be erected, at the site
where the pool Dantadhara was to be constructe<l,. and fl.t the site
where Ruwnnweli~aya was to he built; and he prcachc'd his d?etrines
to the assembled gods in these plnceH, nnd distributed the four re-
wards or tl1e four supreme paths; from that pince he proceed<?d and
11at upon tl1at rnoHt delrghtfu~ spot of ground on the summit of the
rock or -1\lihintnla where Mnhasolasuya was to be erected; and he
brought to liis subjection those Gods, Brahmas, Nagas, Garundas,
Siddhas, Widdhyudhnrns, Rakshas, Gnndharwes, and others who
were gathered near him, and ho made them drink of the ambrosia
of his doctrines, nnd straightened the path of the duration of San-
surn, and displayed to them the happy way which speedily lcatls
to the city of Nirwunn.
62. Uc went thence, together with five hundted sm1ctificd


priests, and entered the state of eamapatti at the place where the
venerable dagoba of Ka.tarngama was to be built, and in that place
also he caused the earth to shake, and for the future protection of
that place be located the noble god Ghosha, and departed thence and
entered the etate of Nirodha samupatti n.e before, at the site.where
Tissa Maha Wibara was to be erected. and ea.used the earth to
ehake as before, and he placed thero for guarding it a god called
Manibharaka. He left that place and coming to N uga-:Maha-Vibara,
entered the state of samliputti as before, and caused the earth to_
shake, and he placed there for its protection a god named Mihindn,
and proceeded thence and entered the eto.te of Nirodba samlipatti
with the five hundred snnctificcl priests at a very delightful epot
of ground, near Sel'uwila 'on the soutb'em bank of the river Maha-
weli, and ca~sed the great earth to shake, and rose from his seat.
63. Then when the N tigarlija Suman a bad plucked some flowers
from the elinmpac tree which be hall in his bonds, nnd lmd gone to
that place nnd offered them to Buddha and stood by him, he ordered
that Nagadi.ja Sumana should reside there as the gua1diun god of
that place, and then he gaYe his own protecting influence to the
glorious blond of Lnnka, and returned to ,Tambudwipa.
64. This is the third visit of our Buddha to the Islond of
LHnka. Thus all the fourteen pillccs, at which he spent some time
in moving about, by woy of standing, or sitting, and so forth, in
the three visits which the exalted sovereign of the wholesome
doctrines paid to the Island of Lanka, are p,ribMgika 01cmo1ials,



"The following romantic legend, connected with -Kellania,, is to

be found in Sivhu.lese histories; the period is about 200 B.c.
Tho beautiful Queen of Tissa, King of Kollania, having been
ecduccd by his brother Uttiya, and their intercourse detected, he
fled to Ga.mpolu. ; from thence he soon af'tcr sent an emiSBa1'Y
disguised o.s a priest. This person wns instructed to mix in the
crowd of priests, who, along with their chief, daily attended at
the palace to receive their alms; at which time it was expected
the messenger might find an opportunity of safely de1ivering a
letter with which ho was entrusted to the Queen, who always
assisted at the disirilmtion of alms. 'fbe disguised messenger
entered the palace along with a multitude of priests, and, having
caug]1t the eye of the Queen, dropped the letter (an ola): the sound
of its f'all was heard by the King, who immediately turned round and
seized it. The King, h~ving peruaed the guilty communication,
in the height of his fury decided that the High-priest must be
cognizant of the int.-igue i for not only 'lu1.d the messenger come
ns a priest in his t1ain, but the letter aJlpcnred to the King to have
been written by the High-priest. He was fort.hwith thrown into
n cRuhlro11 or boiling oil; u.t the same time, tbc Queen was bound
.and cast into the rhcr, u.n_d the messenger was hewn in pieces.
The real v.riter wn., afterwards ascertained, and it was then

remembered that Uttiya had been a pupil ot the unfortunate

High-priest, and bad acquired exactly the wne method of writing."
The above circumstances are thus referrod to In the Se)a-lihinl
Then In the mansion bcaotiful,-ln memory bnllt,
Dy men with merit blest, of deed of tragic gullt,-
Wlthln the hall whose paintings tha story vivid tell
Of prie.,t elaln ruthlasaly by kingly paselona foll . -
Where Tiasa in the cauldron of boiling oil had prone
The Rabat iDnocent on blind sosplclon thrown;-
There, on t!iat sacred spot, to Buddhists ever dear,
Tha Sage's scdent Image, 0 fairest friend, rovere I

.. -Not iong after these evente, the sea bego.n to encroach rapidly
on the west coast of Ceylon, and the King became persuaded that
this calamity was a judgment against him for the cruel and unjust
sentence he had executed on the High-priest. In hopes of pre-
venting the onward progress of the waves, i.nd to appease the
wrath of those gods who control the waters, Tissa determined to
sacrifice his virgin daughter SudMdcwi ; and, having secured
her in a covered golden canoe, on which was inscribed "a royal
maiden," he caused it to be launched into the ocean. The flood
continued to increase; and the monarch, mounted on his elephant,
bad proceeded to view the destructive effects of the raging waters :
while thus engnged, the earth opened, and the King disappeared
nmidst flames which burst from the sinking wreck of hie richest
provinces. Before the waves ceased to encroach upon the land,
six hundred nnd forty villages (four hundred and seventy of which
were _principally inhabited by divers for pearls) had been over
whelmed, and the distance-between Kellnnia and the sea-coast had
been reduced from twenty-five to fou1 miles,

The vessel in which the young Pr_inceas wo.a immolated, having

been drifted to the south-west, wu diacovercd and brought to
land Ly some fishermen in the Magam district, which was at .that
time a acparate kingdom, under the control of Kawantissa Raja.
He, having heard of the mysterious appearance of the golden
canoe, proceeded to the coast at Totalu Ferry; and, after reading
the inscription, released the Princess, whoso name ho changed to
Wihari Dcwi, and whom ho afterwards married.
Wibari Dewi became the mother of Dootoogaimoonoo, a prince
who restored the Siyhalese power, and _expelled the Malabars, to
whom both Kellania Tissa and Kawantissa had been tributaries.
l\Iany Buddhists believe that her me1ita and good fortune are so
great, that, in a future transmigration, she will become the mother
of l\lytrce, tbe cx1>eetcd Buddha."-f'omsEs' Eleven Yeart1 in
Ccyl_on, vol. i. 1>agea 154-1.56.

In Vlluina recently built at Cotanchlna, and not yet completed In tta Internal
deeontlone, there l1 a lltatu. of the expected Mytrie, who l1 repreaented u a whlta



"THE principal objects in Kandy worthy of any notice, are the"

palace, and the different temples of Boodhoo and the gods, The
palace did occupy a considerable space of ground, Its front .
about 200 yards long, made rather an imposing appeamnce: it .
looked towards the priucipal temples, and rose above a handsome
moat, the walls of which were pierced ~ith triangular cavities for
purposes of illumination. At one extremity, it was terminated by
an hexagonal building, of two stories, called Pateripooa, in which
the king, on great occnsions, appeared to the people, assembled
in the square below. At the other oxtremity, it was bounded by
the women's apartments, on the front of which the sun, moon,
and stars, (not out of gallantry, but as insignia of 1oyalty,) were
carved in stone, and in which, at the public festivals, the king and
his ladies stationed themselves to witness the procossions. The in-
termediate space was occupied chiefly by the great ent1anco to the
palace, and by the temple (the DulndaMalegawa) a little iu the rear,
The entrance was by a drawbridg over the moat, through a
massive archway, on onEI band, up a flight of huge steps, and
through another archway to the hall of audience ; and, on the
other hand, up ,anotheJ' flight of steps to the temple and. the
hexagonal building . The hall of audience, where the king usually
tr11nsacted business and kept hi-s court, is a long room, in which


nothing ornamental i11 now to be eeen, excepting the ca"ed wooden

pillars by which the roof is eupport.ed . The principal temples in
K1m,Jy and its immediate neighbourhood, are the Dalada Malegawa,
the :Malwattc, and the Asgiric Wiharee,-and the Nata, Mnha-
Vishnu, Katragam, and Patine DewaMe, The Dalada Mnlcgawa,
was the domestic temple of the king, and is the most venerated. of
any in the country, as it contains the relic, the tooth of Boodhoo, to
wl1ich the whole island was dedicate, and which is considered by
good Boodhists as the most precious thing in the world. The
tl.'mplc ie email, of two stories, built in the Chinese style of arcl1i-
tecture, The sanctum is an in11er room, about twelve feet square,
on the upper story, without windows, and to which 11 ray of natural
light never pc,;etratei.l, You enter it by folding doors, with
polished brass ponnele, bP.fbro and behind which is a curtain. The
splendour ortho place ie very striking ; the roof and walls are
li11cd with gold brocade ; and nothing scarcely is to be seen but
gold, gems, and sweet-smelling flowers. On a platform or stage,
about three feet and a half high, and which occupies about half
the room, there is a profusion of flowers tastefully arranged before
the objects of worship to which they are offered, viz. two or three
email figures of Boodhoo,-one of cl'yetal, and the otlicr of silver-
gilt, and four or five domes or caskets, called karanduns, containing
relics, and similar in form to the common Dagoboh, of which a
figure has been given r.lready. All but one of the karanduas are
small, no\ exceeding a foot in height, and wrapped in many folds

In page 108 I elated that the prlesta of the Maligiiwa, are proprieton of tha
11lte of the Bf:~11di-k6wlla at S{tawaka ; thla I have llince learnt la a mis1ake;
tbat prop~rty belongs to tha Maha Vishnu Dewale iu Kaudy,

or mualin. One is or much greater size, and uncovered, and, with

its decorations, makes a most brilliant appearance. It ia five feet
four and a half inches high, and nine feet ten inches in circum
ference at its base. It is of silver, from three-tenths to four-tenths
of an inch thick, and gilt externally. It consists of three ditrereut
pieces, capable of being separated from each other. Its workmanship
is nent, but plain, and it is studded with very few gems, the finest ~ .
of which is a valuable cat's-eye on its top, which is rarely seen.
'rhe ornaments attached to it are extremely rich, nnd consist ofgo'-1
chains, and a great variety of gems, suspended from it. The moat
remarknble of these is a Lird hanging by n gold chain, and formed
entirely of diamonds, rubies, blf.!e sapphires, emeralds, and cat's-eyee,
!At in gold, which is hid by the profusiou of stones. Viewed at a
little distance, by candle-light, the gems about the karandua seem to
be of immense value; but when closely inspected, they prove in
general to be of bad quality, and some of the largest merely crystal,
coloured by a foil. This great karnndua is the receptacle or the
Dalada, 'the Tooth,' as it is considered, of Doodhoo, 'rhrough the
kindness of the Governor, I had an opportunity (enjoyed by few_
Europeans) of seeing this celebrated relic, when it was recovered,
towards the conclusion of the 1obellion, nnd brought back to ho
replilced in the Dalada :\Iu.legawa, from which it had been clandes-
tinely taken. It was of a dirty yellow colour, excepting townrds its
truncated base, whore it was brownish, Judging fi;om its appear.
ance at the distance of two or three feet, (for none but the chief
priests were privileged to touch it,) it was artificiul, ancl of ivory,
discoloured by age. Nc,:cr a relic was more preciously enshrined;
wrapped in pure sheet-gold, it was placed in a just la1ge enough
to receive it, of gold, covered externally with emeralcls, diamonds,
and rubies, tastefully arranged. Thie beautiful and_ very vuluublo

bijou was pot into a very small gold karanduil, richly ornamented
with rubies, diamonds, and emeralds: ,this was enclosed in o larger
one also of gold, and very prettily decorated with rubies: this
second, l'Urrounded with iinscl, was placed in a third, which wu
wrapped in muslin ; on~ this in a fourth, which was similarly
wrapped; both these were of gold, beautifully wrought, and richly
studded with jewels: lnstly, the fourth ka.randua, about a fout and
a half high, wa, deposited in the great karandua. Here, it may be
remarked, that when the relic was taken, the effect of its captul'e
was astonishing, ond nlmost beyond the comprehension of the
enlightened :-'Now (the people said) the English are indeed
mlll!tcrs of the country; for they who possess the relic have a right
to govern four kingdoms ; this, for 2000 years, is the first time
the relic was ever taken from us.' And the first Adikar observed,
'That whatever the English might think of the consequence of
having taken Kappitipola, Pilimc Tai.awe, and l\fodugall6, in his
opinion, and in the opinion of the people in general, the taking of
the relic was of infinitely more mom9nt.' "-D.\vr's Account of the
lutcrior of Ceylon, pp. 365-369.

The three prlnr\val rebel chlef'I. .


. \

The following ia a brief account of the history of the Tooth,

of the inestimable value of which, and of the numberless mi.racles
wrought by it, Buddhist literature ia full, Of these last, one ex
ample may be given, quoted from an antient Pali g4tha in the
Attanagalu-vansa, a work written in the latter part of the thir-
teenth century
Hsld in the lotus hand of Lanka 'a king,
Like raja-hansa, bird of golden wing,
Instinct with life;..the D1.1nta brightly gleam'd
Then Buddha's form assum'd, when from It beam'd
Effulgent flashings, which on all sides thrown
\Vith splendour unsurpaes'd itself m11de known,
Awe-struck the king the miracle beheld,
Conviuced, delighted, and by joy lmpell'd,-
Slich joy as fills a Cbakkavatti's breaat
When of a Chakka-ratanat poasest, -
lle to tb' unrivall'd relic offerings there
Made of rich gems, and priceless jewels rare. the funeral rites of Gautama Buddha had been performell at

Kusinara, B.C. 543, his "left canine tooth" was carried toDantapura;,
the capital of Kalinga, where it was preserved for 800 yeara,
, The king of Kalinga being engaged in a doubtful cooflict, directed
that, in the event of defeat, the sacred relic should be conveyed to ,
Ceylon. The event he feared occurred, aud the relio was con-
veyed to Ceylon A.D. 311, by a princess of Kalinga, who concealed
it in the folds of her hail-. It was received by king Mahascn and

An emperor whose dominions extend from sea to sea.

t The Inestimable chariot (chakk11), which ls studded with (rataua) gems, and
which movee on the air.

tbo priesta with the greAtest possible bonore; a_nd rcmai.ned at the
capital until about the year 1315, when, du1ing an invasion of the
Malabars, it was captured at Yapahoo, aud carried back to
Southern India, Prakramabahu III., the suceceding king, went
in person to :Madura to negotiate for its surrender, and returned
with it to Ceylon, when it was deposited by him iu Pollannaruwa.
In the troublous times which followed, the tooth was carried_ from
one place to another, and preservecl or hidden at Kandy, at Dolgamoa
in Sabarngamuwa, and at Cotta, whcro it was cnptul'cd by tho
Pol'fugucsc in 1,560, and convoyed by them to Goa, 'l'he king of
Pegu, hearing of its capture, offered an immense ransom for it;
which_Don Constantine, the Viceroy of Goa, would have accepted,
but for the determined opposition of the Archbishop, who in a
!Solemn assemLly, convened for the purpose, reduced the tooth to
powder in a mortar, and then lmrncd its remains in a brasier, the
contents of which ho then east into the river. In 1564 howeyer,
Bramo. tho king of Pcgu having sent ambassadors to Ceylon for
the purpose of obtainiug a princess of the blood royal as a bride,
these, when nbout to undertake a pilgrimage to Adam's Peak, were
secretly informed by the chamberlain of the Siybalcso monarch,
that ho was still in possession of the genuine tooth of Buddha,
and that wbat had' been <lcstroyed by Don Constantino was a
counterfeit. The king and his chambc1lain, both of whom were
in the power of the Portuguese, h11d, in fact, manufactured a
facsimile out of stag's horn, and thought by this means_ to effect

A l,oui half a mile on the Colombo alda of the Katutlyambarnwa vihara;

"lrnre lhere are the remuina of a PorlHb'IICse fort, ellll known a1 "VelgomuwA

their purpose of palming off' a daughter of the latter on the'klng of

Pegu, the Siyhalese king being childless, and to effect an alliance,
by which his prosperity might he reafored. The ainbaeeadors, be-
lieving in the genuineness of the tooth, negotiated for its removal,
with the bride, to Pegu. In this they were not at first successful,
but the lady was sent to Pegu, and married to the king. When
however the discovery waa made that she was the daughter of the
chamberlain of the king of Cotta, and not of the king, although of
royal blood, the ambassadors informed B1ama of the existence of
the tooth, and thewillingneas of Don Juan to part with it. Valuing
the tooth above every thing else, Brama forgave the deception as
to the parcntnge of his wife, and eagerly made overtures to Don
Juan for the possession of the relic. It was accordingly sent to
him, and received with every demonstration of honor, and the most
profound adoration; the king, Don Juan, receiving in retul'D, an
immense amount of treasure, But now, anc;>thcr tooth turned tip,
For the king of Kandy, learning what had happened, and influenced
by envy, despatched au envoy to Pegu, who being received wilh
distinction by kiog Brama, informed him of the deceptiona prac-
tised by Don Juan; but added "that the king of Kandy, anxious
to ally himself with tho sovereign of Pegu, had commissioned him to
offer in mnrriage a p1'incesa who was in reality his own offspring,
and not snpposititioua; besides which he gave him to understand,
that the Kandyan monarch was the possessor and depositary of the
genuine tooth of Buddha, neither the one which- Don Constantine
had seized at Jayawardnna, nor yet that which waa held by the
king of Pegu, being the true one,-a fact which he was prepared
to substantiate by documents and ancient olas, Brama listened to
his atatcment, and pondered it in his mind ; but seeing that the
princess hatl nlrcacly received the oaths of fidelity aa queen, and

that the tooth had been welcomed with eo much solemnity, and
deposited in a wihare, specially built for it, he resolved to hush up
the aff'air; to avoid confeseing himself n dupo, (for kings must no
mor~ admit thcm!elves to be iu error in thoir dealings with us,
tban wo in our dealings with them). Accordingly, ho gave as his
reply, that he was sensible of the honour designed for him by the
proffered alliance with the royal family of Kandy, and likewise by
the offer of the tooth ; that he returned hie tbanke to the king, and
as a mark of coneideration would Bend back by hie ambassadore a.
ship laden with preeents."
Tliis latter tootl-. is no doubt, the one now preserved in the Mali-
gawr. at Kandy, which Sir J.E. Tennent describes Ill! "a clumsy
substitute manufactured by Wikrama B1thu in 1566, to replace tho
original dalctda, Tho dimensions and form of the pre@ent dalada
aro fatal to any belief in ite identity with the one originally wo1-
i;hipped, which was probably human, "'hel'ens tho object now
shcwn is a piece of discoloured ivory, about two inches in length,
and less than ono in diameter, resembling the tooth of a crocodile
rather than that of a man." Thie description shews that the fabri-
cators were in ail probal)ility unacquainted with the appc!lrance of
the original, which ha~. been preserved as the palladium of empire
by the king and priest9 at Cotta ; but that accepting tho tradition
of Buddha's stature of thirty or forty feet as a fact, they made a
.tooth big enough for 8, being of BUCh an enormous height.

Diego de Couto, Decade viii., cb. :ii:111.

ADAM'S PEAK. . 337


AccouKT OP THE Ascv.NT op ADAM'S PEAK, BT LtEtJT, MALcou1,


"ON the morning of 26th April, 1816, I left Batugedem with a

small escort of~ sergeant and fonr Mn.lays, (of the First Ceylon
Regiment,) for the purpose of ascending Adam's Peak ; for I had
been so repeatedly disappointed in expectation of guides, which the
Headman of Batugodera, Dolip Nillam6, had- promlt!ed, thnt I
determined to tnke my chance of obtaining them at GillemalM on
my way, I merely took with men few blnnkets, a qund1nnt, nnd
meosuring chain, and tlnee days' provisions fo1 my party, The
route winded with the Kalu,Ganga, or Kaltura river, which, about
two miles from -Batugedera, receives the Mugelle-Oya, about two
chains in breadth at the confluence. On the left hank, there are
ruins of a Kandyan fort, erected during the late war to command
the ford.
"From tlae Mugelle river to the rest-house of Gillemall6, the
distance is about tliree miles and a half. At this place I procured
two guides, after some delay, and leaving the Gi'nemall6 rest-house,
we immediately c1ossed the l\folmelloe river, and about half a mile
further on, the Maskellc river.
"From the banks of. the latter, we entered a forest of magnifi-
cent trees, straight a~ pines, and from fffty to seventy feet in hoight;
and about four P, M, we arrived at Palabadoolle, ten miles and

338 ADAM'S PtAK.

cigl1tccn cl1aih11 from Datugedera. Hore there 111 a considerable

temple of Buddha, and a large rest-houee for pilgrims on their way
to the Peak.
"About two hundred pilgrims, of both eexes and of all castes
and conditions, were here nssembled, some on their way to, and
othen on their rotum from, tho Peak. The dance '\VIUI continued
without intcrmiesion, to the sound of Tam-a-tame and other instru-
ments of Singhalcso music, until the pilgrims, who were about to
ascend the mountain, began to prepare theh lights; and at about
eight P; Ill. tbcy procccdod on\\ard11 in distinct parties.
"l'he Head Priest, from whom I reooivcd every possible atten-
tion, h'icJ all tho pcreuoslve rhetoric he coul,J muster, to prevent
me from lJl"OCCl,'lling further t,wo.rds tbe Peak ; assuring me, that
no white man. evor dill and nc-ver could ascend the mountain.'
I soon eonvinced the benevolent Oonanso that I was not a white
man to be dissuaded fh>m the attempt through any dread of ulterior
danger; nnd therefore, havh,g b!'en well refreshed, and our chules
ttady, we took leave of the priest, and left Palabadoolla about
dc\"en at night.
"After pallsing throe emall forte that had been thrown up during
the war, we lx>gan to ascend tho fir11t mountain, and reached the
summit in four hours. From the next, the Kafo-Ganga dcsoend11
npidly; and, about five A. v., we . breakfasted upon the rocks
borde1;ng it8 stream,.and then continued our route up the mountain,
Adam'11 Peak etill towering far above our heads~

"Nil mortalium nrduum est-Ca!lwn ipsum petimus,"

and, after surmounting two -other -distinct ascent!!, equaily steep,

but <,f less height, "'e came to the foot of the Feak itself. The
race of the hill here-appeared quite perpendicular, and tbo pilgrims,

in advance of my party, were seen climbing up the p~lpiCQ by.

the I\Seiat.ance of the Iron chai1111 which are ff.lted 111 the rook for
that purpose. We halted a few to take breath, and after
great eECrtiona, we rcuhed the top betwoon eight and nine A, M',
of the 27th April.
"The view from this great elevation flll' surpasll6d my most
sanguine expectation, it was so magnuicently e:lttonsive, On one
side displaying a fa!Jt extent of mountain, champaign, and fo1-est
scenery, the latter so variegated ln foliugo and so irregular lu form,
that I c.ould only complll.'8 it to an ocean of woods, whose wave,
had suddenly become fixed in an unalterable position I ou the
others, the tops of the hills l'isiug above dense fug;i, and ro.sembllug
innumerable covered wlth wood and !Cat,torod over the sea
that apparently filled the epuce below. Ba.tugedora was soon on
one side, as if almost under our feet, o.nd on the otho1, in th9
distance, the Kagdysn mounta~, interspersed with clouds.-B.ut,
alas! whilst in the full enj.oymen..t of tbi~. splendid scene, a thick
fog arose from the bottom. of ~h.e wo.Wltaiu, and dr.ew a. ov&
its sublimity..
"The area of the summit of the peak is 72 cet loog and ~4 br.oad,
and is .enclosed by a pal'3pet woJl fiye feet high; this has pa1tly
f11.llen dowQ,on the side, wl,licb i1:1 cove.reJ .with scarlet Rhodo-
dendrons ( Rhododendron arl.>ore11,m), .and the r.cmaindo1 is sadly
out of repair. In the middle of thi~ are~ is a Jn,rge 1ock .of Kahooo
or iron-stone, upon which is a mark of Adnm's left foot, called Sri
Pada by the Sioghalese; but it requi1es a gre11.t den! of help f1-om
imnginatiou to trace it out. This sacred fJotstep is covorod over
with a small building formed of the most <lU1u.blo wood, 12 feet
long, 9 b1oad, 11.nd 4 to the tiles, with which it is
Upon the inside it is enclosed by a frame of copper fitted to its

ahape, and ornamented with numeroua jowele set In four rows, but
not of the beet or mo,t preeiou, gem, the island has been known
to produc11, for to me_ they looked very like glaes,
"We were not, I regret to say, provided with an 'Union Jack,'
but we fired th1ee vollies, to the great astonishm~nt of the Buddhists,
as a memorial to them that a British armed pnrty had reached the
summit, spite of the predictioe of the priest of Palabadoolla. The
priest having warned us of approaching rain, we had some faith
in that warning, as the result of his experience, and made the best
of our way down the mountain, which we found far more laboripue
to descend than it hnd been to climb.
"Tbe rain, which fell in torrents, increased the difficulties of the
aliominnble roads, over rocks and fragments of iron-stone, to
Palabc.doolla, which we reached about 4 P. lll., and returned to my
quartel's at Batugcdcra the next morning,
"Sound lungs 11.nd hard feet aro indispensable to the pcrformnilce
of such a trip, for in ma.ny pla.cce we had to climb barefoot over
the ii-on-stone. As to, the_y are quite out of the question.
There ma.y be some_risk in ascending Ad11m's Peak in henvy rains,
but surely not in fine weather.
"The summit of the mountain was only cleD.r about a quarter of
an hour, which did not even nllow me time to satisfy my curiosity, :
or to t.Akc any bearings, wbicl1 la.tter circumstance I pa.rticularly
rcgrct."-BENNET's Ceylon and its Capabilities, pp. 380-383.
: /

The follou,ing i, from tlie pen of an O.lftcer vlio a,cended

.If.dam', Peak 1liortl9 after Lieut, Malcolm,
"While we were in Saffregam, we resolved to pnt In e:irecution a
project which we had talked of at Colombo, and before our return
to visit Adam's Peak. This plan we have accomplished. Leaving
Baddegeddera on the morning of the 6th, we gained the summit on
the next day at half past two in the afternoon, Our first march
r,om Baddegedde1a was .5t miles or tolerable road through a fine
and interesting country, along the left banks of the Caltura river,
to the royal village and extensive lawns -0f Gi~l~malley. From
this place, the King recei'fed his store of jaggery, There are
about 250 inhabitants, who are well looking and of a creditable
appearance. Their houses are numerous and comfortable. From
Gillemalley, at three o'clock, we set out for Palabatula, situated on
the top of the Allebentenne mountain, at the distance of 4 miles
in a northeaat direction. The ascent is about 2 miles in length,
Here ia a small religious establisbmeut, where the priests live who
have the care-or ihc Holy Impression of the Foot on the Peak, and
t there is good shelter for travellers. We slept 11t this place, and soon
}j after daylight next morning, renewed our journey, accompanied
by one of the priests as a guide. The road leads for a mile end
a half over a very rugged and abrupt ascent to the northeast, up
the Neela Helin, at the bottom of which, about a quarter of a mile
from Palabatula, we crossed tho Caltul'a ri'fer, and all the way up
to the top of the hill we heard it on our right hlllld running
below. The next ascent is tho l-Iourtilla HillR, of thl'ee quarters
of a mile, still mo1e rugged and difficult than the former, the road
at some plac<.-s having an angle of full 60 degrees. We then
ascended the Gonatilla Hilla, about half a mile, still more steep, and

the air became cooler and clearer. The ne.1:t stage ls to Deabetme,
rather more than a mile, and this is the summit of. the mountain,
the road up which is one continual rise of four miles without any
intervening descent, although the bill has four names, and each
division is marked by a whit.ewashed stone on the right side of
tl1e road. There is l1ere a small Ambelam (a Cinhaleso resthouse)
and the ruins of a building erectel by Eybeylapolte ( the late of Saft'1'Cgam). The Adikars, and Dcssaves, were accus-
tomed to bo carried as far as this point, when they the Peak,
which opens to the view bearing E. by N. The road now extends
in a northcast direction four miles over the hills of Durmamjah,
Pedrotollngnlla, Male Malla Kandura, and Andes Malle Ilclla, and is
e,xccsshcly steep and difficult, From the latter the Peak itself rises
al,out a milo or three quarters_ in perpendicular height from tliis
. place. The way is fair climbing; the direction at first N. E., then
S. E., again N. E., and lastly N. W ., when the perpendicular ascent
is encountered: this is only to be surmounted by the help of
several ma.ssy iron ch_ains, whichare strongly fastened at top, let
down tl1e precipice, and ngain secured below. These chains arc.
donations to the Temple, and the name of the donor is engraved on
one of the links made solid for that purpose. The height of the
precipice is about 200 feet, and many holes arc worn in the face -of ,
the rock by the feet of the numerous pilgrims who have 11.'lcended
it witb tbo assistance of the clmins. At half-past two in the
noon we reached the summit. It is an area of about one fifth of
an acre, su\roundcd by a stone wall four feet and a l1alf high, of
four unequal sides, with two ontrnnccs, one on tl10 south and
nuotl1er 011 the cn!'!t, rm1l an opening to the west in form of an
embrasure. In the mitldlc is a rock about nine feet high, on which
is the frmcied impre,ssion of the Holy Foot, it has in fuct a most
,, ,;
' l' ADAM'S PEAK. 848

shape1ess appearance, bearing little re!embl11nce to a hum11n foot,

and what is most unfortunate for the tradition of ita being the laat
footstep of Bnddha, when he strode from Ceylon to Ava, the toes,
if they can ho discerned, are turned towards the west. . The clouds
which arose as we were ascending prevented our_ having any view,
and we occupied ourselves till four o'clock in taking a plari of the
summit; we then found it was much too late to think of returning
to Palabatula, and resolved to remain during the n!ght on the
Peak. I can hardly attempt to describe the extraordinary grandeur
and variety of the scene that opened upon ~sat sunset. Above our
heads, the air was perfectly serene and clear: ,below, a thick bed
of clouds enveloped the mountain OD n.ll sides, and completely in,
tercepted our view; but every now and then, the henms of the
sun broke through the mass of clouds, and threw a brilliant light
over the s~rrounding moun_tains ; then suddenly the opeuing was
closed, and all was again hid from our sight. These beautiful
glimpses were often quite momentary, and frequently repeated,
sometimes even twice in a minute, nor did the operation entirely
11 cease until it was quite dl!.rk. We spent a wretched night in a
most comfortless hut about thirty feet below the summit. There
. wae a piercing wind, and t.he cold wee far greater than I had ever
felt since I left England. Unluckily we had no thermometer
with us, but I think the quicksilver would not have risen above
40. 'l'he rising of the sun presented a magnificent scene, but
quite different from that of the evening. The whole sur-
rounding country except Ouva was covered with clouds, above
which only the tops of a few mountains were visible-Hunas-
.garree, Kandy, bore northe.ast, and a mountain that we decided to
be Idalgasina southeast. The whole country of Ouva was exposecl
to vfow, and lay stretched out in appearance ju&t beneath our feet.

The sea on that side was perceptible, and bore southeast, which must
bavo been in the neighbourhood of Paltoopane; and it was pcrhops
the leway or great natural aaltpan that we observed. At seven
in the IDOl"Iling. WO began to descend the mountain, and reached .
Palabatuln at noon."-From the Appendix to Captain ANDERSON'S
""'andercr in Ceylon."



'' Sitawnka, the old court of the anc!;;nt Kings and Rajaa, with
its great gates, walls and steps, is situated at the branch of a
particular rivulet flowing from the nearest promontory, and loses
itself, after half an hour's sniling, in the great river of Colomho,
which comes from Ruanella; all that is :brought here from Colombo
is warrontcd good, and is therefore for the house of the Dissawa;
the stones of the old ruins which are heaped up in great numbers
are1 sufficient for building a fortification in which to store Neli and
Arecanuts, which come from the adjacent Korles. The situation is
by nsinre very strong, and well protected. For the Colombo
Dissawo; a better pla,ce cannot be preferred, as he is in the centre
of all tbe Colombo lands, as well as those of the Three and _Four
Korles to the north; the Saffragam lands to the south; and Colombo
itself OD the west: all of them lying at almost equal distances from
each other; for from Sitawaka to Arandora it is si,x hours' journey,
to Saffrngam eight hours, and to Colombo_ ten hours by lar.d, bu_t
.may i>e done in six hours by water."-VALENTYN,
,, ,I
1 ADAM'S rEAK. 84.S



1 , , TeE word Perahara means literally a procession, and though the


epithet may ~ applied to any procession; it is 11aed emphatically

of a festival held a~ually in the city of Kandy, [and a.t Ratnapura]
which commenced this year [1839] on the day of the new moon .
in August. ,,
We have b'ied in vain to obtain a.n account of its origin from the
Jlntives I they say that its history is lost in the darknesss of antiquity,
A kapuralo. of- Udanuwara refers it to the time of Gajabahu, who
reigned A. D. 113, and says that this king was a native of some
foreign country, whe1-e these processions were in common use,
This account cannot be correct, as GajaMhu was the son of a
native p.r ince; but on referring to the history of this monarch, thore
are circumstances related which may nssist us in our researches.
Gaja.bhhu resitled at Anuradhapura, One night, when walking
through the city in disguise, he saw n. widow -weeping, whose sons
had oeen tnken captive by the Solli ki~g. in an invnsion of Ceylon
from the continent, during the previous reign. The king mnde a
mark upon the door of the house, and returned to his palace,
Next morni,ng he called _. his nobles, and askod what injustice had
been committed in tho city. They replied that the wholo city was
ns free from injustice a.s a . house wherein a. festival is celebrated,
when" the king, in anger, sent for the woman whose dwelling he

bad marked, and asked her .why she was crying upon the previous
evening. She said that in .the reign of the king's father, the
people of Solli had taken 12,000 captives from Ceylon, among
whom wern two of her sons, and that it was on this account she
wept. Upon hearing this, the king coliected an army, and pro
ceeding to Yapapatuna, (Jaffno.) he informed his people that ns the
Solli King had taken captive his subjects, he must go 0.11d bring
them back to their own homes. With Nccln, 11, giant, l.1e arrived
at tho ecll shore, where lie diemissed hi11 army, nnd tiikin_g on iron
rod he ,truck the Hen, which dlvi,lcd, a11d he 01111 tbo giant went
o\cr to the continent. 'l'he Solll king wns in gl'~ot fear, nnd to
Increase his tcr1or Nccla t.ook one of tho royo.1 elephants, and
dashed It against anothcl' with such force,. thnt both th~ nnimnle
died. In the same manner, the giant devast~tcd the country. The
Solli king, when be heard of these things from his nobl9s, asked
GnjaLuhu why ho hod come with an army to _'dcstror, liis reallil;-
to which he rtplicd, that be bad broughi no army besides hie giant,
and proceeded, "In the days of your fnthcr, when my father
reigned, he went over to Ceylon and seized 12,000 persons, and
brought them hither captive, and I hove come to demand them."
ThC' Solli king answered forthwith, "Though you go to dewya-
lokaya, and receive the assistance of the asoors, you will not be
able to overcome me." was greatly enraged at this
refu11al to deliver up the captives, and declared thnt he would not
only take hie own subjects, but 12,000 other captives ne well, and
he threatened to burn the royal city to ashes in case ofrcfueal. To
shcw his great strength, and that the tl1rente were not idle words,
he !queezed water out of a handful of dry sand, and afterwards out
of the iron rod, which frightened the Solli king to such a degreo,
tl1at he delivered up the 24,000 pcrsous demanded, the golden

balamba of Pattinee, the sacred utensils of four d6w1UM, and cc the

J'efeetion ,Heh" of Buddha; and with thee~ Gf\i&bAhu returned to
Ceylon. The 12,000 ShJhalese were sent to their respective
homes, and tho 12,000 captives were allowed to reside in Aloot~
kurakorla, a district to the northward of Colombo, the inhabitants
of which to this dayrctain many marks of their continental origin.
The sacred vessels here referred to had been taken away in tho
.reign of Walagambahu, . c. 90, and there can be little doubt
that it was to commomornte thoir roturn tho Pcrahare: was originally
r.stablished, as the carrying of the halamba and other relics seems
to be the most essential part of Lhe procession, and to tho dividing
of the wate1s also a reference will aftcrwardt1 be made. It is not
clea1 from the narrative whether the halamba had been previously
in Ceylon, though from other traditions we have heard wo shoultl
.!!upposo they had; but this will mak~ little diffcrerence in tho
intention of the festival, as it may still be held to celebrate their
\I arrival. It i~ up_on these reli~s _that the heathen na~hcs swear in
. the courts of Justice. Tho 011gm-of the Peril.hara 1s therefore to
) to be dated as far back as the second century of the Christian re1a.
The account given of the Perahara by Knox, as it was celebrated
in the reign of Raja Singha II. 1670, is as follows:-
' The greatest solemnity is performed in the city of Cnnde ; but
at the same timo the like festival 01 Perahar is observed in divers
other cities and towns of the land. The Perahar at Kandy is
ordered after this manner.
'The priest bringcth forth a painted Rtick, about which strings
of flowers are hanged, and so it is wrapped fo branched silk, some
part covered and some not; before which the peo1>le bow down and
worship; each one presenting him witll an offering according to
his free will. These free-will offerings bein~. received from tho

people, the priest takes his painted stick on hie ahoulder, having a
cloth tied about hia mouth to keep hie breath from defiling this
pure piece of wood, and gets up upon an elephant all covered with
white cloth, upon which he rides with all tho triumph that king
and kingdom can aff'1Jrd, through all the e1roots of the city, But
before him g_o, first some 40 or 50 elephants, with b1ass bolls
hanging on each aide of them, which tinkle as they go;
'Next follow men d1esscd up like gyants, which go dancing
along agrccnl,Je to a tradition they have, that anciontly there were
l111go mon, thnt could ca1ry vast bu1thons1 and ,pull up trees by the
root,, &c. After then~ go a. multitndo of d1ummers1 and t1um 0

petters and pipera, which mnkc such a great and loud noise, that '
nothing else besides them can be heard. Then followet.h a com-
pany of men dancing along, and after these women of such castes
or trades as a1e necessary for the serYice of the pagoda, as potters .
aud washer-women.; each caste goeth in companies by themselves,
three 11.nd three in a row, balding one another by the hand; and
bchveen e~ch com,pany go drummers, pipers and dancers.
'After these comes an elephant with two pl'iests on bis back:
one where!)f is the priest before spoken of, carrying the painted
s~ick OD his' sliciulder, who represents Allout-nenr-dio, that is, the
god and maker of' heaven and ea1th. The other sits behind him,
holding a round thing like an umbrella over his head, to keep off
sun ot; rain. .Then within a yard after him, on eac-h hand of him,
follow two other elephants mounted with two other priests, with a
priest sittiog behind each, holding umbrellas as the former, one of
them rep1csents Cotteriigan dio, and the other Potting dio. These
three gods that reside here in company are accounted of all other
the greatest and chiefeiit, each one having his 1esidence in a separate

'Behind go their cook-women, with things llkewhl1k1 lo thoh

hands, t.o 11C1Lre away flies from them; bu& very fine aa they can
make themeelves.
'Next after the gods and their attendance, go some-thous11J1dt1 or
ladies and gentlewomen, such as are of the best sort of the inhabi-
tants of the lnnd, arrayed in the bravest manner that their ability
can ntford, and 110 go hand in hand three in a 1ow: At whiclt
time all the beauties in Zelone iu their bravery do go to attend
upon their gods in their progress a.bout the city. Now are the
streots nlso all mnde clean, and on both 11i,lcs all along the streets
poles nre stuck up with fluge and pennons ha1~ging at the top or --
them, nnd adorned with boughs nnd bl'anches of coceanut trees
hanging like f1ingcs, and lighted lamps all nlong on both sides of
the streets, both day nnd night. '
'Last of all, go the commanders sent from the king t.o see these
ceremonies decently pcrfol'mcd, with their soldiers after them.
And in this manner they ride all round about the city once by day
and once by night. This festival lasts from the new moon t.o the
full moon.
'Formerly the king himself in person used to ride on horseback
with all his train before him in this solemnity, but now he delights
not in these shows.
'Always before the gods set out to take their progress they are
set in the po.godn door, a gOQd while, that the people may come t.o
worship and bring their offerings unt.o them: during which time
there arc dancers, playing and ahewing many petty tricks of
activity before him. To see the which, and also to ahew them-
selves in their bravery, occasions more people tor esort thither,
tl:inn otherwise their zenl u.nd devotion would prompt them to do.
'Two or three days before the full ' moon, of theso gods

bath a pallenkine carried after them to add unto their honour, in

the which there arc several pieces of their superstitious relicts, and
a silver pot, which just at the hour of full moon they ride out unto
a river, and dip full of water, whicb is carried back with them
h;1to the temple, where it is kept till the year after and then flung '
away. And so tJ,io ceremony is ended for that year.
'Thie festival of the gods taking their progress through the
city, in the year 1664 the king would not permit to be performed;
nnd that same year tho rebellion happened, but nevo1 since bath he
bin11ered it.
. At this timo they have asuperstition, wl1ich lasteth 6 or 7 days,
too foolish to write: it cons\sts in dancing, singing, and juggling.
The reason flf which is, lest the eyes of the people, or tho power
of the jaccos, or infernal spil'its, might any ways prove prejudicial
or noisome to the aforesaid gods in their progress abr~ad, During
the celebration of this great festival, there are no dmms allowed
to be beaten to any particular gods at any p~ivate sacrifice.'
Knox is right in his descriptions, but wrong, as might naturally
be expected, in some of his explanatory remarks. The attendance
of tl1e giants, commemorative of the 1edoubtable Necla, is another.
evidence that it is to the reign of G-ajabahu we arc to look for the
origin of the festival.
In the Ceylon Almanac for 1834 is a "Description of the four
principal ,Knndian festivals, compiled from materials fumished by
a native chief." From this document we iearn, that until the reign
of king Kil-tisree (A,D, 1747-1780) the Perahara WM ecle)mited
cxclnshcly in honom of the fom deities, Nnthn, Vishnu, Kntmgnm,
nnd Pnttiucc, and nltogetbe1 unconnected with Hud1lhism, The
sacred DnlnM, relic of B1uhll11, wns fbst cna1;icd in p1occssion, '
together with the insignia of the four go~,i, in 177 5, The ,
, I, , / '
I /

ADAM'S :t>EAK.. 8111

circumstances which gave rise to this innovation were as follow.-

The Siamese priests who were invited here by king Kirtisree, for the
purpose of restoring the Upa6sampadawa, the highest order of
Buddhist ordination, one day hearing _the noise of jihgalls, &e.,
cnquirecl the cause, and were informed that preparations were being
made for celebrating a festival in honor of the god1:1. They took
umbrage at this, and observed that they had _been made to.believe
that Buddhism was the established religion of the kingdom, and
they had never oxpected to sec Hinduism triumphant in Kandy,
To appease them the king sent to assure them that this fcetivnl of
the Pemho.ra was chiefly intended to glorify the memory of Buddha,
and to convince thtlm of it, the king gave directions that tl1e great
relic should be carried foremost in the procession, dedicating hia , ,
own howdah for its reception.
There can be little doubt that the Peralmra received tho counte-
nance of the native princes, rather from a political than a religious
motiv_e, though these circumstances would vary with the disposition
of the reigning king. It was on_e of the few occasions upon which
the monarch presented himself to the public gaze. The most
)) . imposing edifice connected with the place was the Pattrippo, an
octagon of two stories, the upper story having a balcony that over-
looked the principal square of the royal city, on one side of which
was a lake, and on the other various religious and consecrated
plnces. The procession was collected in the square, that the king
might see it from tho balcony ; and when the curtain which
shrouded his majesty nt his entrance was withdrawn, and the
assembly did lowlyrovercnce, nmidst the clnmor of the drums and
pipes, the Right of the prostrate thousands, the elepbnntB rlohly
cnparisoued, the royal guard in proud a1,ay, the couutlese bam1e1a
floating in the breeze, aud the adigars and other chiefs at the hoad

of their respective clans, all arranged 'in due order and degree,
must have produced an effect that is not often equalled even in tl1e
festive BCenes of far mightier kingdoms. On somo occasions the
king j!)ined in the procession, but in tbis thero wns no uniformity
of observance, hi11 majesty beiog at one time on foot, and at another
we are told, in a golden chariot drawn by eight horses.
The Pemharl\ afforded an exccllt,nt opportunity to the king to
examine into the state of the provinces, the conduct of the
governors, and the obedience of the people. The refractory were
punisl1cd, the loyal rewarded, and new regulations were now
promulgated, that they might he carried to tbe more distant
districts of the island. To the inhabitants generally it must have
been a time of grateful festivity, especially during the reigns of
the more popular kiogs, as it was a spectacle of splendor, and the--
nrious chiefs were able to exhibit their consequence in the
presence of the assembled kingdom.
The Pcrahara begins on the day of t,hc new moon in the month
of JEMla, which this year answers to our Augu'st. The commence-
ment is regul11ted by the nckata, or situation of the moon; and at
the appointed moment, which must be either in the evening or
n10rning, never at mid-day, the kapurala of the Vishnu dewala cuts
down 'a young jack tree which has been previously chosen, and is
consecrated for the purpose by mysterious rites. Tho day before,
the knpurala must batho in pure water, anoint his head with the
juice of the lime, and clothe himself in clean garments. In ancient
times flowers were used, as mentioned by Knox, and these .were
the flowers of the rehrela, {cathantocarpus fistulata), but either
because this tree does not now bear flowers in the proper season;
or because another tree is more conveniently found, the jack has
been substituted in its pince, which, however, for the time, receives
/ '// /

ADAM'S PEAK., 8158

the name of a,hmla. When Knox wrote, the proceaalon was I~

June; when Davy wrote, in July; it is now in August; and like
all other eastern festivals, from the imperfection of the native
astronomy, it traverses through all the months of the year. The
painted stick of Kuox, adorned with flowers, appears to be comme
morative of the wonder-working rod of GajRbahu, and the jack ia
undoubtedly an innovation. When the tree has been cut down_, it
.is divided into four sections, one of which is conveyed to of the
dewalas, under a white canopy, an~ accompa~ied by music. The
section is cleaned at the dewala, and put into I\ hole, after which
offerings of cakes are presented, called ganabodana. The gana are
an order of inferior deities attendant upon the gods, and bodana ia
the Elu form of bh6jana, food,
The consecrated wood is adorned with leavee, flowers, and fruit,
and during the first five days the procession simply paeses ronnd it,
tl!e kapuralas bearing the sacred vessels and implements. After
this time they are brought beyond the precincts of the dewala,
and paraded through the principal streets of Kandy. On the night
,of the full moon the procession is joined by a relic of Buddha,
);properly accompanied, which is af'te~wards carried to the Adahana
l\:faluwa, a consecrated pll!.ce near which are the tombs of the
ancient kings and other individuals of the royal race. The Maluwa
is encircled by stones, within which, it ie said, the kings had no
jurisdiction; it was a kind of sauctu~ry, 'l'he relic receives the
adoration of the crowd until the morning, when it is returned to
the temple.
Towards the end of the featival the proces11ion approaches the
river, at the ancient fer1-y not far from the Peradenia bridge, and
:whilst the multitude reinaine upon the bank, the kapuralaa enter a
boat that has been splendidly decorated for the occasion. The

2 'I'.

J:,oat ia rowed to aome distane~, when the kapurala takes a golden

eword; and strikes the water. : At the same instant a brazen vessel
ia dipped into the river, and whilst the water is yet disparted, a
portion is taken up, which is kept until the vessel can be filled in the
same manner at the next festival. The wster which had been taken
the previous year is at the same time poured back into the river.
There is a close analogy between this striking of the river and
the striking of the sea by Gajabahu, though what is meant by the
dividing of tha waters we cannot tell. It is probable that there
was something ext111.ordinary 'conr..ected with the passage of the
king, which tradition afterwards magnified into this miracle.
Were we disposed to be fanciful, we might notice the resemblance,
which the st!'iking of the ~ by a rod, the squeezing of water
from the dry sand, the errand of the king to demand captives, and
some other circumstances, bears to certain facts i: the Israelitish
cxodm,, but we have seen so many similar constructions levelled to
the ground at a single blow, that we forbear to pursue the parallel.
The general o.rrnngemen t of the Pernhara is the same now as in
former times, but in the grandeur of the spectacle there can be
no comparison. There are still elephants richly adorned ; flags,
pcnhons, and banners ; scvern! bands or ,irums, tom-toms, and
pipes; the palanquccns of the gods; the sacred utensils; u.nd the
chiefs of tl1e dewluas, &e., with their separate rotinues. 'fhe streets
are lighted by vessels of oil, placed upon poles, and carried by
men, after . the manner of the meshals of the Arab tribes. There
are several who have a light at each end of the pole, which they
whirl round at intervals with some velocity. The din of the
tom-toms cannot be better described than in the words of Knox;
'l,hey make such a great and loud noise, that nothing else besides
them can be heard.' 'fhe chiefs o.lonc, the crowd being kept
' i.,

oft' by their attendants; the stiffness of their gait u they are

wrapped round with manifold layers of cloth, being in perfect
contrast to their usual ease, indeed we may eay gracefulneH, of
manner, The long whips were cracked before the adigar until the
present year, but oo one has been appointed to this office since the
death of the old man whose presence we now miss, and no other
individual is entitled _to the honour. The whole proceasion may
extend about a qual'ter of a mile, but this is only towa1ds its con
clusion, as it gradually increases in the number of its attendant
elephants, &c. from the commencement. The nati"es who attentl
as spectators are now few, even in comparison with recent yean,
and it would t1eem that in a little while its interest will vanish away,
with many a better remembrance of the olden time. The procession ,,
was one day prevented from taking its accustomed round, as a man
had hung hi'mself in one of the streets through which it must have
_passed. The natives are very unwilling to enter into conversation
respecting the detail of this ceremony, and suy that there aro
, many mysteries connected with it.which they cannot reveal,
. h The h istordyh of the PheraBhara _is _an other evi_d~nce hmdv tenacdiouslyd
) t e peop1e a ere tot e ramm1ca1 superstltloos, an wou 1 ten
to prove, that even when Buddhism was predominant upon the
continent of India, it must have had very little hold upon the mass
of the populstion; and this may account for its almost total de
struction after it had once the ability to erect the splendid temples
that yet remain, monuments at once of its majesty and its weakness,
Budcl;1ism is too philosophical, too cold and cheerless, to be a
populsr creed, and it is only its present alliance with its deadly
antsgonist of former times thst now preserves it io the place it
occupies as the national religion of Ceylon."-From the "FRIEND,"
vol. iii. p. 41~50, 1839,




Ratnapura, 1.5tb January, 1826,

.T he Board of Commi88ioners, Kandy,
I HAVE the. honor to acknowledge ihe receipt ofyonr letter ot
16th December last, wherein I am directed t.o select a fit person to
receive the appointment of High Priest of Adam's Peak.
H1ning in consequence called upon the two Distoaves, and -the
B11sn11iko Nillcme, to report oo . tl1c claims of those who might be
c11ndidatcs for the Office, their selection fell on Gallay Madankare
Una.nse, who though neither a candidate residing at present in the
District, they conceived should be the person to be appointed, from
his l1ping been admitted into Priesthood in the District, been the
pupil of Wnihaille Naike Un11nse, the High Priest of the Peak,
nod more ospeciaUy on account of his piety and great learning,
which are BAid t.o laava procurod for him a very extended reputation.
All the' Upasampada P1iests of the Malwatte establishment
beneficed in the District were then assembled, and the individual
proposed being unanimously approved by them, I signified t.o
Gallay Unansc, who resides in the Matura Dist1ict, my intention
of submittiug his naml! for the Office, under the restrictions stated
iu you, letter, 110d the udditionul one of constant residence in tl1e

-- - ________ ., __
. ___ - - - --- -- - -------

Dl11savony, He ha11 acceded to the propoeal, and I hue, in t'on11e

quence, to recommend that the appointment may be conferred upon
him .
I have also to recommend that he should at the same time be
appointed Chief Priest of the Saffragam Di11savony, an office which
has not for 11ome time been conferred upon any one, though the
want of it ha11 been much folt. It was Intended to have renewed
it in 1822, as will be seen from the annexed copy of a letter from
the late Resident, but the Priest named declined accepting the
situation owing to some dis~ensions among the priesthood. Mr.
Sawers' letter, to which Sir John Doyly refe1'!!, is noi on recor4 in
thi11 Department.
I have, &c.,
(Signed) GEO, TURNOUR,
Agent of Govt.

Ratnapura, 27th February, 1827.
1'he Board of Commissioners, Kandy,
., I HAVE the honor to return the petition of the High Priest of
~e Malwatte Wlbare, in which he lay11 claim to the village P~l-
madulle. It is accompanied by a oounter-11tatement from the
-Chief Priest of Saffiagam and the Peak.
From the information I am able to collect, the claim of th._
Mn.l.watte High Priest doe11 not appear to be well founded.
When Raja Singha (whose capital wa11 Sittawakka, and who died
in Sacca 1514) abjured Buddhism, and became a convert to the
.Braliminical faith, he bestowed the charg? and the emoluments of

the Peak OD some Andee Fackeers. The institutions of Buddha,

discountenanced and depressed, soon lost the requisites for con-
ferring tho ordination of Upasampada, and that order of priesthood
in time became extinct.
Sub11equcnt kings made some efforts to re-establish these insti-
tutions, by inviting over learned priests f'rom the Eastern continent,
but the object was never effectually and permanently attained till
tho reign of Kirtissry.
Tho Uposamp~a 01dination was then nlso extinct. Tho priest-
hood chiefly consisted of the Syloat order (not now in exi~tence)
who ob11cr,cd most of tho rules of devotion and nbstinenco,
without being able to perform any of the functions considered the
most important of a priest, The head of the Priesthood was a
Samanairoo, named Wclwita, known by the title of So.ranankero
To the zeal and exertions of this individuo.l the natives now
owe the footing of permanency on which their religious establismcnt
is placed. He induced Wejai Rajah to depute Wilbaagedere
?tludcynnse on an embassy to ~iam for the purpose of bringing
over p1;csts capnble of conferring the Upo.sampnda. 01-dino.tion, and
of lenving behind them the means of perpetuating it.
W l'jai Rajah died before the mission reached Siam, and the
)Judeyo.nse 1-cturned to Ceylon. lie was sent hack by king Kirtissry,
and succeeded in bringing over the Siam priests.
On the res~ration of Upasampada, Weliwita was placed at tQe
head of the church, with the title, not of Na;raka Unanse, but of
SwighmRajah(Kingof Priests) and with unusual powers, to preserve
the new institution from innovation.
It was at this period that the Andee Fackeers were deprived of
tho Peak, which at thnt time had no land revenue attached to it.
- ADAM'S PEAK. 8.59

That office, together with Koottapitteye (till then .a royal village)

was conferred by the king on Sangha ~a and the grant recorded
on a copper Sannas.
The Andees attempted to avert this alienation, by making presents
to the King, among other articles of II pair of elephant tusks, which
he received from the Andees, and mnde an offoring of, to the Penk.
According to the enclosed Statement of the Snffrogo.m Chief
Priest, the Peak, with the village Koottapitteye, was bestoweJ by
8angha Rajah on Maalibodde Unanse of this Province; together with
the and village of P~lmadulla, which So.ngha Rajah is said
to have received by the dedication of Kapugankande Syloat
Namma. I am inclined to think this was some private arrangement
of Sangha Rajah. For by the account Wilbsngedere Mudeyanse has
left of his embassy, and of these l'eligious proceedings, it appears
that the superintendence of the Peak, together with the office of
High Priest of the Low Country (Saffrngam and the Maritime
Districts), were confided to Waihelly Nayake Unanse by the king,
at the same time that the Sannas itself was granted to Sangha
Rajan. This point however, is not material to the present reference.
From that period till the succession of Rojao.di Raja Siogha
(in Sacco 1703) four High Priests had bold the Chiof-priostship
of the Low Country together with the Peak, residing nt P9lmadulls.
The last of these was Korrnttotte Naynke Unansl."1 who now
resides in Matura District. Morraattotte Nnike Unanse was the
High Priest of Malwatte, and had been the tutor of his king.
On the pretence that the Saffragam Priests were leagued with the
Dutch, Morraattotte induced the king to deprive Korrattotte of the
Peak. The Sannas was taken to Kandy by Rntnapura Nilleme,
and placed, it is said, by the king's order, by Dodangwclle Adikar,
the Dissave of Saffragam, in Sanguka, in Malwatte Wihare.

1''rom that time, until last,year, the Peak, with Koottapitteye,

has boon held by the Malwatte High Priests, The Low Country
has been without any regular Chief Prieet, and P~lmadulla h111
been the residence of the Pupils of Wnihelly.
The only advantage the Malwatte High Priests derived from
Pt;lmadulla, .consisted in having eight loads of the offerings made at
the Peak, transpor~d for them to Kandy, This exo.ction also is
not of' old, standing, as the removol of the oft'erings at the Peak to
Kandy was an irregularity which g1adlllllly attained to the extent
it was ultimately carried.
I have been minute in my inquiry, as my information must
chiefly be derived from interested sources. I ~eeno ground whatever
for the claim preferred. Pt;lmadull!l is certainly not a dependency
oftbe Peak, neither does it appear to me to appertain to the Chief-
priestship of tbo Low Country; further than from the accidental
eircumstance of three succeeding High Priests inheriting Pi;l-
madulla, as pupils of each preceding incumbent. But the Malwatte
High Priests h~ld neither of these nppoiutmonts, and can have no
claim on either ground,
1f the present arrangement is int:endcd to be made permanent,
it would be well to remove all ground for future litigation. With
this view, I recommend that king Kirtissry's Saunas should be
bestowed upon the High Priest, who now holds the Chiefship of the
Peak by the appointment of the present Govel'Dment.. The docu-
ment was, I am told, in the possession of Parakumbura Unanse of
Kandy, who 11ome time ago placed it in the charge of Deheigame
Dewie Nilcme. The tusks also presented by king Kirtissry
(which have Sree-poda carved on them) were removed to Kandy
when our troops first entered the country, by Kobaikadoowe N'ayaka
Unanse, they are said to be now at Goddalladeneya Wihare in Ouda
I \


Neura. I have to suggest that they should also be .. sent for, and
restored to the Peak shrine.

I ha~e, &c.,. , . '.

. t
(Rigncd) ' GEO, TURNOUR, 'r

Agent of Govt~

Extract from of Asst. Agent ofRatnapura, July 27th, 1858,

"It will be s~n from the correspondence. that about Sacca 1514,
king Rajasinha, who had abjured Budhism, and became a convert
to Brahaministic faith, bestowed the charge of the Peak to some
Andce Fakeers; that it was subsequently conferred by king Kir-
tisry to Weliwit11 Saranankcra Ganin, otherwise Sangati\in, to
gethor with the village of Kuttapitiya, upon a copper smmns; that
however the superintendence of the Peak, together with the office
of High P1icst of the Low Country (So.ft'rngam and the .Maritime
districts) wo.s confided to Webo.lla Naika Unnanse, and from that
period to the accession of Rajady Rajasinha (Sacca 1703 ), four
High Priests had held the Chief-priestship of the Low country and
the Peak, f'esiding at Pelmadulla, The of these, Knratota,
was in A, D, 1827, living at 1.fotura, having been deprived of the
Peak by the King; on tho instigo.tion of :r.loratota, the High Priest
of J\folwattn, on which occasion the So.nnas was removed to Ko.udy,
by order of the King, and kept in Sangika (or common.) From
that time, up to 1826, about 40 years, the Peak was heft! by the
Priests of M~lwatta, but they appear to h~ve derived but sm111l
advantage f1om its emoluments.
As early as 1825 the claim set up by the High Priest or


Molwatte to the Peak wu set aside, and in the fro~ the Board
of Commissioners dated 16th Dec. of that year, it was conveyed that.
the Goven1or had decided, that the appointment of High Priest of
tho Peak el1ould bo conferred on a Priest of Saffriigam, it being
rnnde a condition of that appointment that the greater part of the
revenue arising from tho offerings should be applied to the rcpaiL- ,
and upkeep of Rest-houses, &c;
On the 15th February 1826, Mr. Turnour communicated to
Government the selection by him, according to instructions, of Galle
Medankara Unnan<1e, to sueceed the late High Priest of -Mahvatte
as Priest of the Peak, and by the letter of tiie Board of the 14th
April 1826, was conveyed, that as a special favour to the then
Maha Naika Unnanse of Malwatte, the Government had conferred
on him one-fourth of the offerings of the Peak, which reverfed to
tl1e High Priest of the Peak on the death of the said Maha Naika
Ontl,e demise of Galle Naik.I Unnanse, 1836, his successor, Saman-
gala Unnanse, who died on the 21st May 1818, was elected by the
priests of this district.before the then Assistant Agent, Mr. Wells,
under instructions of Government (see letter No. 448 of 13th
May, 1836,) which prescribed the same course as had been adopted
by Mr. Tumour." -
Po.racumbere W8.! the next High Priest; then Galagama Attadassi
Terunansi, who 'Wea depoRed on 26th ?tfoy~ 1866.
Hikkaduwe SumangaleTerunansi ofthe Vibare called Tilakarama
in Hikkaduwe, was then elected;-" a priest in every respect eligible
for this high and import.ant office, and one whose reputation for
piety and scholarship stands supcreminent among the priesthood of
the Malwatte establishment of the Island of Ceylon."-Act of the
Priests, on the 10th June, 1866.



-DEscnIPTION o Tne ATTANAG.\LU Foassr,. nr J.ui:Es ,,1,

D'ALw1e, Es_Q.

"WnEN, some years ago, I visited this part or the co~.o~y, m1

eyes rested on a scene which I could not soon or easily forget.
<Its g1eatest attraction w~ the stately forest. Whilst I stood
amazed at the prodigious height to which the trees had grown,
stl'aight f1-om the ground, the eye Iiogered with delight on the
'pillared shades,' thick with their dense green folisgc, a.ud laden
'with their pendent fruits and Jfowars.'

The Figs and the-Palms which grew up together reminded me

of the Cocoa.nut and the Bread fruit which rose, as it were, in love'a
embrace, in the southwest coast of Ceyloo. The Talipot, the Na,
the Sapa.n, the Hedawa.ka, the Ketakulu, the Del, the Milila, the
Goda.pora, (not to mention other timber-trees), were all he1e 11000
side-by-side with the Katu-iml,ul,-tJie Goraka., tho Vcralu, the Knju,
the Era.ha.du, etc., etc. There were also climbing plaots in eodlcss
variety. The Potu, the Kil'indi, the Kiritilla, and the Kiri-anguna,
_entwined themselves round the trunks as they clambered up in
search of' light. Tho ferns aud the orchids, which th1ivcd luxuri-
ously in the hollows of old trees, waving theil' brilliant foliage,

Attanag11lu, on the road to tho Ilewaga,u K6r.&le,


1eemed u if they were the cultivation of' some nymph of the forest.
Nothing could exceed the beauty of tho flowing tresses of the Heda-
yli, of which two species woro mot within tho cold and mOBsy cloft1
of trees that never BILW the light of tho sun. Undor the grow
the Vana Raja. Revelling in the rich o.nd luxurious vegetable
mould, which )o.y several feet thick, this dwarf 'King of the Forest'
spread out its leaves, 'the most exquisitely formed in the vegetable
kingdom, and whoso colour resembles dark velvet approaching to
black, and reticulated over all the surface with veins of ruddy
gold.' It is difficult to realize the beauty of the distant landscape
nlong the streams and marshes of tbe forest. The graceful Bo.mbu
was surrounded by the m&gnificent Asoka.. The pale n.zure of
tho Sal, which deeply contrnstcd with the burnished green of the
delicately tinted foliage of the Sinmbala on tho hillocks, and both
with the deep emerald brushwood bclow,-waved over the
Gloriosa Supcrba (Niu.gala), whoHo matchless flowers festooned
the o.djo.cent hcnps of vorduro ; whilst the Murutn overshadowed
the Bundur6, that grow luxuriantly beneath tho pink-clnd bro.aches
c,f the former. Nothing, a.gain, could snrpaHs either tho eplendour
of tho flowers, or the beauty of tho lco.vc11. Somo of the latter by
themselves exb~bitcd tho hues of the former. Tho scarlet shoots
of the Na, for instance, vied in beauty with tho gorgeous flowers
of tho Katu-imbul, the pink clusters of the Muruta with the ripe
leaves of the Kottamha, the pale yellow Champo.c with' the tawny
Veralu, and tbo sno~-white blossoms of the Idda with the tender
buds and cream-coloured leaves of t_he Musscndn."-A!TANAGALU
VAXSA, pages ~1-93.
,ADAM'S PE~. 36~

'' .L,


By G. H.K. Tuw.uTa, Eaq., F. R. S., Director.of the Royal Botato Garden/

~-- ~ _!.,:...>- _ ___ ., .......-, - -a"

Tm forest immediately about the Peak contains a number ot
interesting trees of various Natural Orders, comprising
MAGN0LJACE.1, repreecrited by Michelia Nilagirica. (Wal Sappoo
uf the SiyhalcHe,)
AwoucE-tt, rcprcecntcd by species of Sageraia, Gonlothalamu1,
Uvaria, Unona, Millusa, &c,
MrmBTJCACE.1 by Myristic!l Horsfleldll, and M. laurifolia,
SAMYDACEE, by two or three species of Caeearia, and the fragrant
flowered Osmelia.
PANGIACE.., by Hydnocarpus and Tricbadenia.
STERCULJACEE, by the Durian-like Cullcnia excelsa, and Stercalia
guttata, .
BYTTNERIACEE, by Pterospermum suberifolium, and Julostyll1
angustifolia, ,
TILIACE..E, by species of Elreocarpus (Weraloo of the Siyhalese.)

D1PTEROCWE&, by species of Dipterocarpus, Doona, Shorea,

Hopea, Vate1ia, Isauxis, and Stemonoporus,
TEBNSTR<EMIACE..E (tho Tea tribe) by Gordonia, Eurya, Tern-.
strremia, and Adinsndra.
AuRA.NTL\.CE.., by Glycosmis and Atalantia,
GuTTIFER., by Garcinia Morella (the true Gamboge tree\' G.
cchinocarpa, G. terpnophylla, Xanthochymus ovalifolius, l\nd
epcciee of Calopbyllum (Keena of the Siy.halese,)
CELASTRACE.., by Kurrh~ia, Kokoona, and Microtropis.
SArINDACE.., by Schmidclin, Sapiadus, and Nephclium.
l\lELIACE:.E, by l\Iilnca, Amoora and Walsura.
TEREBINTUACE.., by several species of Semccarpus, by Maugifera
(wild mango) and Nothopegia.
DcnsERACE.., by Cnnarium, Scutinanthe, and Pteridophyllum,
. llolIALlNE., by Homalium Ceylanicum.
LEGUlllNOS.., by Erytlnfoa, Pongamia, Pterocarpus, and Dalbergia.
RosACElE, by Photinia and Pygcum, .
Co11nnETACElE, by Terminalia Bclerica and T. parviflora.
l\lELASTOlIACE.., by several species of Mcmecylon. ,
:M rRTACE., by Eugenia, ,Jambosa, and Syzygium of many species,
BARRINGTONIACE., by Barringtonin, Careya, and Anisophyllca.,
RmzOPHORACE., by Carallia.
LYTURARIACEA:, by Axinandra and Lagcrstrremia.
RUBIACElE (Coffee tribe) by species ofNauclea, Canthium, Ixora,.
Pavetta, Diseospermum, Griffithia, and W eudlandia.
l\h-RSINACE., by l\lyrsine.
SAPOTACElE, by species of Isonandra (the Gutta percha plant
belongs to this genus) Dasyaulns and Dichopsis,
E.u::uct:N. (Ebony tribe), hy several species of Diospyros, Ma-
' creigl1tia, and l\laba,
ADAM'S PEAK._ 861,
AQUIFOLIACE&, by several epcciee of Symplocos,,. : .. .,'t :
PnoTEACE..t:, by Helicia Ceylenica, the only tepresentative of the,
family in the Island. r
LAUBACE..E (Cinnamon tribe), by Cinnamomum, Machilue, Crypto-_
carya, Tetranthera, Actinodaphne, and LitEroa,
URTICACE..t:, by several species of Ficus, and by Celtie and Sponia.,
EuPH0RBIACE&, by Cleidion, Rottlera Macaranga, Podadenia,
Gelonium, Chretocarpus, Dcsmostemon, Sarcoclinium, Brie
delia, Cleistanthus, Prosorus, Cyclostemon, Aporoaa, and
P ALMACE&, by Oneospcrma fasciculata, and Ptychosperma rupicola.
Amongst these forest trees grow gigantic Hanes ; the Anamirtue
Cocculus (Cocculus Indieus),Coscinium fcnestratum,KadsuraWight-
.. iana, Toddalia acule~ta, Derris siliuata, D. candens, Guilandina
Bondue,. Entada scan dens, Acacia Intsia, Anodendron paniculatum,
Willughbeia Ceylanica, Plecospermum spinosum, and two or three
species of Calamus, being particula1ly conspicuous,
The beautiful Kendriekia (Pachycentl'ia, Enum. PL ZeyL)
Walkeri, and its allies, Medinella fuehsiodes, and M. maculata,
with some species of Piper, Pothos, &c., mantle the trunks of the
trees, and handsome Ipomreas scramble over their branches.
The undergrowth consists principally of shrubby Acanthacere,
Ruhiacere, Urtieaecre, Labiatre, and Zinziberacere. The open pat
tanas, or savannalis, are made gay by handsome species of Exacum,
Osbeckia, Desmodium, Crotalaria, Cassia, Chirita, and Burmannia.
Numerous OncmDE& oeeur on the trunks of trees, or on ex-
posed rocks, and .. several species of Loranthus are attached
parasitically liniseltoe~like) to the trunks and b~anchee of the
trees. Lovely Balsams in great variety, and pretty Utriculariae .
abound in damp spots,

Near the top _of the Peak the gorgeous Rhododendron arboreum
occurs, with the Gaultheria fragrantieeima, and the Vaccinium
Leschenaultil, with its arbutus-like flowers. There too, may bo
noticed some very beautiful species of Sonerila and Osbeckia,
and some prett,: species of Hedyotis. Mosses and Lichens also
abound upon _th~ trees.

: Further Information reapectlng the Botan1 of the Island can. be obtained ln

th~ Enumeratlo Plantlll'll:n Zeylanlm, by O. H.K. THWAITU, El!q,, F. R. S., &c.,
. pnbllabed by Dul11n & .Co., Soho Sqnare, Loe.don I In which all the kno""11 1peclei
are deacrlbcd, or referred to whore the7 h11d been prevloualy deacrlbecl,

.o:r Jo1toN1s DE Soru, EsQ., AFTER ma APPOINTHE!fT TO

"BELOW we give a graphic and interesting account of the re.

caption accorded at Colombo to the man whom, on account of his
public spirit, Sir George Andorson has delighted to. honor . The
matter. is more important than would ,;i.ppear at first sight to our
_English readers, The dignity conferred on Mr. De Soysa is
one that has hitherto been jealously confined to the smnll knot of
obstructives amongst the Singha.lese who call themselves first class
Velules; and on this ocwiou the Maha Modliar, we believe, did
his little best to prevent the Government - from shocking the
prejudic~s of the people-meaning by that phruso a little knot of
Modliars-by conferring the highest Native rank in its gitt on a
man of the fisher caste. All honor to Sir George Anderson for the
personal courage and decision displayed by him on this occasion,
The British Government is not C1nly too genorous, hut also too
strong, to allow its own benevolent intentions, and the wheols of
progress to be any longer impedeu by fooli~h fears of offending
antiquated caste prejudices.
'I.he,newly created l\1odlinr is a Native Coffee Planter on a large
scale, very enterprising and very wealthy. But his claims to the

From the Culblllbo 011S1mv1m of June 18th, 1868,


dignity conferred on him reat on the erection by him, at hil! own

cost, of public worka, such as Ambalama11 and Bridges, the'formation
of roads, &c."

Colombo, June tOt~, 18G3.

-Sm,-The elevation of :Mr. Joronis De Soyaa of Morotto .to
the rank of Modliar of the Governor's Gate, appearing to have
ea.used a considel'able sensation of satisfaction in the native mind,
with possibly a little jl'alousy here and thcl'e, I have thought some
account of the proceedings on his rctum to Morotto, would not
be unacceptable to your readers, especially as you have already
noticed in your columns the doings of his friends in Kandy, somo
of whom expressed the hope that their brethren in the Western
Province WQuld not suffer themselves to be outdone in rendering
due honor to the newly appointed Modliar. Nor have they, as the
proceedings of the 9th instant amply testify. I don't pretend to
give you a very graphic account of every thing that happened,
being altogether unused to that style of composition; but, as I was
present a considerable part of the day, I will endeavour to state
what fell under :lily own observation, and from that and such other
accounts as may reach you, you will be able, I dare say, to make
ont for your readers a much more interesting narrative than I can,
-so you-are welcome to use my information, and burn my MS., or
publish it in toto, just as you please.
Well then, at 7 A, M. according to invitation, I, together with
many others, assembled at Grand Pass at the house of Mr, Soosew
de Soysa, the M!)(lliar'a brother, where, in all the glo~y of gold,and
jewels, Jori;,nis De Soyfa Dharma Goonewardcne Wepolle
Jayasooria Dessanayake Karoonarntne, Modliar of the Governor's
Gate, re~eived the congratulations of his friends.
ADAM'S PEAK. 3'71 .

Europeans, Burghers, 'Natives or rank, wealth, and Influence,

Hindoos, Pareees, Moormen, &e. &c. came dropping In one after
the other until the house was filled to overflowing. After partak
iug of a slight refreshme'lt, hospiiably provided:t,y Soosow De SoyBB,
the ear-piercing fifes and deafoning tom-toms of the Governor'11
Guard of Llll!coreens, as they drew up into the Verandah, warned
us that the business of the day was now about > begin. The
Guard having had a dusty walk, and being moreover droughthy
souls, and withal not very much accustomed to theh scarlet coats
and conical caps, or the wielding of their venerable halborts, and
antique, lien-hcadod, carving-knifo,looking cutlasSOB, or eeut'Ke
needed a dram each,' by way' of ll(!l'Ving tbem to their 1mluous
duties ; and judging from the apparent relish with which thoy
tossed off' their glasses, they brot the genuine stuff. While this
was going on, Guard No. 2 pns11ed by. This, I believe, is the
Guard belonging to the Salpitty Korle, and glories in a uniform
of blue. The poor souls looked hard and longingly at their bro-
ther 1ascoreens in red, but, obedient to the stem commands of
duty, marched on to. their appointed st11tion on Norl'is's road netll'
the Racket ground.
In a few minutes the signal was given to stnrt. The Guard,
consisting of twenty-five men, precoded by the tom-tom beaters,
took the load ; thou camo the Modliar attired in a coat of dark
broad-cloth, over which was thrown his chain of honor, formed of
above 150 sovereigns linked together iu couples, and terminating in
au ornament formed of a cluster of forty-five of the same coins;

Thie wae a mere temporary contrivance. The 11reclou., metal We su\iscrllird

for by about iOO of the Mudallyar'e personal friends, and wu af\erward1 worked
. 372 ADAM'S PEAK.

crosaing this w1111 the sword belt of broad gold 1~, from which
hung 11111pcndcd the sword encased in an elabomtely cho.sed silver
scabbard inlaid with gold; tl1e sword hilt was a mass of gems,
principally rubies and emeralds, set in gold, the lustre of which
was however complct.ely eclipsed by the splendid jewels in the
sword knot. Alt.ogetl1er the dress was a very rich ani expensive
affair-(! heard it estimated as worth about 1,000, but perhnps
this included the brilliant and other rings worn by the Modlia1)-
and certainly it was terribly provocative to a serious infraction
of tho tenth commandment.
The ?lfodliar'11 only son accompanied his father; behind them
walked two lasc-Jreens clothed in scarlet habiliments, bearing
talipols of honour over their beads. Then followed, also on foot,,
the greater part of those who had assembled at the house, the
Mohandirams in full d1-ess, with their talipot bearer~, who sported
vestments of such 9, nondescript r.haracter, th11t no verbal descrip-
tion can do justice to them, and I am afraid no pictorial represen-
tation would be believed ; the nearest approximation I can give
your reader,a will be to remind them of Pantaloon at Bartholomew
Fair, or old ShAiabalar, so inseparably connected with Punch and
London street reminiscences. Outre as their appearance was, they

up into a handsome chain of honor, to which a corresponding medal was suspended,

containiog the fullowlng inscription. "Preeented to Joronia De Soyaa, Esq.,
Dhsrma Goonewardene \VepoUe Jaya,ooriya Dessanayoke Ka,oooaratne, Modllar
of the Governor'e Gete ; By hi, numerous friends, in token of their respect end
esteem, end of the admiration with which they rogard hia beoevolunt exertiooe
for the n,licf of tho poorer clasece, and hi~ pul1fotlc en<lcavoura to promote the
pul,llc good, &c. &c," With thle choln nnd mc,lul ho wa, lnvcetcd by the
Govomor, at the Levee held at Qnceo'ij HouHC, Colombo, on the 24th May, l 8/i4.
ADAM'S PEAK, .8'18

neverthele11s added to the picturesqueness of the effect produced

by the groupings and costumes of the various races and nations
there assembled.
The ruarch ~egan; guns were fired; the fifes squealed out most
horribly shrill; the tom-tom_ beaters plied their sheepskins so
vigorously, that one had to scream into his neighbour's ear to mako
him understand; frantic people rushed out of houses on either sldo
of the rood, and deluged with sweet-scented waters .the man whom
the Governor delighted to honour I and, either In their joy
or for
the fun of the thing, plentifully besprinkled all and sundry near,
them with the same ; h01sekcepers gravely led their master's
carriages at a funeral pace in the far distant rear; and doubtless
_ those who overtook it imagined at first they had come upon a
funeral procession, for a vile cart driver, with a villainously high-
piled load of black wood, looking for all the world like a hearse,
would tako the lead of the carriages.
Passing the Queen's Advocate's house; the Honourable Gentle-
man himself came out and congratulated the Modliar on his eleva-
tion. From thence the procession wound up Barber street, down
by Wolfendahl Church, along Main street to the, where
the sco.rlet Guard gave place to the Halberdiers in blue, Nothing
particular occurred in this po.rt ot' the ronte, unless a few slight
po.ssing showers be mentioned, which were more grateful than in-
convenient; for walking in a crowd in the middle of a dusty road
under a tropical sun is not the most pleasant thing imaginable;.
it was however amusing to note tho shiftd parties resorted to in an
endeavour to escape hoi ng wetted. Imagine Cowesjee Cnnjce, the

Tlila genlleman, who died not long af\er the proceedlnge above 1leacrlbed, wa1
of the moat bulky proportions; but u geulal In manner III he ~ great In 1lze,

portly merchant of street, sharing with a stont Parsee friend

a email China umbrella, scarcely big enough to cover the tops of
their turbans ; and the nondescript talipot-bearers, officiously
rovering their masters' heads, but taking good care at the same
time to secure the best part of the talipot to themselve_s ! More
scent.eel waters were sprinkled as Cunjee's stores were_p88sed, i.nd.
additions began to be made to the tail of the procession, which
numerically more than compensated for the loss of those who by
the calls of business and breakfast were here compelled to take
leave of the Modliar
. Arrived at Colpctty the Modliar paid his respects to the Govern
ment Agent, by whom he was warmly congratulated; and further
on was met and complimented by Dr. Elliott., Mr. Dalziel and
others. Outside the Gravets there was a halt for some time. Here
the Fishers' Guard met the l\lodliar, he being a Fisher, and the
first., I nnderstand, of that caste, ever made l\fodliar of the Ga~.
Groups of picturesquely u.ttired dancing boys, grotesquely masked
mummers, and singers and tumblms, besides a numerous assem-
blage of friends and acquaintances werti also here drawn up to pay
their respects, arld accompany their countryman to his home.
From this point to Moretto every step only added to the msgni
tude of the procession. Ascending the open ca1riage in readiness
for him the l\fodliar again moved 011. :Foremost went the tumblers,
singers and dancers, delighting the concouri!C. who surrounded
them with their songs and antics; next the band:! of tom-toms and
fifes; then the Fishers' guard, followed by the Korle lasco1eeus
and a body of belted peons. Then the observed ol' all observers,
with his son and brother in the carri11ge, 1,ehind which still walked
the two talipot bearers in scarlet ; an<I aftc1 these a "train of
carriage11 and bandie~, aud a coustautly iucrcasing throng of


pedestrians. Momentary halta WC!re continually being n;ade, 10

many crowded up to the carrlage to congratulate ite occ:upanta,
Old men from all parts, many scarcely able to totter, and some
from Caltum and Pantura(tho latter village being Mr. De Soyea'a
birthplace,) came forward with almost Infantile eagernellS, eome
ao overjoyed as to lose the power of utterance, others in such a
state of excitation ne to be unable to restrain their garrulity, and
oue declaring that now he was content to dio, hating seen what
he never hoped to see, and what he should never aee agnin.
When oppo~ite the residence of the Mohandiram of the l:ialpltty
Korle, that fine old native gentleman came out and invited all who
were disposed, to partake of refreshments, which he had most
liberally provided, expressing at the Bame time his regret that official
duties prevented him from having the pleasure of proceeding to
Murotto with the Modliar. . Further on, every village and path
contributed its quota of human beings to _the mass already congre
gated on the road ; aud the din of their rejoicing, the firing of guns
and the ehoutings of welcome were at times quite over-powering.
A little beyond Rutmnlaue is the fine Ambalama erected some
years back by Mr. De Soysa. At this epot a decorated arch waa
thrown over the road, and bore the W ashcrman of the District
waited on the Modliar, requesting that he would allow them to do
him the honer of spreading whito cloths on the ground for him to
walk on until be reached bis house. This being done, all of course
dismounted and finished the joumey on foot. A light fence was
thrown up on each side the road from this point to Morotto, from
which an elegant festoon or friuge of strips of cocoanut leaves Wal
suspended. All along, too, the inhabitants of the ailjoiniog villages
were d1awn up I and to acknowledge and return all the aalutea he
received, was no slight task for the Modliar,

From thla point to Morotto, it was emphatically a trlumphe.l pro.

cessiou. After walking about three quart.ere of a mile, the Mod.;
liar's eye was gladdened with tl1e eight of a triumphal arch erected
opposite his house. Stretching across the road, of an octagonal
"form, and about thirty-five f'eot in diameter, with a beautiful
ceiling of open net-work; tastefully formed of the ferns and grBBsea
and flowers of the neighbourhood; the arch, profusely decorated
with fruite and flowers on its exterior, was unanimously pronounced
to be the most ele~ant thing of the kind eve!' oreeted by natives;
and it certainly wns wci! worth a trip to Morotto to behold.
The number of people assembled at thr11 point was immense;
Far as the eye could range along the road, and around on the
adjacent grounds, wns one dense mass of humanity; men, women
and children, all eagerly straining to catch a glimpse of their
honoured countryman and benefactor. The lowest computation
gave .5,000 as the number pl'esent ; but many were of opinion
that at least 7,000 was the most correct estimate. Whichever

be correct, it was a most grntifying sight, and such a one as it is

but seldom tho lot ot' a European to witne81! in Ceylon, The crush
was very great at the fl'ont of the house, where M1, De Soysa's
numerous relatives had assembled to meet and welcome.him home
with all his honors,. As the meeting was of the most affectionate and
affecting kind, and more 'than one drt:w back with moistened eyes,
I shall not dwell upon that part of the subject,-suffico it to say,
that all seemed over-joued.
Looking from the Verandah down on the crowd, it w11s ono sea
of heads and up-turned eyes. The Act of Appointment was now
produced, shewn to all assembled, read first in English and.then
translated into Singhalese ; whereupon one in the crowd made a
short speech, and then uprose a loud Hurrah I that would have

ADAM'S PEAK, . 377

done credit to the lungs of a London mob, Now commenced a

right joyous carousal. Numerous booths and open bungalows had
been erected in the compound, where tablei wen; spread I and well
did multitude multitude do justice to the gc.iod things the
Modliar had provided. Inside the house a more select company
or companies were ent.ertained, consisting of Mohandirams, friends,
and acquaintances specially invited. Speeches were made, heal~s
drank, toasts proposed; and while unbounded hilarity had free
exercise within, ever and anon a loud hurrah from without gave
notice of what was going on there, As soon as one company re-
tired, another took their places, and speedily fresh courses made
the laden tables groan again. After dark, firewol'ks illuminated
the gardens, and to a lat.e hour at night the Modliar waa occupied
in receiving. the complimentary visits, and acknowledging the
salams, of tho throngs who poured into the place in an almost end-
less etr~.


' ll11 Ron.L H1ou~Ess TUE DUKE OP EDINBURGH,
' '

' TuB entertainment given to His Royal Highness the Duke ot

Edinburgh by Messrs. Susew and Cha~lea . De Soysa was one
unprecedented in the annals of Ceylon, and as successful in all its
dct&ils 11s it was unprecedented of its kind. As soon as His
Excellency the Governor to Messrs. De Soysa His
Royal Highness's gracious acceptance of their invitation, they com-
menced their preparations, and with characteristic energy-(employ
jog daily from 300 to 500 men for several weeks,)-completed
all their arrangements in the most satisfactory manner by the
morning of the 22nd April, on the evening of which day the
cnt.crtainmcnt took place.
From Galle Face to Bagatelle, a distance very little short of two
miles, both sides of the Kollupitiya road were lined with decoration&.

"For the drat time In the hlltory of the J1land-for not even In the palmiest
days of the Si~haleaa monarchy, when a liberal and lerge-mlnded ruler like
Dutug~munu or Prokkramat, wielded the sceptre, would Ruy11Uy eo far
conde.,cend aa to accept of the private hospitalities of a subject-a native has
welcomed Royal guest to bis houae. The clrcumstonces under which both
Rul~r and Ruled now live are very mncb chaoged; bnt notwithstanding all the
progreaa and the advancement which th~ natives of this country have made In
Western civilization, 'the divinity that hedges rowid a throne' is not a mere

' I

Theee Consisted of a framework of upright bambu poata, five and

ten feet each in height., alternating at distancea of five feet from.
e,ach other-(wider spaces being left for entrances to compounds)-
and crossed just above the smallor posts by longitudinal bars eighteen
inches apart, From the ground to the lower bar rose ekeleton
-arches of a gothic form, The space between tho bars was a1Tanged
in continuous panels of a diagonal pattern. From the inside of the
arched work hung long ribbon-like stripes of fringed cocoanut
leaves, while the whole of the framework was wreathed over and
ornauionted with light groenolas, festoons of which swung between
the larger uprights, the tops of which were surmounted with ola-
formed crowna.. At the Galle Face end of the road an elegant
triumphant arch witii three t.erminal .spires, the central one of
which rose to a height of seventy-two feet, was erected ; and two
similar bnt perhaps more elaborately decorat.ed arches spanned the
1oad on either side of the gato that opened into the central carriage
drive of Bagatelle g1ounds, Each arch bore suitable inscriptions
of welcome. Wild pines and othel' fruitB, with flowers, ferns, and
mosses, were added, to give greater effect to the general appearance
ofthe decorations, the whole of which glittered at night not only
with innumi:rable lnmps, but with flambeaux in ,:rccn cocoa-nut

metaphor, H would therefore bo lmposallile for the native mind to o\erra!e the
bonor wbicb his Royal Highoen the Duke of E,!lohurgh bea dono Mr, De Soyaa
lo eccepting the Invitation to his Entertainment I while on the other hand It
mWIL he matter for siocere congralolatlon to all claal!ell who con claim Mr, De
Soyaa for their countrymen, that the Jeland could afford a native who by poelllon
end wealth, was pre-emloenlly qualified to do the hospi11litlea qf Lbe whole race,
In bis own pereoo."-Examiner, April 28,
The young ,and tender le4\'u or the co~ ud other palm1,

husks; while a large body of men in unifol'llll of red and white,

each bearing a blazing torch, lined the road and lighted up the
way, the brilliance of which was added to by the illnminations
with which almost every mansion on the rout.e shone and sparkled
and gave evidence of the loyalty 9f its occupants.
Bagat.elle Honse and grounds, with the numerous t.emporary
buildings aLd corridors leading from one to the other, were ablaze
with light, and prosent.ed to the eye a picture which realized to
the mind the deReription given by the poet of the encampment
of the Prince!s -Lalla Rookh when on her way to Cashmere.
The invitations were issued for 9 o'clock, and by 10 most of
the visitors had arrived; and although the1-e must have been an
assemblage of upwards of two thousand persons present, yet the
arrangements made were so admirable, that although .the throng
was pretty close at the principal door where His Royal Highness,
the Governor, Lady Robinson, and the Queen's House party were
to alight, there was no undue squeezing or crowding. "All over the
grounds, there were tents, and booths, gaily decorated and brilliantly
lighted, in which the various artists who had been gathered from
every part of the lsmnd, and even bPyond it, wore to perform
their respective r6le1. The dancing saloon in rear of the main
building was a credit to its designer; for not only was it elegantly
decorated and brilliantly l,ighted, but every attention had been
paid to ventilation. The ball-11>om upstairs, and the privat.e
apartments for His Royal Highness, His Excellency Sir Hercules
Robinson, and Lady . Robinson, were all tastefully decorated;
several handsomq pier glasses and mirrors reflected the light from

Since n~med "ALrnED llousE,''. lo honor of the occasion.


the chandeliers, and rendered the reflected .Uluelon euperlor even

to_the reality. The supper room was in the shape ofa St. Andrew'11
cross, each limb holding three rowa of tables with broad passages
between them The floor was carpeted with coloured coir matting,
and flowers and evergreens and white olas, with some hund.reda
of lamps burning over head, gave to thti entire place the brilliance
of a strictly oriental scene. The refreshment rooms were also
conveniently placed, and while the liquors, from the b':'4ndy and
soda, the champagne and the ices, were all of tho most un-
e:xceptionabfo quality, the attendance was of a kind which seldom
can be secured at similar gatherings. Tho servants were civil and
obliging, and notwithstanding the incessant and too of\en conflicting
demands on their time and attention, they never grumbled them-
selves, nor gave occasion for the visitors to grumble."
While waiting the arrival of the Royal Guest, the opportunity
was seized by numbers of visiting the grounds and making them-
selves acquainted with the localities, where in booths and tents, and
kiosks and theatres, artists, dancers and actors of all kinda and
varieties ~ere to exhibit and do