Sei sulla pagina 1di 10

Name: Ferraris, Queen A.

Date Performed: February 9 & 12, 2015


Lacson, Dina L. Date of Submission: February 23, 2015
Regatalio, Kyle Dymer
Experiment No. 3
Chemical Kinetics
I. Introduction
The balanced chemical equation for a reaction describes the quantitative
relationships between the amounts of reactants present and the amounts of products
that can be formed but doesnt gives us information about whether or how fast a
reaction will occur. This information is obtained by studying the chemical kinetics of
a reaction. Chemical kinetics is the area in chemistry where the speed or the rate of
chemicals reactions was being studied. Kinetics refers to the rate of a reaction, or the
reaction rate, which is the change in the concentration of a reactant or a product with
time. By studying chemical kinetics, we would gain insights or idea how to control
reaction conditions or to achieve a desired outcome. The rate at which a chemical
reaction occurs is dependent on several factors: the nature of the reaction, the
temperature, the concentration of the reactants and the presence of possible catalysts.
Each of these factors can greatly influence the observed rate of reaction.
II. Data and Results

TABLE 3A: NATURE OF REACTANTS


3M HCl 3M CH3COOH
0.3 grams Fe filings Reacts stronger and faster than Reacts strongly
the solution with acetic acid

TABLE 3B: EFFECT OF CONCENTRATION ON RATES


Solution Trial 1 Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 2 Average Average
(seconds) (1/t sec) (seconds) (1/t sec) Time 1/t
A (10 mL) 49 0.020 58 0.017 53.5 0.019
B (8 mL) 69 0.014 72 0.014 70.5 0.014
C (6 mL) 155 0.006 109 0.009 132 0.008
D (4 mL) 394 0.003 417 0.002 405.5 0.002
E (2mL) 724 0.001 732 0.001 728 0.001
Concentration of Sodium Hydroxide Vs Time (sec)
2500

2000

1500
Time (sec)
1000

500

0
A B C D E

Concentration of Sodium Hydroxide

Concentration of Sodium hydroxide Vs Time (1/t sec)


0.06

0.05

0.04

Time (1/t sec) 0.03

0.02

0.01

0
A B C D E

Concentartion of Sodium hydroxide

TABLE 3D: EFFECT OF SURFACE AREA


METAL USED + 3M HCl SPEED OF REACTION
Mossy zinc Slower reaction
Zinc dust Faster reaction
Chemical Reaction : Zn(s) + 2HCl(aq) ZnCl2(aq) + H2(g)

TABLE 3E: EFFECT OF CATALYST


Reaction Observation
Hydrogen peroxide + MnO2 Faster reaction in the presence of a catalyst
(MnO2), thus lowering the activation energy.
Hydrogen peroxide only The reaction is much slower.
Chemical Reaction: 2H2O2(aq) O2(g) + 2H2O(l)

TABLE 3F.1: ORDER OF REACTION


REAGENT VOLUMES IN mL Color of
REAGENTS IN FLASK A REAGENTS IN FLASK B
Combined
REACTION (250 mL) (125 mL)
Solutions
MIXTURE 0.010M 0.0001M 0.040M
H2O 0.10M HCl (Flask A + Flask
KI Na2S2O3 KBrO3
B)
1 10 mL 10 mL 10 mL 10 mL 10 mL Dark blue
2 20 10 0 10 10 Rusty
3 10 20 0 5 15 Dark blue
4 15 5 0 20 10 Dark blue
5 10 10 0 10 20 Dark blue
Ionic reaction involved: 6I-(aq) + Bro3-(aq) + 6H+(aq) 3I2(aq) + Br-(aq) + 3H2O(l)

TABLE 3F.2: ORDER OF REACTION


TRIAL TIME (SEC) 1/TIME (SEC-) [I-] [BRO3-] [H+]
-3
1 112 8.93x10 3.33x10 M 2.00x10-2 M
-3
5.00x10-3 M
2 64 0.0156 6.67x10-3 M 2.00x10-2 M 5.00x10-3 M
-3
3 222 4.40x10 5.00x10-3 M 2.67x10-2 M 3.33x10-3 M
4 11 0.0909 5.00x10-3 M 1.33x10-2 M 6.67x10-3 M
5 18 0.0556 3.33x10-3 M 1.00x10-2 M 7.50x10-3 M

III. Discussions
A. Nature of Reactants

The first part of the experiment is about the factor of the chemical kinetics
regarding the nature of reactants. In this experiment, we were tasked to prepare
two test tubes A and H. Test tube A has a content 1/3 full of 3M of acetic acid
and another 1/3 full of 3M hydrochloric acid on the test tube H. Then, 0.3 grams
of iron filings were placed on each test tube. The iron reacted with the other
reactants, thus, producing a hydrogen gas. For the test tube A, iron (II) acetate was
formed plus hydrogen gas. In the test tube H iron (II) chloride plus hydrogen gas
was formed. The gases was tested in the lighter splinter but nothing happened,
probably, due to timeworn reagents, but theoretically the light in the splinter
should ignite brighter since the produced gas, hydrogen gas, is highly flammable.
Fe(s) + 2CH3COOH(aq) Fe (CH3COO)2(aq) + H2(g) (eq.1)
Fe(s) + 2HCl(aq) FeCl2(aq) + H2(g) (eq.2)
B. Effects of Concentration

The second part of the experiment is about the factor of chemical kinetics
regarding the concentration of the solutions. In this experiment, 5 test tubes were
prepared containing sodium hydroxide and water but with different concentration
on each test tube. The experiment was performed so that we can determine the
rates of the reaction of different concentrations of NaOH to aluminium foil. The
outcome of the experiment showed that the solutions with greater concentration
react faster compared to those solutions having lesser concentration. Based on the
collision theory, if the concentration of one of the reactant is doubled, it will
collide in each second twice as many times with the second reactant as before.
Because the rate of reaction depends on the number of effective collisions per
second, the rate is doubled. Thus, rate increases when the concentration of either
or both reactants is increased.
NaOH(s) + H2O (l) Na+ + OH- + H2O + HEAT (eq.3)
C. Effect of Temperature
Supposedly, bicarbonate and hydrogen ions are produced when Alka
Seltzer dissolves in water.

HCO3-(aq) + H+(aq) H2O(l) + CO2(g) (eq.4)


Increasing the temperature increases the rate of the reaction because at the
higher temperature, greater percentage of ions in the sample has energy greater
than the required activation energy for the reaction. The observed rate of inflation
of the balloons which is shown to be related to the temperature at which the
reaction takes place, is a measure of the rate of formation of carbon dioxide gas.
In the balloon placed on flask 1 with hot water, the air rises causing the balloon to
inflate almost instantly. The molecules of the air are heated up and are spreading
out, becoming less dense and lighter. As the air is heated, it expands taking up
more space all throughout. On the other hand, in the balloon placed on flask 2
with tap water, it was slightly inflated since the air molecules spreads evenly.
While in the balloon on flask 3 with cold water, there is no inflation because of
the cold temperature and the absence of heat.
D. Effect of Surface Area

For this part, two test tubes were prepared having 3M of Hydrochloric acid on
both test tubes that were labelled A and B. On test tube A, mossy zinc was
dropped while on test tube B, zinc powder was dropped. While observing the
reaction of the mossy zinc and the zinc powder, it was observed that zinc powder
reacts faster compared to the mossy zinc due to a wider surface area of the
powdered zinc than the mossy zinc. In that reason, the molecules of HCl could
make more contact to the zinc and react faster. Thus, the greater the exposed
surface area of the reactant, the greater the reaction rate.
Zn(s) + 2HCl (aq) ZnCl2 (aq) + H2 (g) (eq.5)
E. Presence of Catalyst

In this part of experiment, the presence of a catalyst was observed. Two


beakers were prepared by spurting some liquid detergent on it and were labelled X
and Y. After squirting the liquid detergent, hydrogen peroxide were placed on both
of the beakers. Then on the beaker X, manganese oxide was placed, then both of
the beakers were observed but after some time nothing happened because there is
the probability that the reagents were too timeworn and they did not react or the
possibility that the reagents are not pure. Theoretically, during the reaction there
should be foamy bubbles due to the excess oxygen gas that was caught by the
bubbles during the reaction. The main purpose of the manganese was to act as the
catalyst so that the reaction would react faster than that of the reaction having no
catalyst. The purpose of the catalyst is lower the activation energy of the reaction
thus speeding up the reaction and release of oxygen gas.
2H2O2 (aq) O2 (g) + 2H2O (l) (eq.6)
F. Order of Reaction
In this part, the order of reaction was studied. In this experiment, many
reagents were used so two flask were prepared namely, flask A and flask B. The
Flask A contains the following mixtures: KI, Na 2SO3 and H2O, however, with
different amount and concentration. The flask B contains KBrO3 and HCl. After it
was prepared, the contents of flask B was poured into flask A and observed. The
time and color of the solutions were recorded and the amount of heat it produced.
As the experiment was finally done, we found out that changing the concentration
of substances taking part in a reaction usually changes the rate of the reaction.
IV. Answers to Questions
A. Nature of Reactants
1. In which test tube is the metal reacting vigorously?
Test H , Fe filings and HCl
2. In the gas evolved flammable?
Yes
3. What is the chemical composition of the gas?
Hydrogen gas (H2)
4. What other product was produced in each test tube?

Iron (II) acetate - Fe(CH3COO)2 and Hydrogen gas - H2


Iron (II) Chloride - FeCl2 and Hydrogen gas - H2
5. Write the chemical equation describing the reaction of Fe with each of the
acids.

Fe (s) + 2CH3COOH (aq) Fe(CH3COO)2(aq) + H2(g)


Fe (s) + 2HCl (aq) FeCl2(aq) + H2(g)
B. Effects of Concentration
1. What is the relationship between concentration and time in Graph 1?
The lesser the concentration of the sodium hydroxide, the longer the time
for the reaction to occur.
2. What is the relationship between concentration and the rate of reaction (1/t)?
Is the answer the same as that of Question 1? Explain your answer.
No. The greater the concentration of the sodium hydroxide, the shorter the
time for the reaction to occur.
3. Based on the experiment, can you say that rate depends on the concentration,
or does the concentration depend on the rate?
The rate depends on the concentration, since rate increases when the
concentration of either or both reactants is increased and vice versa.
C. Effect of Temperature
Explain the differences in the rate at which the balloons were inflated
In the balloon placed on flask 1 with hot water, the air rises causing the
balloon to inflate almost instantly. The air molecules are heated up and are
spreading out, becoming less dense and lighter. As the air is heated, it
expands taking up more space all throughout. On the other hand, on flask
2 with tap water, the balloon was slightly inflated since the air molecules
spreads evenly. While on flask 3 with cold water, there was no inflation
because of the cold temperature and absence of heat.
D. Effect of Surface Area
1. Explain the difference in the results obtained.
The zinc powder reacts faster compared to the mossy zinc due to the wider
surface area of the powdered zinc than the mossy zinc. Because of that,
the molecules of the HCl could make more contact to the zinc and react
faster compared to the mossy zinc.
2. What is the contributing factor that made the difference in this activity?
Surface of area of the reactant
3. As an application of the concept, why is babys food usually osterized?
Babys food is usually osterized because powdered form occupies a wider
surface area making contact with liquid molecules and reacts faster and for
the baby to digest faster.

E. Presence of Catalyst
1. Define and give examples of the following
a. Catalyst
A substance that speeds up a chemical reaction while undergoing no
permanent change itself.
Example:
2SO2 (g) + O2 (g) 2SO3 (g) - Solid V2O5 is the catalyst for this reaction.
CH3CH2OH (g) + HCl (g) CH3CH2Cl + H2O (l) H2SO4 as the catalyst
b. Inhibitor
A catalyst that decreases the rate of reaction.
Example: preservatives and penicillin
c. Poison
It is to destroy or diminish the activity of a catalyst. One example is the
poisoning of palladium and platinum catalysts. Platinum was found to be
less susceptible. Common poisons for these two metals are sulfur and
nitrogen-heterocycles like pyridine and quinoline.
2. Should the concentration of the catalyst be part of the rate equation for a
catalyzed reaction?
No
3. Cite qualitative evidence for your answer based on the experiment conducted
When Manganese oxide is added, oxygen gas evolved faster.
F. Order of Reaction
1. Determine the order w/ respect to iodide ion, bromate ion, and hydrogen ion.
[I-]0= zeroth order; [BrO3-]0=zeroth order; [H]3=third order
2. What is the overall order of reaction?
Rate = k [I-]0 [BrO3-]0 [HCl]3 = 3rd order

V. Conclusion
After the experiment was conducted, we conclude that there are factors that affect
the speed and rates of the chemical reactions. These factors are the nature of the
reactants, concentration of reactants, temperature, surface area and presence of a
catalyst. The concentrations of reactants greatly affect the rates because two
substances cannot possibly react with each other unless their constituent particles
come into contact. If there is no contact, the reaction rate will be zero. Thus, the more
reactant particles that collide per unit time, the more often a reaction between them
can occur. The temperature affects the rate because increasing the temperature of a
system increases the average kinetic energy of its constituent particles. As the average
kinetic energy increases, the particles move faster and collide more frequently per
unit time and possess greater energy when they collide. The reaction rate of all
reactions also increases with increasing temperature. The surface area affects the rate
because the reactants are in two different phases and collisions between them can
occur only at interfaces between phases. The number of collisions between reactants
per unit time is substantially reduced, so is the reaction rate. The presence of the
catalyst affects the rate of reaction because catalyst is a substance that participates in
a chemical reaction and increases the reaction rate without undergoing a net chemical
change itself. Therefore, there are many factors that can affect the rate of the reaction.
VI. References
https://books.google.com.ph
Bartholomew, Calvin H. "Mechanisms of catalyst deactivation". Applied
Catalysis A: General 212 (1-2): 1760
Smooth,Robert,Chemistry ; A Modern Course, Merrill Publishing Co., Columbus,
OH, 1983
VII. Appendices
Calculations
K I BRO 3 H +

-
Concentration: [I ]= K I xM -
; [BRO3 ]= BRO 3 xM +
; [H ]= H + xM
V V V

1 [ A] 1 [B ] 1 [C ]
Initial rates: = = = = =
a T b T c T

INITIAL CONCENTRATIONS
TRIAL [I-] [BRO3-] [H+] INITIAL RATE
1 0.010Mx(0.01/0.05 0.040Mx(0.01/0.05) 0.010Mx(0.01/0.05
) = 8x10-3 M ) 6 (
1 2 x 103 M 0.010 M
112 s0 s )=1.19 x 10

= 2x10-3 M = 0.02 M
2 0.010Mx(0.02/0.05 0.040Mx(0.01/0.05) 0.010Mx(0.01/0.05
) = 8x10-3 M ) 6 (
1 4 x 103 M 0.010 M
64 s0 s )=1.56 x 10

= 4x10-3 M = 0.02 M
3 0.010Mx(0.01/0.05 0.040Mx(0.02/0.05) 0.010Mx(0.01/0.05
) =0.016 M ) 6 (
1 2 x 103 M 0.010 M
22 2 s0 s )=6.01 x 10

= 2x10-3 M =0.02 M
4 0.010Mx(0.01/0.05) 0.040Mx(0.01/0.05) 0.010Mx(0.02/0.05
= 2x10-3 M = 8x10-3 M ) 6 (
1 2 x 103 M 0.010 M
11 s0 s )=1.21 x 10

= 0.04 M
5 0.010Mx(0.01/0.05 0.040Mx(0.005/0.05) 0.010Mx(0.15/0.05
) = 2x10-3 M = 4x10-3 M ) 6 (
1 2 x 103 M 0.010 M
18 s0 s )=7.41 x 10

= 0.03 M

Establishing Rate Law and Order of Reaction


6I-(aq) + Bro3-(aq) + 6H+(aq) 3I2(aq) + Br-(aq) + 3H2O(l)
Rate = k [I-]x [BrO3-]y [H+]z
Rate = k [I-]0 [BrO3-]0 [H+]3
Rate 1 k [ 2 x 103 M ]x [ 8 x 103 M ] y [0.02 M ]z
=
Rate 2 k [ 4 x 103 M ] x [ 8 x 103 M ] y [0.02 M ]z

1.19 x 105 M /s [2 x 103 M ]x


1.56 x 105 M / s = [4 x 103 M ]x

0.763 = 0.5x
x=0
Rate 1 k [2 x 103 M ]x [8 x 103 M ] y [0.02 M ]z
= x y z
Rate 3 k 3
[2 x 10 M ] [0.016 M] [0.02 M ]

5 3 y
1.19 x 10 M /s [ 8 x 10 M ]
6.01 x 106 M /s = [0.016 M]
y

1.98 = 0.5y
y=0
3 x 3 y z
Rate 1 k [2 x 10 M ] [8 x 10 M ] [ 0.02 M ]
= x y z
Rate 4 k 3
[2 x 10 M ]
3
[8 x 10 M ] [ 0.04 M ]

1.19 x 105 M /s [0.02 M ] z


4
1.21 x 10 M / s = [0.04 M ]z

0.0983 = 0.5z
z= 3