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Table of Content

1) Introduction 11
a) How Does Banksy Depict Consumerism? 11
b) How is the Term Consumer Culture Used in this Study? 15
c) Sources 17

2) Terms and Definitions 19


a) Consumerism and Consumption 19
i) The Term Consumption 19
ii) The Concept of Consumerism 20
b) Cultural Critique, Critique of Authority and Environmental Criticism 23
c) Consumer Society 23
i) Narrowing Down Consumer Society 24
ii) Emergence of Consumer Societies 25
d) Consumption and Religion 28
e) Consumption in Art History 31
i) Marcel Duchamp 32
ii) Andy Warhol 35
iii) Jeff Koons 39
f ) Graffiti, Street Art, and Urban Art 43
i) Graffiti 43
ii) The Term Street Art 44
iii) Definition of Street Art 45
(1) Street (and) Art 46
(2) Illegal versus Self-authorized 47
(3) Word versus Image 49
(4) The Viewer of Street Art 51
(5) Street Art Is Site-specific 52
(6) The Performative Aspect of Street Art 53
(7) Street Art Is Ephemeral and Participatory 54
(8) Street Art and Advertising 55
(9) Quality Characteristics of Street Art 56
iv) Urban Art 59
3) London at the Turn of the Millennium 61
a) The London Art Scene since 1980 62
b) Damien Hirst and Young British Artists 66
c) What makes a British artist in the 1990s a Young British Artist? 73

4) Banksy 79
a) Street Art The Rise of Banksy 79
i) Why Did Street Art Increase around 2000? 83
ii) The Spectacularization of Art 87
iii) Barcode Barcode Leopard (2000) 89
iv) Money 93
(1) Cash Point (ca. 2001-2005) 93
(2) Di-Faced Tenners (2005) 97
v) Leftist Consumption 100
(1) IKEA Punk (2009) 100
(1.1) Street Art: Site-specificity and the Role of Photography 105
(1.2) Commercialization of Street Art 108
(2) Destroy Capitalism (2006) 110
b) Painting Crude Oils (since 2000) 114
i) The Series and the Exhibition 114
(1) The Framing 118
(2) Rats 120
ii) Selected Artwork 121
(1) Toxic Waste Barrel Crude Oil (2005) 121
(2) Shopping Cart Show me the Monet (2005) 125
(3) The Tesco Supermarket Motif and the Shopping Bag 129
(3.1) Street Art in a Museum Discount Soup Can (2005) 129
(3.2) Supermarket Bag Very Little Helps (2008) 132
(3.3) Essentials and Non-Essentials Shopping Bag and Religion 137
c) Installation The Village Pet Store and Charcoal Grill (2008-09) 140
i) Fast-food Consumption Nuggets and Sausages 144
ii) Animals as a Raw Material Supplier Leopard 150
iii) Children, Consumption and Cosmetics Rabbit 152
iv) Media Consumption Primates 155
(1) The TV-Set 156
(2) The Artist as Masturbator 160
5) Banksy and Damien Hirst 165
a) Keep it Spotless (Defaced Hirst) (2007) 165
b) Hirsts Spot Paintings 168
c) Keep it Spotless (Defaced Hirst) (2007) Part 2 173
d) The Location Reference Street and Art 183

6) Artistic strategies for dealing with Consumer Phenomena 189


a) A Consumer Paradise Illusion? 191
i) The Controlled Shock 191
ii) Over-Identification and Irony 192
b) Banksys Anti-Consumption, Political-Activist Caricature 192
i) Images of Images 193
ii) (Dis)placement and Staging 195
c) Brands not Products 196
d) Souvenirs 199
e) Advertising 199
e) (Im)material Things 202

7) Appendix 205
a) Banksys Pseudonym 205
b) Banksys Biography 212
c) Banksys Exhibitions 222
i) Banksys Artistic Activities and Travels 228
ii) Banksys Album Covers 230
d) Bibliography 232
i) Online Sources with an Author 232
ii) Online Sources without an Author 240
iii) Other Websites 245
iv) Printed Magazine or Newspaper Articles, Papers, Essays
and Interviews 247
v) Books and Exhibition Catalogs 250
vi) Videos 255