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and the




"what is writ is writ;

Would it were worthier."

London :
66, Brook Street, Hanover Square, W.

jsboa 4r
London :
F. Shoberl, Printer, 37, Dean Street, Sobo, W.
Advertisement .

T may be proper to tell the English reader

that " Elpis Melena " is the nam de
plume of a lady whose works have at
tained considerable popularity in Germany,
and, by translation, also in France.
Without referring to any of the Reviews of the former
country, it may be stated that in a number of the celebrated
" Revue des Deux Mondes," published last summer, there is an
article entitled, " Elpis Meletta et ses Ouvrages," and the
praise awarded to her renders it needless to say another word
in her favour.
Born in England, of German parentage, and having both in
childhood and later years resided much in Germany and Italy,
she has acquired many of the continental languages to a per
fection not often attained, and is thus peculiarly fitted for
travel ; and her powers of observation and facility in recording
what she observes, complete the requisites for a writer of

Her published works consist of the following, all written in

the German language, to the study and writing of which she
has devoted her chief attention : " Blatter aus dem Africanis-
chen Reise-Tage-Buch einer Dame," " Memoiren eines
Spanisches Piastres," " 101 Tag auf meine Pferde, und ein
Ausflug nach Caprera," " Garibaldi's Denkwiirdigkeiten,"
" Ein Blick auf Calabria und die Liparischen Inseln."
The first of these was published in English some years ago.
The second is a species of novel ; the supposed adventures of
a dollar in its transit from one possessor to another. It has
not been translated. The third was published in London
about a year ago, under another title not so well suited to it,
and this was the chief cause of a certain degree of disappoint
ment, the new title promising more than the work performed.
The fourth would undoubtedly have been very popular here,
but as the whole of the first volume was Garibaldi's autobio
graphy, which had already appeared in a translation of Dumas'
version of it, it was not thought advisable to publish it,
although the second volume contained matter of great interest
to all who are admirers of its hero.
The fifth is the present work, and with the foregoing
explanation, it is now left to the judgment of the English
public, by
The Translator.

chapter I.
Emancipated Naples Guapos and Camorristi
MercadanteA Military JourneyThe two Armies on
the Volturno, First of OctoberSomething about Ga
ribaldiReturn from MaddaloniThe revenge of the
Enamoured OystersDeparture for Messina . . r

A pleasant awakening on the Calabrian coastGioso-
fatto TalaricoPaolaSan Francisco di PaolaChange
in our plansTumultuous landing at PizzoThe fallen
citadel The last days of Murat Francisco Bilotta . 44

Departure from PizzoHurricane, and unhoped-for
landingDifficulty of getting away from BriaticoThe
" Casica," and the bloody-minded Peppo in the narrow
passEventful ride to TropeaThe Cavaliere Tranfo
The " Santa Maria Salva in Porto "Tropea, its site
and environs, and its musical youth .... 82

Departure from TropeaThe knightly Calabrian
Our crew, and their frugal sea dietThe siestaSea
calm and sea splendourThe CetaceaeThe enchanted
island Night arrival, and inhospitable reception at
Stromboli 117

Stromboli ........ 140

Voyage from Stromboli to PanariaThe islands on
the way, and the " Isola delle Saline." . . . .166

From Amalfa to LipariHousehold arrangements at
LipariDon SalvatoreLipariThe " Cassa " of San
BartolomeoThe murder of the SyndicCosta's read
ingTrip to Sant' AnnunziatoDonna Carmela . . 189

VulcanoAscent to the craterSulphur manufacture
Eruptions of various timesDeparture for Milazzo
StormLandingMadre Brigitta .... 228

Garibaldi in Caserta ...... 259

Appendix No. I. . . . . . . .271

Appendix No. II. ...... . 279

and the


Emancipated NaplesGuapos and CamorristiMer-
cadantea Military JourneyThe two Armies on
the Volturno, October i Something about Garibaldi
Return from Maddaloni The revenge of the
Enamoured Oysters Departure for Messina.

VE Parthenope ! matchless
virgin-city, blushing under
the entrancement of thy
newly - acquired freedom,
scarcely daring to raise thy
neck so lately released from the blood
stained yoke of Bourbon tyranny ! Hail,
thou redeemed, for soon shall the last of
thy wounds be healed! Awake with joy
b to

to a holy consciousness, and be ready to

assert the sacred rights which a God-sent
hero has won for you ! Not with clashing
arms, or amid the thunder of artillery, did
he land on thy shore : to seal thy freedom
no blood of thy sons has flowed : for thou
hast pined through weary years and many
for the hour of deliverance, and like a
bashful bride, trembling with shame and
delight, but receiving her beloved with
silent pleasure, thou stretchest forth thy
hand to thy long-expected deliverer, and
offerest him the first kiss of love in quiet
rapture !
Such was the thought that crossed my
mind, as, on a fine Sabbath evening in
September, i860, the Blidah glided over
the unruffled waters of the beautiful bay,
and cautiously threaded her way among
the flag - bedizened Anglo-French fleet,
and numerous other vessels, into the har
bour of Naples.

What a novel charm was added to that

charming scene ! Naplesreleased from
the Austro-Bourbonic yoke, bedecked with
the tricolor of Savoy, and entrusted to the
protection of the scarlet blouses of the Ga-
ribaldian legionseemed doubly, trebly
beautiful under these attributes of free
dom 1
Was there a heart that had not leapt
with joy? Was there an eye that had not
moistened at the thought that this miracle
had been wrought by the power of one
man? a man before whose moral great
ness armies had fallen back, and whose
sole impulse had brought mightier things
to pass, than all the tricks and intrigues of
modern politics !
A boat took me and my friend to the
shore, where we were soon surrounded
by custom-house officials of all ranks.
" Abride, abride," said one of them, point
ing to my luggage. " Non, Signore mo non
b2 c'e

c'e chiu dogana, u re ci ha dado la cosdi-

duzione," chimed in a second. " No, mo
abbiamo u Garibaldi, u Didadore, ma per
la forma bisogna abrire," said a third, stop
ping the facchino on which my trunk had
been placed, while a fourth muttered some
thing about "poca paga, povero padre di
famiglia ;" and thus, after a cursory examin
ation and the payment of the usual tribute,
we left the Dogana with the conviction
that its officers had not the clearest idea in
the world of the present state of their po
litical acquirements.
At a shameful price I procured two
neat rooms at the Hotel de Rome. The
discontinuance of the " restauration " at
this hotel is a great loss to the traveller,
because the spacious and handsome loggia
which was appropriated to that branch of
the business is now closed, except to those
whose apartments open into it. It affords
by far the finest view over the bay, and I

was enjoying the prospect from it, when

my friend, Captain D, awoke me from
my ecstacies, that we might avail ourselves
of what daylight was left us, to go forth
and make inquiry whether there was any
possibility of an interview with the Dicta
tor the following day.
The reader will pardon me if I do not
linger long over the description of Naples
as it appeared upon that 30th of Septem
ber. She was like an invalide who, after
a long and suffering illness, has just passed
the decisive crisis: and would a beauty,
even when clad in the most coquettish dis
habille, like to have her portrait painted as
a convalescent ?
Naples is, if it please God, saved, and
will no doubt attain to perfect health : but
she still trembles in every limb, for without
crisis, no cure ; without transition, no me
The Lago de San Fernando, by far the

most animated point of modern Naples,

presented that evening a particularly re
markable appearance, for, instead of the
mixture of colours characterising a Neapo
litan crowd, there was a vast predominance
of scarlet clothing : red blouses, redjackets,
red coats, and the chief variety perceptible
was in the form of the hats, the cut of the
cape, and the colour of the " fajas." The
half-naked Lazzaroni, the tattered coach
men, the athletic Guapos and the awe-in
spiring Camorristi, however, afforded the
eye a not unwelcome relief to the glare of
the colour of freedom.
It was the first time of my hearing of
Guapos and Camorristi, and, as this may
also be the reader's case, I will relate the
little I could learn about them.
The word " Guapo," which in Spanish
means courageous, brave, enterprising, has
changed its signification since being en
grafted on the Neapolitan dialect, and

is applied to those who, though they may

act with apparent bravery, are at bottom
arch cowards.
The Guapo is an evidence of the tran
sition state of government. Everything
that is abnormal suits his wild course. The
wave of disquiet throws him to the surface
of the fermenting mob, where he ever finds
some part ready for him to perform. His
costume consists of a gray jacket, loose
trowsers, and a large, broad-brimmed hat.
Uncommon height and a broad-shouldered
figure are prime qualifications for a " vero
Guapismo," that, with swaggering step,
he may o'ertop the multitude, and with
powerful flourish he may swing his never-
failing, lance-like stick through the air.
The Camorrista, on the other hand, is
a person of higher standing, and belongs,
as I have heard from good authority, to a
sect of rather ancient origin. He is dis
tinguished by no peculiarity of dress, but

he lays claim to certain rights which give

him consequence in the eyes of the com
mon people. In every business and in
every amusement where a Camorrista en
ters, he can claim a share, which is never
refused him.
The popularity of the Bourbon kings
among the Lazzaroni has often been
spoken of, and Ferdinand as well as
Francis II. have threatened that, as a last
resource, they would call out the Lazza
roni, and deliver the city into their hands
to plunder and to pillage. Without some
special organization this would not now
be possible, and it appears the government
had in its employ certain persons who, per
fas per nefas, have acquired great influence
over the Lazzaroni, but whose services
naturally cannot be reckoned upon with
out continual pay and a watchful eye
besides. In the hands of a tyrannical
government this was a dangerous weapon,

and one which could not be suddenly laid

aside. The Roman government, there
fore, acted wisely, after the proclamation
of the new constitution, in not immedi
ately abolishing the "Camorra," but by
continuing their pay, and forming them
into a kind of police, they made them of
great use during that difficult crisis. The
discipline of such a band, however, could
never be relied upon, and, under the Dic
tatorship, they began to indulge in the most
ridiculous excesses. It went so far, that a
dozen Camorristi, going a few hundred
steps beyond the confines of the octroi,
compelled the payment of the duty to
themselves, even under the very eyes of the
powerless officials! Farini's government
put a stop to this, and from that time it
may be said that the order, for so we may
call it, ceased to exist.
The Cafe de l'Europe, where usually
none but beaux and elegant ladies assem

ble, glowed this evening like a fiery fur

nace, being filled with red-coated volun
teers, whose smoking, drinking, and joking,
of course were a bar to our entering it.
In the Toledo, the carrozelle seemed to be
increased a hundredfold, and the misery
of their unhappy horses to have reached,
if possible, a higher than the usual pitch.
Neither private equipages nor well-dressed
ladies were to be seen. Still it must be
said to the honour of the Camorristi, that
no disorder or excess took place, and one
could make one's way through the moving
crowd without danger. One felt that it
was the unrestrained breathing of an
emancipated but harmless, child-like, joy
ous people, whose innate goodness with
held them from every excess.
Scarcely had we returned to our hotel,
when my old friend, von B, was an
nounced. His visit was doubly agreeable,
since, being consul of a great nation, I

considered him qualified to give me much

information on the subject of Neapolitan
affairs. He assured me that it was confi
dently reported that Capua must yield, or
be taken next morning; but that, in his
opinion, the first was not probable, and
the last not possible, so long as Garibaldi
was unprovided with more powerful artil
lery. He advised me, if I wished to see
the Dictator, to go early in the morning
to Maddaloni, his head quarters, and there
wait my opportunity patiently. I there
fore begged Captain D to call for me
the next day as soon as it was light and
take me by railway to Maddaloni, which
lies on the way to Capua.
In the execution of this plan, we
speedily discovered that we were in the
midst of war! and the very next day I
was reminded of this in no very agreeable
manner. We had not yet reached the
station, when the bustle and crowding of

volunteers from all sides increased so

greatly that our carrozella was com
pletely hemmed in by them.
How sad it was to think that perhaps
the majority of these ardent, fresh, and
youthful forms were hastening to death,
their healthy and smiling countenances
defaced with wounds !that perhaps even
their minutes were numbered, and that in
a short time they would fall a sacrifice to
their noble-hearted enthusiasm, or that the
weapons they now brandished so actively
would inflict a similar fate on their unfor
tunate brethren !
When my companion, who had left me
for the purpose of ascertaining more accu
rately the time of the train's departure,
returned only to tell me that the railway
was to be exclusively devoted to the trans
port of troops, nothing remained for us
but to hire a carriage to take us to Madda-
loni, and this was more easy to determine


than to execute, for it was not every horse-

keeper who would risk his cattle in such
times, and those who might be tempted
by a high offer would perhaps afterwards
leave us half way there.
At last, after much running about, and
many entreaties, much scolding and many
promises, we succeeded in engaging a suit
able vehicle with a pair of horses, and un
certain whether we should ever reach our
goal, and when and where we should take
our next rest, we commenced the long
journey we had before us.
Those who know Naples but in peace
ful times, would hardly be able to con
ceive the spectacle which the Toledo pre
sented that morning. We drove through
a perfect wood of tricolor, hanging from
every window of every house. Placards
and announcements were to be read on
every wall, and excited a variety of feel
ings, for, while on one side might be seen

the latest dictatorial decreesuch as the

appointment of Dumas as director of the
Bourbon Museumon the opposite side,
Bertini's dismissal, and his consequent de
parture on the morrow, offered a bright
prospect of a turn in the Dictator's policy,
from which one might be warranted in
hoping that it would perhaps become
favourable to Victor Emanuel and his
ambassador Pallavicini.
In these days also the people were in
the enjoyment of an ephemeral freedom
from Customs' duties, so that salt and
other highly-taxed articles were selling at
ridiculously low prices from wheelbarrows
in the streets.
These wheelbarrows reminded me of
the ingenuity of the Hamburghese, who,
during the French occupation of the city,
when Napoleon wished to decrease the
consumption of colonial goods by the im
position of a heavy duty, conceived the

idea of selling sugar in the streets under

the name of sand ; a piece of craft which
would perhaps have paid them well, had
not the equally knowing flies got scent of
it, and betrayed the secret by alighting in
swarms upon the barrows.
Still more ingenious were those French
woodmen, who, in spite of Napoleon's
anathema against the use of coffee, were
daringly roasting a quantity of the berries
in sight of his hut in the forest, and were
caught by the Emperor in the act. " Are
you not aware," he demanded, " that the
use of coffee is forbidden ?" " Yes, sire,"
said one of the men, who recognized him,
" and therefore we are burning all we
The reader will excuse these two little
digressions, in consideration of the unrea
sonable time during which our carriage was
hemmed in with the press of this unusual
concourse of people and vehicles. As it

at length began to move, my companion

mentioned to me that he had promised
the Signora Mercadante, who had resided
in Genoa since the political disturbances,
to pay her husband a visit, and deliver
some letters to him personally.
The acquaintance of a man of talent is
always worth making, and being free from
the trammels of the despotic railway, I
gladly accompanied my friend in his visit
to the celebrated scholar of Zingarelli.
Mercadante has distinguished himself
above all Italian composers by combining
with Southern melody the depth and
learning of the North, an advantage shown
clearly through all his works, and which
is likely to preserve them from that tran-
sitoriness to which so many modern com
positions are subject.
A fine Erard, a harp, a violin, and other
instruments, which lay about the spacious
saloon shaded by Venetian blinds, showed

that we had entered the dwelling of a de

votee of the muse, and its renowned owner
soon made his appearance and welcomed
us with much kindness. The occupation
of the artist is known to be no elixir vitce,
and we found the Chevalier Mercadante,
though not more than sixty, a feeble and
bent old man! His son, with whom I
made acquaintance at the same time,
seemed to think more of business than of
his father's fame. This, however, is of
such frequent occurrence that our wonder
is more apt to be excited when it is not
the case, than when it is.
After a short visit, we hurried back to
our carrozzella, and soon had passed thro'
the Strada Fosco and the suburb San Gio
vanni, and reached the steep and rock-
hewn road that leads to Capo di Chino.
Here, usually, the bustle of Naples begins
to die away, but now it swarmed with
passengers on foot, on horseback, and in
c carriages,

carriages, all hurrying along full of care

and earnestness, and it was not till we had
passed Capo di Chino that there was a
slight lull. It was a short cessation, how
ever, for the nearer we approached Casoria
the greater became the throng, the more
numerous the troops and their waggons,
and the more frequently the coachman
pulled up to exchange a passing greeting
with one or other of the drivers.
It was by this means I heard from one
who appeared to be a volunteer officer,
that there was very little chance of our
seeing Garibaldi, the battle having com
menced at break of day along the whole
line before Capua, and assumed a more
earnest character than ever, and that the
general himself was " al piu vivo del
This news, which at another time would
have annoyed me, now produced an oppo
site effect, as it seemed to evince that a

special providence was watching over him,

and that for the God-sent hero no bullet
is cast, a truth never more plainly mani
fested than on that 1st of October, when
the Royalists left no stratagem untried to
accomplish his death.
We therefore continued our journey
with fainting hearts, trembling lest we
should be hurrying to the scene of some
terrible catastrophe, though borne up by
the hope of hearing of a victory, or at
least of being of assistance to some poor
wounded wretch; in short by all the in
tense interests which such a time can alone
In Caivano the National Guard endea
voured to regain order and march against
the people, but every moment added to
the confusion. A train of all imaginable
sorts of carts, in which were the sound and
the wounded and the dying, met us. Those
faces which were not distorted by physical
c 2 suffering,

suffering, bore the unmistakable traces of

anxiety of mind, which the scenes they
had gone through inspired. Along the
raised pathway which bordered the road,
stood a row of gaping and wondering
boors, workpeople, and farmers, whose
interest in the sight before them seemed
to be bounded by the instinct of fear or
curiosity, which drew them into a com
pact mass, only to be dispersed when an
ammunition waggon, or train of mules, or
a frightened horse, drove in amongst them.
Flocks of fluttered birds passed over our
heads ; the thunder of cannon grew louder
and louder ; the crack of musketry became
every moment more audible; clouds of
powder-smoke filled the air and darkened
the autumn sky ; nearer and nearer rolled
the thick billow of war, against whose
breakers we could now scarcely make
head. But a small distance divided us from
Maddaloni, and yet our coachman hesi

tated to proceed, while from every mouth

issued an anxious exclamation " sono tutti
in revolto."
Although in the sequel it turned out
that these cries were only the effect of a
moment of panic, still it is not to be denied
that in that moment the fate of Naples and
of the patriot army really hung upon a
single hair, and very little was wanting to
the return of the troops of Francis II.,
even though animated more by the pros
pect of plunder than by enthusiasm, to
the metropolis.
Garibaldi's force had been so little in
creased in proportion to that of his enemy
that any other general would have thought
it impossible to do anything ; but this did
not daunt him! The Royalists, on their
side, had also erected some very strong
defences on the right bank of the Vol-
turno, and they occupied at the same time
Capua, which lies on the other shore, and

thus were complete masters of the river.

The right bank was protected by masked
batteries, and numerous trenches and bar
ricades. The whole of the ground in the
neighbourhood was one entire ambuscade,
and, concealed in trenches, lay 2,000 re
gular troops, animated by the prospect of
promised plunder.
The basis of Garibaldi's operations was
at Maddaloni. His left wing stretched
from Santa Maria to Aversa, protected by
the canal, which was watched by General
Corte and the volunteers of the Basilicata.
The strongly-fortified Santa Maria was
occupied by General Milbitz, the Sicilian
brigade La Masa, the five regiments Ma-
lenchini and Zucchieri, and the Genoese
Carabinieri Balbi. The head quarters were
at Caserta. The right wing was drawn
up under the shadow of the hills from
Dentice to San Salvatore. Monte San An-
gelo, which commands the Volturno, and

might be called the key of the defences,

was made equally serviceable for attack
and for defence, by means of three bat
teries on different heights, manned by the
Genoese artillery, the corps of General
Ferrara, and that of Spangaro.
It was to this point that Garibaldi had
directed his particular attention, and he
had visited it constantly during the pre
ceding day, to direct the placing of the
guns, and see that they were in the best
condition. The Royalists now saw them
selves in a doubtful position, knowing that
in their rear Cialdini was approaching,
that Lamoriciere's army was annihilated,
and that, while Naples remained defence
less, a decisive battle was imminent.
Fifteen thousand men, five thousand of
them being cavalry, under the command
of General Palmieri, had marched out of
the gates of Capua that morning at six
o'clock, accompanied by five batteries of

artillery. General Ritucci had the com

mand of this great force, with Generals
Afan di Rivera, Barbalonga, and Von
Meckel, under him. One body of 5,000
men marched direct to Maddaloni, in
order to fall upon the Garibaldians in the
rear, and cut off their retreat. The troops
of Francis II. were subdivided into two
corps. The first was to avail itself of the
railway to attack Garibaldi's position by
the " Archi de Santa Maria " in front, in
order to occupy his attention ; and the
second, retreating in a parallel line on the
" Via Consolare," was to endeavour to
skirt the right wing of his troops secretly,
and then, assisted by the reactionary pea
sants from San Prisco and the neighbour
ing villages, to surprise him in the rear,
near Santa Maria. Another 1,000 men,
approaching from La Piana, had orders to
cross the Volturno below Cajazzo, and
march upon San Brucio.

But all these manoeuvres had already

been foreseen by Garibaldi, and it is re
markable that the Royalists were not
better informed of his movements, for he
had caused ditches to be dug, and raised
barricades and places of observation, across
the very fields which they were hoping to
pass over unmolested.
Soon after six, a lively fire of musketry
commenced, which was soon followed by
the roar of artillery. In great hurry every
one rushed to the defence. The Royalists,
driving the Garibaldians before them,
passed the railway, and at eight o'clock
stood in the streets of Santa Maria.
While General Ritucci was conducting
this movement, Garibaldi, in the centre of
the battle, was executing a precisely simi
lar one. He caused the regiment of Ma-
lenchini, on his left, to march from San
Tammaro, with orders to skirt round
Santa Maria, and form in the fields which


the Royalists were intending to cross, by

which means they would find themselves
hemmed in between two Garibaldian co
lumns, and between the high road and the
railway, and thus surrounded on all sides.
By this stratagem, the Seventh Battalion
of the Royal Cacciatori was reduced to 3 5
men, and General Perelli, and an Adju
tant-Major, were captured.
This brilliant manoeuvre and the details
which follow, were communicated to me
by an eye witness. Ingenious as it was,
however, it by no means secured the suc
cess of the day. Capua was full of troops,
and could replace those which were lost
ten times over. The hope of being able
to reach Naples that evening and plunder
the city, incited the Bourbon soldiers to
extraordinary exertions, and a report had
been spread that the Austrian army was
in the neighbourhood, and that the days
of the Revolution were numbered ! In

short, they now fought like men who were

secure of victory.
Thrice was Garibaldi dislodged from
his position, and thrice did he regain it at
the point of the bayonet. The shot
mowed down the troops awfully; not
unfrequently did the combatants put the
wounded out of their misery, and often
was a combat, begun with the musket,
ended with the pistol or the dagger !
From six in the morning, till one in the
afternoon, the fight continued without in
termission, and under an almost tropical
heat. On Garibaldi's side ammunition
frequently ran short, and the stock of wine
and bread was fast decreasing. Still, no
one thought of uttering a complaint, but
every man did his duty with heroic enthu
siasm. Imminent was the danger, and
the fortune of the field fluctuated for
hours in the most doubtful manner. It
was only about mid-day, when a rein

forcement of artillery and a fresh battalion

of the Garibaldians, and some Piedmont-
ese Bersaglieri, arrived, that it seemed to
preponderate to one side. Nino Bixio
succeeded, after several temporary re
verses, finally to drive from their position
that part of the enemy's troops which was
stationed behind the hill of Maddaloni.
The column of Assanti hastened the pro
jected passage of the Volturno at San
Leucio, and General Corte, with the Lu-
canians and Calabrese, resisted bravely
their assailants at Santa Maria, who would
otherwise have soon made their way
through San Tammaro, which position
was but ill protected. Garibaldi was
everywhere, and it seemed as if he had the
power of dividing himself, so often was
he seen in every part of the battle. He
held a reserve of 2,000 men on his left, in
readiness to lay hold of any opportunity
that chance might give him to enter

Capua, but none such occurred. If this

memorable ist of October did not end in
so brilliant a coup de main as that would
have been, its result was still of very
great importance, and the Battle of the
Volturno must be reckoned amongst
Garibaldi's eminent successes, when we
bear in mind that with so very inferior a
force he maintained his position, and pro
tected Naples from the intrusion of the
Royalists !
As we approached Maddaloni, the for
tune of war was just beginning to smile
upon the King's powers, and Garibaldi's
situation was at its most critical point.
Just on that very afternoon, the general
doubt and panic were at their height, and
even the dead and the wounded were for
gotten. Not only the hospitals of Santa
Maria and Maddaloni, but many private
houses, were full to overflowing with suf
ferers. The railway was no longer suffi

cient for their transport, for every mo

ment added to their number, and, bathed
in the blood of their unstaunched wounds,
their clothing torn, their limbs exposed,
groaning and expiring, they lay every
where around uswere I to attempt to
describe all the scenes I saw that day, I
should recoil from the recollection, and
relinquish my pen with horror!
To persist at this moment in our on
ward journey, would only have been to
run the risk of falling into the hands of
the Royalists, and mad as they were with
success, that risk would not have been a
small one ; we, therefore, had no alterna
tive but to retrace our steps, which would
moreover give us an opportunity of turn
ing our caleche into a kind of ambulance,
and of conveying at least a few of the
poor creatures before us to Naples. We
soon effected the necessary alterations in
the carriage. We took two soldiers in the

inside with us, and how many found

places outside I scarcely know; but
doubtless our horses were fully conscious
of the additional weight !
We had hardly begun our retreat, when
it occurred to me to make use of some
choice fruitso choice that every apple,
and pear, and fig, was individually encased
in silver paper, and the whole carefully
packed in a large hamper and addressed
to Garibaldiby dividing it among our
suffering companions. On the hamper I
found some verses, written in the Nizza
dialect, intended to acquaint him with the
grief of his fellow-townsmen at their an
nexation to France. As I could not now
convey this present to the " envencible
Sourdat" for whom it was intended, it
delighted me that I could thus apply it
to moistening the parched lips of his
wounded comrades!
Many, perhaps, will smile at this naive

idea of sending fruit to Naples, but as this

" ligna ferre in silvam " had some mean
ing, and as that meaning related to the
great leader, I will not apologize for ex
plaining it.
When, in September, 1859, I visited
Garibaldi at Ravenna, I took him some
trifles which I thought would please him,
and amongst them a green, red, and white
velvet cap. " See," said he to his daugh
ter, placing the cap on his head with evi
dent delight, " what a beautiful piece of
work the signora has wrought for me with-
her own hands. I wish she had thought
of bringing me a basket of fruit from my
native town, and especially some Ber-
nissons !
His longing for the fruit of his revered
birthplace I did not forget, and when, the
following September, I told it to one of

* A kind of fig, growing to great perfection round



his friends there, and said how happy I

should be to gratify it, he at once pro
cured me the best that money could ob
tain and packed it as I have described;
and, charged with this valuable basket, I
left Nice, and hoped to deliver it safely
to the General. Although I now could
not do this, I preserved for him the verses,
and some weeks later I had an opportu
nity of delivering them to him. He read
them over and over again with almost
childlike pleasure; but soon they awoke
in his sensitive heart a grief for the grief
of his townsmen. His brow darkened,
and he said to me with an air of bitter
ness, " I could notwere the penalty to
be hacked to piecesI never could for
give Cavour for having sold my native
land ! "
I have no doubt he would have said
more on the subject, but our conversation
was interrupted by the entrance of several
d petitioners,

petitioners; and, returning afterwards to

his love of fruit, he related to me that
during the expedition in Sicily, he had
taken advantage of a few leisure days to
run over to Caprera, with no other object
than to regale himself with some of his
own water-melons!
* * * * *

The last " bernisson " had been con

sumed by my companions, and we had
now gone over no small portion of ground.
The two men whom we had taken inside,
were both from Lombardy. They had
been in the hottest of the fight, and the
Royalists had taken away the mules from
their ammunition waggon. What they
told us was not at all encouraging. One
of them, a handsome youth of scarcely
more than fifteen, of gentlemanly appear
ance and good manners, particularly en
gaged my sympathy. His voice was very
melodious, a common thing among the

Lombardians, and his conversation was

that of an intelligent and well educated
person. He was suffering not only from
his wound, but also from fever. It pained
me so much to commit such a lad to a
common hospital, that I proposed taking
him to an hotel ; but of this he would not
hear ! Full of the love of glory, he had,
notwithstanding his tender age, distin
guished himself greatly in the affair at
Melazzo, and all he now desired was to
be placed under the care of his regimental
surgeon, and get back to his duty as soon
as possible.
The nearer we approached to Naples,
the number of empty waggons we met
became greater, all of them hastening to
Maddaloni to fetch the wounded. When
we reached Capo di Chino, we found the
high road beset with four ranks of all
kinds of vehicles. In each of them sat a
red-bloused Garibaldian, who either acted
d 2 as


as coachman himself, or goaded on the

real driver to extra speed. " What must
the poor, over-driven horses think of the
1 Unita Italiana ? '" I sighed out with
pity. Here, one saw a poor, half-ex
hausted beast labouring up the hill, as if
devoting his last breath to the work.
Here, another, quite done up, and falling
exhausted to the ground. A little fur
ther, I observed two living skeletons of
animals, looking as if they had long been
half starved, and, in spite of the whip,
going rather backwards than forwards, till
at length both horses and cart rolled into
a ditch; while near them were two miser
able mules, standing obstinately still, and
only answering the whip with kicks ! I
could only hope that when the Italian
unity was accomplished, something like
humane feelings might arise for the dumb
creationthat the voice of the animals'
friend might at length reach this country,

and redeem it from the stain of cruelty

which now disgraces it.
In Naples itself, scarcely a carrozzella
was to be seen, but the concourse of pe
destrians was by so much the more in
creased. Curiosity, fear, or excitement,
were displayed in every face. As soon as
we had disposed of our wounded, we be
took ourselves to the Hotel de Rome,
where our first demand was for refresh
ments. Being met, as is too frequently
the case in these large hotels, with the an
swer that it could not be ready for an
hour or more, we resolved, " a la guerre
comme a la guerre," upon seeking the
nearest restaurant, which proved to be the
" Corona di Ferro," in the Toledo.
At the door of the narrow entrance,
certainly built in ante - crinoline times,
stood an " Ostricajo," who clamorously
offered us his ware. Not to lose time,
we ordered him to open a dozen or two

of his oysters, and after that we finished

our flying meal with a beef-steak at the
restaurant, and a draught of iced beer,
which served to refresh me more than all
the rest. We then walked to another
part of the city, to visit a friend, but
scarcely had I had time to indulge his
curiosity about Garibaldi and the siege of
Capua, when I was seized with pains so
intense, that I was obliged immediately to
take my leave and return to the hotel.
It was now evening, and Captain D
advised me to go to bed at once in order
to be prepared for the fatigues of the fol
lowing day, whatever they might be.
Hoping myself that this plan might be
effectual, 1 took his advice and went to my
room; but here my illness increased, and
I thought medical aid imperative. I rang
my bell; but in vain! I went into the
corridor, and my pallid countenance had
such an effect on an approaching waiter,

that he promised to fetch a physician im

mediately. Vain idea ! on such an even
ing as that, when the town was the scene
of one universal hurly-burly, and of con
fusion only to be equalled in Pandemo
nium, to look for a doctor, or expect him
to come, if you found one!
An unexampled bustle seemed to per
vade the entire city. At every window
lights appeared, and herds of excited
people raved and shouted along the streets,
with flags, and torches, and music, and
drums ! Was it news of the capture of
Capua ? or what could it be ?
" For Heaven's sake ! " I exclaimed, as
my friend von B entered my room, an
unexpected visitor, "what has happened?"
" Nothing whatever," he replied. " We
have something like this every evening,
but in consequence of the bloody battle
on the Volturno it is rather worse than
usual to-night."


While we were thus conversing, entered

the waiter with his report of the impossi
bility of finding a doctor, as all were ac
tively engaged at the hospitals. My friend,
however, hurried out, and not long after
wards came back with some medicine, and
a promise from Dr. R that he would
contrive to see me the first thing in the
I got through that night alive, but for
the most part in intense pain ; but whether
it was the medicine or my good constitu
tion, the pain subsided towards the dawn,
and out of a kind of stupor I was awoke
by the entrance of Dr. R.
"You have got through a sharp attack,"
said he, after hearing my story, "and, of
course, you owe it all to the oysters ! At
this season of the year no one should eat
oysters, for ' ora vanno in amore' ! "they
are now in love.
The thought of dying of an enamoured

oyster who had found an untimely grave

in me, when all his thoughts were bent on
love and happiness, made me shout with
laughter! It was not, however, that I
now heard this piece of Italian naivete for
the first time, for my own Padrona di
Casa, in Rome, had often said to me of
her turtle, or her potatoes, or beans, or
chesnuts, " ora vanno in amore ! "
It is to warn my readers against running
the risk of the revenge of an amorous
oyster, that I have told this tale of my ill
ness, and my doctor's dictum ; and now I
will only add, that whoever eats oysters at
Naples, should drink some strong Mar
sala with them, and not water or beer or
light wine, as neither of these will agree
with them.
Captain D now came in, to tell
me that if I did not avail myself of
the " Pompei," which would sail to
morrow for Messina, we might have

some time to wait for the next

Garibaldi, the only person I wished to
see, was, under present circumstances, not
approachable. A delay at Naples was
not desirable, and as Dr. R told me
that a sea voyage would do me good
rather than harm, if I had the courage to
undertake it, I desired the Captain to se
cure our berths accordingly. It required,
however, all my power of will and energy
to get ready and to be on board the vessel
next morning. But there I was, and in
good time, for three hours afterwards
elapsed before everyone was on board.
At last we set sail, and a strong Sirocco
sent me below at once. The old ship
(formerly the "Maria Christina") with a
new name, had no new engine, and she
pitched and rolled as badly as ever, and
gave her living freight a miserable night !
Oppressed by a moral and physical vis

inertice, I lay me down on one of the sa

loon couches. The last thing my wink
ing eyes saw, was my friend, upon whom
nothing ever had any effect, and the
master of the packet, sitting down to their
evening repast. The last thing my closing
ears heard, was the rattling of their plates,
mingled with the groans of the sea-sick,
and the heartrending " Santissima Ma
donna, mi muojo, mi muojo ! " of a newly
married Italian girl, whose husband, just
as I was dropping off to sleep, came to my
sofa, with face as pale as death, and an
anxious inquiry of " Dica, signora, dica c'e
pericolo ? Andiamo a fondo ?" and brought
me back to sad realities again.

A pleasant awakening on the Calabrian coast Gioso-
fatto TalaricoPaolaSan Francisco di Paola
Change in our plansTumultuous landing at Pizzo
The fallen citadelLast days of MuratFrancisco

OW much more agreeable was

the appearance of every
thing, when I went on deck
next morning early! It is
true the Sirocco was still
blowing, and the sea not the calmest pos
sible, but the clouds were broken, and the
foam-crested waves were glittering in the
sun. No warlike din troubled the ear,
no sanguinary picture pained the eye; a
mild atmosphere surrounded me, and,

breathing freely, I regaled myself with the

scene that opened to my view.
It was not for the first time that I
greeted the coast of Calabria, but it was
the first time I had been so near to it, for
the packet, having to put into several
ports, coasted within a mile of the shore,
which gave me an admirable opportunity
of inspecting it. Calabria is not so rich,
either in historical recollections or in
the wild beauties of Nature, as Corsica,
but its aspect is more engaging.
Calabria can boast of having belonged,
in ancient times, to Graecia Magna, and of
being the birthplace of Charondas, Zaleu-
cus, Praxiteles, and Agathocles, and that
Pythagoras there diffused his doctrines;
but hostile countries have not, as in the
case of Corsica, contended for centuries
for its possession, and saturated the land
with their blood, as if to prepare it to pro
duce the future Napoleon! No pointed

granite mountains raise their heads sharply

against the blue sky. No impenetrable
woods over-shadow rugged cliffs ; no shy
goats range over precipitous hills. It is
true that Virgil has sung of the lofty Ta-
bernus and the endless Silaga Woods, and
Pliny, Dioscorides, and Strabo, have men
tioned its resinous forests; but they were
thinned in times of old by the axe of the
Athenians and Sicilians, and the Neapoli
tans afterwards cleared the remains for
their ship building!
The graceful form of the hills, the fresh
green of the plains, the balmy warmth of
the air, all combined to furnish a classic
banquet to the eye : and yet this was the
old robbers' nest, the widely abused Cala
bria, which lay before me, whose very
mention conjures up the well-known
bandit, the cone-shaped hat, the em
broidered jacket, the pistols, the dagger,
and the long flint-lock, with which he

plays his half-knightly, half-rascally part

in opera and ballet. And indeed it would
appear that this character has not even yet
passed away, for, as I was surveying, with
intense interest, every bush in the plain,
and every cleft in the cliffs, I heard the
name "Talarico" so often repeated behind
me, in what seemed a description of all
sorts of adventures and bold deeds, that
I could not refrain from applying to
the relator, a Garibaldian, who seemed
to be quite learned on the subject, to
ascertain who this wonderful Talarico
might be.
"Giosofatto Talarico," said the young
officer, in replying, with amiable readi
ness, to my question, "is the most in
teresting phenomenon of our time. Born
in the neighbourhood of Cosenza, and of
a family of some distinction, he would
certainly never have been a brigand had
not an occurrence in his early youth so

deeply mortified him, as to disgust him

with the world.
"The noble-minded protection which
he bestowed on the poor and oppressed,
the bold demands which he made upon
the rich and arrogant, gained him at once
the highest regard of the former, and the
character of a formidable enemy with the
latter. He once claimed from Baracca,
the richest land-holder in Calabria, the
possessor of at least three millions of
ducats, that, within a given time, he
should place at his disposal one thousand
ducats, threatening that if it were not
done, his lands should suffer damage to
thrice the amount. Baracca, well know
ing that Talarico's threats were never
made in jest, did not hesitate a moment
in paying him the money. It was not
for himself that the robber chief had
made the demand, but to divide it among
a number of needy persons. An even

bolder stroke than this was the one which

follows. As Talarico was passing one day
through a village on the hills, he was
stopped by a young country girl. i Ah,
Talarico,' said she, with a blushing face,
1 1 love Giovanni, and he loves me and
would gladly take me without a penny of
dowry, could we but raise the money to
pay the priest, who refuses to marry us
without the fee. Can you not help us ? '
" l If you will be with your lover behind
the chapel, two hours after the Ave Maria
this evening, it shall be done, my pretty
maid ! ' was the laconic reply of Talarico,
as he walked away. Quivering with hope
and fear, the two lovers were punctual at
the rendezvous. Nor had they long to
wait before they were joined by the bri
gand, who immediately began knocking
vigorously at the chaplain's door. t Chi
e ? ' asked a manly voice from an upper
window. * Talarico.' ' Talarico ! ' stam-
e mered

mered out the priest, in an agony of ap

prehension. ' Yes : and he advises you
immediately to produce one hundred
ducats ! ' The priest, who was notoriously
well off in this world's goods, convinced
that any demur on his part would pro
bably but add to the demand on his purse,
fearfully complied. ' And now that we
have the fee ready,' said Talarico, ' come
with me into the chapel, and marry me
these two young people, instanter ; and
learn from what has just occurred this
lessonthat the priest shall not go un
punished, who refuses to marry a poor
couple who cannot pay him the fee ! '
" But the frequent repetition of such
like deeds, did not fail to draw on the
perpetrator of them the attention of the
authorities (though that is not a necessary
consequence in this country), and the
King, weary of fruitless attempts at his
capture, at last set a high price on his

head, and left no means untried to take

him, dead or alive. When, however, he
found that even this was ineffectual,
'venni a patti con lui,' that is to say, he
offered him a kind of compromise, in vir
tue of which the robber was free to select
an island, where he might reside unmo
lested, if he would give his word to keep
quiet for the future.
" Talarico agreed to this, and made
choice of the island of Lipari, where he
established himself in 1855, married a
native of the place, and has since resided
on his estate, a respectable father of a
family !
" When Garibaldi, in the past May,
was fitting out his expedition to Sicily,
the King is said to have sent for Talarico,
and endeavoured to persuade him to raise
a regiment and march against Garibaldi,
promising him, moreover, 36,000 ducats
for his head ! and some of the journals
e 2 announced

announced that the quondam robber had

begun to raise his men. This, however,
was quite untrue, for he was too high-
minded a man to sell himself in such a
To this narration my informant added,
that Talarico was a handsome man, with
a profusion of light hair, but was of small
stature; and that the personal power
which he so often exhibited, and the
terror he so well knew how to inspire,
must rather be attributed to the electrical
effect of his eagle eye, than to his physical
strength, or the weapons he wore, which
were usually few.
The stopping of the boat brought the
narrative of the young soldier to an end,
for Paola, the supposed Patycus of the
Greeks, stood before us. As we ap
proached the harbour, the town appeared
prettily situated in a bushy dell, with
pleasant mountains and hills behind it.

To the right, on a rising ground, stand

the picturesque ruins of an old feudal
castle. On the left, the statue of the
Holy Francesco rises from out its green
surroundings, while the elegant arches of
a viaduct support, behind, the road to
Cosenza, and around the harbour, groups
of fishermen's cottages reflect their forms
in the seaa picture ready for the artist's
hand. So that, even without its celebrity
as the birthplace of Francesco da Paola,
the beauty of the place would alone give
it fame.
The time required for the exchange of
goods and passengers not being sufficient
to allow of our going on shore, I was
obliged to content myself with the view
from the sea, with which indeed I was so
entranced that I had well-nigh missed
what else was passing near me.
There had come on board a number of
poor looking creatures, who were offering

for sale small pieces of black woollen

cord, each having a tassel at one end, re-
liques, they called them, of the cord of
the Holy Francesco da Paola. Although
the deception was very apparent, yet all
who were sick or wounded among our
passengers, rushed to provide themselves
with these precious preservatives. Ragged
and feverish looking individuals, who
looked as if it was long since they had
eaten a crust of bread, anxiously searched
their pockets for a five grani piece, in
order to purchase these healing treasures,
and everyone who was so fortunate as to
secure one, pressed it to his lips or his
" Naples is free," said I, to myself;
"but how many phases must the people
pass through, before the chains of their
priesthood are broken, and they are awoke
from the darkness of this more than hea
then superstition ? Then only, will Italy

be really freethen only, will her de

liverer and his great deeds be properly un
derstood ! "
Francesco da Paola, the founder of the
order of Minimists, who, in his deep de
votion and humbleness of heart, could
never have foreseen that, three hundred
years afterwards, he would give cause for
such an abuse of his fame, was born in
141 6, and was destined by his parents,
from his birth, to the Church. In his
1 2 th year he was placed in the newly
formed Monastery of Franciscan Friars of
St. Mark, where he underwent the strictest
discipline. His parents subsequently
wished to take him home again, but he
determined on making a pilgrimage to
Assisi, and thence to Rome, to the grave
of the Apostle. When he was 14 years
old, he retired from the world, renounced
his birthright, and lived as a hermit in a
cave. He had nearly reached his 20th

year, when his holy life brought him many

disciples, who made themselves cells near
his grotto. He therefore obtained per
mission from the Archbishop of Cosenza
to erect a Monastery and a Church. The
new order was confirmed by Sixtus IV.,
in 1474, under the appellation of "Ere
mites of the Holy Francesco," but in
1492, Alexander VI. changed their de
signation to that of " Minimists," that is to
say, "least" or "lowest" brothers of the
Holy Francesco da Paola. The order
afterwards spread, towards the end of the
15th century, into other lands; and,
later still, particularly in France, there
were nuns of the same order. Derived
from the strictest order of Franciscans,
the Minimists surpassed them in fasting
and abstinence, for they never ate any
thing but bread and fruit, and water was
their only drink. Their founder himself
observed still stronger rules.

The fame of some miraculous cures

which Francesco was said to have wrought,
induced the sick king of France, Louis XL,
to summon him to his side ; but it was only
on the recommendation of Sixtus IV. that
he was induced to go to France, where
he was received with royal honours. He
could not prolong the poor king's life, but
he alleviated the sufferings of his death.
Charles VIII. availed himself of Fran
cesco's advice in some of the most impor
tant events of his life, and built him a
monastery in the park of Plessis les Tours,
and another at Amboise. Louis XII. also
wished him to reside in France.
He died at Plessis les Tours on the 2nd
April, 1507, and was canonized in 15 19.
The original monastery of the Minimists,
at Paola, which under foreign rule had
been suppressed, was again given to the
order in 181 5.
But, now, to continue our voyage. The
" Pompei "

" Pompei " left the quay ; and, all too

quickly, the romantically situated town
faded from our view. Among the pas
sengers we took in there, was a Dominican
monk from Pizzo, who was very learned
about the country we were passing, and
appeared also to be a man of enlightened
mind. His information, and a capital map
which he had, were of great advantage to
me, and added much to the pleasure of the
voyage along this beautiful coast, the
most beautiful part of which we were
now approaching.
Among the remarkable places which
adorn it are San Lucido, the San Luchio
of the middle ages, of which some an
tiquarian investigators affirm, in conse
quence of supposed mines in its neigh
bourhood, that it occupies the place of the
ancient Temesa; Fiumofreddo, oversha
dowed by Mount Cocuzzo (5,620 feet
above the sea level), visible from every

part of the coast; the orange-crowned

hills of Belmonte; Amanteo, and its shot-
marked fort, its Francescan monastery, and
its once stately buildings, many of which
belonged to the Knights of Malta, and
now mingle their gray ruins with the gray
rocks behind them. Amantea also de
serves mention, if only for the siege it
underwent by the French, in 1 806. The
town and fort are both built high on the
rocks : three sides are protected by still
higher rocks, and the fourth by a wall
which stretches along what would other
wise be a weak point.
General Mirabelli, a native of Amantea,
defended his birthplace, on one occasion,
with only three guns and a mere handful
of men ! General Verdier was the first
who invested it, in December, 1806: 3,200
of the finest troops, and all the means
which the art of war at that time pos
sessed, were at his command ; but, after a

long and fruitless trial, and every effort to

reduce the fort, he gave up the attempt
and retired to Cosenza. The following
spring, the French made a second attack,
when famine came to their aid, and after
a siege of forty days, the garrison capitu
lated, but under very honourable condi
A disposition to war seems yet to cha
racterize the people of Amantea, for a
corps of volunteers, above 1,000 strong,
was there awaiting the arrival of a Sicilian
steamer to embark for Naples, and enroll
themselves under the banner of Garibaldi.
As we continued our voyage along the
coast, it was now covered with vines, and
now with olives, figs, and oranges ; but of
towns we saw not one after Amantea. The
river Cavuto, whose deep channel divides
Calabria citra from Calabria ultra, engaged
my attention, its banks being rife with
mythical allusions. On its green margin

lay the Temesa of Ovid, rich in gold and

copper, which, according to the old poet,
was visited by the shade of Polites, the
companion of Ulysses, and whose inha
bitants were obliged to atone for his trai
torous murder by the yearly sacrifice of a
virgin, until Euthymus exorcised the rest
less ghost, and freed them from their obli
A voyage along this coast must also call
to our remembrance Richard of England,
the lion-hearted king, who visited it in the
third Crusade to Palestine. When the
knightly king heard that his fleet had
reached Messina, he left Palermo, where
he had been staying some time, and pass
ing near to Conza and Melfi, he took his
way overland to Scalea, whence he followed
the coast as far as Santa Eufemia.
When we had passed Cape Suvero, we
sailed across the dangerous gulf of Santa
Eufemia, keeping at a distance from the

land which forms it. The weather was now

quite fine and the midday sun shone with
summer-like brightness out of a clear and
cloudless sky, so that I was soon able to
discern the white buildings of Pizzo at
the southern end of the bay.
" Will not the * Pompei' remain longer
at Pizzo than she did at Paola ?" asked I of
my friend, who had had a long talk with
the captain.
" Quite the reverse," said he ; " for the
Sirocco has so retarded her that the lost
time must now be made up. I would
therefore advise that we give up our berths
at Pizzo, and land there, and after we have
seen at our leisure all that this renowned
place has to show, let us sail from some port
of Calabria over to the Liparian Isles. The
captain assures me we shall find a conve
nient land communication with Tropea,
where there are frequent vessels going to
Stromboli. By this plan, also, we shall

get a glance at Calabria, and save ourselves

the double voyage to Messina and Mi-
Nothing could be more welcome to me
than a prospect of exchanging the prosaic
steam voyage and the track of tourists, for
a more poetic mode of travelling, and a
more untrodden path ; and without think
ing what privations the undertaking might
subject me to, and what disagreeables and
even dangers I might be incurring, I closed
at once with the proposition and set about
the necessary preparations for our sudden
Pizzo, the scene of Murat's tragical end,
had long been of particular interest to me,
and as the outlines of the town gradually
took form more and more distinctly the
nearer we approached the harbour, that
interest increased. But 1 was not long
permitted to view this new scene at my
ease. As if by a stroke of magic, the deck

was, in an instant, covered with a troop of

Calabrian Lazzaroni, whose tan-coloured
bodies were only clothed in a shirt or a
pair of drawers, and who, with wild ges
tures and frightful cries, seemed to be
battling with each other, so that one could
not imagine what the scene could mean.
The suddenness of the invasion reminded
me of Melville's account of his arrival at
the Marquesas islands, except that our in
vaders were certainly not beautiful nymphs
who had swum from the shore to welcome
the new comers with songs of love !
As soon as they heard that the " Fores-
tiere " intended to land, their clamours in
creased, and were chiefly concentrated on
me and my companion. He protected
me, as well as he could, with his stick,
but it seemed impossible we should ever
be able to descend into the boats alongside
the vessel, for the struggle became more
and more intense, and the battle more

furious, and presently both stick and hat

flew from my friend's hand and head, his
untied cravat hung loosely from his neck,
and his coat was reduced to a jacket ! As
a last resource, he seized hold of a rope,
and, trusting his weighty person to its
strength, he swung himself over, and
dropped safely into one of the boats below.
There was nothing left for me but to fol
low his example. The boat soon reached
the shore, but the fight was not yet over,
and a scene both critical and laughable
was before us.
The surge on the shore was so heavy,
and knocked our boat so alarmingly against
the rocks, that nothing but the hauling
powers of our crew could accomplish a
landing. Before this could be done, all
but two of them had thrown themselves
into the rushing waves ; at the same time
a new detachment of Lazzaroni sprang
forth from the shore, and as many hands
f as

as could possibly find hold upon him,

seized my companion and bore him thither
w/io/e, though I expected he must be torn
to pieces! How / got ashore I scarcely
know, but we were soon both treading the
hot dry sand of the Calabrian coast, and
forgetting our tumultuous transport from
the ship. Before us lay our luggage which
was to be the cause of another contest.
Some said we must go to the custom house;
others to the Sanita; some to the burial-
place of Murat; and some to the Locanda
nobile: and at last it was settled that we
should walk, through the hot deep sand,
to the Dogana, as that was the nearest.
We had not taken a dozen steps, when a
heavily-armed, bandit-looking Camorrista
appeared, and commanded us haughtily to
follow him. He conducted us to a ship
that lay not far off", under whose shade,
and it was a blessing to get out of the heat,
two Camorristi sitting upon one cask


had established themselves. One of them

held an ink bottle and a seal, while the
other, after puzzling over the passports for
awhile, used his knee for a table on which
to impress his seal on the paper. So pri
mitive an official arrangement I never saw
A few carlini soon helped us through
the custom house, and we took the nearest
way to Pizzo. It was a steep and rugged
one, composed of large stones and the
debris of fallen houses, the interstices filled
up with mud and rubbish, reminding me
very vividly of the East. At length we
reached the Piazza, a desert, unpaved place
between two rows of one-storied, neglected
looking houses, but affording a fine view
of the sea, and the southern expanse of the
Calabrian coast.
A marble statue of Ferdinand II. for
merly adorned this Piazza. It remains
there still, but mutilated, and standing only
f 2 on

on one lega warning type of the Bour

bon dynasty. It was against the orders of
their leader, but the Garibaldians took ad
vantage of the night to strike off an arm
and a leg.
Without further delay, we proceeded to
the, so called, best hotel, in order, in the
first place, to put our luggage into safe
Any one who has not been seasoned by
travelling in Africa, or Greece, or Sicily,
would have hesitated before crossing the
threshhold of this hotel. There was no
lack of room, but there was a plentiful
deficiency of everything else; and when
the reader pictures to himself three dirty
chambers, in which there was literally
nothing but bedsteads with rolled up mat-
trasses upon them, he will have a true repre
sentation of the " Locanda nobile all' Au
rora" of Signor Antonio Belotta, and may
easily imagine what resources it promised.

r ^

Completely exhausted by my stormy

landing and subsequent hot walk, my first
wish was for the comforts of the toilette.
" Enviable person that you are," said
my companion, meeting me after I had
exchanged my woollen travelling dress for
one of lighter material, " not only are you
protected from these barbarians, but have
had the forethought to provide yourself
with cool raiment ! I never expected such
heat in October, and have no coat but this,
and my only alternative is to appear in
shirt sleeves !"
" Take my Caftan," said I, offering him
my dressing-gown.
" Impossible !" he replied, with horror,
" the children would hoot me in the street,,
and the dogs would bark at me, were I to
appear in such a Sheik-like dress ! but
what's to be done?" he added, as he en
dued himself in my robe, and went to the
looking-glass ; " no, it will never do ; the

people would think me a prophet of some

new sect, and stone me to death !"
After a hearty laugh we left the Lo-
canda, in order to inquire what means of
locomotion were procurable for the pur
suit of our journey; but when we heard
that neither coach nor cart, nor beast of bur
then were to be found in the townthat
the boasted " land communication " of the
Captain of the "Pompei" was confined to
the comet-like visit of some chance con
veyanceand that there was no boat in
the harbour which could take us to the
Lipari Isles, our merriment soon vanished.
" Look," sighed Captain D ; " there
goes our lost Paradise," and he pointed
out to me a dark spot on the distant waters.
My suggestion, however, that we might at
all events see all that was remarkable in
Pizzo itself, somewhat consoled him, and
after a short walk, we found ourselves at
the entrance of a castle, or more properly


I should call it a tower-like gateway, be

yond which we could see a large space of
ground, where a mass of ruined walls in
dicated the former existence of a castle.
The inevitable showman with his keys ap
peared, and introduced us into his now
waste, but memory stored, empire.
The fortunes of Murat are too well
known to make it necessary for me to lin
ger over them, but some details of the close
of his life, which were related to me by a
well-informed Calabrian, will not perhaps
be less interesting to my readers than they
were to myself.
As may be recollected, the Bourbons,
after the overthrow of Napoleon, de
manded the deposition of Murat, and the
proceedings of the Congress at Vienna
were equally against him. He therefore
strengthened his forces, encouraged the
free ideas of the Italian people, and opened
a secret communication with the ex-em

peror at Elba. As soon as he heard of the

return of Napoleon, he retreated with his
army of 40,000 men, by way of Rome,
Florence, and Modena, and began, without
plan or sufficient means, hostilities against
the Austrians, and at last, on the 2nd of
May, an engagement took place, in which
he was beaten, and his army completely
routed. He himself fled with a few fol
lowers to Naples,where he found all in con
fusion and revolution. After many dan
gerous wanderings, he escaped at length to
Corsica, and landed at Bastia on the 25th
August, and here several of his former offi
cers assembled, and proposed to make him
king of Corsica. But Murat had his lost
crown in view still, and relying too san-
guinely upon the sympathy of the Neapo
litans, he emarked on the 20th September,
with 250 men on board seven transport
vessels for Salerno, there to be met by a
larger number. A storm dispersed the

little flotilla on the coast of Calabria, and

only two of them made the harbour of San
Lucido. Notwithstanding this disaster,
Murat, followed by General Franceschetti
and twenty-six faithful adherents arrived
by land at Pizzo, on the 8 th October. It
was a festival day, and the militia of the
place were exercising before the Piazza.
He made himself at once known, and his
companions, bursting through the throng,
proclaimed him their king and deliverer.
The bystanders, however, showed not
the least sympathy, and began to disperse,
and disgusted by this cold reception, Murat
immediately left Pizzo, and took the road
to Monteleone, where the people were
known to be favourable to him. But one
of their chiefs, Trentacapilli by name, a
true Bourbonist, informed his party of his
approach, and soon set every one against
Murat, who was obliged to fly through
by-roads to save his life by reaching the

coast. This, by some wonder, he did, but

only to see his ship under sail, the traitor
ous captain, a Maltese of the name of Bar
bara, paying no attention to Murat's shouts
and signs, having intentionally, it was said,
perpetrated this scandalous act.
Still the heroic-minded fugitive medi
tated escape, and finding his strength in
sufficient to launch a boat which lay on
the beach, he plunged, in full uniform,
into the sea.
But this daring act failed to save the
unhappy man from his impending fate.
He had swum but a few strokes from land,
when one of his spurs caught in a fishing-
net, and vain were his struggles to get
free. His pursuers speedily overtook him,
brought him ashore, and after stripping
him of all his decorations, cast him into
one of the cells of the city prison, while
they sent the news of his capture to Naples.
General Nunziante, the governor of Ca

labria, however, interfered, and removed

Murat to a more suitable place of confine
ment, insisting that proper respect should
be shown him.
A despatch from King Ferdinand
brought directions that he should be tried
by court-martial.
Seven judges were appointed, of whom
three were chosen by Murat, men of good
position and intelligence. They met in
a room adjoining the bedroom of the
prisoner, and the next morning, General
Nunziante informed him of the result.
Murat knew that he could expect no mercy.
The court had condemned him by a law
of his own making.
He now wrote a most touching farewell
letter to his wife and children, and the
fourth day after his capture, he was brought
out from his chamber to the platform pre
pared for his execution. It was on the even
ing of the 13 th October that eight of his

own soldiers were drawn up in a rank to

complete the sentence of the court. Murat
refused to have his eyes covered, and gave,
in a firm and loud voice, the order to fire.

Nearly half a century has elapsed since

this unrighteous 13 th of October, and yet
when I found myself standing on the very
spot on which the tragic drama was acted,
I felt its influence in every fibre. It seemed
as if I could see the sad farewell glance of
the hero on the picture of his children,
and hear the last heartwrung exclamation,
" Aim at my heart, soldiers, and spare my
face, out of respect to my wife ! " The
rolling musket volley seemed to strike my
ear, bravely fell the sacrifice to the earth,
and lifeless it lay before me, bathed in its
own blood.

Historical interest is the only one that


attaches to this fallen citadel of Pizzo. It

lies high and rugged above the seashore, to
which you descend by a steep path, hewn
out of the solid rock. The city has ob
tained the name of " fedelissima," on ac
count of her having delivered up Murat to
the government; and there is a monument
in the harbour, recording the privileges
which she owes to that tragical event.
They consist in the freedom of the inhabi
tants, for ever, from all customs duties, and
that every burgher of the town has a right
to six rotoli (about 1 8 lb.) of salt yearly.
Besides this, all who were personally en
gaged in the capture of Murat, received a
considerable pension. The Pizzani, who
were never much liked by the other towns
of Calabria, have now added the character
of " treacherous " to the previous causes of
We walked down the steep and narrow
road back to Pizzo, and turned our steps

towards the church, to the building of

which Murat contributed 2,000 ducats.
A square stone in the pavement of the
nave, marks the spot where his bones now
rest, but it has no inscription. There is
little else connected with this church worth
mentioning. A tricoloured flag, dating
from the time when Murat, as king of
Naples, promised a Constitution, used to
be displayed in the Sacristy, but it is now
removed to the " Cancellaria," because
when Garibaldi was here his people wanted
to take it away.
Twilight overtook us as we were pro
ceeding to a point where we could obtain
the most favourable view over this pleasant
spot, surrounded as it is with gardens
and vineyards, and as we had exhausted all
its other sights, we returned to our inn.
Our deficiencies soon began to show
themselves, for I must remark that we had
intended to supply ourselves at Messina

with everything we were likely to want

during our journey, but having landed at
Pizzo, we found ourselves very ill pro
vided. While my companion was wander
ing from shop to shop, in the vain hope of
buying candles, and coffee, and sugar, and
such like, I did my best to put the rooms
in something like order, but it was labour
in vain, and after my host had been per
suaded to find me an ill-shaped, dirty table,
and a sort of school form to sit on, he en
tirely abandoned his attentions, sat himself
down upon the bench, lighted his cigar,
and began to cross-examine me on the
subject of the war at Naples.
The news of the battle of the Volturno
was, of course, quite new to him, and
turned the conversation upon Garibaldi.
" The Dictator," said he, " only remained
here a quarter of an hour, for he was in
search of a column of the royal army. He
has taken away all the pensions that were

granted to the captors of Murat, but still

his appearance here awoke so much enthu
siasm, that many of our people joined his
standard. I myself saw my three eldest
sons, fine youths of eighteen, twenty, and
twenty-two years old, march ofT with the
irresistible hero, and my youngest boy
would have gone too if I had not taken the
precaution to lock him up."
The entrance of Captain D, who had
been superintending the preparation of a
dish of maccaroni, brought mine host's
narrative to an end. His spindle-formed
wife now made her appearance with the
smoking hot national dish, and the Captain
had provided some excellent wine, which
not a little contributed to keep the de
sponding pair in more hopeful patriotism.
The weather had been getting worse,
and now indicated a storm. This, how
ever, did not prevent Captain D from
collecting a lot of seamen around him, and

endeavouring to bargain with them for a

voyage to the Liparian Isles. No one
seemed willing to undertake it, and tired
with my day's exertions, I sought my bed
chamber, which I could at all events do in
the full assurance that I had won my host's
good will; for, after wishing me good
night, he took up a rolled curl-paper which
I had dropped on the floor, and said,
with much Calabrian humour, " This real
Havana, madame, I will smoke to your
honour ! "

Departure from Pizzo Hurricane, and unhoped for
landingDifficulty of getting away from Briatico
The " Casica," and the bloody-minded Peppo in the
narrow passEventful ride to TropeaThe Cava-
liere TranfoThe Santa Maria Salva in PortoTro
pea, its site and environs, and its musical youth.

O sooner was it daylight, than

Captain D hurried down
to the harbour to ascertain
how much we dared hope
from the weather and the
determination of the boatmen. " So far
is certain," said he, as he entered my apart
ment with two young marinari, " we sit
here as in a cage, and the people seem to
have sworn to place every possible obstacle

in our way ; but if you will follow my ad

vice, we will upset their design. The
weather, to be sure, is not very settled, but
good enough for our purpose, and we may,
by coasting along the shore, reach Tropea,
which is much nearer to Stromboli than
Pizzo, and where we are likely to find
boats. If you do not think my plan too
venturesome, I will make a bargain with
these two men, and I doubt if I could do
it with any others."
Convinced that my old friend would not
deceive me, I entered into his scheme at
once, and before the clock had struck
twelve, we were on the quay. The indig
nation of the Captain began to burn when
we found the bespoken craft had been ex
changed for a wretched tub, and that the
four seamen who were to navigate it had
dwindled down to two raw-looking youths
and a boy. However, as the voyage was
one of but four or five hours, and we were
g 2 particularly

particularly anxious to see the sights we

had resolved to see, we went on board our
ill appointed nutshell.
It was an exciting moment when we
stretched out to sea, and our little bark
bounded with elf-like activity over the
dark green waters. Speedily faded the
town and its fallen castle from our view,
and as I cast my eye along the outline of
the hills, to the other end of the bay, I saw
clearly that the whole was without inhabi
tants, for neither church or chapel, house
or hut, gave life to the bare strand ; on the
sea also, no sail, large or small, was to be
seen. But why should this surprise me ?
we were making a passage across the trea
cherous sea of Santa Eufemia, which even
the Calabrians themselves unwillingly ven
ture to navigate.
Captain D advised the boatmen, in
order to avail ourselves of a more favour
able wind, to make at once for the open

sea. They complied with great reluc

tance, and made many tacks which seemed
quite unnecessary in such fine weather, but
we had not been long on board before the
sky grew black with heavy clouds, the sea
rolled in massive waves, crowned with
foam, and the wind bent the mast with its
power. The pitching boat was frequently
struck, the frightened sailors looked first at
the wild elements, and then at the man
whose advice they had taken, and as I saw
that his countenance also changed, I made
sure that we had real difficulties to en
counter, which our frail and ill provided
vessel might not be able to overcome.
" Let us put back," said I ; " let us rather
pass the night on the open strand than risk
our lives in this manner."
" Landing," replied he, " is easier talked
of than done ; observe also what a distance
now lies between us and the shore ; how
the wind blows from all quarters, and pre

vents our making any progress at all ; our

sail is too large for this light boat, and if
we take it in, we may be the victims of
this Bourrasque."
However, as we could not any longer
make way to seaward, we turned all our
endeavours to reaching the shore, and
made for the Punta della Rocchetta, at the
southernmost point of the bay.
After an anxious hour of great danger,
we began to breathe a little more freely.
Our bark tumbled from one wave to an
other, and the unsteady sail still shifted
from side to side, but the violence of the
sea certainly abated. We approached
the coast perceptibly, an old ruined tower
on the point of Rocchetta was recognisable,
and we had the hope of a speedy landing
before us. In another hour we had ex
changed the troubled waters for the dry
" We have, indeed, had an escape to be


thankful for," said the Captain, " for it

was no Bourrasque, but a real hurricane!
But what are we to do now? "
" The boatmen tell me," said I, " that at
Briatico we shall find some beasts of bur
then which will carry us to Tropea, and if
it be too late to get there to-day, we shall
at all events find accommodation for the
night. Hasten with one of the men to
Briatico, while I and the other look after
the luggage."
He at once followed my advice, but we
waited for his return so long that I lost all
patience, and told the man who had re
mained with me that I should leave him in
charge of the goods, and pursue my way to
the town.
I had not gone far before I encountered
several waggons drawn by oxen. The sim
plicity of their construction was quite clas
sical. A few boards formed the cart, and
two circular discs of wood the wheels. In

each stood a Calabrian peasant, who drove

his team with much skill over the rough
roads, and I quite pleased myself with the
expectation of engaging one of them to
take our baggage to the town, but all my
efforts to make them understand what I
required were fruitless. They listened,
understood nothing, and went on their
At Briatico I found my friend sur
rounded by what I should think must have
been the entire population of the place,
and in order to satisfy their impatient curi
osity, he had mounted himself on a tub,
and was haranguing them, like a quack
doctor, on the subject of our wants of
horses, mules, or asses, to pursue our jour
ney to Tropea.
This seemed to set the whole town in
alarm. Some ran away at once, some de
clared the distance to be twelve miles,
others fourteen and eighteen, but all agreed

that the road was " pessima," inasmuch as

by day it was difficult to get along, and by
night impossible. Nevertheless, one old
fellow, by name Peppo, offered us three
asses for the journey, and to accompany
us himself. With him, therefore, and two
strong peasants, we struck a bargain, and
the Captain descended from his rostrum
in order to go with one of them to fetch
our goods, while I examined into the mat
ter of the beasts and their caparisons.
Never dreaming of having to ride, I had
prepared myself only for sea voyaging, and
had packed all my clothes in a large square
chest, very ill suited to this kind of trans
port, and how the old Peppo contrived to
pack the " Casica," as he called it, and the
Captain's portmanteau, and all our cloaks,
umbrellas, &c, &c.,upon one poor donkey,
I cannot imagine.
In spite of petticoats and crinoline, I
was obliged to mount (horribile dictu) " a

Califourchon," and moreover, I discovered

that my steed was hardly more than a foal,
and that his knees knocked against each
other every step he took. The Captain
was not much better mounted, and when I
looked up and saw that the heavy clouds
would probably shorten the two hours' day
light that remained for our journey, I be
gan to fear that it would not end without
adventures, and I proposed to remain at
Briatico till morning.
" En route, en route, we must get away
from this robber's nest, where the people
would very likely murder us for our plun
der," was all the Captain replied, as he be
gan, with energetic strokes, to quicken
the motions of his nag.
His words really seemed so earnest that
I did not dare to say any more, and fol
lowed him in silence.
Now over high ground and now over
low, rode we forward at a snail's pace for half


an hour or more, and I began to think the

people had given the road a worse charac
ter than it deserved, but I was wrong.
Peppo, on whom devolved the charge of
the animal which bore our luggage, sud
denly disappeared, donkey and all, into a
hole. The cords which bound our pack
ages were burst asunder, and our luggage
broken and scattered about in all direc
tions. Here was the Captain's pack, with
all its contents fully displayed, there lay his
coffee machine, and there his anisette flask.
Further on had rolled my tea kettle, and
there, upon a heap of shawls and cloaks, lay
the "Casica," on which the blame of the
mishap was laid by the old Peppo, who got
up, furious with pain, and swearing that
he could not and would not go a step fur
" If you knew what a road it was," thun
dered forth the Captain, "why did you
undertake to conduct us ; but now, reload


the beast instantly, and go on, or you shall

feel the weight of my fist."
This imperative tone worked marvels.
We all helped the old fellow by collecting
all the scattered articles, and we were en
abled to resume our march without any
great loss of time.
Peace, however, did not last long.
Peppo was a good-for-nothing fellow, and
was meditating evil. High words occur
red again, and I soon heard the Captain's
voice in a loud key; but what gave me
most uneasiness was, that the two peasants
assured me we had a most dangerous hol
low to pass through, the rocky sides of
which were so close to each other that it
would be difficult to get our beast of bur
then through it, and, further, that from the
disturbed state of the times, there were
many marauders and deserters about, to
whom nothing would be more welcome
than to make booty of our possessions.

The way certainly was becoming worse

and worse, and at length the difficulty of
sitting on my steed was so great, that I dis
mounted, and it was not without the assist
ance of one of the men that I could get
along on foot. The passage soon became
so narrow, and blocked up with great
stones, that, at first sight, I thought there
was no way of getting through but on all
fours ! How, then, could the heavily-laden
baggage bearer get on ? As I could be of
no use in solving this problem, I left my
own beast to pioneer my way, and followed
close on his heels. It was not a few steps
that we had to travel thus, but a long dis
tance, and I had not gone far when dismal
cries fell on my ear ! A pause ensued, and
then the sounds of anger and dispute again
were heard. I pictured to myself all that
was horrid, and it was some time ere I
could muster up courage to go on and see
what was the matter, expecting nothing


less than to see the poor Captain lying dead

or dying, and bathed in his blood. The
first thing I could discern, when I ap
proached the scene, was the unfortunate
ass and all his cargo jammed up between
the rocks ! How I got by him I hardly
know, but having done so, I found my
friend in single combat with the old rogue
Peppo, and just depriving him of a large
dagger-like knife! At a short distance
stood another of the drivers brandishing a
similar knife, and I knew the third was
equally well armed !
My appearance put an end to the contest,
and I entreated the Captain to moderate his
wrath, and endeavour rather to propitiate
these wretches, as we were so much in their
" We should, probably, neither of us be
alive, madame, if I had not suspected the
diabolical intentions of this villain, who
only waited till we arrived in this narrow

defile, to provoke me to a quarrel, in order

that it might appear that he killed me
in self-defence ; but now that I have his
knife, he will be cautious enough I doubt
not !"
And now the poor beast and his burthen
claimed our attention, and we promised
the drivers an extra gratuity if they would
carry all the packages, one by one, through
the pass. When this laborious undertaking
was safely accomplished, and we had
crossed the mountain stream that ran at
the foot of the hollow, we hastened to get
everything in order, and in motion again,
before utter darkness should set in. My
driver had so overworked himself, in carry
ing my great chest, that I looked about to
see what I could get to revive him, and
my eye falling on the bottle of anisette, I
gave him a glass for that purpose. Of
course he did not require asking twice, but,
scorning to make use of the glass, he put


the bottle to his mouth, and kept it there

so long that I was obliged to check him.
He told me he had never tasted any
thing so strong, and we walked on, but
shordy he stopped behind, and did not
rejoin me again. Alarmed, I pursued my
way till I overtook the rest of the party, and
I then told them my driver must be ill, and
we must go back and look after him. Pre
sently we heard a terrible groaning, and
cries of " Help ! help ! I am burning ! " and
we found the poor fellow lying on the
ground in great pain. The reason soon
appeared. He had continued to carry the
package in which the anisette was en
closed, and stopping to treat himself with
another dose, he took out the wrong bottle,
and imbibed a quantity of spirits of wine,
which I used in my lamp. We knew not
what remedy to apply, or what to do, but
as he evidently could not walk, we placed
him on the ass which I had been riding.


My friend seemed disposed to turn this

occurrence into a joke, and told us it was
all for our advantage, adding, "We may
now travel with less apprehension, since I
have disarmed one of the rogues, and an
other has rendered himself incapable."
My friend's humour, however, soon
dwindled into silence, for in truth the
scenes we had gone through had dis
turbed the calmest of us, and unnerved
the bravest. I never, in the whole course
of my wanderings, went through so fa
tiguing a journey as this. To make mat
ters worse, Peppo had now mistaken the
road, and in the dark, threatening night,
we had to find our way first across a dry
watercourse, and then through an almost
impenetrable thicket; to ford a rushing
brook, and to pass over a treacherous piece
of sandy ground, and this with not even
the light of a star.
In all these difficulties I could do no-
h thing

thing but blindly follow my guide, to whom

I also confided my bag, a piece of indis
cretion which might have cost me much,
and which gave me some notion of Cala-
brian impudence, for while the fellow
helped me over the worst parts with one
hand, with the other he was helping him
self to whatever his thievish fingers could
extract from the bag. What could I do?
A good distance divided us from the others,
and I could not forget the long knife he
carried at his girdle.
The little town of Parghelia, to which
our six hours' labour now brought us, indi
cated that we were not far from our goal.
The sound of a spring gushing out of a
rock near us, was a temptation I could not
resist, and while I was gone to cool my lips
with its refreshing water, my shameless
conductor actually struck a light and began
to examine the articles he had filched from
my bag. Exasperated at this piece of in

solent audacity, I gathered up the remains

of my strength, and set off at a speedy pace
up the eminence on which Tropea stood.
Here I found the others already arrived,
but the place looked as if all in it were dead.
"Every one is sleeping the sleep of
death, I think," said the Captain; "we
have shouted and knocked till we are tired,
but every window remains dark, and every
door closed. We shall be obliged to take
rest not only in the open air, but in the rain
I was actually beginning to think he
would be right in his prophecy, when a
gleam appeared through a shutter, a win
dow slowly opened, a woman looked out,
and a key dropped at our feet. With this
Peppo opened the door, and introduced
us into the house. Intending to mount a
stair before me, I perceived at the top a
female figure, wrapped in a loose garment,
who said, " Our house is quite full, and this
h 2 room


room will scarcely be good enough for

you," showing me a hole, out of which an
unbearable atmosphere issued, and I ran
quickly down again to escape asphixia, and
nearly ran over a well-dressed man at the
bottom, whom, supposing him to be the
host, I addressed as such. "Pardon me,
signora," he said, in good Italian, " I am
not the padrone of this locanda, but a * par-
ticolare' of this town. My duty at the
telegraph office obliged me to be up this
night, and hearing that two travellers had
arrived, I came to oiler my services, know
ing that Tropea, being out of the high road
and seldom visited by tourists, could not
afford any decent accommodation for a
chance visitor."
While the young Calabrian was address
ing me thus politely, another key fell from
another window, but our second chance was
almost as bad as the first. Of two vacant
rooms, one, a windowless closet, must con

tent the Captain, and the other, more like

a stable than a chamber, must fall to my
lot, and nothing but the driving rain and
our dislike to intrude on the employe of the
telegraph office, who offered his room,
could have induced us to enter them.
We now sent for the landlord and his
wife, for it is the custom here for them to
leave their guests to themselves, or at best
in charge of a servant, and go to another
house to sleep in quiet; and while the Cava-
liere Tranfoso was the young Calabrese
calledwent to fetch them, I looked over
the contents of my bag, and to my great
joy I found that my gold watch and other
valuables had escaped the light fingers of
the driver, and as he had only taken a few
unimportant trifles, I resolved to say no
thing about it, seeing that a complaint be
fore a magistrate, if there was such a per
sonage here, must subject us to great delay.
Completely overcome with fatigue, I

sank down in a deep sleep, and it was only

on waking the next day that I became con
scious into what a place I had got. Over
head, the daylight gleamed through gaps
in the roof; of glass in the windows there
was not a trace, and the shutters closed so
badly that the Wind blew in unmercifully.
The floor was damp all over, and in some
parts streamed with water. I was just in
the act of barricading the shutters, and
placing a battery of jars to catch the rain
as it fell from the roof, when my friend,
dripping like Neptune, and accompanied
by the padrona, entered my room, with a
shrieking hen in one hand and a basket in
the other. " Shocking prospect ! " sighed
he ; " what could have induced us to leave
Pizzo, where at any rate there are steamers
once a week, and come here, where we are
cut off from all communication whatever,
for on looking across the shore, I fear this
weather is only beginning, and as to vessels,


it looks as bad for us as it does for all other

" Your patience and your invention will
have the more scope," I replied to my
friend, who had just pronounced sentence
of death on the poor fowl, and given the
landlady some particular directions how to
cook it, after which he went himself to pre
pare the fire over which out pot aufeu was
to be hung.
The thunder-claps now followed each
other more rapidly than ever, and the rain
came down in a stream, so that it was im
possible for me to leave our den. A visit,
therefore, from the Cavaliere was all the
more welcome, and as Tropea is scarcely
named in modern books of travel, I gleaned
from him all the particulars I could of the
Tropea, then, is the ancient Portercole,
a city of Magna Gracia, and was founded
by the Greeks, when they settled on Cape

Vaticano. Strabo and Pliny both mention

this, but some antiquarians contend that it
was founded by some Roman leader, either
Scipio, Sextus Pompeius, or Augustus, and
that the name originated from the trophies
which such leader set up there. Stephanos
Byzantinos, in the fifth century, designates
it vofog lixskiai and Belisarius fortified and
occupied it after his landing at Reggio.
During the middle ages, Tropea be
longedto the Royal Possessions, and enjoyed
thenceforward the rights and privileges of
a University. The Aragonians endowed the
town with great advantages, which Charles
V. afterwards confirmed. In the year 1 703
it was divided into two parts, that of the
nobility, called " Sedile Erculeo," and the
"Sedile Africano," of which the more
wealthy burghers were the proprietors.
These two orders divided the magistracy
and the direction of affairs between them,
and theirjurisdiction extended over twenty-

three neighbouring villages, so that it has

been said that Tropea had a kind of repub
lican constitution on an aristocratic foun
Out of its Bishoprick, founded as far
back as the third century, have been derived
Bishops and Cardinals, and Tropea seems
to have been particularly rich in the pro
duction of honourable officials, such as
Treasurers, Masters ofthe Horse, Generals,
and Marshals.

* * * *

A little pause in the storm now allowed

us to take a ramble to the shore, when,
with the Cavaliere's help, we made a con
tract with some seamen for our further
On the strand there lay several spruce
craft, ready laden, and waiting for a fair
wind to sail for Reggia, Messina, and Me-
lazzo; but for the lonely Stromboli, our

present mark, there was but one old, badly

built, and very small barque, and laden,
moreover, with a cargo of onions, and an
inspection produced a look of ridicule and
mistrust on the countenance of my friend,
which I did not like at all. " Santa Maria
salva in Porto,"read he, with difficulty de
ciphering the half-erased letters. " Ah !
that is credible enoughsafe enough, I
dare say, to ' in port ;' but will she be safe
anywhere else ? It's my belief her next
voyage will be her last. Twenty years old
at least !"
" That may easily be," exclaimed her
owner, with pride, " for it is more than ten
years since I bought her. We only go out
in fair weather, it being fifty miles to
Stromboli; but should we ever be over
taken with such a storm as that of to-day,
or a leak should spring, then all goes to the
It was evident that Maestro Giulio had

no inclination to take us to Stromboli, and

it was only when the Cavaliere showed him
how much it would be to his advantage to
comply with our wishes, that he consented
to clear out a space among his onions, and
promised to sail as soon as the weather per
mitted ; for this we had to pay eight ducats
as earnest money. Jupiter sanctioned our
compact with his thunder, and the sluices
of heaven opened afresh, and through this
weather we had to regain our den atTropea.
The time we had to spend in this dispi
riting abode was much shortened by the
company of the Cavaliere, in whom we
found a pure, honourably-minded man,
placed by fate in an out-of-the-way corner,
with talents which fitted him for a better
lot, but without any hope of attaining it.
Belonging to a distinguished and once
wealthy family, now reduced to poverty,
and having lost his father in early youth,
Antonio Tranfo was unable to pursue that

earnest course of studies which might open

to him a more promising career ; and as the
only support of a mother and sister, he was
obliged to accept a place in the telegraph
office. Although he had never left his
native town, which afforded no opportu
nity of mixing with well-informed people,
yet was his mind well cultivated by means
of books, his ideas were enlarged, and his
political and religious opinions were noble
and elevated. I also heard that it was his
anxiety for the two ladies who depended
on him, that prevented him from following
the dictates of patriotism, and offering his
services to the Dictator.
It was late when our amiable friend left
us. From the street he called out to us
that the wind had changed, and that there
was every prospect of a fine day. I then
sought my miserable bed, but not even the
fatiguing seven hours I had undergone suf
ficed to give me rest. I could not sleep;

my head was full of a perfect confusion of

thoughts, how I would interest Garibaldi
in favour of the Cavaliere, and how we
should ever overcome the obstacles to our
going to Stromboli.
Then I fancied that I heard music. I
thought I was dreaming, but nearer and
nearer appeared to come the full sound of
a quartette of male voices, and at last it
seemed to be at my door. Then I thought
I distinguished the favourite Garibaldi
Hymn, and then a Tuscan, and then a Si
cilian melody, and, last of all, a Calabrian
national air. Neither at a concert, nor in
a German University, did I ever hear any
thing so delightful as the fine tones that
issued from the throats of these Calabrian
youths, for by this time I was quite awake,
and knew it to be reality that I heard. It
was not a lay in praise of blue-eyed beauty,
but the strong, nervous language of a brave
people rejoicing over freedom.

The magic of this charming serenade

was still occupying my thoughts, when the
sweet tones of a female voice struck my
ear. I looked out of my window, and saw
a pretty fisherman's wife singing her baby
to sleep ; the music which flowed from her
coral lips was as tender and melancholy as
the glance she cast from under her long
eyelashes on the distant sea, where, doubt
less, sailed the bark of her young husband.
As a companion to this picture, another
offered itself, in its kind no less worthy of
admiration, for, on opening my door, I saw,
in the next room, a group, consisting of my
friend the Captain, surrounded by six
smoking, athletic, and half-naked mari-
nari, full of wonder at a spirit lamp, by
means of which he was boiling some eggs,
and, altogether, they formed a scene which
Teniers or Terburg might have painted.
"The weather holds good," said the
Captain, " many vessels have already gone

to sea, and yet this obstinate fellow will not

follow them."
" No," said Maestro Giulio, " I go not
out of harbour to-day. It's all very well
with new vessels and strong, but with the
old, heavy laden Santa Maria, I dare not
venture out."
" If you have been playing with us, and
do not intend keeping your word, give us
back our money," answered the Captain,
with increasing wrath.
The entrance of the Cavaliere, who
came to invite us to a stroll, interrupted the
discussion. Maestro Giulio would neither
sail nor return our money, and we had to
bow to fate, and go for a walk !
We first visited the shore, whence Tro-
pea formed a most picturesque scene, lying,
as it does, in a little bay, under the shelter
of the wide-spreading range of hills which
reach to Cape Vaticano. A high conical
rock, full of splits and hollows, and crowned

with a chapel, rises out of the sea before the

town. Still higher than this rock, stands
the northern half of Tropea, with its
churches, and monasteries, and so-called
palaces, built partly of granite, and partly
of sandstone; the other half stretches land
ward, and is bounded by gardens and vine
Looking at the rich country between
Tropea and Parghelia, one thinks that it
was intended to repay the traveller for all
the deprivations he had previously under
gone. Everything grows with truly south
ern luxuriance, such as you see on the coast
of Greece.
Here flourish the finest natural products,
unthreatened by frost or the cutting north
wind; the dark, succulent leaf of the orange
and lemon trees, the tender bright-green of
the pomegranate, the graceful foliage of the
red-stalked ricinus, and the heavy-laden
branches of the grape vine, vary the appear


ance of the ground, while the more humble

fig, and the twisted-boughed olive, the aloe
and the cactus on the rocky boundary of
this garden, formed a worthy frame to the
The Monastery of the Holy Francisco
d'Assisi, the white pillars of a colonnade,
a chapel, or a kiosklike pavilion, plea
santly break the beautiful monotony of the
rich vegetation on which they stand. A
tall rush, with a blossom like the aloe, re
minded me vividly of Algiers or Tunis, as
did also the Moorish fashion of the fisher
men's huts on the shore, and the glowing
colours of the glittering sands, contrasting
with the deep blue of the sea and sky,
made quite an African impression.
I could have dreamed away many an
hour on this fair shore if I had not been
roused by a sudden shouting and crying,
and a general rushing of people from street
and house ! " What can have happened ?"
1 said

said I, to an old man who was filling his

pitcher at the spring at which the day be
fore I had quenched my thirst. " News of
a change of Government, the raising of the
banner of a new king," he replied. Surely,
said I, to myself, the Bourbons cannot have
repossessed themselves of Naples ! But my
apprehensions were soon relieved. It was
a demonstration ofjoy at the tidings of the
capitulation of Ancona. The reader would
hardly think this, for Ancona capitulated
on the 29th of September, and halting
Fame (which does not yet travel on a copper
wire in these parts) brought it to Tropea on
the 5 th of October !
When the first burst of this tumultuous
demonstration was over, we returned to the
town to take a more inland view of it. The
ancient walls around it are well preserved,
and in times when long range guns were
not, and men fought with the bright sword,
the town would have stood a sharp siege.

The Cavaliere conducted us into some

gardens which reminded me of the orange
gardens of Sorrento, except that the many
palms and other tropical plants gave them
a still more Southern character. We ended
a long ramble by a visit to a projection
whence we could obtain an extensive view
over the sea. The wind had become more
and more calm, the sky was perfectly clear,
and from the height on which we stood,
the waves gleamed like a looking-glass.
With the aid of a telescope we were enabled
to distinguish the faint outlines of the coni
cal Stromboli, our wished-for destination.
" As true as I live," cried the Captain,
"there go the vessels for Messina, with
which Maestro Giulio promised to sail !
The fellow has treated us scandalously, and
if he is ass enough to refuse to go while
such weather lasts, we shall have another
storm, and never get away."
We determined to go to the Cavaliere's
1 2 office

office, and try again what could be done

with the boatmen.
The elite of the Tropean youth was al
ready assembled at Don Antonio's door,
and we sent some of them to seek Giulio.
When he appeared with his crew, there en
sued a Pandemoniacal scene which almost
distracted me. The result of a stormy de
bate was, that he promised to fetch us at
ten o'clock if the weather remained fine.
The Cavaliere engaged to attend our em
barkation, and we went in to prepare for
our departure.
"You may as well go quietly to bed,"
said Antonio, "Maestro Giulio will not
trust himself to the sea to-night, and you
will see no more of him."
Mine host was right. Ten o'clock and
eleven arrived, but no boatmen ! Tired of
waiting, I lay myself down and slept, lulled
by the melodious tones of the patriotic
chant, " Viva 1' Italia e' la Liberta ! "

Departure from TropeaThe knightly CalabrianOur
crew and their frugal sea dietThe siestaSea calm
and sea splendourThe CetaceaeThe enchanted
islandNight arrival and inhospitable reception at

" Post Nubila Phoebus."

Y rest had lasted but a couple

of hours, when the loud
cries of a familiar voice
made me start up suddenly
from my sleep. I struck a
light, and opening the window, the moon
light showed me two manly figures, the
Cavaliere and the Captain, the latter of
whom, anxious to get away from this unac

commodating place, did not, as I did, go to

sleep, but after a careful examination of the
weather, hurried to the town, and merci
lessly pulled the Cavaliere from his bed, in
order to obtain his co-operation in another
attempt to oblige the obstinate Maestro to
fulfil his engagement. His first words to
me, " The ' Santa Maria' is afloat and will
be off at once," showed me that he had
In a journey so out of the common way,
I could not be surprised at this military
style of impromptu. I was dressed in a few
minutes, and in a few more I had paid the
host, and was making some coffee ready.
But my friend's impatience would hardly
allow him to drink a cup of it, before he
was off with the luggage to the shore, while
I finished the little I had still to do, and
presently followed him with the Cavaliere.
The moon shed her silver beams upon
the romantic Tropea, with its old walls and

antique towers, and gave them an addi

tional charm. Its luxuriant woodlands and
its cleft rocks reposed in the perfect still
ness which reigned over the sleeping scene.
Hardly a breath stirred in the mild air, and
in equal silence we trod the rough path
which led us through a narrow defile to the
shore ; for the thought that we were about
to pursue a doubtful aim by very doubtful
means, heightened the secret charm of this
nocturnal and almost flight-like departure,
and took away all inclination to talk.
I was pursued by a flock of clamorous
porters and boatmen, whose demands I was
endeavouring to satisfy, when I heard the
sound of leave-taking between the Cava-
liere and Captain D, the latter of whom
was already on board, and shouting to me
to make haste. How I should have got rid
of my tormentors without the aid of the
Cavaliere, I do not know. This knightly
Calabrese, as I really must call him, who had

evinced so great an interest in us from our

arrival to our departure, and had really been
of so much use to us, seemed very unwil
ling to part from us, for we had evidently
broken the monotony of his life in a man
ner that, for Tropea, was something quite
rare, and had very likely awoke in him
longings and hopes which might put an
end to the contentment of his former life.
I gave him my promise to use all my influ
ence with the Dictator to procure him a
more important post, such as would open
to his many talents and acquirements a
more worthy field in which to display
Our situation on board the Santa Maria
I can compare only to one of the little
squares of a Roman Mosaic. The crampy
feeling of our half sitting, half standing po
sition, and the smell of the cargo, with
which we were in such very close prox
imity, was truly annoying, and yet the

poetry of our night voyage, and the near

prospect of an early acquaintance with an
island group seldom visited, made me for
get all present inconveniences.
Behind us, at the rudder, sat, wrapped in
his sea cloak, and still growling in a low
tone over his compulsory departure, the
Maestro Giulio ; and before us his crew,
consisting of his three sons, and his son-in-
law, and a very old marinaro. On account
of the perfect calm, they were obliged to
use their oars in order to take the heavy
craft to Cape Vaticano, where they looked
for a light breeze, and, if that failed, the
old Padrone threatened to go back again.
All these details, however, troubled me
but little, for over my head was such a dis
play of bright stars as entirely to occupy
my thoughts with the book of nature.
How small and how transitory appear all
earthly weal and woe, in comparison of the
vastness and eternity of the heavenly frame

which has looked down on the births and

deaths of countless millions of mankind !
The starlight now began to pale, the
moon had set, the morning dawned, and
the sun arose, and yet we had not reached
the point of doubt, Cape Vaticano, when
Maestro Giulio cast a mistrustful look over
the distance before us, and another towards
the shore we had left behind us, and it was
only at the urgent recommendation of
Captain D that he consented to set a sail.
Before this was accomplished, there was a
cry of " a boat from shore, and we must
wait for it!"
All eyes were turned to the boat, which
was evidently making towards us, and pre
sently we could see the crew making signals
to us. " That's the Cavaliere Tranfo," said
Giulio, " and he wants to speak to us."
The boat soon overtook us, and the Cava
liere, who was one of the rowers, rose from
his seat, and cried out, " Have you missed
anything ?"

anything?" "No," we replied, after

counting over all our packages. " Is no
thing gone out of your bag, signora?" I
looked eagerly into my bag, and saw that a
rouleau of twenty piasters had disappeared.
" I saw," said Tranfo, " that you entrusted
your bag to a certain Gennaro, while you
were paying the demands that were made
on you, but it was not till after you had
been gone an hour, that a suspicion crossed
my mind, and then I could not rest till I
had seen Gennaro. He confessed the theft,
and restored the money, begging me to
take no proceedings against him. This
time I have been able to save you from loss,
but do not forget, signora, while you are
travelling in Calabria, into what a deplorable
condition the rule of priestcraft has brought
its people." With these words he placed the
rouleau in my hand, and once more we ex
changed farewells. Hardly giving me time
to express my thanks for his kindness, his

fleet boat and her athletic crew darted

away, and was soon too far to distinguish
any longer the white handkerchief which
was still waved from it.
This unexpected interlude was affording
our sailors much food for conversation.
Gennaro was one of the marinari of the
place, and they had entreated the Cavaliere
to pardon their comrade, as he had restored
the money.
The sails were now set; we had reached
Cape Vaticano, and though we did not pro
gress at a better rate than two, or, at most
two and a halfmiles an hour, still we did pro
gress. The bright sunshine seemed to work
wonders on the Padrone, for though he
told us he could not promise to land us at
Stromboli, but only at Messina, Lipari, or
wherever the light breeze might allow, he
displayed an affability and talkativeness
that we never before gave him credit for.
And now there was a talk of the ship

being leaky, and that a good deal of water

had already been taken out of the hold.
This operation had afterwards to be fre
quently repeated; and we saw from this
why Maestro Giulio was so shy of going to
sea, and it reconciled us the more to being
landed wherever he could sell his cargo.
The sail often flapped against the mast,
and the crew seldom took the trouble of
using their oars, but still we were visibly
receding from the Calabrian coast, and
towards midday the outline of Stromboli
stood apparent through an autumnal haze.
Many little incidents occurred to occupy
our attention, such as often escape the no
tice of the voyager who is borne over the
sea by the power of steam, but which we,
on our old tortoise, had abundant time to
At one time a flock of birds of passage
flew over our heads, and at another there
were hundreds of wild ducks and other


water-fowl, some of them darting at their

prey in the water, and some lightly flutter
ing over the unruffled surface of the sea,
while others were calmly following us, ut
tering their peculiar cries. Several times we
observed the deck covered with the dust of
the pumice stone, which the air had brought
from the still distant islands, and which
we welcomed as a proof that we were ap
proaching land, and that our delivery from
our present confinement drew near. Nu
merous were the dolphins swimming socia
bly together, or diving under the deep, and
presently reappearing in some unexpected
place, and all evidently enjoying themselves
in the highest degree.
Punctually at twelve, the crew sat down
to their dinner, which differed in nothing
but its name from the breakfast of the
morning, consisting of raw salted fish,
coarse bread, onions, and water ! The old
sailor acted as Maitre d'Hotel, and divided

(with his fingers) the fish into six parts,

placing each on an awkward-looking
earthen bowl, with a piece of bread, and
half an onion by its side. A larger portion
was handed to the Maestro, who, as well as
his crew, seemed highly to enjoy this un
appetizing meal. This was not the first
time I had had opportunity of noticing the
frugality with which the sailors are kept in
these countries ; but I believe I have never
seen such an extreme instance as this, for
I have generally seen peas and beans, and
sometimes maccaroni and salad, served out
to them. I was assured that this diet was
never changed, the sailors, from year's end
to year's end, living on the same viands,
than which Tropea offered nothing better,
with the exception of a little fruit in the
summer. They all appeared strong and
healthy. That use had made it palatable,
was evident; and equally evident was it
that much hard work can be got out of a

man, on much less, and less strengthening,

food than we are accustomed to think ne
cessary. Fresh air, perhaps, had some
thing to do with it.
Even this light meal, however, must
have the indispensible Italian siesta after
it, and in a few minutes they were all
asleep, some on the benches, and some on
the bare deck. The nodding head of
Maestro Giulio fell lower and lower every
nod, till the rudder handle escaped his fin
gers, and the vessel was left to herself. My
friend also had caught the infection, and,
wrapped in his sea-cloak, reclined behind
me !
Nothing now appeared to move, and
stillness began her reign. Now lay the
Santa Maria motionless on the motionless
water, and anon a light air caught her
sail, and a slight progress followed, and
again she became still when the light
breeze had passed. What pen can describe

the magic of the moment I was then enjoy

ing, borne over the open sea in a frail, un-
guided bark, in the midstofall the poetry and
the classic associations and natural beauties
around me. It was no phantasma, no con
fused dream. It was all real, but the reality
was enhanced and brightened as in a dream.
That smiling coast, which, clothed in
southern luxuriance, lay stretched before
me, was no Fata Morgana, but the identi
cal shore which had been sung by Virgil,
and described by Pliny; and here to my
left lay the honoured Trinacria, while to
the north the numerous and many-formed
iEolic Islands glistened above the sunny
waves. The mythic dwellings of iEolus,
and the crystal waters over which our vessel
glided so softly, and which looked as if no
storm ever ruffled them, were they not the
very same over which the bark of the perse
cuted Apostle had cut its way ? The clear
sky which raised its wondrous arch over my
k head

head, seemed to my fancy like the dome of

a Cosmical temple, to which both Hea
thendom and Christendom had entrusted
their most sacred memories, and their most
exalted monuments.
But such moments as these pass away
too quickly. Seldom are such jewels
picked up on the rough road of life, and
still more seldom such a promising vein of
golden ore as this. Unlike misfortunes,
they cast no shadow before them, but come
suddenly upon us, and as suddenly vanish.

It was now high time that attention

should again be paid to the increase of water
which was weighing down the ship, and
which had been neglected in the universal
siesta. A certain loud snorting also had
made me aware of many very large fish,
which looked like rocks rising out of the
sea, and which were gathering round us;


and therefore I roused the Captain from

his slumbers to ask what they were.
He observed them carefully, and then
declared them to be "Capidogli" and
" Souffleurs," adding that the appearance
of these Cetaceae in a sea so frequented as
this would have surprised him more, had
he not, in 1858, while bathing at Porto
Ferrajo, Elba, himself seen a young whale
raise its head out of the water, a sight which
had not been seen there for sixteen years,
and which set all the inhabitants in motion.
It would seem that the warmer water of
the Mediterranean operates unfavourably
on the senses of the whale, as he lies there
helpless and defenceless, which, without
some such hypothesis, is unintelligible ;
and whenever one of these denizens of the
Arctic regions wanders to a southern clime,
he appears to lose his consciousness of
danger, and rushes to the shore, and to his
destruction. Thus was it at Elba. The
k 2 whale

whale, once in the bay of Ferrajo, hurried,

amidst the shouts of the islanders, towards
the shallow shore, where he stuck fast.
The inhabitants of Elba, being unprovided
with harpoons or other implements neces
sary to kill so unusual a visitor, his death
was a difficult and a lengthy operation.
A long time elapsed before any one was
courageous enough to mount the head of
the stranded Colossus, in order to deal him
the first blow, though twenty Francesconi
were his promised reward, and almost five
hours passed away before the death of the
animal was accomplished. Next morning
all the town was bound for the spot where
the " gran pesse" lay anchored in the shallow
water, and as all the force they could exert
was not sufficient to drag him up the
beach, he was again floated, and towed
round to Porto Ferrajo with singing and
It was not, however, with whales that

we had to do, but with quick-swimming

swordfish, whose upper jaws, like sword-
blades, rise out of the seawith giant
grampuses, whose lightest stroke would do
mischief, and lastly, with the capidogli,
whose sound is audible a mile off.
A light wind which had now sprung up
gave rise to a warm debate between the
Padrone and Captain D . The former
contended that the best plan would be to
take advantage of this wind, and make a
long tack over to Sicily, whence, about
sunset, he calculated on having a favourable
breeze to waft us over to Stromboli. On
the other hand, Captain D was of opinion
that it would be preferable to keep on our
present course, and risk the dangers of the
currents, seeing that, as we were already
so near Stromboli, a recourse to our oars, if
necessary, would bring us there in six hours.
Maestro Giulio, however, went his own
way, and we tacked away from Stromboli.


Those only who have made the voyage

through this Archipelago in a small sailing
vessel, should dare to assert that they have
seen the sight that voyage presents. I had
several times before passed Stromboli in a
steamer, but itwas generally in the night, and
ill or well, I always kept the deck to obtain a
glimpse of the fire-vomiting mountain; but
what did I see or know of the other islands
ofthe Liparian group ? Their names I knew
from my childish studiesthat iEolus took
up his residence there, and that now they
are famous for the wine, the raisins, and
the currants their soil producesbut what
is all this dead book knowledge in compa
rison with the living knowledge imbibed
by the actual sight of the beautiful isles ?
From Stromboli, which is the last of the
group to the north, stretches away to the
southward a chain of gracefully-formed
rocky islands, and these, gilded by the set
ting sun, and brought out by shadows of

all colours, and in all the diversities of their

incomparable forms, were now displayed
before my eyes.
Every moment I had to inquire a name,
or examine my map, to make myself cer
tain that all this was real. Panaria, Lipari,
Vulcano, Salina, Felicude (nearly 3000 feet
high) Alicudi, and a host of smaller isles
and rocky prominences that lie between
them, were now plainly visible ; and as the
sea was calm, and lighted by the last rays
of evening, and the sinking sun, shining
through an autumn mist, glowed like a rich
disc of crimson, the picture became one of
wondrous beauty, too soon to be destroyed,
however, by the shades of night.
The twilight of Italy is of short duration,
and night soon overtakes it; and when Ma
estro Giulio at length determined to set his
sail, and strike over to Stromboli, the stars
were already twinkling in the sky, while
every progression of the keel, and every

stroke ofthe oars,turned up a world ofphos

phoric efflorescence. The wind, however,
which the Padrone had bespoken, left us in
the lurch, but we were within rowing reach
of the island, and might hope to be there by
midnight. Every one of us was silent.
The marinari sang no ritornelli, the boy
played no tricks, the padrone and the Cap
tain seemed to havenothing to dispute about,
and all who were neither at the helm nor the
oar, paid their tribute to night, and slept.
In such a night, and in such a scene, I
could do nothing but look, and admire !
Before me rose the majestic ruler of this
silent scene, now in mystic rest, now groan
ing with internal convulsions, and, anon,
sending forth a vast shower of red-hot
stones from its fiery crater ! About two
miles now divided us from the shore of its
southern cape, and I reckoned that, when
there, a very short coasting along the
eastern side of the island must bring us to


San Vincenzo ; but, to my great surprize,

we passed Capo dell'Uomo, and along the
western side, as if we had no idea of land
ing ! A twinkling light on the shore gave
me hope and patience again, but when,
after an hour, that hope had vanished, and
when I found we were passing cape after
cape, bay after bay, and rock after rock, I
gave up the riddle in despair.
It is sometimes better to submit to a tor
menting doubt than to achieve a fearful
certainty, and therefore I determined to
hope on, and ask no questions. I closed
my eyes, and endeavoured to pass the time
in a dreamy kind of meditation, and, at
last, when our keel grated on the volcanic
shore, I heard the solution of the riddle.
Maestro Giulio had circumnavigated five-
sixths of the island to avoid its dreaded
currents !
It was now past four o'clock. The moon
had set, the stars gave but little light, and

the black shore looked like a solid wall be

fore us. When first I placed my foot upon
the ground, I became at once aware how
greatly the two sleepless nights, and the
cramping position I had occupied for
twenty-four hours in the onion-perfumed
vessel, had fatigued me.
No welcoming islanders came down to
greet us ; no hospitable door opened to
receive us; no sympathizing fisherman
offered us the shelter of his rude hut ! The
crying and the shouting of our crew had
indeed roused some of the inhabitants from
their slumbers, but when they had cast a
sharp glance or two upon us, and exchanged
a few muttered words with each other, they
vanished again like suspicious ghosts.
Roofless and helpless, we waded through
the deep sand, now this way, and now that,
from one solitary dwelling to another, till,
under the wall of one of them, I found a
stone bench, and wrapping my Macintosh


around me, and turning my bag into a pil

low, I lay me down to rest, finding it im
possible any longer to fight against the
fatigue which oppressed me.
I believe I had slept two hours when
Captain D awoke me with the news
that he had prevailed on one Giuseppe
Costa to place a part of his house at our
disposal. Morning was about to dawn,
but tired nature demanded its rights. Half
sleeping and halfwaking, I staggered along
to the so-called villa, which was nothing
but a two-roomed magazine for the sale of
wine and fruit. In the room appropriated
to me was a bedstead and mattress. Giu
seppe Costa opened an old oaken chest, out
of which he took a supply of bed linen,
which he threw over the mattress, and he
and the Captain were hardly out of the
room before I had fallen asleep as fast and
as comfortably as the softest-couched Syba
rite ever did or could.


" Fragorem ignis, qui ex .flioliis insulis editur, ad

mille usque stadia audiri, adeoque circa Tauromenium
intelligi murmur tonitrui simile."Theophrastus.

EFORE I set out on this tour,

I took much pains in hunting
through the Naples book
sellers' shops to find some
work which might afford me
information and guidance in my intended
visit to these islands. One single and very
small success repaid my toil. In the " Itine-
raire de ritalie" I discovered a short notice,
and with that I began my voyage to these

little known, though not very remote,

islands. From modern literature, there
fore, I could obtain no aid; and, except
what I knew of them from the Classics,
and something from a volume of Dolo-
mieu's, which I have met with since my
return, I can tell the reader nothing but
what my own observations and inquiries
have produced.
These islands, named by the ancients
" Insula? iEoliae," Vulcaneas, Plotae, He-
phestiae, and Lipariae, but now collectively
known under the name of the Liparian
Islands (from Lipari, the largest and most
productive of them all), lie on the north
side of Sicily, and belonged, under the late
Neapolitan Government, to the Province
of Messina. They form a kind of chain,
running from south-west to north-east,
the westermost being Alicudi, and the most
eastern Stromboli. The very stormy cha
racter of the sea in which they are placed,

and in former times the Barbary pirates by

whom they were infested, make it not sur
prising that they remained so little fre
quented or known. But now, when pirates
are out of fashion, and navigation is better
understood, it is somewhat remarkable that
they have yet found no place in the itine
rary of English sea voyagers, seeing that
they are in the highest degree worthy of
the attention not only of tourists in general,
but of students of physical and natural
phenomena in particular.
They are all volcanic, or the results of
volcanic disturbances, and are a perfect ca
binet for that kind of study, inasmuch as
they present, in a comparatively small com
pass, all the possible conditions and stages
of volcanic action. Stromboli is in con
stant agitation, and its eruptions follow
one another at certain periods, and at very
short intervals.
On the island of Vulcano also there is a


mountain, the less frequent eruptions of

which present all the phases of those of
Vesuvius and iEtna. On others of the
islands there are extinct craters, the exist
ence of which is evidenced only by boiling
springs issuing from the mountain sides;
and on others there are craters which are
entirely inactive, but which, perhaps, only
wait for some natural change to be again
set in motion.
The material which these mountains
have formed, and still produce, seems to be
well worthy of scientific investigation, for
the lava thrown up here differs in many
respects from that of iEtna and Vesuvius.
The twelve chief islands of the group
are Lipari, Vulcano, Salina, Panaria, Basi-
luzzo, Lisca Bianca, Lisca Nera, Dattolo,
Stromboli, Alicudi, Felicudi, and Ustica,
the last some distance westward from the
rest. A number of rocky reefs raise them
selves from the sea between the islands, all

of which have local appellations, but are

of too little importance to be noticed.
The Ancients knew but seven Liparian
islands, so that it is probable the others are
of more recent formation. Heraclides says,

"In Thyrenico mari jacent

Insula septem, haud procul Sicilia
Quas vocant JEoli insulas."

and Dionysius,

" Dehinc rupes iEolidarum

Quas septem numero perhibent cogno-
mene Plotas."

Aristotle, Diodorus, Strabo, Mela, and

Pliny enumerate these seven islands as fol

I. Lipara (Lipari).
II. Vulcania or Therasia (Vulcano).
III. Euonymos (Lisca Bianca).
IV. Didyme (Salina).

V. Strongyle (Stromboli).
VI. Phcenicodes or Phoenicusa (Feli-
VII. Encodes or Ericusa (Alicudi).

The Liparian Islands have for many

years shared the political fate of Sicily. The
physical changes they have undergone are,
as Dolomieu says, " little known."
History gives no reliable account of their
eruptions, which seem to have occupied the
poet more than the man of science. All
we know from the works of either is that
at various times new craters have been
formed. The sea itself is said by them to
have, at times, become heated ; for instance,
under the consulates ofEmilius Lepidus and
L. Aurelius Orestes. Strabo mentions the
fact, and it has been repeated by Giulio
Ossiquenti, who says, " The water became
inflamed and boiling, and many vessels
were burned, and many dead fish were
l thrown

thrown on shore, of which the islanders

having eaten, an epidemic disease followed,
and ran through the islands."
"The same thing happened again," as
Posidonius relates, "during the summer
solstice, when Titus Flaminius was Praetor
of Sicily."
The truth of these accounts, which bear
the stamp of the age in which they were
written, we leave to the less easy faith of
modern readers.
Of the volcanic origin of these islands
no doubt can be entertained, and that their
first appearance was in pre-historic times is
the more probable, when we consider that
the earthquakes and other natural disturb
ances which must have attended the up
heaving of such colossal rocks, could not
have failed to have extended to the neigh
bouring shores of Italy, and therefore the
annals of any not utterly barbarous times,
must have contained some notice of it.

A ^

When I left Signor Costa's dwelling next

morning, refreshed by several hours of
sound sleep, the sun was already too high
in the heavens to allow of our ascending
the mountain that day, and we therefore
determined on employing the afternoon in
sauntering about the place.
I felt almost like a child and his presents
on a Christmas Eve, so impatient was I to
look upon the new scenery before me, and
to assure myself that the long dreamed-of
expedition to Stromboli was at last a reality,
and that I was actually walking on shores
so seldom trod by strangers, and could en
joy my feelings of remoteness from the
world, to my heart's content.
I sought in vain through all my recol
lections for a place to which Stromboli
bears the least resemblance; but neither
Italian, African, nor Asiatic character be-
l 2 longs

longs to it" none but itself can be its pa

rallel." Its majestic volcano rises to a height
of 3000 feet abruptly from the sea, and is
only accessible on the northern side, where
its base extends itself on an inclined plain
down to the shore. By its present inhabi
tants, as by the Ancients, it is still called
" Strongyle," and at a distance it appears of
the conical form whence its Greek name is
derived. But the regular shape disappears
when you come nearer to it. You then
perceive that it finishes in two tops of dif
ferent character, rent asunder and increased
in ruggedness, partly by the opening of
craters, and partly by the flow of lava from
them. Everywhere the effects of never-
ceasing fire are visible, constantly heaving
up its inexhaustible products, altering, en
larging, and destroying form and shape.
Stromboli has three towns or "contradi,"
as a number of detached dwellings with a
church in the midst, are here called. Each

house stands by itself, without any arrange

ment of street or row, having a flat roof and
being without windows, and consists of but
one room. Windows, or a second apart
ment, constitute a " palazzo," and such was
the name by which Signor Costa's was
known. None of these primitive houses
are without a " Pergola," which consists of
four walls of lava, covered by a rush thatch
to afford some shade to the inmates, for
there are no trees to be seen. Nothing
springs from the dark ground of ashes and
lava but the prickly bushes of a plant called
here " Tossiche," from its poisonous quali
ties. Outside the Pergola, and a few steps
from it, every house has an oven for baking
bread, and by its side a granary and a small
mill for reducing the corn to meal. The
dwellings and their outbuildings are all
painted white, and, distributed over the
black ground, have a pretty appearance, but
surrounded as they are by natural objects

of such magnitude, they appeal of Lilli

putian dimensions, and look more like the
pieces on a chess-board than the actual
dwellings of men.
The Contrada di San Vincenzo is by far
the largest. For nearly two centuries the
ground on which it stands has been tree
from the lava streams and from showers of
stones and ashes. Generally, the islanders
live in the most careless security, and look
to the eruptions of the volcano with perfect
indifference. They cultivate their little
plain s,which produce cotton and a delicious
kind of wine in abundance, and on the sale
of these they live. In 1 78 1 , by Dolamieu's
account, the island contained 400 or 450
men, hard-working people, with counte
nances of African cast, and tan-coloured
skins, and large bones. The dress of the
females consists of a faded gown and short
stays. A coarse shirt and a pair of trousers
are the whole of the men's costume.


With restless activity these people move

about all day long. Some were busy on
the shore, loading and unloading their own
and foreign produce. Some were repair
ing their vessels or their nets, while, in the
contrada, the women were engaged in pre
paring corn and other articles of food
which they import from Calabria. I ques
tion whether the blessing of freedom which
Garibaldi had bestowed on Sicily, much
interested these people, whose ignorance is
so great that perhaps few of them had ever
heard of him, and still fewer understood
what he had done for Italy; and yet
I was told that their strange behaviour and
inhospitable reception of us at our landing
was to be attributed to an idea they enter
tained that my friend was Garibaldi, and I
his daughter. This seems hardly credible,
though our landlord told it me himself.
Our appearance, especially amongst the
women, caused much wonder; all of them

left their work, and followed us about, their

numbers increasing at every step, till at last
their curiosity and boldness became so great,
that we were obliged to invoke the au
thority of Signor Costa, upon which they
mounted the roofs of their houses, whence
they could observe us without molesting us.
When we got to the shore, we apprized
some cf the people there of our intention
of ascending the mountain on the morrow.
Their astonishment was boundless, and,
with a shrug of the shoulders, one of the
most intelligent of them assured us that we
should find it impracticable, inasmuch as
the top was 3,000 feet high, and could only
be reached by a most fatiguing process of
wading through the deep ashes, and climb
ing over large and rough blocks of lava, and
by dangerous passages over chasms and
refts, and, lastly, that few, even of the in
habitants of the island, had ever ventured
on the undertaking.

Unfortunately, this accorded but too

well with what Du Pays says in his slight
sketch of Stromboli, and I now also heard
that it was hopeless to think of procuring
any beast of burthen to carry us over the
first part of the ascent, as there were but
two asses in the island, both of them blind,
and fit for nothing but to work the corn-
mills, so that I was fearful we might have
to abandon this the most interesting part of
our visit.
The whole of this afternoon was spent
in talking and running about, but, as night
came on, the crater afforded us a subject of
observation. Every ten or fifteen minutes
fiery showers issued from it, of ashes and
red-hot stones, some of which fell down
again into the abyss from whence they
came, and some, taking a more extended
range, fell, with a hissing noise, into the
sea. Every shower was accompanied by a
tremendous burst of flame, which some

times lasted for several minutes, and at

others subsided at once. A heavy sound,
like the explosion of a distant mine, was
heard after the outbreak of stones and flame.
It appears that the eruptions are much
more violent in stormy weather than they
are in summer and under bright skies, and
thus, at the time when the old poets as
signed the mountain as the dwelling-place
of iEolus, the volcano seemed as a kind of
barometer to the inhabitants, who prophe-
cied from the state of its activity which way
the wind would blow, and every change of
weather, some days before they occurred.
Solinus tells us (chap, xii.) :
" Strongyle JEoli domus vergit ad solis
exortus, minime angulosa, quae flammis li-
quidioribus differt a caetei is : hasc causa
hinc efficit, quod ejus fumo potentissimo,
incolae praesentiunt, quinam flatus in triduo
portendantur, quo factum uti iEolus rex
ventorum crederetur."

Pliny and Diodorus write much to the

same effect.
The mountain and the fishermen to-day
foretold but a poor prospect for us on the
morrow, and we now returned to the house
of Signor Costa, where my friend's com
missariat abilities were displayed to some
advantage. The wine casks still occupied
nearly half the room, but all the packages
of fruit were ranged along the walls, so as
to allow space for a small table, on which
were placed some wine and bread, and a
dish of maccaroni, flanked by two candles
stuck into bottles ! A couple of small casks
served us for seats, and we attacked the
potent Malvoisie, the brown bread, and the
maccaroni with hearty good will, but not
in private, for a number of the people from
the shore had followed us home, and were
now arranged in picturesque groups round
the room. The most notable among them,
however, was our host himself. His copper-

coloured countenance, his wide nose, full

lips, and short, crisp hair, stamped him of
African extraction. With the reputation
of being the richest proprietor in the island,
he had lately married a native of Lipari,
and he was the owner of several " palazzi,"
vineyards, and of cultivated land. In the
chamber in which I slept was a large press
full of household linen, and everything in
the house was kept with bachelor-like pre
cision, under lock and key. Every request
we made for any of this stock, darkened his
dark visage still more, and when he thought
we were going too far in our demands, he
heaved as deep a groan as if we had asked
for his soul ! At the top of the aforesaid
press there stood a small chest, on which a
lamp was always burning ; and no wonder !
for it contained his godhis gold, to in
crease which was the object of his life. We
were told that he never took anything out
of it. When he could procure what he

required without paying money for it, he

enjoyed it freely, and when he could not,
he went without, and often hungered, not
withstanding his palazzo, his vineyards, his
fields, and his gold.
The Captain's spirits rose under the in
fluence of the Vino generoso di Malvasia,
and he began to impress on the peasants
around us what great benefits they would
derive from the emancipation of Italy; how
the young men, instead of being fishermen
all their lives, might go forth into the
world, and return home after some years
with the riches and knowledge they would
acquire abroad. All this also made Costa's
countenance brighter, and, with eyes almost
starting from their sockets, he listened to
the promises of the Captain's harangue.
But when my friend wished to draw a prac
tical effect from his lessons, and asked him
to send him as soon as he could a few casks
of his delicious wine to Messina, where an

agent of his should receive and pay for it,

all the Signor's mistrust and prejudice re
turned, and the thought of parting with his
wine casks without having the money told
down into his hand first, actually drew
tears from his eyes !
The perseverance of the Captain in his
endeavours to convince the stolid boors of
the advantages he was holding out to
them, was highly meritorious, and equally
amusing; but I began to tire of it, and left
the room to retire into my own. I felt the
approach of sleep even under the influence
of my friend's oratorical powers, and was
on the point of dropping off, when I ob
served Costa entering the room, and, with
a muttered pretence that the light might
prevent my rest, he walked away with both
lamp and money-box !
I thought at first that my friend would
have allowed me to reap all the honours of
ascending the mountain, but when he per


ceived that I was quite in earnest, he ap

peared to catch my ardour, and determined
to accompany me with so much good will,
that he laughed away all difficulties and
dangers, and at once set about procuring us
some guides, in which, having succeeded,
about midday we all commenced our ex
pedition, with four fishermen to conduct
Although the clambering over large
blocks of lava was no joke to my lusty
companion, he endured it manfully during
the two hours we occupied in making our
way through the vineyards which stretch
away across the northern part of the isle.
The grape vines are not, as they are on
other lands, trailed over trees and poles, or
over stone blocks set upright, but they run
over a wooden trelliswork raised about a
foot above the ground, so that they may
enjoy the heat of the ashes beneath, as well
as the glow of the sun above.

Thick bushes of the wild "Tossiche"

and other prickly shrubs, which often in
truded on our narrow pathway, divided the
vines and hedged them in. Here and there
a fallen fig tree, or a half-ruined hut, were
the only variety offered to our eyes until
we had reached the confines of the vine
yards, and came to the bare regions of vol
canic stones and ashes. From this point,
which was about 1,000 feet higher than
the sea, we obtained a most interesting
view over the north-east part of the island,
on which stand the three contradi of San
Vincenzo, Pisulta, and San Bartolomeo,
whose miniature buildings again reminded
me of chess boards and men. Hence we
could likewise see the rocky isles of Strom-
boluzzo, one or two miles from Stromboli.
The sea, however, had an unpleasant leaden
colour upon it, the coast of Calabria was lost
in fog, and the weather predictions of the
fishermen seemed about to be accomplished.


Skilful guides, such as are to be met with

in all countries where there are mountains
of renown, and who pride themselves on
their skill in conducting travellers with
safety and convenience over them, might
here have saved us a world of trouble and
time. Our guides were not only entirely
destitue both of skill and pride, but they
seemed to put every obstacle in the way in
order to earn their pay without trouble, by
frightening us into giving up the expedi
tion. My friend perceived this, and was
all the more assiduous in smoothing the
difficulties which I found in this very diffi
cult walk. He engaged the service of seve
ral stalwart peasants whom we had met,
and thus we were now a considerable party.
He tried every mode of easing my way.
He endeavoured to inspirit the guides by
the promise of extra pay. We waded up
to our knees through the loose ashes, we
put all our energies into the accomplish-
m ment

ment of three steps forward and two back

ward, and became, even to ourselves, such
droll objects, that the loud laughter which
we could not resist, took away the last re
mains of our strength.
After hours of endurance we performed
our transit over the ashes, but as we began
to climb the steep which led up to the
crater, our laughter soon changed into sad
silence. The wind, bringing with it a
thick cloud of ashes, rushed upon us at this
great altitude with such force that we were
frequendy obliged to kneel on the ground
with our faces upon it, as travellers over
the desert do in a simoom. Even this hardly
saved us from being driven by the blast
along the slippery lava to a precipice which
here sank abruptly down to the sea. Still,
nothing daunted my friend's courage or his
endeavours to encourage me to proceed.
And this I did as long as it was possible,
but now that showers of fiery stones were


falling round us, and the overpowering

vapours of sulphur and alum almost de
prived us of breath, I thought we had ap
proached near enough to iEolus' (or rather
Pluto's) abode, and I declared that I could
not go farther. True, we were but a little
way below the summit, but the wind and the
approaching storm made it too difficult
and too dangerous to attempt more than
we had now accomplished.
No sooner was the wind behind us than
we felt the grateful change, but still we
were so blown about that it appeared as if
the angry god was determined to avenge
our intrusion on his territory, and hunt us
out of his domains. As we descended, we
selected another path over a sandy tract
which reaches the south coast. This sand,
which in the higher regions is fine, black,
and dazzling, becomes coarser as you de
scend lower. It is the same sand which
forms the productive soil on which the
m 2 fruits

fruits of the island luxuriate. We passed

several craters, which had been active at no
great distance of time, and over chasms
into whose depths we looked down, but
could see nothing but ashes and dross, such
as cover the outside also.
Our guides had left our water-flask be
hind, and had drunk up our little stock of
wine, so that we had nothing to allay the
tormenting thirst by which we had long
been oppressed. We, therefore, welcomed
most heartily the appearance of a spring of
pure bright water. This spring, welling
out of the volcanic ashes, and at so great a
height, is a most remarkable phenomenon.
It never fails, and when the cisterns and
wells of the town are empty, it is an invalu
able resource to the inhabitants. It was
our knowledge of the existence of this
spring which induced us to come thus far
out of our way, for it is not possible to
reach the shore by this route. We had

now, therefore, to make a retrograde move

ment by a path of sand, over which the
women of San Lorenzo come to fill their
vessels from the spring. By this means we
regained the track which led to the town,
though we did not reach it till the shades
of night had gathered over our heads. Cos
ta's palazzo was really a palace to us after
the fatigues we had undergone. We did
not repent our journey, nor did we repent
our having given up its full completion ; for
loud thunder and bright lightning were
now added to the rumblings and flashings
of the volcano, and a quite tropical rain
began to pour down its torrents, and we
shuddered to think what would have be
come of us in such a war of the elements
above and below, had we been caught in
it, three thousand feet above the spot where
we were now safely housed!



Voyage from Stromboli to PanariaThe islands on the

way, and the Isola delle Saline.

OWARDS morning the storm

abated and the sky became
clearer, and the departure of
a barque for Lipari, the
master of which was willing
to allow us to land where we pleased, at
either of the intermediate islands, deter
mined us to leave Stromboli to-day.
This time we were not poisoned with
onions, but there was a very full cargo of
raisins and figs and wine, the two former

of which were so badly packed, that every

one might have helped himself, to satisfy
his hunger, or spoil his digestion, as the
case might be.
Signor Costa was evidently loath to part
from such good customers as we were, and
having locked up his palace, he followed
us on board under the pretext of going to
see his wife. We were rather pleased at
this than otherwise, for he was really very
willing to serve us, and now knew what
our requirements were.
There was one other passenger, a young
native of Lipari, who had been at Strom-
boli on business, and was now returning
home. His coloured shirt was not very
clean, and his faded dress ought to have
earned its dismissal long ago by hard ser
vice; but the earnestness and interesting
pallor of his fine countenance, the elegance
of his carriage, and a languor about the
eyes, contrasted so completely with the ten

strong marinari around us, that I set him

down for a heart-broken lover, or a world-
sick traveller.
We asked the Padrone so many more
questions than he had time to listen to,
much less to answer, that Don Salvatore,
the young man I allude to, offered his ser
vices in that respect, and gave us a great
deal of information with a great deal of
good will.
It was a fine day for the observation of
nature, and as the Santa Maddalena began
to feel the wind, and sped over the rough
sea which had not yet forgotten yester
night's storm, we increased rapidly our
distance from San Lorenzo, while coasting
along the eastern side of the isle.
In the course of the first hour we passed
"di Lena," and came in sight of "Punta
dell' Uomo," the southernmost point of
Stromboli, the poetic character of which
was enhanced by a chapel dedicated to the
" Mater

" Mater dolorosa." Many a seaman, over

taken by a storm in these treacherous
waters, has invoked, in his extremity, her
pity and her aid. The chapel stands
more than a hundred feet above the shore,
and at the verge of a precipitous cliff. Seen
from the sea it appears to be unapproach
able, and one wonders what fairy hand
could have placed it there, and yet freshly
plucked flowers and an ever-burning lamp,
I was told, stand on its altar.
The inhabitants of Stromboli have
hitherto failed in procuring assistance from
the government to construct a road to this
at present unapproachable quarter of the
island, an object the more desirable as there
are many fine fig trees there, and land
which is capable of cultivation, the pro
duce of which the inhabitants could then
avail themselves of. As a protection against
the wild rabbits with which the island
abounds, the fields are surrounded by chalk-

stone walls, which gives the country a sin

gular appearance.
Towards ten o'clock, Stromboli was so
far behind us as again to reassume the co
nical form by which strangers know it, and
we now turned our gaze towards the Ar
chipelago before us, where a world of
beautiful islands and peculiarly shaped
rocks and reefs met our view. The most
blase of tourists might be roused into ad
miration by such splendid scenery. Right
before us presented themselves the little
islets ofBasiluzzo, Lisca Nera, Lisca Bianca,
Dattolo, La Formiche,with many a fantastic
rock between them, all under the protec
tion, as it seemed, of Panaria, distinguished
by its semicruciform hill, and its well-cul
tivated plains. In the same direction rose
the high conical mountain of the beauteous
" Isola delle Saline " (or Salina), and further
still in the western haze, faintly glanced
the summits of Felicudi and Alicudi,

while, to southward, Lipari stretched its

length like a continent, with its bays and
its promontories, and the lofty Monte San
Angelo, and to the left of that Vulcano,
and, last of all, Sicily was just distinguish
Basiluzzo was the first of the smaller
islands we passed. It has a circumference
of about two miles, is not inhabited, but is
partly cultivated. The form of this island
is the most fantastic I have ever seen, and
reminded me vividly of certain lead cast
ings which, in our childhood, my brothers
and I used to make at our evening fire,
from the shapes of which we prophesied
all manner of impossibilitiescastles and
forts, Gothic cathedrals, mosques and mi
narets ; in short, there is hardly anything
you may not imagine in the outlines of this
lava-covered rock. Lisca Bianca is an
islet which takes its name from the bright
colour of the lava of which it is composed.

It is not inhabited, but there are remains of

several dwellings upon it. Lisca Nera is
very small, and is distinguished from its
sister isle by the dark colour of its surface.
Dattolo can scarcely be called an island.
It is a mere rock, covered with various
kinds of lava, and is interesting to the
naturalist as having at its foot, the only
part where volcanic action still exists, a
spring of boiling water. There was no
possibility of landing here, as the rock
rises perpendicularly out of the sea, but
by skilful steering, the Padrone brought
his vessel so near as almost to touch it. I
put my hand into the bubbling water,
but I drew it back very quickly. The
rolling sea waves are not sufficient to
cool it down to a bearable degree, and
we heard the noise of its seething and
bubbling for some time after we had
passed it.
We passed the " Formiche " on our left,

and sailed over to Panaria, where we an

chored in its natural harbour, and here we
again placed foot on shore.
Don Bartolomeo, our Padrone, a very
sensible, and, for his position in life, a well
informed man, was not a little proud of the
" Scherzi della natura" of his native Archi
pelago, and flattered by the interest I took
in the voyage, himself advised our landing
on this island. He wished moreover that
we should convince ourselves of the truth
of the traditional idea, that Panaria, Basi-
luzzo, Lisca Bianca, Lisca Nera, Dattolo,
and La Formiche were formerly joined to
gether, and formed one crater, the last re
mains of which we had just seen at Dattolo,
in its boiling spring.
Without pretending to any scientific
knowledge of this kind, this theory seemed
to me extremely probable, and I had great
satisfaction in afterwards finding in the
work of Dolomieu, to which I have before


alluded,* that that intelligent naturalist had

written to the same effect eighty years be
fore. He says,
" I have no doubt of the former exist
ence of a crater which joined Basiluzzo,
Lisca Nera, Lisca Bianca, Dattolo, and La
Formiche with Panaria. It must have had
a considerable circumference, and a diame
ter of about six miles, and indeed its great
extent may have been the cause of its de
struction, inasmuch as it walls may not
have been of sufficient strength to with
stand the tremendous power of that stormy
sea, whose unceasing breakers, working,
perhaps, on some weaker parts, may have
beaten them in, and overflowed them so as
to have separated the original island into
the number of smaller ones which now
exist. This theory would also clear a point
which has long presented difficulties to
geographers and historians, namely, that
* Voyage aux Isles de Lipari.

the most exact of the ancient writers always

speak of these islands as consisting of seven,
whereas there are now certainly twelve,
and there being no work which gives any
account of the appearance of any new
islands, their unknown origin has given
cause for much difference of opinion
among modern authors, into whose heads
the idea seems never to have entered that
the islands which they collectively call
' Euonimos,' were but parts of the original
'Euonimos.' They have generally sup
posed that the additional islands were
thrown up by some submarine convulsions
in comparatively later times, similar con
vulsions and effects having been known to
have occurred in Italy and Sicily. The
division of the great crater may have taken
place during some storm of more than
usual intensity, and as the island was not
inhabited, and seldom visited, the increase
of number would be known but to some

few ignorant sailors, and thus remained for

a long time unrecorded. For this reason
it is impossible to assign any date to the
occurrence. Eustathius and Ptolomeus are
the first who mention the islands of Hich-
esta (Panaria) and Heracleotes (Basiluzzo)
in addition to the seven which all ancient
writers name. All recollection of the ori
gin of these additional isles must have been
lost in the year 138 of our era, and the
occurrence probably took place in the first
I think that no one who has ever trod
the soil of Panaria, and attentively marked
the formation of the island, can doubt for
a moment that it must once have been part
* " The sea which has taken the place of the former
crater, and now divides the islands which once formed
parts of the same, is frequently disturbed by certain
ebullitions which are caused by escapes of gas, thus
proving that volcanic action is still going forward below.
At times these ebullitions are very considerable, at
others much less so, and only indicated by the bursting
of air bubbles on the surface of the water." Note by

of a vast crater. It is on the whole more

flat than the others, and has, on the south
eastern side, a hill of semicrucial form,
which protects it from the sea, and affords
to the more inland part a strong, cliff-like
wall. This half cross encloses a small,
well-cultivated plain, on which the dwell
ings of the 400 inhabitants lie distributed
amidst vines and cotton plants, and vege
table gardens. A small bay in the centre
of this wall affords a kind of natural har
bour, though it does not give great protec
tion to the craft which are anchored there.
Panaria has a circumference of about eight
miles, and its soil is composed entirely of
ashes, dross, and lava.
The more solid kinds of lava, almost all
of them, have granite as their chief part,
which, although often much altered by fire,
is always recognizable. In some kinds, the
quartz and feldspar are fused into one an
other, and the mica unconsumed, while in
n others

others the mica has undergone change and

the rest of the conglomerate mass is very
like porcelain paste. I have also found
granite in its normal condition, and some
only a little changed by volcanic action,
and I only wish I could have devoted more
time, and brought more geological experi
ence to the investigation of this interesting
The day was now so far spent, and the
weather so threatening, that we did not
dare to venture on a long exploration, and
after two hours' exertion in walking over
the plains, and through the uncultivated
part of the country, we got back to the
vessel, where Don Salvatore and the crew
were impatiently expecting us.
We were scarcely on board when the
last bit of blue disappeared behind the
clouds, which had gathered from two op
posite quarters as if they were about to en
gage in a regular contest, and the storm

began in earnest. With a rapidity of suc

cession which even astonished the well-
travelled Captain, flash followed flash of
bright lightning, and a tropical rain fell
round us in a perfect whirlwind.
Our Santa Maddalena, however, was a
tight craft and not overloaded, and we had
an experienced crew to whom such wea
ther was nothing strange, and after about
an hour it was all over. The clouds di
vided, the blue sky reappeared, and the sun
shone out again. But while the storm
lasted it became impossible to keep on our
course to Lipari. The south wind had
driven us considerably out of the right di
rection, and to make Lipari with a wind so
adverse, we should have had to tack about
all night. We therefore resolved to steer for
the first landing-place on the Isola delle
Saline, which was a small fishing village,
called Santa Maria, and we reached it about
an hour after sunset.
n 2 To

To this alteration in our plan we were in

debted for a comfortable night's rest, and tor
a stroll next day over this picturesque island,
decidedly the most beautiful and, after Li-
pari, the largest of the group, having a cir
cumference of about sixteen miles, and
containing nearly 5,000 inhabitants, who
are located in four towns, of which Amalfa
on the north, and Cappella on the south,
are the principal. Lying, however, some
what out of the line from Stromboli to Li-
pari or Sicily, Salina is very little visited,
and, notwithstanding its large population,
offers very poor accommodation for tra
A gray-headed fisherman and his wife
willingly afforded us the use of their hum
ble abode. They were both so deaf that I
was obliged to have recourse to pantomime
to make them understand our require
ments, the chief of which were bed-linen
and water, and after having satisfied my


hunger and thirst with brown bread and a

glass of wine, I enjoyed a sound sleep on
the hard but clean bed of Madre Agnese.
The following morning early, the Cap
tain knocked at my door with the intelli
gence that we must get on board as soon as
possible, as the Padrone wished to avail
himself of the fair wind to sail at once to
Lipari. I hurried over my toilet, and sent
the Captain to try if he could not persuade
the Padrone to allow me time to ascend one
of the heights, in which he succeeded,
having agreed with him that the barque
should go round to Amalfa, and that we
should embark there, which saved us the
necessity of going over the same ground
With a light foot, and spirits unimpaired
by any luxurious supper or heavy break
fast, we started on our trip in company
with the two sons of our old fisherman
host. Seldom, I suppose, had a tourist trod

upon the ground on which we were now

walking, and our guides could not imagine
what motive we could have, but when I
told them of our wish to ascend to the
highest point on the island, they were both
startled and embarrassed.
There are three mountains in Salina,
forming by their position the three corners
of a triangle. Two of them meet at their
bases, while the third stands quite alone, di
vided from the others by a valley which runs
all across the island, so that at some dis
tance, when at sea, Salina appears to be two
islands. This originated its ancient name
of "Didyma."* Its present name is de
rived from certain salt mines on its southern
coast, which, though small, produce a suf
ficient supply for home use. The isolated
mountain is called "Malaspina." Its form
is a cone. Its height is said to exceed a

* " A forma Didymam id est Gemellam vocarunt."


mile, and although its point appears to be

unbroken, the guides assured us that the
crater of an extinct volcano is still apparent.
Its ascent is so steep that we entertained no
idea of mounting it. The other two,
Monte del Capo and Monte della Fossa di
Felce, divide themselves at about one-third
of their height, and then each takes a coni
cal form. The latter, although higher than
its twin brother, was said to be the easiest
of ascent, and therefore we chose it.
For about one-third part of its height,
as at Stromboli, we walked through vines
which cover the base of both, but when we
had reached their extremity we had to
make our way over ground that was thickly
covered with broom and underwood, and
we then began to find that our task was
more difficult than we had expected, and
we had sometimes to grasp the bushes
and drag ourselves up, in order to facili
tate our progress, and by this and other

means we at last accomplished our under

On the summit we saw evident remains
of a crater. A circular hole of thirty feet
deep and about 400 in circumference, was
surrounded by a bank or wall, and the
whole of the cavity was richly adorned by
a beautiful growth of ferns, which gives the
mountain its name of Fossa di Felce.
The day was not sufficiently clear to see
the prospect to its fullest extent, but still
we saw enough to convince us that it must
be one of the finest the Mediterranean af
fords. I cannot say what is the height of
this mountain, having nothing to guide me
but the time it took us to reach the top, but
even if it be not quite what our two fisher
men asserted it to be, namely, one-third
higher than that of Lipari, still it must be
one of the loftiest in this Archipelago.
Having to meet our vessel at Amalfa, we
of course went down by the opposite side

to that which we had ascended, and this,

though not overgrown with bushes, is so
thickly covered with large, sharp lava-
stones, as to be more unpleasant to walk
through. By this route we reached a small
church standing about the centre of the
valley already alluded to. In some parts
this valley is 1,000 or 1,500 feet broad.
Here cultivation is rewarded by Nature's
most lavish productiveness. Small houses
stand here and there, surrounded by gar
dens ; the vines are carefully trained, and
little plantations of trees afford a grateful
shade. This smiling picture reminded me
vividly of the plains at the foot of iEtna.
The level of this valley has been consi
derably elevated by the streams of lava
which have flowed from the mountains,
and it now falls off rather abruptly towards
Amalfa, and by a succession of step-like
gradations to the sea. This descent is
covered with a very hard kind of grain-like

lava of red and black, with white spots.

When in large blocks, the lava resembles
porphyry very closely, and I should think
might be as easily smoothed and polished.
It is a peculiarity in this island, that
wherever its steepness precludes cultiva
tion, a thick underwood covers the ground.
To the inhabitants this is a twofold advan
tage ; it protects the vines and other plan
tations from the force of the mountain
torrents, and affords a plentiful supply of
wood. They are therefore very particular
in the preservation of this bush growth.
About eighty years ago some of it caught
fire, and the flames spread with such ra
pidity that they threatened to cover the
whole base of the mountain. The islanders
were gready alarmed, and set themselves
as strenuously to work to stop the progress
of the fire, as if it were one of their most
valued possessions which was in danger of

Prosperity and contentment reign un

disturbed among these simple folk, who are
greatly attached to their beautiful home.
They grow no corn, but import what they
require in exchange for their raisins and
currants. They have no harbours, but
there are several places where barques can
lie in safety long enough for their small
trade. In happy freedom from cares, they
live on the produce of their industry, feel
ing secure from any eruption of their
mountains after the ages that have passed
since any can have taken place.
Dolomieu says,
"I know of no writer, historian, geo
grapher, or poet, who mentions an eruption
on Salina. Even tradition itself is silent,
and the time of the last must be very re
mote. You find here none of that porous
lava, or those light, spungy stones, which
denote recent eruption, and these volcanoes
must therefore have been in activity at

some very early period, but they must have

been very powerfully agitated then to have
produced such a mass of material as they
have thrown up. They are further remark
able in this, that though the existence of
craters at the summits is perfectly evident,
there is not a trace to be found of any vol
canic opening on their sides or at their

From Amalfa to LipariHousehold arrangements at
Lipari Don Salvatore LipariThe "Cassa" of
San BartolomeoThe murder of the SyndicCosta's
readingVisit to Sant' AnnunziataDonna Camela.

" Hinc deinde ad Cyclopas transiit, eosque reperit in

Insula Lipara (Lipara nunc, sed turn erat nomen ei Meli-
gunis)."Calymachus, Hymn in Diana.

HE voyage from Amalfa to

Lipari was a great reliefafter
the fatigue of our ascent of
Monte della Fossa di Felce,
and our long walk through
Salina. The passive travelling of a sea voy
age was as grateful to our tired limbs as
was the humble food of our dinner to our

hungry stomachs. The last crumb of the

stale brown bread was devoured with ap
petite, the last drop of Malvoisie drained
out of the earthen jar, and figs and raisins
made up for the deficiency of more sub
stantial viands. Although only a narrow
channel of two or three miles divides Salina
and Lipari at one particular point, we had
rather a longer sail before us, seeing that
Amalfa is situated at the most northern
extremity of the former, and the town of
Lipari is on the south-eastern coast of the
After coasting along Salina as far as
Punta Apullara, we struck off across the
strait (here about four miles broad), and
steered direct to Capo Castagna, which,
thanks to a favouring breeze, we reached
in time to finish our voyage while daylight
Lipari, the largest of the iEolian isles, is
twenty miles in circumference, and both

in form and surface is very irregular. Hills

and mountains rise to view in every part,
some of them joined at the base, and others
quite isolated. Even from the sea I could
perceive the deep fissures by which the
island is marked, and which have been
caused partly by mountain torrents and
partly by volcanic separations, for almost
everywhere remains of craters are distin
guishable, and the west coast, as Don Bar-
tolomeo told me, is rougher and more
steep than this. The variety in the colours
of the mountains gives the landscape a very
peculiar appearance. Some of them are
black, and of volcanic origin; others as
white as chalk cliffs, but covered in parts
with a thick growth of bushes.
The first point we neared was Punta
Sparanella, and then Capo Monte Rosso,
well named, truly, for its rocks and its earth
are both of one dark red hue. After we
had passed this point, on which is an

image of the " Madonna immaculata," the

bay in which Lipari stands opened to our
sight. The Metropolis of all the isles,
which is the residence of a bishop and a
governor, looks very attractive from a dis
tance. It is built partly on a high rocky
hill, rising near the sea, and crowned with
an old castle. Protected more by situation
than by art, this old citadel may have been
of use in defending the town from the in
cursions of the Barbary pirates. Vine-clad
hills, plains on which are scattered dwell
ings and gardens, plants of the aloe and
Indian fig, convents and roads shaded by
trees, form a pretty background to the ill-
built town, but still the picture wants that
piquante interest, which so often at once
seizes on the sympathies of the spectator
of an unknown scene. The thought also
that we were now to be confounded with
a population of 1 2,000 souls, we, who had
been enjoying the solitary feeling of such a

spot as Stromboli, the stillness of Panaria,

and the natural beauties of the seldom-
visited Salina, did not much predispose us
to welcome the Robber's-nest we were ap
The bay affords very little protection to
ships, being exposed to the north-east and
south-east winds. Not far from Capo
Rosso is a group of buildings named La
Pignatara, before which the larger vessels
lie in a kind of roadstead. On both sides
of the hill on which the town is partly
built, the shore forms two natural landing-
places for small craft. San Nicolo, the
larger of these, is on the right side, and
San Giovanni, the smaller, on the left. It
was here that, pulled and pushed about,
and gazed at by the dirty inhabitants, we
Although the question, where we were
to be housed, had been the subject of much
debating between Don Bartolomeo, Don
o Salvatore,

Salvatore, and Signor Costa, during our

voyage, our fate was still wrapped in ob
scurity and doubt. " If my wife has not
taken the key of my house with her into
the country," said Costa, " you will find it
quite convenient for you. Meantime, let
Don Salvatore take you to his father's,
where you can also remain, if I do not
find my key."
Followed by a noisy mob, fighting for
the privilege of carrying our luggage, we
walked up the steep main street until we
reached the dwelling of Don Salvatore, at
its farther end. His father, the sleek owner
of a coffee-house, rather demurred at re
ceiving us, the only room he had to offer us
serving as a place of meeting and smoking,
coffee, liqueur, and sherbet drinking, for
all the " Elegants " of Lipari. At Salina,
where we were only to sleep one night, it
mattered little where we lodged, but as we
proposed to remain here some days, as our

head quarters, making sundry excursions

thence, I began to be perplexed, particu
larly as old Salvatore told us there was not
a single inn in the place, and that Signor
Costa was the only person who could pos
sibly accommodate us. Fortunately, how
ever, at this moment, the Croesus of Strom-
boli came up, panting for breath, and hold
ing up the magic key which was to dispel
all our doubts. " Now you shall see what
a fine place I shall lodge you in," said he,
as he conducted us through a labyrinth of
little dirty lanes, and at last into a street so
narrow and so muddy, that I thought my
self in Tunis again. " In heaven's name,
do you think we have the plague, and must
go into quarantine," cried the Captain,
when he saw the steep steps we had to
mount in order to effect an entrance into
our much-lauded dwelling. "These rooms
are as bare of furniture as the chamber in
fort Emanuel at Malta, where they put the
o 2 travellers

travellers who have the misfortune to land

there from Alexandria."
"Oh! that's easily remedied," said our
host, as he thrust his head out of the
balcony, and shouted to the neighbours to
bring in some furniture for the foreign
" Signorini." A very amusing scene now
followed. Gain-seeking men and women
and half-naked children appeared at every
window, one exhibiting a table, another a
couple of chairs, a third a primitive sort of
bedstead, and a fourth a water-jug. Then
ensued a sharp debate as to the shameless
demands they made for the hire of these
valuables, and they would let nothing out
of their hands before I had paid for each a
perfectly ridiculous price, and this battle I
had to fight alone, for the Captain was out
foraging for fuel and bread, wine and
maccaroni, and whatever else he could
meet with. It was not long before he
came back with his booty, and applied

himself at once to the preparation of our

As to Costa, he was anxious only to be
off to his wife in the country, and he shut
up his house door upon us, and left us to
our fate. My friend withdrew to a little
recess in one of the rooms, where, in a tra
gical monologue, he grumbled over the
fatigues of the day, while I was in an empty
chamber adjoining, lighted by a dimly-
burning lamp, endeavouring to put the
luggage and the miscellaneous collection
of furniture into something like order.

In the gray of the following morning

came back Signor Costa, evidently having
been troubled with thoughts of our having
escaped out of the window, or called in
some neighbour to our assistance. His long
hawk's nose seemed still longer, and his
soulless eyes to start further than usual

from their sockets, as he, backed by two

sisters whom he brought with him, began
to offer his and their services.
The appearance of Don Salvatore was a
much more welcome sight, though so dif
ferent was his dress that at first I scarcely
recognised him. His coloured shirt was
changed for one of linen which glistened
with whiteness, and his faded outer gar
ments had given place to newer and more
tasteful apparel, while he had mounted an
elegant Calabrian hat instead of his old
cap, and its broad brim was particularly
becoming to his pale and thoughtful coun
"The weather," said he, "is so threat
ening, that I could not venture to recom
mend a long excursion, for if the wind
goes down it will certainly rain. However,
we may at all events risk a walk through
the town and up to the old castle, and I
came to offer you my guidance."

Nothing could be more welcome than

this proposal, and having impressed upon
Costa the necessity of keeping a watchful
eye upon our goods and chattels, as well
as upon our pot au feu, we followed our
obliging cicerone.
Lipari appeared to me, on that stormy
October morning, more ugly than it did
the evening before. The streets are paved
with small round black pebbles; the
low, one-storied houses, though originally
whitened, have become, through age or
weather, nearly black ; the surrounding
hills of which you get a glimpse here and
there, make a shapeless and colourless
background ; so that if I call this iEolian
capital gray, monotonous, and character
less, nothing else need be said about it.
We first visited the castle, the entrance
to which is at the end of the street in which
Don Salvatore lives, and at the extremity
of the town. In times past the whole

population lived within the three walls

which, with the sea on the fourth side,
enclosed the town, but the fear of the
pirates, and the increase of the population,
rendered necessary an extension without
the walls.
The annals of this old town might
doubtless have supplied history with much
that would be of interest, but there is not
a trace or a tradition of anything of the
kind. I sought and asked for information
in vain. All that I could hear was, that in
the first half of the sixteenth century a
noted corsair devastated the place, and
carried away a large part of its inhabitants
to slaverythat Charles V. afterwards re
built it, and that it was greatly injured by
earthquake in 1783. The comparison
may be a lame one, but the old castle,
with its half Moorish fortifications, re
minded me, in spite of its smaller dimen
sions, of the "Barbo" at Tunis. The

similarity may possibly consist in this, that

each contains a small world of its own.
Here lives the governor, his household, and
about sixty soldiers from Messina. The
old castle presents very little else worth re
counting. Neither the fresh leaf of the
more ephemeral creepers, nor the dark
green of the perennial ivy, adorn its wea
ther-beaten walls. A small plant, which
grows out of the centuries-old mortar, is
all of life that they present to view.
The churches, however, play a more
important part. Don Salvatore conducted
us over no less than four, of which that
dedicated to the patron saint of the town,
San Bartolomeo, is the principal. From
the higher ground you have a map-like
view which is interesting. Towards the
east the eye wanders over the bay, formed
by Cape Monte Rosso, and Cape Capes-
tello, while to the west you look on the
town, with its bishop's palace, hospital,

college, and other buildings, the whole

being of no mean extent. The wind had
increased so much by this time that we
determined to return again to the town.
I knew from the works of Diodorus and
others, that the baths of Lipari had been
held in high esteem by the ancients, and as
late as the beginning of the present century
a beautiful Mosaic-paved bath was said to
have been discovered, near to a temple of
Diana, which was mentioned by Polybius,
and I therefore asked Don Salvatore if he
would show us these remains.
"Willingly," said he; "they both stand
between the seminary and the bishop's pa
lace, and are not far from hence. I must,
however, tell you that no strangers have
been allowed admittance since the late
bishop, Todoso, shut them up because such
visitors annoyed him."
Hoping that some obliging custodian
might make an exception in our favour, I

persisted in going, and the matter ended

in twofold disappointment. Don Salvatore
stopped before an iron gate, through which
we saw a vineyard and a rather good-look
ing house. " That is all I can show you,"
said he ; " it is said there is a golden statue
of the goddess buried there, and several
other works of art; but the bishop lays
more store by his vines, than by any anti
quarian researches, and will not allow a
spadeful of the earth to be removed."
We had now exhausted the sights of Li-
pari, and could do nothing but return to
our lodging, particularly as the " aqua del
cielo," as the Liparians poetically call the
rain, began to descend upon us; but in
spite of the rain, Don Salvatore stopped
here and there to exchange some rather
mysterious whispers with many whom he
met. At last he stood still before a house
in the high street, which appeared to have
lately been damaged by shots, and it be

came clear to me that something had hap

pened to cause much anxiety among the
people. In answer to my inquiry, Don
Salvatore replied that the house in question
had belonged to the late Syndic, who
having raised suspicion of having em
bezzled the public money, had been put to
death by the people a few days before.
At this moment, Signor Costa, who
troubled himself with no kind of politics,
came out to tell us that our dinner waited
for us. We therefore invited Don Salva
tore to partake of it, and I endeavoured to
improve it by providing the gentlemen
with a good cup of coffee and a cigar at
its conclusion, and then entreated him to
give me some particulars of the strange act
he had alluded to.
" In order that you may not too hastily
condemn my countrymen," said he, " who,
though revengeful and superstitious, are
by no means wanting in morals, I must

first make you acquainted with the origin

and purpose of our so called ' Cassa di San
" Many many years ago, Lipari suffered
from a great famine. The distress it caused
had reached such a height that the poor
people knew not what to do for food,
when, one fine morning, they saw a large
ship, laden with corn, sail into the bay.
They hurried to the beach rejoicing, to
help to unload the heaven-sent vessel, and
put an end to their misery. The con
course of buyers was of course very great,
and the captain of the ship told them they
might take their corn now, and arrange
the payment on the morrow. You may
guess, then, their surprise when, next day,
it was found that the ship had left the bay
during the night ! Of course this could
only be the work of their Patron, San Bar
tolomeo, particularly as it was now re
marked that the ship, the master, and all

the crew, had borne the name of Barto-

" On this unclaimed money was founded
the * Cassa di San Bartolomeo,' and its
custody was given to the Syndic for the
time being, and it was decided that its
object should be to relieve any future dis
tress of the same nature.
" Such a time arrived, and the people
asked the help of the fund, but they applied
in vain ; and as all after applications always
received the same answer, and the last
Syndic (a creature of Francis II.) having
lately told them that * all the money was
gone,' without condescending to any ex
planation, the people became bitterly en
raged. Country people and townsmen all
armed themselves and joined in an attack
on the house of the Syndic, in order to
obtain possession of the * Cassa ' entrusted
to him, and revenge themselves on the
false and dishonourable trustee.

" It soon appeared, however, that the

house was garrisoned by thirty well-armed
adherents of his, and not content with
ordering them to fire on the assailants, he
himself fired the first shot. Every mo
ment increased the rage of the people, and
at last, when the Syndic, by a well-aimed
shot, had killed one of the most respected
of the citizens, his fate was sealed. He
tried to escape by leaping from a window,
but the crowd caught hold of him, and he
was literally torn to pieces.
" Short as was this struggle, considerable
damage was done, and several deaths oc-
cured, but as the l Cassa ' was found, and
7,000 uncia in it, the damage was easily
compensated; but we shall not so easily
forget the loss of our friends and rela
" The Syndic was a man of about thirty-
eight years old, and had filled the post
only eleven months. His attachment to


the Bourbons made him hateful to most

of us. He was the last of his family,
which is a good thing for Lipari, for that
family has for hundreds of years caused
much misery and wrong to the Islanders.
Thrice have his ancestors delivered the
town to the plunder of the pirates, and I
have often heard my father relate that
Policastro, the grandfather of the lately
slain Syndic, had (to serve private ends of
his own) secretly conveyed to the pirates
the keys of the citadel, in which the
frightened inhabitants had ensconced
themselves, and thus perfidiously betrayed
" And now," added Don Salvatore, after
a pause, and taking from his pocket-book
a paper, " allow me to ask you to place
this document before the Dictator. It is
a certificate from our Governor, that I,
and two young men of Lipari, did, at the
request of many of the citizens, on the

17 th March last, unfurl the tri-coloured

banner on the strand of San Giovanni, and
place it in the hand of the statue of our
patron saint which stands there, in the
hope that it would be respected under his
care. Although this was not the case,
for Sicily was then still under the dominion
of the Bourbons, it has at least shown that
our little community has declared for the
unity of Italy, and I am anxious that the
Dictator should know this."
Of course I engaged to do it if I had
the opportunity, and as it was now late,
he took leave of us with the promise to
call in the morning and take us an ex
tended tour about the Island.
The rain poured down with so much
violence, that Signor Costa had no inclina
tion to go to his country villa, and decided
on bestowing his tediousness on me ; and
this became so wearysome and annoying,
that I gave him several hints on the pro-
p priety


priety of going to bed, and of leaving me

to myself, but in spite of all this, he per
sisted in his frivolous questions, and make-
ing all sorts of absurd requests for my
interest with Garibaldi, so that at last I
neither answered him nor attended to him.
He then took up one of my newspapers
and pretended to be as deeply engaged as
I was, at times, however, uttering much
nonsense as if he were reading it in the
" So you can read," said I.
"To be sure," replied he; "I often
read aloud to my wife in the even
" You certainly are an extraordinary
reader," said I, seeing that it was a French
journal he had taken up, and that he was
holding it upside down.
Pointing this out to him, he said, in a
pet, " We always read so in Salina."
" Then," said I, " you must be as clever

as the singers of the Pope's chapel at Rome,

who are never admitted unless they can
read music forward and backwards, and
right and wrong side upwards."
Whether he took this as a compliment,
or whether he was ashamed of his igno
rance being discovered, I cannot say, but
he at once walked off, and left me to my
meditations, and then to my rest.

The Island of Lipari is the great maga

zine from which almost all the pumice-
stone consumed in Europe is derived, and,
notwithstanding the great quantity ex
ported, the stock seems exhaustless. Some
of the hills are entirely formed of it. It
is found in pieces of various sizes, mixed
with a white mealy ash. Large pits have
been opened at the foot of the mountains,
and in the valleys between them, and the
p 2 whole

whole island seems to be chiefly formed

of this singular substance.*
It is remarkable that the Isles of Lipari
and Stromboli are the only European vol
canoes which produce pumice-stone in
any large quantity. iEtna produces none,
and Vesuvius only in small pieces, and in
the extinct volcanoes of Sicily, Italy,
Spain, and Portugal, none is to be met
The " Cratere della Castagna " on the
northern end of the island is the most inter
esting of these pumice-stone mountains.
Being entirely covered with it and with
white ash, we fancied, on our first arrival,
that it was a dazzling white chalk rock,
and its contrast was great with its neigh
bour, Monte Sant' Angelo, the highest in
Lipari, and having a crater of the extra
ordinary diameter of 2 5 o feet.
* The reader may find in Dolomieu's work a very
lucid and scientific account of this substance.Note by
the Author.

Another sight of much interest are the

mineral springs, which steam out of Monte
Calogero, on the west coast, directly op
posite to Salina.
The ancients made use of these springs,
and they could no doubt still be made of
extensive benefit if there were but mode
rate accommodation for strangers. Every
thing, however, in this almost unknown
isle is so poverty stricken, that these heal
ing waters are used only by a few Cala-
brian boors and Sicilian soldiers.
"The use of the two hottest of the
steam grottoes," says Dolomieu, " has been
given up as being dangerous to life, and it
requires some courage to enter those of a
more moderate temperature. I should
certainly have been suffocated had I not
thrown myself with my face to the ground,
and yet I remarked with surprise that the
thermometer did not rise above 460, a tem
perature which the human body can very

easily bear. The sensation I experienced

was therefore solely attributable to the
gases with which the steam was impreg
" The baths lie about a mile from the
steam grottoes, in a valley not far from
the sea. The water bubbles up at the
foot of the mountains, and is received in
cisterns, and thence conveyed into the
baths. It is quite boiling, and must be
cooled many hours before it can be used."
As we could hardly have accomplished
the tour to the pumice-stone mountains,
the baths, and the steam grottoes, on foot,
and there are neither horses nor mules here,
Don Salvatore had bespoken some asses.
We had risen at daybreak, and had
already waited two hours, when he came
in to say that we must put off our tour to
another day, as the proprietor of these
animals, owing to the state of the weather
last night, had not run the risk of sending

them down. I told him that we could

not postpone it having no other day to
spare, since I had planned to go to Vulcano
on the morrow, and to Milazzo the follow
ing day, in order to reach Messina in time
for the steamer for Naples, so that we must
undertake the visit to the pumice moun
tains on foot, at the risk of not being able
to do more.
The Captain quite coincided with me,
and, in company with Don Salvatore and
two other young Liparians, we took the
road to the church of " Sant 'Annunziata,"
which lies about half way to " Quatro
We soon got over the sandy road which
crosses the immediate vicinity of Lipari,
and now reached a steep hollow way, in
which we encountered many peasants well
mounted on asses, but they all refused our
offers to hire them for the day. Fatiguing
as the road was, I did pretty well with the


assistance of Don Salvatore's arm, and in

deed we quickly outstepped the rest of the
party. The rock-bound road soon ended,
and we came out upon a smooth green
valley surrounded by mountains.
" Do you see, among yonder dark
foliage, a large house with balconies and
vine-encircled columns ? " said my young
companion, after a long silence, and as if
awakening from a dream. " Ebbene quest'
e la villa d'una mia innamorata," he softly
sighed out.
" A most romantic spot," said I, not
knowing exactly what to say. " Peace
and contentment breathe around it, and
it seems made for happy enjoyment."
" Ah, if you but knew how lovely, and
how jealous Donna Carmela is! She is
fair as the fairest of English women, fresh
as the opening rosebud, and formed like a
Venus ! She sings and plays the piano with
great talent, and she loves me so devotedly,

that to become mine she would risk any

" Then of course you will soon be mar
ried ? "
" Alas, no ! Carmela's father would
consent, but the dower he has to give his
daughter does not satisfy mine, who says
my wife must bring me at least 1,200
ducats, and Carmela has but nine."
"And so, for the sake of 300 ducats,
your happiness is to be prevented," said I,
in surprise; " if that be the case, and if
I were in your place, I would immediately
go abroad and endeavour to earn the 300
ducats, bring them to my father, and claim
Carmela as my own."
" I fear," replied he, " I am not so firm
in my .affections as Carmela is, and that
were I not to see her I should forget her.
My father sent me to Naples to try to
get this love out of my head, and I had
not been there a month when I fell in

love with a young actress, who cost me

so much money that, when he heard of
it, he sent for me home again; and no
sooner was I at home again, than my love
for Carmela returned."
" Did she know of your falsehood
towards her ? "
" Yes ; and when it came to her ears
her jealousy was terrible, and made her
quite ill, but when she saw me again all
was forgiven and forgotten."
Although I must confess that the naive
simplicity with which the poor youth con
fided to me his light behaviour was very
amusing, yet it quite destroyed all my dream
that he was the victim of an ill-placed
attachment, and my sympathy with him
was greatly diminished when I found that
it was Carmela, and not he, who was the
unrequited lover whom I ought to have
been pitying.
" I suppose," said I, "you had admission


into her house, and frequent opportunities

of seeing her ?"
" Not at all," he replied, " and we can
only meet in secret and by night."
"But surely there are balls or conver-
sazzioni where you might often meet."
"There are such, and before she had
completed her twelfth year I often met her
in that way; but since we have been lovers,
she dares no longer appear at them. She
is of such extreme beauty that I cannot
consent that she should be exposed to
other men's eyes before she is my wife."
" Then," said I, with something like
anger, " you are a prodigy of tyranny and
injustice. You enjoy every pleasure which
a young man can have ; you are untrue to
her, while you are sure of her unchanging
love for you, and yet you will not allow
her the least participation in the most
harmless amusements ! Do her parents
consent to this ?"

"On the contrary. Carmela is often

obliged to feign sickness to avoid going out
with them, and thus often incurs their
anger; but she braves all this in considera
tion that it is my will she should remain at
This youth's relation of his love affairs
with Donna Carmela interested me as a
study of character and manners, and for
that reason I have given our conversation
in full, from which the reader will see that
the young women of Lipari are considered
marriageable at twelve years of age, and
that they submit to a slavery which is
something like that of the Eastern women.
It now became clear to me why I had never
seen any young women in the streets, and
why my inquiries on the subject had always
been answered by the information that
they only go out when they have to attend
mass on Sundays or holidays.
By this time the sky had become covered

with clouds, and large drops began to fall,

and it was therefore with pleasure that I
discerned a little cottage where we might
obtain shelter, and await the arrival of the
Captain and his companions.
We found the hut full of peasants and
country people, who all greeted Don Sal-
vatore as an old friend. The owner also
welcomed us heartily, and offered us wine
and fruit. Soon afterwards the rain mode
rated, and, hoping that it was but an au
tumn shower, we proceeded on our way.
"That little house," said Don Salvatore,
" belongs to Carmela's father, and she will
soon hear that I have there." Our path
becoming more difficult, I could not keep
up a conversation and attend to the safety
of my steps at the same time. Disasters
seemed fated to attend our walk, and we
had scarcely reached the church before the
rain came down again, and looked as if it
would continue for hours.

The "Exvotas" which (as Don Salva-

tore called it) "adorned" the walls of this
church, were of the most disgusting de
scription. No sooner had I turned away my
eyes from one horrid image of disease, than
they fell on another still more sickening.
I could not remain there, and we therefore
began to plod our way back to Lipari,
through rain and through mud, to the irre
parable damage of our clothes.
Arrived at our lodgings, we had but just
changed our dripping garments for dry
ones, when the captain of the mail boat,
which weekly conveys letters from Lipari
to Milazzo, entered our room to ask if we
intended going thither the next day. I
told him that in such weather we could not
say for certain what we should do, and that
we had seen too little of this island to think
of leaving it so soon, particularly as we
wished to visit Vulcano.
" I will guarantee the weather," replied


the seaman. "At midnight it will hold

up, and we shall have a fine day to-mor
row, and a fair wind too. As to Vulcano,
you will have plenty of time to go there
before I sail. If you start at sunrise you
may go over to Vulcano, ascend the crater,
and be back here by one o'clock, and I do
not sail till three. At any rate I will wait
for you."
Maestro Peppo had an honest face, and
we placed confidence in it. We made a
bargain with him for our passage to Mi-
lazzo, and gave him orders to engage us a
proper boat to take us to Vulcano, and to be
in readiness for us at daybreak next morning.
Vulcano must therefore compensate us
for what we had missed seeing here, but
before taking leave of Lipari, I may still
give some few particulars of its natural
history, which I have gleaned from ancient
authors, from information, and from the
work of Dolomieu.


That excellent writer says,

" It is impossible to fix the period when
its volcanic fires became extinct, or rather
ceased activity, for it is plain they must be
burning still in some degree beneath the
boiling springs and the steam grottoes, and
therefore it is quite possible that they need
but some chance excitement to break out
afresh. The chronicles of the church tell
us that the holy Calogero, the protector of
the island, drove the evil spirits who lived
in the mountain called the ' Blackstone,'
from their abode, and that the eruptions
ceased from that moment, but that they
thence fled to the steam grottoes, where
some explosions then began. However,
he succeeded in driving them hence also,
and obliged them to seek refuge in Vul-
cano, where they now keep up a continual
fire. San Calogero appears to have lived
in the sixteenth century, in the time of
Theodoric, king of Italy, and if the chro


nicies in question are only grounded on

truth, we may suppose that Lipari began to
be free from eruptions about that time."
As some confirmation of this, it may be
stated that all writers who have spoken of
this island previous to the sixteenth cen
tury, talk of its volcano being in full acti
vity, while all who have written about it
since that time, speak of it as long since

* " In Lipara conspicuum ignem aiunt, atque lucen-

tem, non interdiu, sed noctu tantum ardere."Aris-
toteles de Admirandis.
" Sed quos amor excitat ignes
"Vulcani flammis Liparensibus acrius ardent."
Theocritus, Idyl. II.
" Nam Lipare, vastis subter depasta caminis,
" Sulphureum vomit exeso de vertice fumum."
Silius Ital : liber 14.
Among modern authors, Fazellus says of Lipari,
" Insula hasc ignem ex pluribus crateribus olim evo-
mebat, cujus ora et vestigia adhuc cernuntur."
Bottoni, in his 3rd book de Pyrologia, says of Lipari,
" Superiori saeculo extincti prorsus fuere ignes, sive
absumpta omni sulphurea materia, sive alia de causa :
eorum tamen vestigia adhuc cernuntur."
And lastly, Damico, in his Lexicon Siculum, article
0^ Although

Although Lipari, then, has been free

from any eruptions for some centuries, and
its subterranean fires now only serve to give
relief to the sick and suffering, the island
is still subject to violent shocks of earth
quake, and it is observed that they usually
cease when the eruptions atVulcano begin.
The population is 1 6,360, three-fourths
of whom live in the towns and the rest are
dispersed over the island in villages or in
single houses. Formerly they prepared a
large quantity of alum. Diodorus men
tions that they gained large profits by it,
and that the Romans raised a considerable
revenue upon its importation. This branch
of industry, however, is now given up en
tirely, and they confine themselves to the
culture of the vine, and the operations of
farming. Their Malvoisie wine, so de-
" Ignis porro expirationes quoque in ea quondam
fiiisse, Plinius, Strabo, Aristoteles, Siliusque testantur,
cujus vestigia adhuc praestant, etsi hodie eruptio nulla : a
multis abhinc sasculis nil tale visum scimus."

servedly esteemed, is exported in large

quantities, and their raisins and currants
are not inferior to those of Greece.
In the army of the late king of Naples,
his Liparian corps was among the best.
The Liparians keep up their old fame for
early marriages, and I suppose some of the
flames of the extinct crater must have
taken refuge in the breasts of the young
people, as witness the story of the passion
ate love of Donna Carmela.


VulcanoAscent to the craterSulphur manufacture
Eruptions of various timesDeparture for Mi-
lazzoStormLandingMadre Brigitta.

SHOT was a fine autumnal morn

ing, and Lipari looked its
best. The outlines of its
mountains showed sharply
against the clear and cloud
less sky; the shadows were so marked, the
sea glanced so brightly, and the atmos
phere, cleared by the last night's rain, was
so pure, that I felt quite inspirited by that
feeling of hope and expectation, on com
mencing a day of such promise, which only
those who seek to explore little-known

lands, and purchase their pleasure by toil

and danger, can understand.
The powerful arms of our boatmen
urged our boat rapidly along the eastern
shore of Lipari. The Monte della Guardia,
the highest point of this side of the island,
and deriving its name from a station on its
summit, whence a watch was formerly kept
over the motions of the Barbary pirates,
had not long occupied our attention, ere
we reached Cape Capistello. A favourable
breeze now allowed us to use a sail; and
almost before we thought it possible, we
came to Cape Capparo, where the channel
between the two islands is but a mile in
In crossing this channel we lost the pro
tection of the coast, and soon began to feel
the everlasting wind of these seas, but we
gained a picture which will never fade
from my memory.
The sails of a distant ship or a nearer

fishing-boat were all that met the eye in a

westerly direction, and the sea, unob
structed by land of any kind, stretches
into an invisible distance from this point
to the straits of Gibraltar. Towards the
north appeared the majestic forms of Feli-
cudi and Alicudi, and the south-west coast
of Lipari, and the north-eastern shore of
Vulcano were on each side of us. On both
shores the deep blue sea was breaking into
snow-white foam. Harmless broke the
waves upon the rock-bound shore of Vul
cano; harmless they dashed over the fan
tastic reefs that rose out of the sea, making
them look like sheeted ghosts set to protect
the coast, where they stand in unruffled
security, mute but eloquent witnesses of
the convulsions which have disturbed this
small portion of the earth's surface.
It took us little time to cross this nar
row sea ; we neared Vulcano, and the scene
I have attempted to describe vanished.

The north-eastern part of the island,

along which we were now passing, was
formerly a small separate islet, and was
called Vulcanello. Pliny, Isadoras, and
Eusebius relate that in the year 550 from
the foundation of Rome, a tremendous
earthquake, felt in Sicily and parts of Italy,
suddenly raised the island of Vulcano from
the sea, and more modern writers tell us
that a great eruption which occurred in
1550 stopped up the channel between it
and Vulcanello, making them one.
Seen from Lipari, Vulcano has the ap
pearance of a huge, headless skittle, but in
reality it stretches out from north-west to
south-east to a considerable length, and the
nearer you approach to it the more visible
become the deep refts and irregularities of
of its lava-formed mountain sides. In an
extent of twelve miles there are few places
where it can be approached, and on this side
only at Porto di Ponenti, and Porto di

Levante, two little natural harbours, to the

latter of which we steered our course, and
there we landed.
On our left we saw the highest moun
tain on the island, on which is the crater,
and from this point it is most easily ap
proachable. To our left lay Vulcanello,
and before us a valley into which the out
pourings of the volcano had rolled and
expelled the sea, which once divided the
two isles. This valley is covered with
white ashes, different kinds of slate and
stones, the produce of the crater. The
floods of rain-water have worn on its sur
face large furrows, in which appear frag
ments of pumice stone and lava.
Under the guidance of one of the mari-
nari we now began the ascent. At first
our path was up a gentle incline, and I
could enjoy the view which every step
made more perfect, over the whole Liparian
Archipelago; but I was soon obliged to

confine all my attention to the difficulties

of our road. In many places the rain of
the preceding night had made the ground
so slippery that our progress was often not
only toilsome but even dangerous, and as
Vulcano is as bare of bushes as of inhabi
tants, we found no friendly boughs to assist
us. Richly, however, were we at last re
warded for all our fatigues.
Although I was prevented from seeing
all that I might have seen of the natural
beauties of Lipari, I believe I may say that
Vulcano offers a higher degree of interest,
inasmuch as not only the remains of old
fires are everywhere to be met with, but it
has the superiority over Lipari in its still
existing activity. I would call Stromboli
and Vulcano the "iEolic Jewels," two
complete gems which are in themselves
worth a journey to these islands. The
magic charm of novelty and strangeness is
thrown over them both.

Neither trees nor bushes clothe the bare

lava surface of Vulcano. No creeping
plant adorns its deep recesses ; no mountain
stream bounds over its precipitous rocks, or
winds through a stony bed to the ocean.
Here finds the north wind no faded leaves
to scatter, and the softer sirocco no flower
ing grass to wave. On these distant shores
the ear listens in vain for the melody of the
nightingale or the trill of the lark. The
cheerful chirping of the cricket; the twit
ter of a flock of migrating birds ; the croak
of the raven, and the hum of the insect
world are unknown sounds ; and even the
solitary eagle disdains to wing its flight over
this forlorn spot, or take his perch, in con
templative stillness, on one of the mountain
crags. Here the wondering traveller walks
not upon scented flowers which, when his
foot presses them, fill the air with perfume,
but every step makes a dull, hollow sound,
breaking the deathlike stillness around


him. All vegetable life has fled before the

eternally glowing fires below, for even at a
moderate height one feels the earth tremble
beneath our tread, while steam and smoke
issue from every hole or crevice of the
quaking lava.
Involuntarily the idea lays hold of the
traveller that Vulcano must be on the eve
of some grand catastrophe ; some new island
must be on the point of issuing from the
seasome fresh crater be about to supersede
the existing one some universal over
throw be imminent.
But days, weeks, and months have passed
away since such an idea took possession of
my fancy, and yet no such phenomena
have occurred, and should any of my
readers chance to visit this wonderful cra
ter, they will doubtless find it exactly as I
left it, roaring, boiling, seething, and
It may have been about an hour and a half

before we reached a small plateau about

100 feet broad, upon whose surface several
tunnel-formed holes and smaller or larger
grooves appeared. These openings were
all covered with brimstone, and a white,
sulphuric smoke arose from each. Here
we availed ourselves of a few minutes' rest
to eat the luncheon which our guide had
brought with him, and whether it was the
sea voyage, or the mountain ascent, the
volcanic atmosphere, or all these causes
combined, the meal, composed only of a
few hard-boiled eggs and a piece of stale
brown bread, was most appetising and re
After a short rest we proceeded, and at
the end of an hour we reached the brim of
the crater. It had a circumference of two
miles, and a depth of about 300 feet, and
I believe that nature cannot offer any more
grand or imposing sight. The inner sides
of the walls descend steeply, and to pass


down them would be attended with other

dangers besides fire. We amused ourselves
with pushing over large stones and watch
ing them roll down, carrying with them
masses of brimstone, and at last falling,
thundering, into the depths below. The
light of day and the broad and regular
opening allowed us to see all the details of
the fiery abyss.
I should like to have seen the same sight
in the darkness of night, when the clouds
of smoke which issued from the crater and
all the other openings, are changed to
bright flames.
We had not time to go entirely round,
and therefore, having collected some inte
resting mineral specimens, we began to
think of our return, which of course was
much shorter and more easy than the as
cent, and in twenty minutes we had passed
over the ground which had cost us two
hours to toil up.

Fearful of being too late for the Milazzo

packet, we allowed ourselves hardly suffi
cient time to see the alum and sulphur
manufactory. This is the only building on
the island, and is placed at the northern
extremity of the small bay of Porto di Le-
vante, on the bank of a pond of brimstone-
water, which is extremely productive of
both these substances.
The superintendent of this factory at
tended us over the works, and initiated us,
as far as the time would allow, into the
mysteries of his craft. I could not but be
surprised at the immense quantity of alum
and brimstone produced in proportion to
the labour required, and exported in a
tolerably pure state. The poor people,
however, who work in the heart of the
crater, and in the holes and grots whence
they dig the raw material, have a hard and
dangerous fate. We met several of them,
men, women, and children, who follow

this employment, none of them having any

clothes but a pair of drawers and a sleeveless
shirt, and their appearance was hardly hu
man. Their hair, uncut probably from
their birth, fluttered round their sunburnt
faces, and their flesh was coloured with the
dust of the fresh brimstone which they
carried on their heads.
If, however, these poor mountain la
bourers excited my compassion, the direc
tor of the works and his sons created quite
a different feeling. Far from finding their
isolated position irksome, they assured me
their life was a pleasant and happy one,
and that they had the enjoyment of fish
ing and hunting on the other islands dur-
the best season of the year, and that read
ing and household employments fill up
the time of bad weather.
We were sorry we could not accept their
invitation to see their dwelling and to take
some refreshment, for the sun was now at

its highest point, and we were obliged to

return to Lipari.
During our row back, the marinari
amused themselves with fishing for our
benefit, and I had a good opportunity of
examining the "insula sacra," of which I
will now proceed to give a few particulars.
The origin and earliest history of Vul-
cano could only be known through the
means of the inhabitants of the other
islands, and no records of any kind exist,
so that when the eruptions have not been
of sufficient magnitude for their effects to
have reached Sicily and Italy, they must
ever remain unknown.
Many of the ancient poets and his
torians speak of the fires of this island,
which they supposed to be the veritable
forge of Vulcan. The first eruption of
which there is any record, is one which is
mentioned by Aristotle. In Agathocles
we read of the second, which continued

several days, and red-hot stones were

thrown to the distance of a mile. The
sea round the island is said to have been
as hot as boiling water. The third on re
cord, is dated in 144. It was so violent,
that the whole of Sicily and Calabria
trembled. On the 4th of January, 1444,
took place the fourth great eruption of
Vulcano. All the other islands as well as
Sicily experienced severe shocks of earth
quake. With a tremendous explosion,
an immense sheaf of fire issued from the
crater, discharging stones of a colossal
size as far as six miles ! In the years 1550,
1739, and 1775, and 1780, considerable
eruptions occurred, and all writers agree
that this volcano is never inactive.*
* " Insula Sicanium juxta latus iEoliamque
Erigitur Liparen, fumantibus ardua saxis." Virgil.
" In sacra Vulcanea, hujusque ex terra hiatu ventus
erumpit et foetor ingens; eructat quoque arenam, lapides-
que igneos, quemadmodum et iEtnae accidit."Diodorus
Siculus, lib. v., cap. vii.
" Altera insula, Hiera vocarunt, ex principio Vulcano
r The

The spreading of our sail put an end to

the fishing, but not till four large fish had
been secured. They looked so unhappy
in their tub of sea water, that I longed to
throw them back into the sea. I was in
deed on the point of proposing this to the
Captain, when he suddenly exclaimed to
the man who was steering, " What vessel
is that sailing away from Lipari ? "
" That's the l Scorridoza,' " replied the
man, after attentively examining her.
" What ! " said the Captain, " the Mi-
lazzo mail boatthe rascal Peppo pro
mised to wait for us ! "
" You must blame the weather, signor,
and not Peppo, for no doubt he thought
sacrata est, et plurima colle eminentissimo nocte ardet."
Solinus Polyhist, cap. xii.
" Inter hanc (Liparam) et Siciliam altera, ante a The-
rasia appellata, nunc Hiera, quia sacra Vulcano est
colle in ea nocturnas evomente flammas."Plinius lib!
iii., cap. ix.
Daniel, Bartholi, and Leandro Alberti, say that the
crater of Vulcano in their time was more considerable
than iEtna.

he could not safely delay his departure so

long. This wind will not last, and those
clouds coming up from the south betoken
an approaching sirocco, and when that
comes on, it may be many days before a
vessel can go from Lipari to Milazzo."
" And you tell us this as coolly as if it
were of no importance."
"Yes, signor, because I know that I
could take you there as well as the Scor-
ridoza. Our boat is as light as a feather,
and very strong, and if the wind were to
fail, we could row such a distance easily."
As he said this, the boat's keel grated
on the sand.
Giuseppe Costa welcomed our arrival,
and gave us the " saluti " of the Padrone
of the mail packet.
Captain D remained on the shore to
talk with the people about our further
voyage, while I walked to our lodging to
finish our packing. The four fish were
r 2 cooked

cooked and formed the chief part of our

dinner, and, with a supply of bread, the
whole stock of our provisions for the. boat
The departure of the Scorridoza was a
sad disappointment to me, and the pros
pects of the weather filled me with gloomy-
apprehensions. My friend, however, was
in one of his venturesome fits, and shortly
came in to tell me that the boat which
took us to Vulcano would be ready at
five o'clock to take us to Milazzo.
" But why go just as evening comes
on? Why not wait till morning?" said
I, not much inclined for an adventurous
night voyage. " There is no moon,
and the weather is so dubious, that it will
certainly be better to have daylight before
" The weather is never anything but du
bious here," replied the Captain. " How
beautiful was our night voyage to Strom

boli, and if we have no moon now we

shall have the more starlight ! "
I could not join in his pleasureable an
ticipations, and would much rather have
submitted to an evening with the tedious
Costa, than undertake this voyage. How
ever, trusting to the better judgment of
Captain D , I deferred to his decision.
The shadows of approaching night soon
began to cover us. Monte della Guardia,
Capes Capistello and Capparo all melted
into one mass, and Vulcano was clothed
in clouds of such density, that we could
not see her fires. There was no moon.
No polar star was visible, and clouds were
over all the heavens. My friend was
silent, and I sat anxiously waiting to see
what course he would take, for the dark
ness of the night and the noise of the
wind both increased, and at last I asked
him if he thought we might venture to
" Wait

" Wait till we reach the south point of

Vulcano," said he, urging the men to ply
their oars with more vigour.
We had combatted with the elements
for nearly two hours, when suddenly a
squall of wind that nearly blew our little
boat out of the water came upon us at the
moment we reached the point where our
fate was to be determined. Any one who
will look at the map and see the stretch of
ocean which lies before this point, both
east and west, and bear in mind that on a
dark October night, in a mere nutshell,
we were exposed to all that might happen
under such circumstances, may form some
little notion of our situation at this mo
ment. Nothing remained for us but to
put in to the nearest bay of Vulcano as
quickly as possible, for every wave threat
ened to sink our bark, and every wind-
stroke to annihilate her.
To accomplish our object, the sail was


to be hoisted, but the men were disputing

with one another, and did not obey the
Captain's order, and such confusion ensued
that I really thought our last hour was
There are moments of which one only
knows for certain that we lived through
them, without recollecting how we did it.
Among such mysteries I place our landing
on Vulcano's barren shore. It would be
impossible for me to describe this stormy
episode, for the danger we were in took
away all my powers of memory. Nothing
is now present to my recollection but the
glow of thankfulness which I felt when
the boat touched the strand, and I leaped
on shore.
Here we had no apprehension of being
the prey of a greedy set of robbers, or the
jostling of a rude rabble, but on the other
hand we had no prospect even of a fishing
hut to shelter us. We could not even find

a dry stick to make us a fire, for even

bushes or briars grow not here.*
But after the escape we had had, we
could complain of nothing, and thought
ourselves happy in the discovery of a sort
of cave, where, secure from wind and
wave, we could pass the night. Although
couched on the hard volcanic floor of the
cave, the sailors and my silenced friend
soon fell fast asleep. My own eyes re
mained long unclosed, and as wave upon
wave thundered against the rocks which
protected us, as if to remind me of the
dreadful death we had been delivered from,
the words of the poet came to my mind,

" Roll on, thou deep and dark blue ocean,

roll !
Ten thousand fleets sweep over thee in
vain ;
Man marks the earth with ruinhis control

* Dolomieu speaks of bushes which grow on this

southern part, but I saw nothing of the kind.

Stops with the shore;upon the watery

The wrecks are all thy deed, nor doth
A shadow of man's ravage, save his own,
When for a moment, like a drop of rain,
He sinks into thy depths with bubbling
Without a grave, unknelled, uncoffined,
and unknown."
No sooner did morning break than we
were all on foot again. The sailors had
refreshed themselves with a five hours'
slumber; the storm was allayed, and the
wind had changed in our favour, and with
sails spread we recommenced our voyage.
Unfortunately the calm was of no long
duration. The wind was constantly
changing, and of the thirty miles which
divide Vulcano from Milazzo, we had with
trouble and tedious tacking only accom
plished twenty-four in nine long hours,
when a sudden squall came from the west,

and we were in quite as difficult a position,

except that it was daylight, as that of Capo
Guardia, and here there was no friendly
bay to run into. In fact nothing remained
but for our poor marinari to put forth all
their strength to fight against the elements
which looked as if they would moment
arily overwhelm us.
I can never forget the sight of those
black hills of water, with their crests of
foam, which were rolling around us, and
rushing in and out of our frail bark in such
a manner, that the wonder was how she
stood before their power. My friend an
swered none of my anxious inquiries, but
his countenance was a sufficient reply.
The marinari cried to the Virgin, and the
Padrone shouted to them to attend to their
oars, but the whistling of the wind and the
roaring of the waves absorbed all other
My eyes were immoveably fixed upon

the far distant point of the Cape of Mi-

lazzo, and I reckoned every stroke of the
oars, and every mile that still divided us
from the shore. O how slow the minutes
seemed to pass! How often had we to
thank God for some narrow escape, before
the joyful moment when we could exclaim
"We are saved!"
Nobody who has not passed such hours
as we were passing, can fully understand
what was the feeling of security which we
experienced as we looked upon the shady
groves of olive trees which clothed the
long shore we were now coasting, over
comparatively smooth water.

Since those memorable July days of

i860, the name of Milazzo has been a
prominent one in the annals of the Sicilian
war of freedom. It was there that 7000
Bourbonists succumbed to 2,500 Italians.
Never was there a fairer field for the dis

play of his skill and heroism offered to the

dauntless leader of those volunteers, but
never was it more evident that he was pro
tected and favoured by Providence. Me
dici, at the head of his soldiers, lost his
horse; Cosentz, struck by a spent ball,
staggered and fell, and was supposed to
be dead, but he rose up again, crying,
"Evviva 1' Italia!" Missero, Breda, and a
number of distinguished officers were se
verely wounded. On the part of General
Bosco, neither men's lives nor ammunition
were spared, he succeeded in surrounding
Garibaldi with a perfect storm of bullets :
but as if invulnerable as Ajax, the hero of
Italy came out with only the loss of a boot-
sole and a stirrup. The contest which had
begun on the east side of the point of Mi-
lazzo had passed onwards to the west side of
the Gulf, where lay the frigate " Tukeri,"
and here Garibaldi, remembering how long
he had been a sailor, sprang on the ship's

deck, and up to one of the yards, on which

he stood directing the conduct of the
battle. Finding that he had thus drawn
on himself the fire of the forts, he and
twenty of his brave followers jumped into
a boat, landed, and at once placed himself
in the midst of the fray, which lasted an
other hour, until the Neapolitans, driven
from house to house, were obliged to seek
safety in the fortress. Sicily's fate was now

Whilst this beautiful and now peaceful

spot was awaking such recollections as
these in my mind, our boat reached the
landing-place. I was sorry that we could
not remain at Milazzo. Fearful of not
being at Messina in time for the French
government packet to Naples, we were
obliged to proceed at once, but as we
walked round the harbour, I could not

help stopping a few minutes at the church

in which, on the evening of that eventful
day, Garibaldi, surrounded by his staff,
had slept the sleep of the weary. There
on the marble pavement, with his saddle
for a pillow, and a piece of bread and a jug
of water at his side, he stretched his tired
limbs and slept.
Never, Sicilians, let that picture fade
from your memories ! Tell to your children
and to your children's children, what the
magic name and the ready hand of that
man did for you, for them, and his country.
Let his heroic deeds be the subject of your
songs; let them celebrate the modern Ar
gonauts, and the re-appearance of a " Fata
morgana " of ancient times.

What we had first to do was to seek the

best means we could find of getting over
the seven miles which divided us from

Barcellona, whence there is a diligence to

Although three months had passed since
the battle, Milazzo still bore many evi
dences of it. There was so large a number
of sick and wounded soldiers in the town
that the hospitals and houses, inns and
streets, were full of them. By the promise
of an exhorbitant payment, we at last
found a man who would lend us a two-
wheeled car and a lame and blind horse to
convey us to Barcellona. It was without
seats, but its sides were painted in a horrible
manner with a representation of the fires
of purgatory.
The interest we took in Milazzo and
our hurry to get onwards, combined to
make us indifferent to the calls of hunger,
and to the state ofour toilette. Since leaving
Vulcano for Lipari, we had had nothing
to eat but the four fishes we had caught,
and some bread ; and having on our voyage

hither been many times drenched by the

waves which swept over our boat, and
been deprived, by the same means, of hat,
mantle, and shawls, I leave the reader to
guess our situation in both respects.
However it was not cold, although night
was approaching; and I hoped to be able
to sleep in our car, and thus cheat my
hunger, waiting as patiently as I could till
we should arrive at Madame Moller's com
fortable hotel, there to supply our in
ternal and external wants.
We must, however, have presented a
sufficiently wretched appearance, for as I
was watching our driver bringing out his
lean Rosinante, there came up to me a
poor old woman to offer me her compas
sion, and beg me to come into her dwell
ing. It consisted but of one room, with a
little garden behind, where some fine fig
trees formed a pleasant shade. Here she
made me sit down, while she fetched me

some white bread (probably all she had)

and a jug of water. I looked at her in
silent astonishment, surprised also at the
cleanliness and order of the house and her
" You have certainly reached a fine old
age, good mother," said I.
" Ninety-eight years can Madre Bri-
gitta number," she replied, "but not so
much for that do I thank God, as I do for
having enabled me to live to see the deli
verance of my country, and set eyes on the
'divino Eroe' to whom we owe that de
liverance. Four of my grandsons and six
of my great grandsons serve under his
banner. In spite of my age, I managed to
creep down to the harbour to see him land.
I wanted to kiss his hand, but that he
would not permit. He bent from his horse
and said, 'Your blessings rest on your
grandchildren, Madre Brigitta; they are
among my best men.' "
s Hot

Hot tears rolled down the old woman's

cheeks as she related this to me. I thanked
her for her kind hospitality, and offered
her a reward for it, but she held back and
would not receive it.
On this, I took from my head a silk
scarf, with which I had supplied the want
of a hat, and throwing it over her neck, I
bid her wear it for my sake.
Disinterested hospitality is something so
rare among the Italian common people,
that it is a pleasure to record such an in
stance as this. Indeed, the whole conduct
and appearance of Madre Brigitta made so
deep an impression on me that. I resolved
to adorn my little book with the incident,
though perhaps her earthly career may be
over before it is read.


HE first thing we saw as we

approached Messina, was the
smoke rising from the fun
nel ofthe " Vatican" steamer
which was already getting
ready for her departure. We had there
fore but just time to obtain the necessary
visas to our passports and hurry on board.
I had been thinking of the solitude of
Vulcano, and fancied that I was listening
to the internal rumblings of the mountain,
s2 and

and to the incessant beating of the waves

against the shore; but it was the distant
thunders of war that now floated on the
air. Capua had not yet surrendered. The
anxious breathing and the feverish restless
ness of a people, the last link of whose
chain was about to be broken, were every
where perceptible, and having received no
accounts from Naples for some days, we
left them in doubt, but we left them also
in hope, as we steamed our way towards
the beautiful Parthenope.
After all the dangers and all the suffer
ings of the past week, the elegant arrange
ments of the French packet appeared to us a
floating paradise of refinement and luxury.
In our uncertainty as to whether we
should go further, we had secured berths
only to Naples, and, arrived there, we
hastened on shore that we might form our
decision from what we might hear there.
We heard that Garibaldi had established

his head quarters at Caserta, but that he

was mostly at Capua, where something
decisive was hourly expected to happen.
There seemed therefore so little chance of
our obtaining an interview with him while
his time must necessarily be so entirely
occupied, that I determined to go on with
the " Vatican," and I was just on the point
of seeking the " Bureau des Messageries,"
when I heard my name pronounced by a
familiar voice, and looking round me, I
saw two Garibaldians approaching me,
each with an arm in sling.
" Evviva Frusciante," I cried, as I re
cognized in the elder of them, Garibaldi's
trusty and inseparable friend. " How comes
it that you are not with the General ? "
" I have had fever, and am, as you see,
wounded also ; and it is the General's wish
that I should repose here for awhilebut
how came you here, signora ? "
" I have this moment arrived from Mes

sina, and in an hour or two I am going on

by the same steamer," said I.
" And without seeing Garibaldi ?" asked
the true-hearted Romagnole.
" I hear that he sees no one who has not
important business with him, and as I can
not make use of this plea, how can I ex
pect him to see me ? still I should be very
sorry to displease him."
" That is as impossible," said Frusciante,
" as that you should go away without visit
ing him. My companion is Captain Cal-
cinadi, who will see that you are allowed
to travel on the railroad. By six o'clock,
you will be in Caserta, and there you must
look out for our old friend, Carpeneto, and
he will find means of conducting you to
the General."
Such a prospect I could not withstand,
and, therefore, we found ourselves in a
very short time seated in a railway car with

twenty-four Garibaldians, of almost as

many different nations.
It was dark before the train stopped.
The square below the palace was filled
with soldiers. Bivouac fires, pyramids of
cannon balls, carts and waggons, men run
ning to and fro, and horses frightened and
uneasy, made up such a crowd, that it was
no trifle to steer our way through it.
The fortress of Caserta, one of the
largest and finest in Europe, formerly the
scene of the aristocratic revels of the Bour
bon despots, was now the central point of
the business of the war of freedom. Its
lordly porch and entrance court, and its
spacious staircase, all were now abandoned
to the use of the volunteers; some sleep
ing in one corner, some eating in another,
some repairing their clothes by the faint
light of a lampeverywhere picturesque
groups of them were to be seen. Red-
coated cavalry and infantry, deputies from

the provinces, important-looking civilians

and national guardsmenjostledone another,
each too much occupied with his own af
fairs or duties to heed those of others.
Agreeably with Frusciante's assurances,
I reckoned upon Carpeneto's aid to reach
the General through this mass of his be
siegers, but I was much annoyed to find
that he had unexpectedly been sent to
Naples. All the efforts which Captain
D could make to get my card conveyed
to Garibaldi were entirely fruitless, for in
the hall which led to his apartment there
were hundreds assembled. It contained
no seats, and not a single female form was
visible, to which circumstance I believe I
owe it that some one brought me a stool.
" The signora is apparently an English
woman, and probably a friend of the
Dictator," was said several times to me, but
although I assented, it did not seem to do
me any good.

Three long hours had been thus wasted,

when the entrance of Count Persano set
the whole company in commotion. Cap
tain D fortunately knew him, and by
this means at last I got my card sent in,
and presently the friendly admiral came
out to tell me that as soon as he had
finished his business with the Dictator, I
should be admitted ; and in about half an
hour I was accordingly introduced.
Wrapped in his ample poncho, secured
at the throat, after the South American
fashion, Garibaldi was seated at a small
table covered with papers. Some might
have expected that he would appear radi
ant with the glory of conquest, and entirely
preoccupied with reflections on all that he
had done, and had yet to do. No such
thing. Calm and serene as a childjust
as when last I had seen him at Turin, the
evening before his departure against the
Austrians, in May, 1859ne rose at once

to weleome me, and begged my excuse for

having detained me, as Admiral Persano
had " something to say to him."
"Your visit affords me great delight,"
said he, kissing both my hands ; " it is plea
sant to think that you have not a second
time run through Naples without calling
on your old friend. I heard of your being
at Maddaleni, but not till you had left.
May I order an apartment to be prepared
for you ?"
I thanked him heartily, but declined his
kind hospitality, as I must go forward that
evening. I told him shortly the chief of
what I had to communicate, and could not
say half of what I wished to say, on ac
count of the number of people who now
pressed upon his attention ; but it is a pe
culiarity of Garibaldi's, that in the midst
of the most important affairs, he retains a
child-like interest for more trivial things,
and thus he took advantage of every pause

to turn to me with some inquiry to make,

or some anecdote to relate. The enchant
ment of his manner is incontestible, and it
is not women alone who feel it.
At another small table sat his secretary,
Bassi, and his friend, Carpeneto, who had
that moment returned from Naplesboth
intensely occupied before a mountain of
letters and documents, which were not
important enough to trouble the General
"See," said Garibaldi to me in a lower
tone, and holding out his watch and chain,
"your present has never left me, through
all my troubles and dangers." He then
drew forth a small dagger from its sheath,
and said, "This also was a lady's gift,
twenty-five years ago, in South America,
and she was a dear friend likewise; and
although it has ever since been worn at my
belt, I am happy to say I have never used
it to any one's injury."


He afterwards spoke of his children,

and particularly his daughter Teresa, ask
ing if I did not think it time she was mar
ried* The "vexato questio" also, of the
annexation of Savoy and Nizza to France,
came upon the tapis, and he spoke with
the same bitter feeling of Cavour's conduct
in this affair, which I have before noticed.
He inquired with deep interest after the
opinion and condition of his native town,
which I had left so lately, and glanced
quickly over the letters I had brought him
from his friends there, and over the poem
I have already spoken of.
A greeting which I brought him from
* My conversations at this and other times with
Garibaldi were always interesting. From one of them
I drew up an account of his wanderings after his wife's
death till the time of his settlement at Caprera, which I
insert as an Appendix, in the hope that it will prove as
full of interest to others as it did to me ; and having
thus added one Appendix, I will venture on a second, in
order to give greater permanence to an account of a
little tour I made with him and his family, and which I
published in the " Times " newspaper of the 20th of
October, 1859.


some fanatic friends of freedom in Hun

gary, who said they hoped to see him
among them, seemed to flatter him. He
asked their names, and said :
" The Hungarians in my ranks are
among my best soldiers. They are nume
rous and energetic, and whenever my own
country is freed entirely from foreign rule,
I should not refuse them my aid."
The entrance of Medici with important
despatches now claimed the General's un
divided attention. It was moreover get
ting very late, and Carpeneto had more
than once reminded me that the train
ordered for me was awaiting my pleasure.
Here, therefore, let me take leave, not
only of the hero of the day, but also of the

" My task is done

My theme has died into an echo."

The kaleidoscope of the beautiful Mo


lian Archipelago is closed to me for ever ;

it exists only in remembrance, and that,
says Jean Paul, is "das einzige Paradies
aus welchem wir nicht vertrieben werden
Appendix No. I.

HE thirty-five days of wandering which fol

lowed the death of Anita, and of which, I
believe, no record exists, must, no doubt,
have formed one of the most remarkable
episodes of his eventful life. Imagine the
noble fugitive, at one time disguised as a
Romagnuolo, threading his cautious way through a band of his
Austrian pursuers ; at another, sharing bed and board with the
rough-mannered Croats ; and at another, appeasing his hunger
and thirst with the berries of the hedge bushes ; till at last he
reached that native boundary where his life was safe, though
scarcely his liberty.
But whenever, during this perilous flight, he could venture
to make himself known, he always met with sympathizing
hearts, good wishes, and hospitality.
From St. Alberto, Garibaldi went to Ravenna, where con
cealment was offered to him, but he was fearful of compro

mising his friend, a high price having been set on his head, and
the enraged Austrians being in hot pursuit. He therefore con-
tiuued his journey, under the protection of some friendly
Romagnuoli, to Forli, and thence to Modigliana.
When he related to me these scanty particulars, he dwelt
with evident pleasure on the skilful contrivances by which his
protectors forwarded him on his way. This was only accom
plishable during the hours of darkness, and by means of a
" Biroccino." The moment the shades of night had deepened
sufficiently, Garibaldi, Reggiero, and a faithful Romagnuolo
placed themselves in such a carriage, and started at a quick
pace. Arrived at a predetermined point, the carriage stopped, .
and a light was struck. A similar light immediately appeared
from the depths of some neigbouring thicket, and the carriage
was again put in motion ; but when no answering light
appeared, it was to be assumed that danger was near. In this
case the travellers alighted, and committed themselves to the
care of another Romagnuolo, who silently led them by a differ
ent path till they reached a spot where another carriage was
awaiting them. At Modigliana, it was a young ecclesiastic
who conducted them as far as Tigliari, on the Tuscan borders.
His name was Giovanni Verity and I have never heard Gari
baldi speak with more admiration of any man than of this
young priest. He described him as a type of strength and
manly beauty, praised his tact in threading the dark paths, and
spoke with animation of his noble sentiments, and of his filial
reverence for an aged mother.

At Fiorenzula, Garibaldi and his companion crossed the

Apennines, and in a public house on the road, between La
Fluta and Prato, where they were obliged to rest awhile, they
came in such close contact with an Austrian detachment, that
their escape was almost incredible.
Sunk in thought, Garibaldi was sitting with his elbows on a
table, and his face buried in his hands, when a band of Aus
trian soldiers suddenly entered the house, crowded round him,
and overwhelmed him with inquiries after the "rothen
Teufel," whose track they were following. For full three
quarters of an hour did he undergo the importunities of these
people without allowing them to get a single glance at his
face, which, notwithstanding his present costume, would have
cost him his life, for the classic lineaments of that face could
not fail to be recognised by any one who had ever seen it.
From Prato he passed over Empoli, Volterra, Panarana,
and Massa, to Fullonica, where, after a day or two, he found
shipping to Elba. In that island, however, he thought it too
dangerous to remain, and after only a twelve hours' sojourn,
he steered in an open boat to the continent, in order to coast
along the shore till he should reach the Sardinian territories.
His frail barque had scarcely come within sight of the heights
of Livano, when she was seen by an English ship, the captain
of which, a good-natured fellow, took him on board and lar ded
him at Venere.
Thus, after five weeks of perilous wandering over land and
water, Garibaldi found himself once more on his native shore,
t with


with the hope of reaching the city of his birth unmolested, but
scarcely had he entered Chiavari, when he was arrested, and
conveyed as a state prisoner to Genoa. Here General La
Marmora ordered him to be taken on board the frigate " Carlo
Felice," then lying in the harbour, with instructions that he
should select some place of banishment, as he could not be
allowed to remain at Chiavari.
To this inevitable necessity of course he submitted, only
expressing his wish to have twenty-four hours to visit his chil
dren at Nizza.
This was granted, and the "San Georgio" received orders to
convey him thither, and bring him back after one day's stay
there, when he would be again placed on board the frigate.
Garibaldi seemed not to know how sufficiently to extol the
sympathizing attentions of the captain, who, I think, was
called Zara, and all his officers.
Having selected Tunis as the place of his exile, the steamer
" Tripoli," was ordered to convey him thither, but the Bey,
under French influence, refused to permit his landing, and the
" Tripoli," till further orders could come from home, sailed
for the island of La Maddalena, not far distant from the coast
of Sardinia.
Here he resided undisturbed for about a month, in the house
of one Pietro Susini, when Falchi, the commandant of the
island, wrote to his government that he considered it danger
ous that Garibaldi should be so near to Sardinia, and accord
ingly a brig of war, called " II Colombo," under command of

Captain Demoro, was despatched from Genoa to conduct him

to Gibraltar.
The governor of that fortress permitted him to land there,
but at the same time gave him to understand that he must not
remain longer than six days. There was nothing left for him,
therefore, bandied as he had been from one land to another,
but to trust himself once more to the more accommodating
ocean. Embarking in a small boat, he arrived safely at
Tangier, and though entirely unacquainted with him, he sought
the residence of the Sardinian consul.
In this gentleman, Signor Carpeneto, he found so warm a
friend and so hospitable a host, that he lived with him for
nearly six months, that is, till April, 1850, after which he
sailed for Liverpool, and there, for the first time, he had an
attack of that acute rheumatism, with which he had afterwards
so often to battle.
As soon as he felt well enough, he took his passage to the
United States, and remained during one entire year at New
York, the first half of it in the city itself, and the second in
Staten Island, where he obtained employment in the factory of
his friend and countryman, Meucci. It was during the even
ings of these busy days that he wrote his autobiography. He
had, on his arrival at New York, declined the offered honour
of a public reception, and he always encouraged his banished
countrymen to prefer even the humblest employment to the
acceptance of foreign assistance.
The occupation, however, which his friend's factory gave
T 2 him

him, could not satisfy his ardent mind, and the command of a
merchant vessel being offered to him, and his friend Carpeneto
having joined him from Italy, they undertook together a voy
age to Central America.
He first sailed to Nicaragua, and thence to Granada and
Panama, where he caught a fever which brought him so near
to the grave that he was under the necessity of relinquishing
the command of his ship. On his recovery, he went, in an
English steamer, to Lima, where he arrived at the end of
1 85 1, and there he and his friend parted company. In
January, 1852, he accepted the command of a merchant ship
called the " Carmen," which belonged to a Genoese of the
name of Negri. In this vessel he made several long voyages,
one of which took him, by way of the Sandwich Islands, to
Canton, whence he sailed for Australia, and in the beginning '
of 1853 he came back to Lima. After making voyages to
Valparaiso, Boston, and New York, he left the " Carmen,"
and became captain of the " Commonwealth."
This new undertaking soon brought him to England, and
after a short stay at Newcastle, and another in London, he
went back to Genoa in May, 1854.
Here Garibaldi closed his wandering life. The Sardinian
government, become less suspicious, offered no opposition to
his residence in his native land. In perfect retirement he
passed a year with his children in Nizza, only undertaking an
occasional coasting trip, as captain of the " Salvatore," to
Marseilles. Tired of a vagrant life, he now resolved upon

establishing himself at Cape Testa, near Santa Teresa, in the

northern part of Sardinia, with which view he embarked in
the steamer " St. George," for Porto Torres. A violent
storm overtook her in the Straits of Bonifacio, during which
one of the labourers whom Garibaldi was taking with him,
was washed overboard, and it being found to be impracticable
to reach Porto Torres, in great distress the poor "St. George"
sought refuge in the calmer waters of La Maddalena.
This occurrence greatly modified Garibaldi's plans. He
remained some time in the island, and on his return to the
continent he left full powers with a friend to purchase a con
siderable, but entirely uncultivated, tract of land in the neigh
bouring island of Caprera. In May, 1855, he took possession
of this estate, and his first dwelling on this inhospitable mass
of granite, as he himself related to me on a subsequent occa
sion, was an outstretched sail.
As time passed, and he had erected a handsome house in the
South American style, he sent for his son Menotti and his
daughter Teresa, to participate in his labours of cultivation
and share his retirement from the world. In 1856 he bought,
at Liverpool, a cutter called the " Emma," which he intended
to employ on freight between Caprera and the main land. In
January, 1857, he had loaded this vessel with materials for the
new quay at La Maddalena, and brought her safely as far as
the Punta della Moneta, when she was discovered to be on
fire. Fortunately it was in the day time, and all the crew
were saved. The ship and cargo being insured, his loss was

but small. Deprived of this occupation, Garibaldi now

devoted himself to the cultivation of his estate, and the com
pany and education of his children, until the end of February,
1859, when the Sardinian government recalled him to Turin,
to take command of the volunteers, who were destined so soon
to gain their laurels as the corps of" Cacciatori delli Alpi."
And now dawned upon the long inactive warrior, a new, a
glorious life. How, in the cause of Italian freedom, he added
victory to victory, and one heroic deed to anotherhow, as if
aided by enchantment, he bore victoriously the tricoloured
banner from the Alps to he exceeded the hopes
of the most sanguine, and threw into shade the most brilliant
acts of historyit may perhaps be permitted me to record at
some later time.
Appendix No. II.

EN years had passed away since Garibaldi

had wandered about the environs of
Ravenna, a hunted fugitive, when I
found myself, in company with Menotti
and Teresa, and a young couple of the
name of D , on the road from Nizza to Ravenna.
A rumour that the "Famiglia del prode Generale" was
shortly to arrive, seemed to have preceded us, for already in
the suburbs numbers of people hurried to the windows to
catch a glimpse of the fair Teresa and her herculean brother.
When, at last, our poor Vetturino horses, plucking up the
very best of their sinking strength, made a showy dash into
the Piazza del Palazzo, and entered with a loud rattle its lofty
archway, a dense crowd surrounded the carriage. The
General met us at the foot of the staircase, and, after an
affectionate welcome, led us to our rooms. I was rejoiced


to see how well he looked. Every vestige of his last severe

illness had disappeared from his lofty brow, and the " aureole "
of satisfaction, which his newly-gained successes and the
dawning happiness of his beloved country, displayed around
his fine features, heightened, if possible, their beauty, and
made him look ten years younger than when I saw him at
Having shaken ofF the thickest of the dust we had col
lected in our long journey, we were summoned to dinner.
In passing through the vast suite of costly decorated
rooms, the General presented us to several of the first
gentlemen of Ravenna, and to His Excellency the Marchese
Rosa, from Turin, who had been sent by the Piedmontese
Government as " Intendente " and " Delegato Politico " at
Ravenna. He received us with so much courteous cor
diality and unaffected affability that his acquaintance gave us
all the greatest pleasure.
We had scarcely been half-an-hour at table, when the
" Evvivas " of the assembled multitude became so clamorous
that the Marchese induced Garibaldi to gratify them by
appearing at the window. " All the shouts you hear," he
said, "gush from warm hearts. They are a brave people,
and they cannot dissemble, and whatever they demonstrate
they feel;" and this he repeated more than once, before
he could overcome the General's modesty.
At the balcony, he pronounced one of those short but
pithy speeches of his, which find their way straight to the

heart. Not the slightest noise was heard over the large
open space where his sonorous voice resounded, as he
thanked the people for all their proofs of sympathy and
affection. The wind was lulled, the flags hung downwards,
and the audience seemed scarcely to breathe for fear of
interrupting the solemn silence.
One must have followed, as I have done, the life of the
noble warrior in all its vicissitudes, self-denials, and sacri
ficesone must know, as I do, what virtues adorn his
private life, and what a generous part the brave Romagnuoli
have played in the most stormy period of his adventurous
career, to be able to judge of the feelings which overcame
me while, at his side, I witnessed the spectacle of that
memorable evening !
As soon as Garibaldi had spoken, and permitted the first
frantic outbreak of enthusiasm to subside, he retired from
the window ; but Madame D , and I and Teresa, to
whom such a scene was no everyday occurrence, did not
leave the balcony so soon.
It was now night. The whole Piazza was in a blaze of
illumination. The ever-changing effect of light, produced
by the flaring torches on the tri-coloured banners, as they
moved in the different processions through the thronging
multitudethe military band of joyous music, which was
sometimes actually overpowered by the clamorous shouts,
and the newly-invented epithets of endearment for the
" amato figlio del popolo "and, over all, the deep blue

sky, with its countless stars, whose peaceful twinkling

seemed to sanctify the ovations devoted to the illustrious
Champion of Italy's libertywas not all this really edify
ing, and the thought that it was a justly-merited tribute to
virtue, personal valour, and magnanimity, was it not enough
to move the most indifferent of spectators ?
Ravenna, anciently the capital of the Western Empire,
the residence of the Gothic and Langobardic kings, the
metropolis of the Greek exarchs, is one of those cities
whose monuments illustrate its history. It has churches,
palaces, museums, and mausoleums, such as no other city
but Rome can boast of. Within its walls repose the chil
dren of Theodosius, and among tombs of exarchs and
patriarchs rests all that was mortal of Dante. But now
the city, " of old renown, once in the Adrian sea," would
have merely to lament over the decay of former magnifi
cence, had not nature gifted it with a gem whose majestic
grandeur will outlive all human monuments.
Who has not heard of Ravenna's famed Pineta? Is it
not Italy's most ancient, and, in classical and poetic
respects, most renowned Forest ? Its praises have been
sung by Dante and Boccacio, and echoed by Dryden and
Byron. It has supplied Rome with timber for her fleets,
and the banners of Venice, in the time of her supremacy,
floated on the masts it furnished.
This venerable forest now adds to its classical annals


the most touching drama of modern times, for it was there

that, in 1849, on ms retreat from Rome, the magnanimous
Garibaldi sought refuge from Austrian pursuit. It was in
this labyrinth of underwood that the prescript hero wandered
from farm to farm, from hut to hut, from thicket to
thicket, sometimes separated only by a providential bush
from a detachment of infuriated Croats. It was here that
he learned to know of what heroic sacrifices, and what deep
devotion the uncorrupted and incorruptible Romagnuoli are
capable ; but it was here, also, alas ! that the saddest event
of his eventful life occurredthe loss of his adored wife
A visit to the Pineta being part of the General's object
in his invitation to us, it was on a fine morning, at eight
o'clock, that we started on our tour. The General, Madame
D , Teresa and I, were in the first carriage, and the
rest of the party followed in other carriages. The weather
was beautiful. A mild autumnal breeze tempered the heat
of the sun. Our horses set off at a brisk trot, and in a
short time we reached the skirts of the Forest. It extends
along the shore of the Adriatic for thirty-five miles north
wards from Ravenna, covering a flat, sandy tract, which
varies in breadth from one to three miles. It forms an
endless succession of lovely glades and avenues, intermingled
with occasional thickets, over which creeping plants of
numerous kinds display their luxuriant flowers and ripe
berries. The wild cherry, apD e, and pear, laden with
fruit ;

fruit ; festoons of wild vines, bending under the weight of

their succulent bunches ; shrubs of barberry, blackberry,
and dogrose; in short, everything seems to be assembled
here to do homage to the forest king, the lofty pine, which
rises above all in majestic grandeur, spreading out its
graceful branches, offering to the winged inhabitants of
this fine solitude the safest of haunts, and furnishing the
neighbouring population with a rich store of " Pignoli."
Mute with admiration, we beheld with delight the ever-
changing effects of light on the tops of the trees, and the
velvety turf over which we were silently gliding. What
could be more interesting than, in such a scene, to listen
to the fascinating and instructive conversation of the illus
trious man we were accompanying? Notwithstanding the
lively emotions that scene must have raised, the General
was this morning particularly disposed to be communicative,
and he began by giving us a few details of his late campaign,
describing it as " Una Campagna Magnifica," not only
because the dangers to which he and his soldiers were
exposed were light when compared with the successes
achieved, but because he had not once been obliged to
utter a reproach, or inflict a punishment. On the Romag-
nuoli he bestowed the highest encomiums, and he assured
us that among all the towns of the Romagna, Ravenna
distinguished herself by the entire absence of all spirit of
caste, and by the loyalty and union which prevailed among
her inhabitants. He enumerated many persons who had

rendered him particular services in 1849, and dwelt long

on the praises of a certain native of Concacchio, by name
Bonnet, who had rescued him from the grasp of the Aus-
trians at the risk of his own life !
But if such grateful feelings lived in the heart of Garibaldi
towards the brave Romagnuoli, neither had they forgotten the
man for whom they had exposed themselves to danger : and
the report of his visit to the Pineta had not failed to
animate its solitary paths. The further we advanced, the
more frequently were we obliged to stop to receive the
demonstrations that were offered. What splendid types of
manly beauty are these Romagnuoli ! Strength, energy, and
loyalty speak out of every feature ! Some of them seemed
dumb with emotion at the sight of the idol of their long-
cherished hopes, as they clasped convulsively the General's
hand, and fixed on him their dark deep eyes, more eloquent
than words !
After a drive of about thirteen miles, the shades of the
forest became more transparent, and our carriage, making
a sharp turn, stopped before a farm-house. Here we all
alighted, and I soon found that this was the Factor's of the
property of the Marchese Guiccioli, and that the modest
room in which we were sitting was the identical refuge in
which Madame Garibaldi, a true victim of heroism and
conjugal love, had breathed her last sigh upon the bosom
of her sorrowing husband !
I pass over the joy with which the Farmer received


the Hero, after his ten years of difficulties and dangers, and
will only add, that in that lonely spot, we found a table
loaded with delicacies ; but that which gave a zest to the
banquet was the heartfelt happiness with which it was offered.
Eighteen guests were seated round the table, but every
now and then some brave Romagnuolo would come in to
salute the General, or to recall to his remembrance some
perilous escape in which they had been sharers : and thus,
in a short time, the room became crowded, and beyond
the door we could also see a mass of heads.
After dinner, an Engineer Officer, in a short address, in
which he recounted the Hero's chief exploits, proposed
his health, and Garibaldi, after expressing his warmest
thanks, continued as follows :
" You have just recounted my history, and it is my part
to tell you how proud and happy I am to find myself again
among the brave people, of whose courage and attachment
I have witnessed so many instances. I repeat to you that,
to the last moment of my existence, I shall be devoted,
body and soul, to my country. For fourteen years, without
pay or reward, I have served the cause of liberty in other
lands. What, then, will I not do for the land of my
birth ? Events are progressing favourably ; but there is still
much to be done. The day is not far off when Italy will
regain her complete independence. This time it must be
accomplished ! and from the Alps to Sicily she must be
free !

free! Fifteen days are enough to make a brave Italian a

brave soldier ! It is not an embroidered uniform that his
merit will consist in. Look at the Zouaves ! In their
simple dress they are the first soldiers in the world ! I
remember once finding myself, during my American cam
paign, in the midst of a vast plain, where neither from
the interior nor from the seaports (which the enemy had
blockaded) any of our necessities could be supplied. The
herds of the plain were our only resource. Their flesh
was our sole nourishment, their skins were our protection
from the heat of the midday sun, and our covering at
night; and yet, I assure you, our soldiers, armed with the
simple musket, performed prodigies of valour ! We were
the terror of the Imperialists, and my few hundreds of
ill-clothed but hardy men put to rout the enemy's thou
sands ! But we, we, my friends, want arms ! And that
this want may cease, I have proposed that Italy should
form a subscription to purchase a million of muskets !
Think only how many wrongs we have to redressbear
in mind what a series of years has witnessed a foreign
oppressionremember to what ignominious deaths have
been condemned a Cicero Vacchio and his young sons, a
Ugo Bassi, an Antonio Elia ! You may not, perhaps, re
collect this last martyr to the cause of Italian liberty !
Let me relate to you one trait of his heroic courage.
Antonio Elia, a native of Ancona, was a simple sailor.

He had scarcely attained his twentieth year, when the

vessel he navigated Was captured by one of those Turkish
galliots which then infested the coast of the Adriatic.
The Turks manned their prize with ten of their own sea
men and an officer, confining all the original crew below,
except the young Antonio, whom they retained for their
own service. A violent sirocco came on, and the extreme
obscurity which accompanied it awoke in Antonio's brain
the idea of delivering himself and his comrades from their
captivity. He walked silently to the prow, where he got
possession of a hatchet ; armed with this formidable weapon,
he returned to the spot where he had left the Commander,
and struck out with his hatchet; but the blow fell on
the deck ! For a moment he hesitated to draw it out,
but the officer, surprized at the noise, and suspecting
something wrong, drew his yatagan, and wounded Antonio
severely on the left shoulder. The latter, seeing his blood
flowing, launched his axe again at the pirate, and laid him
dead at his feet! Encouraged by this success, he now
turned to the crew, and, as if endowed with supernatural
force, he slew them all but two or three, who, with cries
of horror, leaped overboard into the sea ! This Antonio
Elia, a very lion of courage, fell before the Austrians in
1849, because he would not clandestinely abandon his wife
and children."
Thus interestingly the General spoke, and much more

than this. It was not an orator, seeking to astonish an

audience by eloquent periods : but a chief, an adored friend,
in open-hearted converse with his faithful adherents,
awakening in them sentiments of patriotism by the recital
of acts of heroism !
But the hour of our departure had come, and we were
obliged to take leave of our kind entertainer, and regain
our carriages.
We had not driven above a mile, when we stopped
before a small country church, at the door of which stood a
priest, who, with a low voice and humble gestures, invited
us to enter his modest chapel. Neither my companions
nor I could doubt the purpose of his invitation, when he
distributed amongst us little coronals of fresh flowers, and
conducted us to a recess near the altar, where, we felt
certain, reposed the ashes of Anita Garibaldi ! We dropped
our garlands and our tears upon the grave, and after a few
moments of silent but intense emotion, we remounted our
carriages, and pursued our route to Sant' Alberto, where
we were again received with acclamations of joy. We were
soon afterwards met by the Marchese Rosa with despatches
from Bologna, and our departure for that city was fixed for
the morrow.
Our journey thither was a series of ovations, some of
them almost frantic ! At Lugo and at Medicina these
demonstrations reached their climax. Horses were no longer
u needed

needed. I could not relate half the mad pranks that were
played around us. Suffice it to say, that at least they
evinced the love with which the General was regarded ;
and thus, amidst the clanging of bells, the report of cannon,
and the blaze of the illumination, we at last reached our
house at Bologna !

F. Skoberl, Printer, 37, Dean Street, Sobo, W.

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