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PROCESS STD 101

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CONTENTS PAGE

1.0 GENERAL 1

1.1 Vertical vs. Horizontal Drums 1


1.2 Length to Diameter Ratio (L/D) 2
1.3 Slope 2

2.0 DRUM SIZING - VAPOR/LIQUID SEPARATION 2

2.1 Vapor Space 3

2.1.1 Critical Vapor Velocity 3


2.1.2 Allowable Vapor Velocity 4
2.1.3 Vapor Flow Area 5
2.1.4 Disengagement Height 6
2.1.5 Pressure Drop 7

2.2 Liquid Space 8

2.2.1 Surge Time 8


2.2.2 Liquid Level 9
2.2.3 Water Settling (drawoff pots) 10

3.0 DRUM SIZING LIQUID / LIQUID SEPARATION 14

3.1 Settling Rates 14

3.1.1 Droplet Sizes 15


3.1.2 Settling Rate Limitations 16
3.1.3 Emulsions 16
3.1.4 Settling Time of Some Water Systems 17

3.2 Separation Zones 19


3.3 Approximate Diameter 19
3.4 Heavy Phase Space 20
3.5 Light Phase Space 20
3.6 Minimum Residence Time 20

FOSTER WHEELER ENERGY LIMITED 2002


This is an electronic copy of the Foster Wheeler Process Standards. The information has not been
updated apart from the revision and date of issue. Caution should be exercised in the use of time-
dependent data such as cost information.
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CONTENTS PAGE

4.0 INTERNALS 21

4.1 Mist Eliminators 21

4.1.1 Crinkled Wire Mesh Pads or Screens 22


4.1.2 Chevrons 25
4.1.3 Baffles 25

4.2 Liquid Space Internals 25

4.2.1 Vortex Breakers 25


4.2.2 Baffles 25

5.0 DRUM CONNECTIONS 27

5.1 Process Nozzles 27

5.1.1 Vertical Vessel Inlet 27


5.1.2 Horizontal Vessel Inlet 28
5.1.3 Bottom liquid Outlet 28
5.1.4 Top Vapor Outlet 29
5.1.5 Hot Gas Bypass 29
5.1.6 Liquid/Liquid Inlet 29

5.2 Auxiliary Nozzles 29


5.2.1 Minimum Auxiliary Nozzle Sizes 29
5.2.2 Vents and Depressurising Nozzles 30
5.2.3 Drain and Steamout Connections 32
5.2.4 Blowdown and Pumpout Connections 33

5.3 Safety Valves 33


5.4 Instrument Connections 33
5.5 Access Openings 34

6.0 SPECIFIC DRUM DESIGNS 36

6.1 Accumulator Drums 36


6.1.1 Horizontal Drums 36
6.1.2 Vertical Drums 38

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CONTENTS PAGE

6.2 Knockout Drums 39


6.2.1 Diameter Determination 39
6.2.2 Liquid Holdup 40
6.2.3 Drum Height 40
6.2.4 Nozzles and Connections 41

6.3 Flash Drums 41

6.4 Process Steam Drums 41


6.4.1 Horizontal Steam Drums 42
6.4.2 Vertical Steam Drums 44

6.5 Emergency Blowdown Drums 45


6.5.1 Noncondensable Blowdown Drums 45
6.5.2 Condensable Blowdown Drums 52

6.6 Fuel Gas Drums 58


6.6.1 Fuel Gas Knockout drums 58
6.6.2 Fuel Gas Mix Drums 58

7.0 GENERAL COMMENTS ON PROCESS SPEC. OF DRUMS 60

7.1 Drum Sketch 60


7.2 Vessel Data Column 61
7.3 Nozzle Chart 62
7.4 Minimum Design Pressure Stamp 62

8.0 EXAMPLE PROBLEMS 64

8.1 Design of Accumulator (Surge) Drum 64


8.2 Design of Knockout Drum 69
8.3 Design of Flash Drum 71
8.4 Design of Process Steam Drum 73
8.5 Design of Flare Knockout Drum 75
8.6 Design of Condensable Blowdown Drum 78
8.7 Design of Liquid/Liquid Settling Drum 86

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LIST OF TABLES

Table Table Description Page

1.1 General Foster Wheeler Practice for Length to 2


Diameter Ratios

2.1 Allowable Velocity Factors 4

2.2 General Surge Times 8

2.3 Maximum Pot Diameter 11

2.4 Minimum Pot Diameter 11

3.1 Droplet Sizes 15

3.2 Settling Times of Some Water Systems 18

5.1 Minimum Sizes for Auxiliary Nozzle Connections 30

5.2 Typical Instrument Connection Sizes 34

6.1 Maximum Steam Rate 44

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure Figure Description Page

1 Useful range of Mist Eliminators Appendix-1

2 Calculated Separation Efficiency Appendix-2

3 Plot of Critical Velocity Vc vs. Gas Density Appendix-3

4 Cylindrical Tank Capacity Appendix-4

5 Capacities of Horizontal Drums Appendix-5

6 Volume of Ellipsoidal Head of Horizontal Drums Appendix-6

7 Partial Volumes of Horizontal Cylinders


Appendix-7
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Figure Figure Description Page

8 Chord Lengths & Heights vs. Areas of Circular Segments Appendix-8

9 Cylindrical Drum Data Appendix-9

10 Baffles and Vortex Breakers Appendix-10

11 Required Submergence for Outlet Nozzle without Appendix-11


Vortex Breaker (Metric Units)

12 Required Submergence for Outlet Nozzle without Appendix-12


Vortex Breaker (English Units)

13 Vessel Dimensions for Displacer Type Level Instruments Appendix-13

14 Drag Coefficient vs. Reynolds Number Appendix-14

15 Flash Steam Nomogram Appendix-15

16 Allowable Steam Loading in Boiler Drums Not


Appendix-16
Equipped with De-steamers

17 Specification Sheet for Horizontal Drums Appendix-17

18 Specification Sheet for Vertical Drums Appendix-18

19 Specification Sheet for Vessels Appendix-19

20 Typical Accumulator Drum Appendix-20

21` Typical Knockout Drum Appendix-21

22 Typical Flash Drum Appendix-22

23 Typical Horizontal Steam Drum Appendix-23

24 Typical Flare Knockout Drum Appendix-24

25 Typical Condensable Blowdown Drum Appendix-25

26 Typical Liquid/Liquid Settling Drum Appendix-26


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Figure Figure Description Page

27 Details of Internals Appendix-27

28 Liquid/Liquid Settling Drum Baffle Detail


Appendix-28

29 Specific Gravity vs. Equilibrium Temperature Appendix-29


and Pressure

30 Required Distances for 90! elbows Appendix-30

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1.0 GENERAL

Process drums are provided to perform certain functions. Some of the more
common functions are listed below:

Separation of phases such as vapor from a liquid, one immiscible liquid


from another, or solids from a fluid phase.

Residence time of material either for surge to dampen process


fluctuations, for storage of products or feed, or for reaction time.

Mixing of differing materials.

This standard applies primarily to those drums that are provided for the
separation of fluid phases or for surge.

1.1 Vertical vs. Horizontal Drums

Process drums may be classed as vertical, horizontal, or slanted


according to their installed position. In some services, one position or
the other has definite operating or economic advantages and is usually
employed. In other cases, the position is generally determined by plot
plan considerations rather than operating advantages. Where the choice
between a vertical and horizontal drum for a certain service is not sharply
defined, general Foster Wheeler practice may be followed. Drums which
are generally vertical are as follows:

Knockout drums (except flare knockout drums)


Flash drums
Blowdown drums
Driers

Drums which are generally horizontal are as follows:

Distillate drums
Surge drums
Steam drums
Settling drums
Flare knockout drums

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1.0 GENERAL (CONTINUED)

1.1 Vertical vs. Horizontal Drums (continued)

Some of the factors affecting the choice between a horizontal and a


vertical drum are as follows:

1) Vertical drums are advantageous for a large vapor throughput with


small liquid holdup, since the whole cross-sectional area of the
drum is used for vapor flow.

2) Cost of supports may influence the selection.

3) Plot plan space available and the piping layout.

1.2 Length to Diameter Ratio (L/D)

As in the selection of a horizontal vs a vertical vessel, the selection of a


certain length to diameter ratio may be based on operating, economic, or
plot plan considerations. The general Foster Wheeler practice listed
below may be followed where there is no other overriding criterion.

TABLE 1.1
GENERAL FOSTER WHEELER PRACTICE
FOR LENGTH TO DIAMETER RATIOS

Design Pressure, in Psig Length to Diameter Ratio (L/D)

50 and less 2:1 to 3:1


Greater than 50 4:1 to 5:1

Note: 3.5 kg/cm2 gauge is equivalent to 50 psig

1.3 Slope

It is general Foster Wheeler practice to slope horizontal vessels 1 inch in


10 feet down towards the outlet or low point drain so that the vessel
may be completely drained during shutdown. This slope is equivalent to
a slope of 1:120.

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2.0 DRUM SIZING VAPOR / LIQUID SEPARATION

This section on drum sizing includes general design principles which are
applicable to drums in a wide variety of services which have a vapor space.
Section 6.0 includes instructions for designing drums for a number of specific
services.

2.1 Vapor Space

2.1.1 Critical Vapor Velocity

The sizing of the vapor space depends on a so-called critical vapor


velocity which is used as the criterion for the choice of an
allowable (maximum design) vapor velocity.

The formula for critical velocity is derived from Newtons Law for
the velocity of a spherical particle of a certain size falling through
a motionless fluid. Theoretically, if a vapor stream were moving
upward at this velocity, liquid droplets of a certain size would
remain suspended in the vapor and no entrainment of this size
droplet would occur.

Use the following formula to calculate the critical velocity (Vc):

"l
V c = 0.15 -1 (See Note)
"g

where Vc = critical entrainment velocity, ft/sec


; l = density of liquid, lb/cubic foot
; g = density of vapor, lb/cubic foot

A graphical solution of the English system critical velocity


equation is given by Figure 3 in the Appendix.

Note: This value of Vc is approximately the same as obtained from

SpGr x T
V c = 4.05
MW x P

where Sp Gr = liquid specific gravity (hot)


T = vapor temperature, oR
MW = vapor molecular weight

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P = pressure, psia

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2.0 DRUM SIZING - VAPOR\LIQUID SEPARATION (CONTINUED)

2.1 Vapor Space (continued)

2.1.1 Critical Vapor Velocity (continued)

The following is the metric equivalent of the equation above:

"l
V c = 4.57 -1
"g

where Vc = critical entrainment velocity, cm/sec


; l = density of liquid, g/cc
; g = density of vapor, g/cc

2.1.2 Allowable Vapor Velocity

The allowable vapor velocity (VA) is obtained by applying a factor


to the critical velocity (Vc).

VA = Factor x Vc

In general the following factors should be used:

TABLE 2.1

ALLOWABLE VELOCITY FACTORS

Drum Type Factor

Vertical knockout drum without internals


1.0

Vertical knockout drum with baffles


(Use of these baffles is not recommended) 1.5

Vertical knockout drums with horizontal crinkled


wire mesh pad. (Pad at least 4 inches (10
centimeters) thick) 2.0

Horizontal drums (With or without crinkled wire


mesh pad) 1.7

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2.0 DRUM SIZING - VAPOR\LIQUID SEPARATION (CONTINUED)

2.1 Vapor Space (continued)

2.1.2 Allowable Vapor Velocity (continued)

If a vertical or slanted crinkled wire mesh pad is used, the


allowable velocity calculated above should be multiplied by 0.7 to
account for liquid drainage in the lower section of the mist
eliminator.

When foaming situations are known to exist in a process, the


design of drums should include a substantial derating factor which
is applied to the critical vapor velocity. For example, in solvent
deasphalting equipment in which low boiling point solvents are
flashed from a high boiling and high viscosity material, the derating
factor has been correlated with liquid phase viscosity and can vary
from 0.2 to 0.5.

For other foaming systems, the selection of a derating factor


becomes a matter of judgment, preferably based on experience,
data, or clients or licensors recommendation.

2.1.3 Vapor Flow Area

The vapor flow area is the cross-sectional area normal to the


direction of vapor flow and immediately preceding the outlet.

A. Vapor Flow Area of Vertical Drums

The vapor flow area of vertical drums is obtained by


dividing the actual vapor flow rate by the allowable velocity
using consistent units.

Area = flow volume per second


allowable velocity per second

The drum diameter may then be calculated as follows:

Diameter = area/0.785

The diameter is generally rounded up to the nearest foot


for English units or 5 cm for metric units.
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2.0 DRUM SIZING - VAPOR\LIQUID SEPARATION (CONTINUED)

2.1 Vapor Space (continued)

2.1.3 Vapor Flow Area (continued)

B. Vapor Flow Area of Horizontal Drums

The vapor flow area of horizontal drums is also obtained by


dividing the actual vapor flow rate by the allowable
velocity using consistent units. However, this area is the
vertical cross-sectional area above the high liquid level.
Refer to Figure 8 for the cross-sectional areas and areas of
circular segments.

The minimum vapor space above high liquid level in


horizontal drums should not be less than 20% of the drum
diameter or 12 inches (30 centimeter), whichever is greater.

The size and cost of a large drum can be reduced by using


dual inlets located at opposite ends of the drum with a
single central outlet. The effect of this design is to double
the area available above high liquid level for vapor flow.

2.1.4 Disengagement Height

A. Disengagement Height - Vertical Drums

The minimum disengagement height is 2ft-6inches (75


centimeters), measured from the upper tangent line to the
top of the inlet nozzle when there are no mist eliminators
present. When a mist eliminator such as a crinkled wire
mesh pad is present, the distance from the bottom of the
mist eliminator to the top of the inlet nozzle is a minimum of
18 inches (45 centimeters). The distance from the top of
the mist eliminator to the upper tangent line should be a
minimum of 2ft-6 inches (75 centimeters) (See Figure 27).
The distance from the bottom of the inlet nozzle (or low
point on an inlet elbow or inlet baffle) to the high liquid level
(or any higher emergency, alarm, spill, or cutoff level) shall
not be less than one foot, in non-foaming services (See
Figure 30).
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2.0 DRUM SIZING - VAPOR\LIQUID SEPARATION (CONTINUED)

2.1 Vapor Space (continued)

2.1.4 Disengagement Height (continued)

A. Disengagement Height - Vertical Drums (continued)

For the case where there is no vapor flow or insignificant


vapor flow, the distance from the high liquid level to the
upper tangent line should be 15 percent of the drum
diameter or 12 inches (30 centimeters), whichever is
greater.

B. Disengagement Height - Horizontal Drums

When a horizontal drum is designed having a crinkled wire


mesh pad located immediately below a vapor outlet, provide
for a 12 inch (30 centimeter) clearance from the bottom of
the pad to the maximum liquid level. Note that this requires
a minimum of 18 inches be provided between the maximum
liquid level and the top of the drum (See Figure 27). If an
emergency liquid level is specified, measure from this level
instead of the high liquid level. See Vapor Flow Area
above.

R11 See Appendix 30 for the required distances for 90o elbows.

2.1.5 Pressure Drop

The pressure drop through the vapor space of vessels without


internals can be estimated as equivalent to 3 velocity heads, based
on the inlet pipe velocity.

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2.0 DRUM SIZING - VAPOR\LIQUID SEPARATION (CONTINUED)

2.2 Liquid Space

In general, the drum volume required for liquid is a function of process


surge requirements (settling drums are an exception).

2.2.1 Surge Time

The surge time is arbitrarily defined as the volume between high


and low liquid levels.

If a uniform discharge rate is important, provide the general surge


times recommended below:

TABLE 2.2

GENERAL SURGE TIMES

Service Surge Time, Minutes

Feed to Tower or Furnace

Drum Diameter, feet


Below 4 20
4 to 6, inclusive 15
Above 6 10

Reflux to Tower 5
Product to Storage 2
Flow to Heat Exchanger 2
Flow to Sewer or Drain 1

In case surge must be provided for both product and reflux, the
larger volume is used, not the sum of the two volumes.

When the discharge rate is unimportant, a nominal surge (or


holdup) time of approximately two (2) minutes is provided.

Additional information on surge time for specific applications has


been included in Section 6.0.

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2.0 DRUM SIZING - VAPOR\LIQUID SEPARATION (CONTINUED)

2.2 Liquid Space (continued)

2.2.2 Liquid Level

A. Low Liquid Level

Without Water Settling

Set the low liquid level according to the location of the


lower controller or gauge connections.

For guidance, the following minimum levels may be used:

Horizontal drums 6 inches (15 centimeters)


above bottom

Vertical drums 6 inches above lower


tangent line

With Water Settling

Provide five (5) minutes holdup at the total hydrocarbon


rate below the low liquid level for the settling out of
water. In case no pot is employed, holdup for the water
itself must also be provided in the bottom of the drum.

B. High Liquid Level

Calculate for the required surge volume above low liquid


level. Make sure the following minimum distances are
maintained above high liquid level.

Horizontal Drums

20% of the drum diameter or 12 inches (30 centimeters),


whichever is greater, to top of drum.

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2.0 DRUM SIZING - VAPOR\LIQUID SEPARATION (CONTINUED)

2.2 Liquid Space (continued)

2.2.2 Liquid Level (continued)

B. High Liquid Level (continued)

Vertical Drums

1'-0" to the bottom of the inlet arrangement (bottom of


nozzle, elbow, or impingement baffle) when vapor is
present. If no vapor is present, 15% of the drum diameter
or 12 inches (30 centimeters), whichever is greater, to the
upper tangent line (See Figure 30).

2.2.3 Water Settling (Drawoff Pots)

When water is to be separated from hydrocarbon, e.g. steam


condensate in an overhead distillate drum, it is usual to employ a
horizontal drum with a drawoff pot. Settling volume
corresponding to 5 minutes holdup of total hydrocarbon flow rate
is provided below low liquid level in the drum itself. The purpose
is to provide sufficient time for water to settle from the
hydrocarbon. The procedure for sizing drawoff pots is outlined
below.

A. Diameter


Normal Procedure

Size for a water velocity of 5 inches per minute (12


centimeters per minute).

Alternate Procedure to Avoid Large Pot Diameters

The vessel codes no longer make proof-testing mandatory if


larger pots are employed. Consequently, it will seldom be
advantageous to provide the necessary volume for
separation in the drum instead of a pot. However, in order
to minimize welding difficulties, it is desirable to keep the
pot diameter below the following values:

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2.0 DRUM SIZING - VAPOR\LIQUID SEPARATION (CONTINUED)

2.2 Liquid Space (continued)

2.2.3 Water Settling (Drawoff Pots) (continued)

A. Diameter (continued)
TABLE 2.3

MAXIMUM POT DIAMETER

Drum Diameter Max. Pot Diameter

Below 60 inches (150 centimeters) 1/2 drum diameter


60 inches and larger 1/3 drum diameter

Increase the water velocity as required up to 10 inches per


minute (25 centimeters per minute) to avoid exceeding
these values.

Alternative Procedure at Low Water Rate

Minimum pot diameters are recommended below.

TABLE 2.4

MINIMUM POT DIAMETER

Drum Diameter Pot Diameter

Feet Centimeters Inches Centimeters

Below 5 Below 150 12 30

5 to 8 150 to 240 18 45
inclusive inclusive

Above 8 Above 240 24 60

If extremely low water velocities, less than 0.10 inches per


minute (0.25 centimeters per minute) are obtained with the
above diameters, do not provide a pot. Instead, extend the
hydrocarbon outlet above the bottom of the drum to provide
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disengaging

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2.0 DRUM SIZING - VAPOR\LIQUID SEPARATION (CONTINUED)

2.2 Liquid Space (continued)

2.2.3 Water Settling (Drawoff Pots) (continued)

A. Diameter (continued)

volume in the drum itself. Water can then be drawn off


manually at suitable intervals (once a shift or once a day).
The hydrocarbon outlet should be extended approximately 6
inches (15 centimeters) to 12 inches (30 centimeters)
above the bottom of the drum to provide this holdup.

The drum should be sloped 1 inch in 10 feet so that water


will flow to the drawoff end of the drum. This applies
whether or not a water pot is employed.

B. Length

Provide length for approximately 4 minutes of holdup on


water between high and low interface level.

When the interface in the drawoff pot is automatically


controlled, make the length at least 3 feet to provide for the
controller connections.

Occasionally, there is a need to separate water from a light


hydrocarbon liquid in a vertical drain designed for
vapor/liquid separation. This frequently occurs in the design
of an interstage knockout drum for a wet-gas compressor.
Usually, the water flows to a sour water collection system
or oily water sewer, the hydrocarbon liquid is either pumped
forward or flashed back to another drum which is also
designed for water separation. For this case, complete
separation of water droplets from the hydrocarbon liquid is
not essential. A side drawoff nozzle is provided for the
hydrocarbon liquid. This nozzle will draw in some of the
water droplets falling past it. To avoid large droplets or
slugs of water from entering the nozzle, some people
employ a baffle with a top, similar to the L baffle shown
in Figure 10, but rotated 90 degrees so that the
hydrocarbon flows upward before entering the nozzle. The
baffle must be located below the low liquid level and above
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2.0 DRUM SIZING - VAPOR\LIQUID SEPARATION (CONTINUED)

2.2 Liquid Space (continued)

2.2.3 Water Settling (Drawoff Pots) (continued)

B. Length (continued)

the high interface level. Typically, the water-rich phase


velocity in these drums is slow enough that entrainment of
light hydrocarbon droplets is not a problem.

Section 3.0 has a more rigorous discussion of liquid/liquid


separation and should be consulted if a more detailed design
is required.

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3.0 DRUM SIZING - LIQUID/LIQUID SEPARATION

Liquid/liquid separation or settling drums are generally horizontal with a length


to diameter ratio of 4:1 or 5:1. Longer drums are justified than for other
services because reducing the diameter is equivalent to shortening the settling
path. The settling path may also be reduced by employing one or more
longitudinal baffles, the details of which are discussed in Section 4.2.2 (see also
Figure 28).

Occasionally, at low treat rates, drawoff pots are employed. The design is
then the same as when drawoff pots are employed with distillate accumulators.

Drum size is a function of settling rate and flow rate. The volume must be such
as to provide holdup time for a drop to move from the top or bottom of the
drum to the interface of the two fluids and coalesce.

Separation is due to gravity and results from the differential density of the two
fluids. The other variables involved are the viscosity of the continuous phase
and the drop size.

3.1 Settling Rate

Studies of the vertical rise or fall of liquid droplets in another liquid have
shown that eventually the drop velocity, which varies with particle size
and density difference, attains a limiting value known as the terminal
velocity. Analyses of data collected in studying these systems have
shown that these data can be correlated in a similar manner to the
Reynolds number vs. Fanning friction factor in fluid flow through pipes.
Instead of plotting Reynolds number vs. Fanning friction factor, the
Reynolds number of the droplet is plotted against the Drag Coefficient
and this relationship, though developed for rigid particles, appears valid
for small droplets which are nearly spherical in shape. Figure 14 in the
Appendix presents this correlation which as been zoned to show the
limitations of Stokes law, Intermediate law and Newtons law.

The settling velocity equations which cover these ranges are:

Stokes law (Reynolds number less than 1)

V = 8.3 x 105 x d2 x ; S/uc

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3.0 DRUM SIZING - LIQUID/LIQUID SEPARATION (CONTINUED)

3.1 Settling Rate (continued)

Intermediate law (Reynolds number between 1 and 1,000)

V = 1.04 x 104 x d1.14 x ; S0.71


Sc0.29 x uc0.43

Newtons law (Reynolds number between 1,000 and 200,000)

V = 2.05 x 103 (d ; S)0.5


( Sc )

Where the Reynolds number = 10.7 d V Sc


uc

V = settling rate in each phase, inches per minute


d = droplet diameter, inches
S = droplet specific gravity
Sc = continuous phase specific gravity
;S = specific gravity differential between phases
uc = continuous phase viscosity, centipoise

3.1.1 Droplet Sizes

Droplet sizes in mixing systems vary depending on mixing


energy, viscosities and interfacial tension. For design
purposes use the droplet diameter listed below in
calculating the settling rate for the following systems:

TABLE 3.1

DROPLET SIZES

Droplet Diameter
System Inches Centimeters

Caustic - 0.85 specific gravity oils 0.005 each phase 0.012 each phase
Water - Naphtha or heating oils 0.005 each phase 0.012 each phase
Propane - oil deresining 0.004 each phase 0.010 each phase

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3.0 DRUM SIZING - LIQUID/LIQUID SEPARATION (CONTINUED)

3.1 Settling Rate (continued)

3.1.2 Settling Rate Limitations

High settling rates above 10 inches per minute (25 centimeters per
minute) can be obtained on systems such as water-light
hydrocarbon liquids and it is recommended that for design
purposes, rates be limited to no more than 10 inches per minute
(25 centimeters per minute). This limitation is necessary since
disturbing factors such as convection currents, eddies and
hindered settling effects are present in all settling drums.
Whenever possible, it is desirable to obtain laboratory data to
confirm design settling rates. For designing settlers in H2SO4
extraction of isobutylene, a settling rate of 0.2 inches per minute
(0.5 centimeters per minute) was used. Satisfactory settlers have
been designed for sulfuric acid alkylation based on the following
settling rates.

a. Alkylation acid out of hydrocarbon, 3.0 to 4.7 inches per


minute.

b. Hydrocarbon out of acid, 1.5 to 2.0 inches per minute.

3.1.3 Emulsions

Emulsions are formed when mixing energy is added to a system of


two immiscible liquids. Most stable emulsions have a particle size
of the order of 1 to 1.5 microns while a relatively coarse
dispersion which settles rapidly will have a particle size of about 1
mm. Dispersions are referred to as Oil in Water (O/W) or Water in
Oil (W/O) depending on whether oil or water is present in the
dispersed phase.

Ostwald showed that if an emulsion can be considered to consist


of equal sized droplets of one phase in another, the drops would
all touch each other when the volumetric ratio of the dispersed
phase to the continuous phase was approximately 3 to 1. If this
ratio were increased, inversion would occur with the dispersed
phase forming the continuous phase. Thus, from 0 to 26 volume
percent water would form a W/O emulsion and from 74 to 100
volume percent water
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3.0 DRUM SIZING - LIQUID/LIQUID SEPARATION (CONTINUED)

3.1 Settling Rate (continued)

3.1.3 Emulsions (continued)

would form an O/W emulsion. Between 26 to 74, both types of


emulsion are possible.

The viscosity of each phase plays an important part, a high


viscosity of one liquid favours it forming a continuous phase. A
trace of an emulsifying or surface active agent will also have a
profound effect.

The surface tension or interfacial tension between the phases has


also some effect on the stability of an emulsion. The lower the
surface tension, the more stable is the emulsion. The gravity
difference influences the rate of break of an emulsion and if this is
small the emulsion will probably be quite stable. A known polar
molecule such as benzene in the dispersed phase seems to form a
stable fog which will break down on the addition of an electrolyte.
Also, the method of agitation (or mixing energy) has an effect on
particle size and affects the stability or rate of break of an
emulsion.

Although methods for separating dispersions are dependent


basically on settling, subsidiary techniques are used to render it
unstable or to coalesce the droplets. These include dilution,
centrifuging, and cyclone separation, coalescence and film rupture
by solid contact in a packed bed (fiber glass, sand, excelsior, etc.)
electrical coalescence, filtration, flocculation and the application of
heat.

3.1.4 Settling Time of Some Water Systems

The dependency of break time on relative viscosity and surface


tension is illustrated in the following table based on water systems
in which the phase volume ratio if 1:1. These systems were hand
shaken to form the dispersions and then settled.

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3.0 DRUM SIZING - LIQUID/LIQUID SEPARATION (CONTINUED)

3.1 Settling Rate (continued)

3.1.4 Settling Time of Some Water Systems (continued)

TABLE 3.2
SETTLING TIMES OF SOME WATER SYSTEMS*

Phase Visible Complete Relative Surface


System Relationship Separation Separation Viscosity Tension

Isoamyl A 1 min. 15 min. 4.58 24.1


alcohol W

Isobutyl A 1 min. 15 min. 4.03 22.8


alcohol W

N-Butyl A 5 sec. 2 min. -- 24.5


alcohol W

Oleic O 30 sec. 15 min. very viscous 32.5


acid W

Ethyl E 5 sec. 1 min. 0.45 26.5


acetate W

Dimethyl- D 10 sec. 1 min. 1.28 38.3


aniline W

Nitro- W 5 sec. 1 min. 1.80 43.5


benzene N

Chloroform W 5 sec. 10 sec. 0.55 26.5


C

Carbon- W 5 sec. 10 sec. 0.96 26.9


tetrachlorid C
e

Benzene B 5 sec. 10 sec. 0.62 28.8


W

Heptane H 5 sec. 15 sec. 0.4 19.0


W

*Reference: "The Separation of Liquid Dispersions" by E. Atkinson et al, p558,


British Chemical Engineering, Oct. 1958.

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3.0 DRUM SIZING - LIQUID/LIQUID SEPARATION (CONTINUED)

3.2 Separation Zones

In some services, separation of light fluid from heavy is as important as


that of heavy from light, and two separation zones are required. In
other cases, e.g. with caustic or water wash settlers where the wash is
recirculated, the removal of the wash from the hydrocarbon is more
important than the removal of hydrocarbon from the recirculated wash.
The only holdup requirements for the heavier fluid are nominal (say, 2
minutes for interface control and 12 inches (30 centimeters) minimum
below the low interface limit).

3.3 Approximate Diameter

Calculate approximate drum diameter from the following formula:

English System

flow rate
D = 2 + 1.7
V

where flow rate = that of light phase, cubic feet per minute

V = settling rate of heavy droplet, inches per minute


D = drum diameter, feet

Metric System

flow rate
D = 60 + 63
V

where flow rate = that of light phase, cubic meters per hour

V = settling rate of heavy droplet, centimeters per minute


D = drum diameter, centimeters

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3.0 DRUM SIZING - LIQUID/LIQUID SEPARATION (CONTINUED)

3.4 Heavy Phase Space

Allow 12 inches (30 centimeters) minimum from bottom of drum to low


interface level. Allow 14 inches (minimum required for instrument) or a
height equivalent to 2 minutes of wash between high and low
interface levels for control purposes. With a wash such as caustic,
makeup requirements will govern if the caustic consumption volume per
shift exceeds 2 minutes of recirculation.

The above applies when the separation of heavy liquid from light is more
important than that of light from heavy. When the latter is of equal
importance, a rate must be calculated for the movement of the light
droplets, and the heavy phase space sized in essentially the manner
discussed below for the light phase.

3.5 Light Phase Space

Divide the height from the top of the drum to the interface (upper
interface) by the settling rate to determine the settling time required.
Also calculate the hydrocarbon residence time provided by the
preliminary drum by dividing the volume of the drum above the upper
interface by the hydrocarbon feed rate. If the residence time does not
equal (or slightly exceed) the settling time, the drum diameter must be
adjusted accordingly.

3.6 Minimum Residence Time

It is recommended that for design purposes the drum be sized to contain


the total flow rate of the two phases for 10 minutes minimum.

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4.0 INTERNALS

4.1 Mist Eliminators

The term DEMISTER is a registered trademark of the Otto H. York


Company Inc. Its use should be strictly limited to the appropriate
products made by that company.

Mist eliminators used in drums comprise crinkled wire mesh pads or


screens, perforated plates, baffles or channels, and various devices
which impart a swirl to the gas stream to separate liquid droplets
entrained in the gas stream.

The main criteria governing the use of internals are cost, efficiency of
entrainment removal, and guarantees (e.g. on steam from a steam drum).

Baffles are the cheapest form of internal, but their effectiveness is


questionable. The Centrifix is another type of separator frequently
encountered.

Crinkled wire mesh pads or screens are very effective in reducing


entrainment and their use in large size drums is recommended.

Chevrons represent the most expensive type of internal and are only used
when a guarantee must be met on the amount of entrainment and when
wire mesh cannot be used.

Economic justification should be obtained for all types of mist eliminators


unless the mist eliminator is required by client, licensor, or a process
consideration.

Plugging problems have occurred with mist eliminators when the


entrained liquid is highly viscous, tarry, or contains solids or even
dissolved solids. In these cases, it is better to design a drum without a
mist eliminator even though it may be larger. For situations where mist
eliminators have been used in plugging services such as caustic or
carbonate, it has been customary to make provisions to wash the mist
eliminator. Plugging problems seem to occur most frequently with
crinkled wire mesh pads or screens. Other types of internals such as
baffles, are not as susceptible to plugging.

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4.0 INTERNALS (CONTINUED)

4.1 Mist Eliminators (continued)

The various types of internals are discussed in further detail below.

4.1.1 Crinkled Wire Mesh Pads or Screens

Crinkled wire mesh is a very effective entrainment remover. Its


use, however, is governed by the particular application, several of
which are considered below:

Small compressor suction knockout drums up to 4 foot (120


centimeters) diameter.

Since the use of a crinkled wire mesh pad or screen would not
permit a large reduction in vessel size, and since a crinkled wire
mesh pad or screen is fairly expensive, it is not used much in this
range of diameters. When used, it would be to prevent large slugs
of liquid from going to the compressor.

Intermediate and large compressor suction knockout drums greater


than 4 foot (120 centimeters) diameter.

In this range, a crinkled wire mesh pad or screen will permit a


substantial reduction in the drum diameter, since the allowable
velocity may be doubled. An economic balance should be made
between the saving in steel and the cost of the crinkled wire mesh
pad or screen.

K.O. drums following an absorber

A crinkled wire mesh pad or screen can effect a considerable


saving here in reducing the amount of entrained gasoline. It is
sometimes preferable to install the crinkled wire mesh pad or
screen in the absorber. This can result in savings by reduction of
gasoline losses.

A crinkled wire mesh pad or screen must be physically and


chemically stable in its operating environment. Carbon steel is
seldom specified since it readily corrodes and disintegrates. Other
materials used include stainless steel, Monel, Inconel, Carpenter
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20, Hastelloy, copper, aluminum, tantalum and titanium.

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4.0 INTERNALS (CONTINUED)

4.1 Mist Eliminators (continued)

4.1.1 Crinkled Wire Mesh Pads or Screens (continued)

K.O. drums following an absorber (continued)

Polymers, such as Saran, polypropylene, and teflon, may be used


when the temperature (both on- and off-stream) is near ambient.
The crinkled wire mesh pad or screen must be securely fastened to
an internal support system.

A. Thickness

Thickness of crinkled wire mesh pad or screen is usually


specified as 4 inches unless special requirements are
involved.

B. Pressure Drop

The following equations may be used to calculate the


pressure drop across a typical crinkled wire mesh pad or
screen.

4" thickness ; P = 0.2V2Dv


6" thickness ; P = 0.3V2Dv

Where

;P = Pressure Drop, inches of water


V = Vapor Velocity, feet/sec.
Dv = Vapor Density, lbs/cubic feet

C. Support and Tie-Down Details

Support and tie-down details may be found in Engineering


Standard 10B 15.1. The width of the supporting ring is
two inches in drums up to seven feet in diameter and three
inches in drums over seven feet in diameter.

Three type of supports are shown in 10B 15.1.


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4.0 INTERNALS (CONTINUED)

4.1 Mist Eliminators (continued)

4.1.1 Crinkled Wire Mesh Pads or Screens (continued)

K.O. drums following an absorber (continued)

C. Support and Tie-Down Details (continued)

Type A is used in small diameter drums and where


increased vapor velocity is required.

Type B is used in vessels where the mist eliminator is


accessible from the bottom.

Type C is used where the mist eliminator is accessible from


top. This type is recommended for compressor suction
since it allows the use of grids on both the top and the
bottom. There have been cases where a compressor has
been damaged by loose segments of the mist eliminator.

There are situations in which crinkled wire mesh pads or


screens are used in plugging services. It is customary in
these situations to provide connections across the mist
eliminator to measure differential pressure as an indication
of plugging and to provide connections for washing or
steaming to clear the mist eliminator.

D. Entrainment Removal

Crinkled wire mesh pads or screens are claimed to be 98-


99+% effective in removing mists having a particle size of
10 microns or larger. See Figs. 1 & 2 in the Appendix.
Some vendors have stated that they can be designed so
that no more than 0.1 gal. of liquid will remain in a million
cubic feet of vapor.

The removal of mists below 10 microns is difficult and


requires the use of special units involving either a
multiplicity of pads or pads fabricated of special materials.
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The Monsanto Company produces a Brinks eliminator (after


4.0 INTERNALS (CONTINUED)

4.1 Mist Eliminators (continued)

Dr. Brinks, the inventor), which is used to remove sulfuric


and nitric acid mists in the 0.3 to 3+ micron range.

4.1.2 Chevrons

Chevron driers are mainly used in large steam drums, where


guarantees on steam purity must be met. These typically are of a
proprietary design and are supplied by the steam drum vendor.

4.1.3 Baffles

Baffles are considered ineffective as far as removing entrainment


is concerned and should be used only when specially required by a
customer.

Two (2) baffle arrangements that have employed in knockout


drums are shown in Figure 10.

4.2 Liquid Space Internals

4.2.1 Vortex Breakers

Vortex breakers are required to maintain flowrate continuity from


vessels whenever the intersection of the minimum liquid level (i.e.,
the lowest effective working level) and the nozzle velocity is
below the curve shown in Figures 11 and 12. The form and
dimensions of the preferred vortex breaker design are shown on
Figure 10.

4.2.2 Baffles

Horizontal baffles serve to reduce liquid/liquid settler volume, since


droplets only need time to settle to the baffle rather than to the
bottom of the drum. The baffle is designed so that settled liquid
flows to the inlet end of the drum and then down the drum walls
to the bottom.

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The following directions should be observed in providing settling


baffles.

4.0 INTERNALS (CONTINUED)

4.2 Liquid Space Internals (continued)

4.2.2 Baffles (continued)

1. Make the minimum vertical distance between adjacent


baffles, or baffle and drum, 18" for access.

2. Make the distance from the end of the baffle to the


adjacent end of the drum 1/4 the drum diameter.

3. Provide a 2" lip on each baffle at the outlet end of the


drum.

4. Also provide two slots, 1" wide and 1/4th as long as the
drum, located between drum and baffle, at each side of the
inlet end of the baffle.

See Figure 28.

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5.0 DRUM CONNECTIONS

5.1 Process Nozzles

Vessel nozzles are usually oriented by the Drafting Room to meet piping
or structural requirements. However, the orientation of some nozzles are
significant to the Process Department. When this is the case, the
Process Engineer must show these significant orientations on all vessel
sketches transmitted to the Project Department.

Typical examples are:

1. Nozzle orientations relative to fractionation tray parts such as


downcomers.

2. Tower feed nozzles relative to instrument nozzles to avoid false


readings.

3. Location of water draw nozzles relative to feed and hydrocarbon


outlet nozzles.

Careful attention to this point is required of all Process Engineers so as to


minimize difficulties in the execution of Contract Work.

Process nozzles generally conform to the size of related piping although


sometimes the nozzles are one size larger either to reduce inlet velocity
or the tendency to vortex.

5.1.1 Vertical Vessel Inlet

Inlet nozzles of vertical drums are preferably connected to a 90


turned ell or baffle within the drum when the inlet velocity is
sufficiently high to interfere with the vertically rising vapors. The
plume effect of an entering vapor stream expands at
approximately a 10 angle and the kinetic energy of the plume can
affect the uniform flow of upwardly moving vapors when
horizontal flush nozzles are used. Flush inlet nozzles are preferred
when inlet velocities are low.
Tangential inlets are avoided since not only are they costly but
they can lead to operating trouble. In one case, the entrance
velocity was high enough to cause the liquid to swirl so that while
a level indication was given on the level control instrument, no
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5.0 DRUM CONNECTIONS (CONTINUED)

5.1 Process Nozzles (continued)

5.1.1 Vertical Vessel Inlet (continued)

liquid was flowing to the bottom outlet pump which was


cavitating severely. This problem was

rectified by an arrangement of two eccentrically pinned baffles


which when inserted through an existing blank flange dropped
vertically to oppose the liquid rotation and stabilize the real liquid
level.

Some clients have specified tangential inlets and in these cases


they also specify that a doughnut baffle ring, located at about two
feet below the inlet pipe centerline and in the vapor phase, be
welded to the drum internally. The width of the baffle plate is
about D/4 and its main purpose is to prevent the rotation of holdup
liquid.

5.1.2 Horizontal Vessel Inlet

Inlet nozzles of horizontal drums are generally located at the top


and at one end of the vessel. A 90 turned ell and a wear plate is
usually provided when liquid is present. If only a liquid is entering,
a perforated pipe distributor is sometimes used.

5.1.3 Bottom Liquid Outlet

The bottom liquid outlet is generally located at the opposite end to


the inlet.

When the liquid in a drum has no possibility of containing sludge


or water, the bottom product is discharged via a flush connection.
However, when the product may be contaminated, an internal
pipe extension up to the low liquid level is usually required.

In drums sized for water separation, the nozzle should extend


above the maximum height of the water continuous phase. In
drums with boots, there is usually a minimal water layer in the
drum, and a nominal extension of 6 inches (15 centimeters) is
used in this case. Foster Wheeler permits the location of the
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5.0 DRUM CONNECTIONS (CONTINUED)

5.1 Process Nozzles (continued)

5.1.3 Bottom Liquid Outlet (continued)

outlet nozzle within the nominal water separation zone in the


belief that enough water separation takes place before the
liquids reach the outlet end of the drum. In most services,
Foster Wheeler will accept the odd droplets of water that may
be drawn into the process liquid outlet

5.1.4 Top Vapor Outlet

The top vapor outlet is generally located at the opposite end to the
inlet.

5.1.5 Hot Gas Bypass

If a hot gas bypass is used to maintain pressure in a totally


condensing service, it should be located as far as possible from
the liquid inlet.

5.1.6 Liquid / Liquid Inlet

A sweep inlet should be used to introduce the liquid mixture at or


near the interface. The inlet should direct the flow away from the
outlets. (See Figure 26.)

5.2 Auxiliary Nozzles

5.2.1 Minimum Auxiliary Nozzle Sizes

In many cases, the clients specifications will determine the size of


auxiliary connections. In their absence, use the below listed Table
5.1 or basis given in Paragraphs 5.2.2, 5.2.3 and 5.2.4 as
guidelines for design.

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5.0 DRUM CONNECTIONS (CONTINUED)

5.2 Auxiliary Nozzles (continued)

5.2.1 Minimum Auxiliary Nozzle Sizes (continued)

TABLE 5.1

MINIMUM SIZES FOR


AUXILIARY NOZZLE CONNECTIONS

Vessel Volume
Cu. ft. Vent Drain Pumpout Steamout Blowdow
n

50 1" 1" 1" 1" 2"

50 - 200 1" 1-1/2 1-1/2" 1" 3"

200 - 600 2" 2" 2" 1" 3"

600 - 2500 2" 3" 3" 2" 4"

2500 & over 2" 3" 3" 3" 4"

5.2.2 Vents and Depressurizing Nozzles

Vents and depressuring nozzles are placed either at the highest


point on the drum or on the vapor line from the drum. If placed on
the vapor line, there must not be any block valve between the
drum and the auxiliary connection. When placed on the drum
itself, they are flush mounted. A depressurizing line may not
always be required (depending on the safety system used and
clients preference), but a vent is required on every drum.

The vent is also used to admit air when draining a drum after a
hydrotest. In certain cases, the draining rate will set the vent size.
If a larger than minimum drain size is chosen, the vent size must
also be checked where draining time or maximum external
pressure are limitations.

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5.0 DRUM CONNECTIONS (CONTINUED)

5.2 Auxiliary Nozzles (continued)

5.2.2 Vents and Depressurizing Nozzles (continued)

Vapor depressuring lines are sized by the equation:

( P + P12 - P22 %
V ln & 1 #
& P2 #
= ' $
5
D T
632
fLM

where,

P1 = initial vessel pressure, psia


P2 = final vessel pressure, psia
V = drum volume, cubic feet
f = fanning friction factor
M = mol wt.
; = time in hours (usually taken as 1/3 of an hour)
T = temperature in vessel, R
D = line size, inches
L = equivalent length of exit line, feet (Usually
taken as 100 ft for discharge to atmosphere at
safe location or 300 ft for discharge to flare
header if actual length if not known).

This equation may be simplified if we assume the following:

; = 1/3 hr. (20 minutes)


L = 100 ft.
f = 0.0045

The formula then becomes:

2
M . ( P1 + P12 - P22 %+
D
5
= , V ln & #)
5
10 T ,- & P2 #)
' $*

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5.0 DRUM CONNECTIONS (CONTINUED)

5.2 Auxiliary Nozzles (continued)

5.2.2 Vents and Depressurizing Nozzles (continued)

The Instrument Groups Design Engineering Practice 59 describes


the depressuring valve we provide for most high-pressure circuits
(above 1,000 psig, usually). The outstanding feature of this valve
is that it alters its Cv, by sensing upstream pressure, to produce a
constant weight flow when depressuring. When the depressuring
gas must flow to the flare, this constant flow rate prevents a large
initial flow which otherwise would require large size discharge
piping, flare headers, and flare system.

5.2.3 Drain and Steamout Connections

Drain and steamout connections are always provided either on the


drum itself or on an auxiliary line branching off from the bottom
liquid outlet line. If the outlet nozzle is extended into the drum
(above high water level) then the drain line must be flush mounted
at the lowest point in the drum. When a separate nozzle is
required, it obviously will be shown on the drum sketch.
Otherwise, the connections are shown only on the P&I drawing.

The time required to drain a vessel may be estimated using the


following formulae:

Vertical Drum t = (D/d)2 (H)1/2

Horizontal Drum t = 2.4L R3/2


d2

Spherical Vessel t = R5/2


d2

where,

t = Drainage Time, minutes


D = Diameter, ft.
R = Radius, ft.
H = Initial Head of Liquid, ft.
L = Length, ft.
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d = Drain diameter, inches

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5.0 DRUM CONNECTIONS (CONTINUED)

5.2 Auxiliary Nozzles (continued)

5.2.3 Drain and Steamout Connections (continued)

These formulae are limited to low viscosity fluids such as light


hydrocarbons and water and assume that the outlet is on the
vessel. Where drainage pipes are long, allow additional time to
compensate for the flow resistance of the discharge pipe.

5.2.4 Blowdown and Pumpout Nozzles

Blowdown and pumpout nozzles may or may not be provided


depending on the safety system used and the clients preference.
When provided, they are connected to the vessel in the same
manner as the drain line.

5.3 Safety Valves

A drum, not open to atmosphere, is always provided with a safety valve


unless it can be relieved through the safety valve of an adjacent vessel
and there is no isolating block valve located between the vessels.

The nozzle size is specified by the Instrument Group when the safety
valve is mounted on the vessel. The process engineer should check that
the requirements of the Process Standards for safety valves are not
violated.

5.4 Instrument Connections

Instrument connections should be placed on the shell of the drum, not


the heads, whenever possible. They may be either flanged or 6000 lb.
screwed couplings, depending on the clients preference. General
practice at FW is to use flanged connections for instruments unless the
customer specifically requests screwed couplings. The size will be set
ultimately by the Instrument Department, but the following may be used
as a guide if the sizes are required on a preliminary vessel sketch.

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5.0 DRUM CONNECTIONS (CONTINUED)

5.4 Instrument Connections (continued)

TABLE 5.2

TYPICAL INSTRUMENT CONNECTION SIZES

Flanged Screwed
Connection Coupling

LG or GG 1"
All other Level Instruments 2"
All Pressure & Temp. Instruments 1"

Foster Wheeler Engineering Standard 60A1 calls for the use of the
displacer type instruments for pressure vessels with level ranges of 48"
or less. In addition, some of our clients require the use of displacer type
instruments with even greater ranges. A copy of Engineering Standard
65B14.22, which shows the standard ranges for displacer type
instruments is located in the Appendix (Figure 13). If Foster Wheeler
Standards are used on a job, DP cells will be used for ranges in excess of
48" unless the Process Department specifies the use of a displacer type
instrument on the Instrument Process Data, Form Number (110)-25.

When the required operating range of the level instrument is 48" or less,
the Process Engineer should take care to specify the vessel so as to
utilize one of the standard ranges, namely, 14", 32" or 48" if possible.

5.5 Access Openings

Generally, access openings are not specified by the Process Department.


When these openings are to be specified by the Process Department, the
following shall apply:

Manways, handholes, nozzles, etc. shall be specified in accordance with


the latest ASME code for unfired vessels, unless subject to more
stringent regulations. The 1974 code requires:

1. All vessels less than 18 inches and over 12 inches inside diameter
shall have at least two handholes or two plugged threaded
inspection openings of not less than 1.5 pipe size.
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5.0 DRUM CONNECTIONS (CONTINUED)

5.5 Access Openings (continued)

2. All vessels 18 to 36 inches inside diameter shall have a manway


or at least two handholes or two threaded pipe plug inspection
openings of not less than 2 inch pipe size.

3. All vessels over 36 inches inside diameter shall have a manway


except that those whose shape or use makes one impractical shall
have at least two handholes 4 x 6 inches or two equal openings of
equivalent area.

4. When handholes or pipe-plug openings are permitted for inspection


openings in place of a manway, one handhole or one pipe-plug
opening shall be in each head or in the shell near each head.

5. Openings with removable heads or cover plates intended for other


purposes may be used in place of the required inspection openings
provided they are equal at least to the size of the required
inspection openings.

6. A single opening with removable head or cover plate may be used


in place of all the smaller inspection openings provided it is of such
size and location as to afford at least an equal view of the interior.

7. When inspection or access openings are required, they shall


comply at least with the following requirements:

An elliptical or obround manhole shall be not less than 11 x 15


inches or 10 x 16 inches. A circular manway shall be not less
than 15 inches inside diameter.

A handhole opening shall not be less than 2 x 3 inches, but


should be as large as is consistent with the size of the vessel and
the location of the opening.

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6.0 SPECIFIC DRUM DESIGNS

6.1 Accumulator Drums

These drums provide the necessary volume to assure a relatively


constant flow rate to subsequent equipment despite changes in feed rate.
For example, a surge drum is employed when required bottoms holdup is
so large as to make its inclusion in a tower or kettle type reboiler
impractical. In such a drum a minimum vapor space is included.

Accumulator drums are usually horizontal for ease of access and


simplified support. Occasionally, plot plan considerations may dictate
use of a vertical drum.

A good example of a drum with surge capacity is the distillate-reflux


drum commonly employed for tower overhead. For this service,
however, a vapor space adequate for disengaging must be provided
above the liquid space. Also, where water is present in the overhead, a
drawoff pot may be provided.

6.1.1 Horizontal Drums

Instructions for designing a horizontal distillate-reflux drum are


outlined below. (See Figure 20 for sketch of typical drum. A
sample problem is included.)

A. Surge Volume

Determine surge capacity for reflux and product from 2.2.1.


Use the larger of the two values (do not combine).

B. Water Settling Volume

Calculate the volume to provide 5 minutes settling time


below the low hydrocarbon level, based on the total
hydrocarbon flow rate. (Of course, this step is omitted if no
water is to be settled).

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6.0 SPECIFIC DRUM DESIGNS (CONTINUED)

6.1 Accumulator Drums (continued)

6.1.1 Horizontal Drums (continued)

C. Preliminary Drum Dimensions

As the initial step in a trial solution, pick a drum with a


volume somewhat greater than the liquid volume. A 1.15-
1.5 factor is suggested, varying directionally with the
amount of vapor to be disengaged. Determine diameter and
length values. The L/D values suggested below may be
used for this purpose.

Pressure, psig L/D Ratio

50 and less 2:1 to 3:1


Greater than 50 4:1 to 5:1

D. Liquid Levels

Establish high and low liquid levels in accordance with


2.2.2.

E. Vapor Space

Calculate the transverse area based on the velocity from


2.1.2. Compare this area with the area above the high liquid
level in the trial drum. Increase or decrease drum size as
required.

NOTE: When feed to drum is totally liquid phase,


minimum vapor area, as detailed in Section
2.1.3, is to be provided.

F. Water Pot

If water is to be separated, provide a pot (or water holdup


volume in drum itself). Proceed in accordance with 2.2.3.

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6.0 SPECIFIC DRUM DESIGNS (CONTINUED)

6.1 Accumulator Drums (continued)

6.1.1 Horizontal Drums (continued)

G. Nozzles & Connections

In general, follow Figure 20 with regard to nozzles. The


following comments are also applicable:

a) Inlets

When handling liquid and gas, a short sweep inlet


pointing toward the end of the drum near the top
should be used. A wear baffle is also provided. See
Figure 20 for this type inlet. (See Figure 27 for
alternative internals).

When the feed to a surge drum is 100% liquid, a


flush nozzle is satisfactory. When water settling
facilities are to be provided, the inlet pipe can be
extended to the bottom of the drum (pipe end closed)
and holes or slots provided in the hydrocarbon and
vapor space (see Figure 27).

b) Outlets

When water is being settled, the hydrocarbon outlet


nozzle should be extended approximately 6" above
the bottom of the drum as shown in Figure 20.

c) The auxiliary connections of Figure 20 are typical.

6.1.2 Vertical Drums

Follow essentially the same design procedure for a vertical as for a


horizontal drum, deviating principally as follows:

A. Use a smaller L/D ratio.

B. Establish the height of the vapor space in accordance with


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2.1.4.A.
6.0 SPECIFIC DRUM DESIGNS (CONTINUED)

6.1 Accumulator Drums (continued)

6.1.2 Vertical Drums (continued)

C. Water Settling

A vertical drum is only employed when little water need be


settled.

6.2 Knockout Drums

Compressor suction KO drums serve to prevent damage to a compressor


from liquid entrainment or spillover. Interstage KO drums are provided
for multistage compressors for the same reason.

Foster Wheeler normal practice is to provide suction and interstage KO


drums for reciprocating compressors.

Centrifugal machines can tolerate more moisture than reciprocating, so


that KO drums are usually omitted (unless appreciable line condensation
is anticipated).

Knockout drums are generally made vertical with a maximum L/D ratio of
3:1. Lower L/D ratios can be used for large diameter drums as long as
sufficient liquid volume is available.

Instructions for designing a vertical knockout drum are outlined below.


(See Figure 21 for sketch of typical drum).

6.2.1 Diameter Determination

Calculate the minimum diameter required from 2.1.2. If the


required diameter is 4'-6" or higher, recalculate the diameter using
crinkled wire mesh and make a quick economic comparison.

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6.0 SPECIFIC DRUM DESIGNS (CONTINUED)

6.2 Knockout Drums (continued)

6.2.2 Liquid Holdup

A. For normal accumulation

a) At low normal accumulation rate

Liquid drawoff is usually manually controlled.


Provide enough volume so that the drum will not
have to be emptied more than once during an 8 hr.
shift, or preferably once a day. Generally a nominal
height above the lower tangent line (say 8") will be
adequate.

b) At higher normal accumulation rate

Liquid drawoff is usually under level control. The


distance between high and low level is usually made
14" (corresponding to controller connections and
generally providing holdup time far in excess of the
normal requirement of approximately 2 minutes).

B. For spill

Frequently capacity is required for spill from a preceding


unit. Provide a volume equal to the entire production of the
unit for 10 minutes between the alarm level* and a point
12" below low point of the feed inlet internals.

Sometimes spill requirements govern the drum design. That


is, an L/D ratio of approximately 3:1 results in a large drum
diameter relative to the vapor load. Use of a CWM screen
would then be uneconomic.

* A level alarm is provided to sound if the level rises


12 above the normal HLL.

6.2.3 Drum Height (between tangent lines)

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Refer again to Figure 21.

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6.0 SPECIFIC DRUM DESIGNS (CONTINUED)

6.2 Knockout Drums (continued)

6.2.4 Nozzles and Connections

See Figure 21 for nozzles generally employed.

6.3 Flash Drums

Flash drums separate gases from a liquid, usually after a sharp reduction
in pressure. The drums are usually made vertical, with an L/D ratio of 3
or 4:1,

Design directions follow (see illustrative sketch Figure 22):

a. Calculate drum diameter required from 2.1.2.

b. Calculate liquid surge capacity in accordance with 2.2.1.

c. Locate the feed inlet nozzle 2-3 ft. below the upper T.L.
Appropriate feed inlet arrangements are discussed in Section
5.1.1. See Figure 22 for nozzles and connections.

6.4 Process Steam Drums

This type of drum serves to dry steam from waste heat boilers, slurry
steam boilers and other small steam-producing units.

When an exact size or exact price is required for a steam drum:

(i) over 6'-0" in diameter, or

(ii) where there is a steam purity specification

a process specification should be prepared for incorporation into a


material requisition. This specification is to include the following data, as
a minimum:

Steam Conditions - temperature and pressure

Feed Quantities - steam and water from generator


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- water make-up and conditions

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6.0 SPECIFIC DRUM DESIGNS (CONTINUED)

6.4 Process Steam Drums (continued)

Boiler Water * - total solids content

Steam Product * - allowable solids content

Liquid Holdup - between normal level and minimum


controllable level

*When steam purity requirements are specified.

In addition, if the steam drum is associated with a thermosyphon system,


the liquid hold-up is to be specified as sufficient to provide for a sudden
loss of heat input with resulting loss of water into the thermosyphon
piping.

The Process Department will size smaller drums requiring only a dry pipe
if horizontal, or CWM screen if vertical.

Drums less than 3'-6" in diameter should be vertical, while larger drums
will normally be horizontal.

Directions follow for sizing drums 6'-0" and less in diameter.

6.4.1 Horizontal Steam Drums (see sketch Figure 23)

A. Using an L/D ratio of approximately 4:1, calculate the size


of the drum directly from Figure 16.

B. Dry pipe

Provide a dry pipe in the top of the drum to collect the


steam and to equalize surges in the steam outlet pipe. The
dry pipe is usually selected to be one line size larger than
the outlet nozzle, but in no case should the pressure drop
be greater than 0.5 psi/100 ft. for the full steam flow. The
holes are designed to have not less than 0.25 psi pressure
drop. The hole area can be calculated from:

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6.0 SPECIFIC DRUM DESIGNS (CONTINUED)

6.4 Process Steam Drums (continued)

6.4.1 Horizontal Steam Drums (see sketch Figure 23) (continued)

W KV s
AH =
300 2g / PH

where

g = 32.3 ft./sec. - sec.


K = loss coefficient, taken as 2
AH = hole area, sq. in.
W = steam rate, lb/hr.
Vs = specific volume of steam, cu. ft./lb.
; PH = pressure drop across holes, psi

Use diameter holes spaced as shown on vessel sketch


Figure 23.

C. Liquid hold-up (on fresh feed water)

Provide a minimum of 5 minutes hold-up. In high pressure


drums with steam of approximately 600 psig, this liquid
hold-up will determine the drum size, since design practice
is to keep the HLL at the horizontal centerline. Conversely,
with 125 psig steam, vapor space requirements will
establish the drum size (the liquid hold-up will exceed 5
minutes).

D. Arrangement of internals and connections

The arrangement of internals and connections is shown


on vessel sketch Figure 23.

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6.0 SPECIFIC DRUM DESIGNS (CONTINUED)

6.4 Process Steam Drums (continued)

6.4.2 Vertical Steam Drums

A. Diameter

Calculate the required diameter to give a vapor velocity of


100% of the critical from 2.1.2. Use CWM screen. (If the
required diameter is more than 3'-0", use a horizontal
drum.)

B. Steam volume

Calculate the required steam volume to be provided


between the inlet nozzle center line and the CWM screen
from the following table:

TABLE 6.1

MAXIMUM STEAM RATE

Pressure Maximum Steam Rate


Psig Lb/hr./ cu. ft. Steam Space

100 290
150 340
200 390
250 430
300 460
350 490

C. Feedwater surge volume

Calculate using a minimum of five (5) minutes hold-up on


fresh feed water. Use a low liquid level of approximately
2'-0". Provide a minimum of 1'-0" between inlet nozzle
centerline and the high liquid level.

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6.0 SPECIFIC DRUM DESIGNS (CONTINUED)

6.4 Process Steam Drums (continued)

6.4.2 Vertical Steam Drums (continued)

D. Nozzles and connections

Provide an elbow type inlet.

6.5 Emergency Blowdown Drums

Emergency blowdown drums are provided to collect liquid or vapor/liquid


mixtures discharged during emergency conditions. In these drums vapor
and liquid are separated, the vapor usually going to the flare or the
atmosphere and the liquid pumped generally to the slop system.

Two types of blowdown drums are used, noncondensable where only


vapor/liquid separation is performed, and condensable where the relieved
load comes in direct contact with water to condense part of the vapors
and cool the resultant total liquid.

6.5.1 Noncondensable Blowdown Drums

Noncondensable blowdown drums are provided to receive and


disengage liquid from the discharge of safety valves, drains, vents,
depressuring lines and control valves connected to a closed
system or to a safely venting location.

The choice between vertical or horizontal drum depends upon the


relation between the liquid and vapor loads. If the cross-sectional
area required for the vapor space is large compared to that
required for the liquid, a horizontal drum usually will result in the
smallest drum. If the reverse is true, a vertical drum would be
smaller. Flare K.O. drums are normally horizontal.

L/D ratio is usually kept between 3:1 to 4:1. Directions for drum
sizing are given below. For propane deasphalting blowdown
drums, see Propane Deasphalting Manual, Page II, D-14 (Dec. 66
Issue).

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6.0 SPECIFIC DRUM DESIGNS (CONTINUED)

6.5 Emergency Blowdown Drums (continued)

6.5.1 Noncondensable Blowdown Drums (continued)

A. Horizontal Drums

Horizontal emergency blowdown drums are sized based on


the required vapor residence time to allow liquid particles to
drop to the liquid interface.

Drop-out velocity of a particle in a stream is given by:

gD(" L - " v )
VD = 1.15
"vc

where VD is in ft/sec
g is 32.2 ft/(sec) sec
D is particle diameter in ft
; are densities of vapor or liquid in lb/cu ft
c is drag coefficient and is taken as 1.0(It
normally depends on Reynolds number but
becomes 1.0 or lower for high Reynolds
numbers.)

For emergency blowdown drums, as flares and venting


stacks can handle small liquid droplets, the equation is used
for approx. 300 micron particles (0.001 ft.) and becomes

!L
VD = 0.21 -1 ft/sec
!V

Drum Sizing

1. Determine the maximum single risk vapor load at


drum conditions (flash of any liquid should be
considered).

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6.0 SPECIFIC DRUM DESIGNS (CONTINUED)

6.5 Emergency Blowdown Drums (continued)

6.5.1 Noncondensable Blowdown Drums (continued)

A. Horizontal Drums (continued)

2. Determine drop-out velocity. If vapor contains no


liquid, calculate the drop-out velocity using the liquid
specific gravity of the component in the vapor that
can exist as a liquid phase at the drum conditions
(see Figure 29).

3. Use allowable velocity VA = VD

For onsite relief drums discharging vapors to a flare


system (which includes a Flare K.O. Drum), velocities
higher than VD up to 1.5 VD can be used.

4. Assume h (equals diameter minus HLL).

5. Calculate the required residence time, which equals


h/Va. This is the time required to allow a liquid drop
to fall from the top of the drum to the HLL (to travel
a distance h). If the design vapor load does not
contain unflashed liquid, h would be the same as the
diameter (D).

6. Calculate the required drum vapor volume (Vv) to give


the calculated residence time. Vv=Vapor Flow Rate
x Residence Time.

7. If any simultaneous unflashed liquid load is present,


provide 20 minutes liquid holdup below HLL. (VL)

8. Drum total usable volume (VT) would be volume


calculated in step 6 plus step 7. VT=Vv + VL

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6.0 SPECIFIC DRUM DESIGNS (CONTINUED)

6.5 Emergency Blowdown Drums (continued)

6.5.1 Noncondensable Blowdown Drums (continued)

A. Horizontal Drums (continued)

Drum Sizing (continued)

9. Calculate the ratio between liquid volume (VL in step


7) and total volume (VT in step 8). From this ratio
(equal to percent of total area) estimate HLL/R
(height over radius) using Figure 8 (FW 0-301-B).
Then, obtain HLL as a function of D, HLL = f(D).

10. The drum diameter can be calculated using h


(assumed in step 4) and HLL from step 9. D = h +
f(D).

11. Calculate X (distance between inlet and outlet


nozzles) using the total volume from step 8 and drum
diameter from step 10. To estimate the drum length
(L), assume the distance between the inlet and outlet
nozzles and the tangent lines as to be the same as
nozzle diameter.

d1 d2

L=x+d1+d2 d1 x d2

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6.0 SPECIFIC DRUM DESIGNS (CONTINUED)

6.5 Emergency Blowdown Drums (continued)

6.5.1 Noncondensable Blowdown Drums (continued)

A. Horizontal Drums (continued)

Drum Sizing (continued)

12. Check if L/D ratio is acceptable. If not, assume a


new value for h and restart step 4.

13. Determine the maximum single risk unflashed liquid


relief to the drum (note that the maximum liquid relief
load does not normally occur at the maximum vapor
discharge). Check that the drum can hold two hours
liquid relief half full (maximum) taking credit for
pumpout capacity where applicable (In some cases
there are multiple destinations for the flare drum
pumpout and the drum is not emptied until a
destination is selected). If necessary, drum capacity
should be increased.

Water Settling Facilities

If required, water settling facilities can be provided


following directions given in Section 2.2.3.

Nozzles: See Figure 24, Typical Flare Knockout Drum.

Inlet: Top entry preferred; 45 radial


entry could be acceptable.

Outlet: Vapor
Liquid
Settled water (if required)

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6.0 SPECIFIC DRUM DESIGNS (CONTINUED)

6.5 Emergency Blowdown Drums (continued)

6.5.1 Noncondensable Blowdown Drums (continued)

A. Horizontal Drums (continued)

Nozzles (continued)

Auxiliary connections:

Instruments as required by process


Consider spare nozzles for future
connections
Manway
Vent (optional)
Drain
Steam out
Steam coil connections

Steam coil should be provided to prevent freezing and to


vaporize light ends (even with no freezing
weather).

Design pressure is typically 50 psig. (See API RP 521,


Sept. 1969, Page 50.)

Maximum operating temperature is set by the highest of


the emergency relieving temperatures of
streams tying into the drum (if any liquid is
present, consider flash to drum operating
pressure). If a temperature higher than 400F
is obtained, heat losses in the incoming header
should be consider to correct temperature and
avoid overdesign.

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6.0 SPECIFIC DRUM DESIGNS (CONTINUED)

6.5 Emergency Blowdown Drums (continued)

6.5.1 Noncondensable Blowdown Drums (continued)

B. Vertical Drums

Drum Sizing

1. Determine the maximum vapor load and dropout


velocity as for horizontal drums (steps 1 & 2).

2. Use VA = VD

For onsite relief drums discharging to a flare system


(which includes a Flare K.O. Drum), velocities higher
than VD, up to 1.5VD can be used.

3. Determine the required cross-sectional area for


disengaging, using VA and design vapor load.

4. Determine the maximum single risk unflashed liquid


relief load (normally does not occur at the maximum
vapor discharge). Set the HLL so that vessel can
hold two hour liquid relief, taking credit for pumpout
capacity where applicable. Check that vessel can
hold 20 min. of liquid relief load with no credit for
pumpout capacity.

5. Allow 6" minimum between HLL and bottom of inlet


nozzle.

6. Allow one drum diameter minimum between the top


of the inlet nozzle and the upper tangent line.

7. Determine the L/D ratio and change the diameter if


required to keep L/D in the ratio 3 & 4 to 1.

Water Settling Facilities: If required, water settling facilities


can be provided using Hydrocarbon outlet located above the
lower tangent line and add a bottom outlet for water
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withdrawal. Follow directions in Section 2.2.3.

6.0 SPECIFIC DRUM DESIGNS (CONTINUED)

6.5 Emergency Blowdown Drums (continued)

6.5.1 Noncondensable Blowdown Drums (continued)

B. Vertical Drums (continued)

Drum Sizing (continued)

Nozzles: )
)
Steam Coil: ) See above, under
) Paragraph A,
Design Pressure: ) Horizontal Drums.
)
Maximum Operating Temperature: )

6.5.2 Condensable Blowdown Drums

Condensable blowdown drums are provided to receive, cool and


partially or totally condense emergency relief by direct contact
with water. Vapor is disposed to flare system or atmosphere and
liquid recovered. Condensable blowdown drums are also used to
condense and recover valuable components from emergency relief
such as Furfural and MEK or toxic or corrosive vapors such as
phenol, which condense under atmosphere conditions.

For drums open to the atmosphere, vapors should be vented


through a stack to avoid high concentrations of toxic and/or
flammable vapors around equipment. Special attention should be
paid in total condensable services where vapors can leave the
stack at a very low velocity or air can be drawn in.

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6.0 SPECIFIC DRUM DESIGNS (CONTINUED)

6.5 Emergency Blowdown Drums (continued)

6.5.2 Condensable Blowdown Drums (continued)

Drum Sizing

NOTE: For furfural blowdown drums, see Furfural Solvent


Extraction Units, Supplement to Texaco Blue Book,
Foster Wheeler Design Data, March 16, 1970,
Pages VII-11, 12, and 13 Section VII.A.8

For MEK blowdown drums, design will be based on


previous design experience, in accordance with past
lube oil design practices.

For coker blowdown drums, see Delayed Coker


Design Manual (January 1977) , Section 6,
Blowdown System.

Step 1. Determine the maximum vapor feed and temperature


at the drum operating pressure, considering any
incoming liquid flash.

Step. 2. Determine the total heat load Q to be absorbed by


the water (heat required to cool the feed to its dew
point, to cool the incondensables to the overhead
outlet temperature, and to condense and sub-cool the
condensable fraction to the bottom outlet
temperature). If the drum feed is a superheated vapor
and if the desuperheating load is 10% or more of the
total heat load, separate calculations for
desuperheating and condensing sections are required.

The overhead vapor temperature is that required to


recover the condensable material. The bottom
product outlet temperature is the same as the water
outlet temperature (see next paragraph).

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6.0 SPECIFIC DRUM DESIGNS (CONTINUED)

6.5 Emergency Blowdown Drums (continued)

6.5.2 Condensable Blowdown Drums (continued)

Drum Sizing (continued)

Step 3. Determine the required water flow (usually fire


water) necessary to absorb the heat load Q using
water sensible heat only (assume no water is
vaporized). The water leaving the drum heat transfer
section (water from bottom tray) should be 30 to
70F below the water boiling point at the operating
pressure. Typically, a temperature of 170F is used
for this water.

Step 4. Determine the top tray liquid load (minimum load),


the bottom tray liquid load (maximum load), and the
average liquid load (arithmetic average between
maximum and minimum). If the drum includes a
vapor desuperheating section, these loads are
required for both the desuperheating and the
condensing sections.

In actual operation, the maximum liquid load could


occur on an intermediate tray. The reason for this is
that some of the water will be vaporized by the hot
feed gas. This water will then be recondensed in the
upper trays, creating an internal water-steam
recirculation. The effect of this recirculation on the
liquid and vapor loads is very difficult to calculate.
For many of the services for which these drums are
used, a rigorous analysis of the heat and mass
transfer taking place is not required. The problem is
usually simplified by assuming that only heat transfer
takes place (no vaporization of liquid phases) and the
heat curve (or curves, if drum includes two sections)
is a straight line.

Step 5. Determine the top tray vapor load (minimum load),


bottom tray vapor load (maximum load), and the
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average vapor load (arithmetic average between


6.0 SPECIFIC DRUM DESIGNS (CONTINUED)

6.5 Emergency Blowdown Drums (continued)

6.5.2 Condensable Blowdown Drums (continued)

Drum Sizing (continued)

maximum and minimum). If a desuperheating section


is also included, these loads are required for each of
the sections (desuperheating and condensing).

As for the liquid loads (see previous paragraph), the


actual maximum vapor load could occur on an
intermediate tray but the same simplifications are
usually accepted.

Step 6. Determine the drum diameter using the maximum


vapor load, calculated in the previous step, and an
allowable velocity (VA) equal to 1.7 times the critical
velocity (VC). Refer to the tower standards for disc
and donut trays, Section 200 of the 1959 Process
Standards, Design of Process Equipment, Pages 64
and 65, Part II.D.1.

Sp.Gr. x T
V C = 4.05
MW x P

VA = 1.7 VC

where: Sp. Gr.: hot specific gravity of lightest


liquid phase

T : Vapor temperature (R)

MW : Vapor molecular weight

P : Pressure, psia

Step 7. Use the method given in Part II.D of the tower


standards for disc and donut trays, Section 200 of
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the 1959 Process Standards, as follows: (note: if the


6.0 SPECIFIC DRUM DESIGNS (CONTINUED)

6.5 Emergency Blowdown Drums (continued)

6.5.2 Condensable Blowdown Drums (continued)

Drum Sizing (continued)

Step 7.(continued)

drum includes desuperheating and condensing


sections, the procedure below applies to each of
these sections.)

7.1 Make disc annulus area and donut hole area


each approximately equal to 1/2 of the drum
cross-sectional area.

7.2 The average open area is the arithmetic


average between the selected disc annulus
and donut hole areas.

7.3 Determine spacing between elements by using


2.5 Vc for the maximum vapor load through
the curtain area. (Curtain area is defined as
the spacing between elements multiplied by
the circumference of the disc, or
circumference of inside donut hole. If disc and
donut circumferences are not equal, use
average). Element spacing shall not be less
than 18".

7.4 Determine the liquid and vapor average mass


velocities through the open area (liquid or
vapor average load in step 6, divided by
average open area in step 7.2).

7.5 Determine U (BTU/h/ft2) from Fig. III in Section


200-II-E, using the average loads calculated in
step 7.4. If the heat removed is essentially
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latent heat, use twice the chart value; if it is


combined sensible-latent, prorate the U value
6.0 SPECIFIC DRUM DESIGNS (CONTINUED)

6.5 Emergency Blowdown Drums (continued)

6.5.2 Condensable Blowdown Drums (continued)

Drum Sizing (continued)

Step 7. (continued)

based on the relative quantities of sensible and


latent heat.

7.6 Calculate the LMTD for the drum (or each of


the drum sections if applicable). If the
superheat is small and has been neglected (no
desuperheating section calculated separately),
the LMTD should be calculated using the
vapor feed dew point, not the actual feed
temperature. Note that in this case, the total
heat load Q (calculated in step 2) should still
include the desuperheating load.

7.7 Determine the total required free flow area


(AS):

AS = Q/(U x LMTD)

7.8 The number of elements (an element is a disc


or a donut) required is the total required free
flow area (as in 7.7), divided by the average
open area (step 7.2). The total number of
elements is usually made an even number. A
disc plus donut is referred to as a set.

7.9 For details such as distribution weirs, refer to


the 1959 Tower Standards, Section 200,
Pages 63 through 69D.

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6.0 SPECIFIC DRUM DESIGNS (CONTINUED)

Step 8. Liquid Holdup. The recommended liquid holdup time


at the bottom of the drum is:

Minutes

Overflow (sump or sewer) 2 to 5


Pumpout 10 to 15

6.6 Fuel Gas Drums

6.6.1 Fuel Gas Knockout Drums

Fuel gas K.O. drums are used to disengage any liquid from the
vapor stream. These drums are sized following the same
procedure given in Paragraph 6.2 for knockout drums. Calculate
the critical velocity using the liquid specific gravity of the
component in the vapor that can exist as liquid phase at the drum
operating temperature and pressure (see Figure 29).

Fuel gas K.O. drums are generally vertical with a length to


diameter ratio of 2 to 3:1. A bottom connection to the flare
should be provided to drain excess hydrocarbon liquid in case of a
large accidental liquid discharge to the K.O. drum, before it can
overflow to the burners.

When required by weather conditions, the drum should be


insulated and include a steam coil for vaporizing liquid carry-over.

6.6.2 Fuel Gas Mix Drums

Fuel gas mix drums are used to collect tail gas from various
process units and give enough residence time to obtain an outlet
vapor stream of reasonable constant composition and heating
value. When required, natural gas or revaporized LPG is added to
the mix drum to make up the fuel gas system or to adjust the
heating value.

Gas residence time is usually one minute. The drum diameter

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must also be checked for liquid disengagement following


procedure for fuel gas K.O. drums (Paragraph 6.6.1). For drains,
insulation and steam coils, apply the same criteria as for fuel gas
K.O. drums.

Drums are generally vertical with a length to diameter ratio of 2 to


3:1.

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7.0 GENERAL COMMENTS ON PROCESS SPECIFICATION OF DRUMS

The process engineer is responsible for the process specification of drums. One
of the following forms should be used.

Form Form Title

135-2B Vertical Drum with Data Box (see Appendix, Figure 18)

135-3C Horizontal Drum with Data Box (see Appendix, Figure 17)

135-59A Blank Vessel Sheet with Data Box (see Appendix, Figure 19)

The title box should be filled in.

The revision, date and process engineers initials should be added to the
revisions box.

7.1 Drum Sketch

Each form has a space for a sketch of the drum. The process engineer is
required to make a sketch of the drum showing the following information:

Position of the vessel (horizontal, vertical, or slanted).

Dimensions of the vessel (diameter and length or height) including


boot where applicable.

Number and location of nozzles.

Details of internals.

Liquid levels (low, normal and high).

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7.0 GENERAL COMMENTS ON PROCESS SPECIFICATION OF DRUMS (CONT)

7.2 Vessel Data Column

Each form has a vessel data column and the process engineer is required
to fill in all information indicated by dotted lines. The following should be
used as guidance in supplying the information required for the vessel data
column:

Line Data

1 Item No. - fill out (from equipment list)

1 No. Reqd. - fill out

2 Service - fill out (from equipment list)

4 Diameter - fill out

5 Tangent Length -fill out. (If overall length cannot be calculated


due to swaged sections, leave blank. Specific straight length
sections should be indicated on sketch itself).

6 Operating Pressure (Normal) - this should be the maximum normal


operating pressure at top of vessel.

7 Operating Pressure (above liquid level) - This should be the


maximum normal operating pressure above the liquid level. This
will generally be the same as line 6 for drums.

8 Design Pressure - leave blank

9 Operating Liquid Holdup Pressure - this is the calculated head of


liquid in psi, from the bottom tangent to the high liquid level. If
drum is liquid-filled (such as a rotating-disc-contactor or other
extraction tower) then the head of liquid, in psi, is measured up to
the vessel top.

10 Operating Pressure Drop Through Vessel - fill out.

11 Maximum Relieving Pressure at Top - leave blank.

12 Maximum Operating Temp. - fill in and indicate whether top or


bottom.
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7.0 GENERAL COMMENTS ON PROCESS SPECIFICATION OF DRUMS


(CONTINUED)

7.2 Vessel Data Column (continued)

Line Data

13 Design Temperature - leave blank.

14 Specific Gravity (Process Fluid) - fill in.

29 Insulation - indicate yes or no.

All other lines to be left blank.

7.3 Nozzle Chart

Each form has a nozzle chart and the process engineer is required to
number and list all the nozzles indicated on the sketch. The nozzles
should normally be numbered so that the manway(s) appears first,
followed by the process connections, then the auxiliary nozzles and,
lastly, the instrument connections. Generally the Vessel Group will
determine the number and size the manway(s). The process engineer is
required to size the process and auxiliary nozzles. The Instrument Group
will size the instrument connections.

7.4 Minimum Design Pressure Stamp

Each form should have stamped upon it a block with the following
imprint:

MINIMUM DESIGN PSIG


PRESS. (AT TOP)

NORMAL OP. TEMP. F


(AT TOP)

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7.0 GENERAL COMMENTS ON PROCESS SPECIFICATION OF DRUMS


(CONTINUED)

7.4 Minimum Design Pressure Stamp (continued)

If the form does not have this imprint, the process engineer is responsible
for obtaining the stamp from the Process File room or a Chief Process
Engineer and stamping the form.

The imprint is to be filled out as follows:

Minimum Design Pressure (at top) is to be indicated as the


minimum design pressure that can be tolerated for process
reasons. Process engineer should follow the clients specifications
and/or FWEC specifications which usually indicate that the
minimum design pressure at the top is to be the maximum normal
operating pressure (at top) plus 10% or 25 psi, whichever is
greater.

The set pressure and location of the relief valve protecting the
drum must be considered in specifying a minimum design
pressure. If, for example, a vessel that had a maximum normal
operating pressure of 20 psig were protected by a relief valve set
at 50 psig (due to pressures in the flare header system), this
would override the 10% or 25 psi rule. If the relief valve is not
located on the vessel, the pressure drop ( at relieving conditions)
to the relief valve must also be considered. As a check, the
process engineer is required to list alongside the stamp, the
location and set pressure of the relief valve protecting the drum. If
there are other process criteria to be considered, these also should
be evaluated when setting this minimum design pressure. It
should be pointed out that this pressure is not necessarily the
same as the maximum relieving pressure at top since this latter
pressure is a vessel designers maximum pressure value for the
vessel.

Normal Operating Temperature (at top) - This is the second line of


the stamp and should be filled out by the process engineer. It
should be noted that this temperature is not necessarily the same
as the maximum operating temperature since maximum
temperature may be at bottom or middle of column.
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8.0 EXAMPLE PROBLEMS

8.1 Design of Accumulator (Surge) Drum

Problem - Design Fractionator Overhead Accumulator. Vapor and liquid


data are given:

Liquid Load Vapor Load


Reflux Product Product

Lb/Hr 87,400 28,300 32,500


API (Molecular Wgt) 80.3 80.3 (27.2)
Temperature, F -----------------------100-----------------------------------
Pressure, psia -----------------------215-----------------------------------
Expansion Factor 1.045 1.045
Compressibility Factor 0.79

Liquid Water 7.0 US GPM

Use Horizontal Drum

1. Minimum Allowance Vapor Area

V a = 1.7 V c

( "l %
V a = 1.7 x 0.15 && # 01
#
' "g $

!l = 41.60/1.045 = 39.81lb/ ft3

27.2 x 215
!g = = 1.232 lb/ ft3
10.73 x 0.79 x 560

39.81
V a = 1.7 x 0.15 - 1 = 1.43 ft/sec
1.232

Vapor Flow Rate =

(32,500 Lb/hr) / (1.232 Lb/ft3) = 26380 ft3/hr


= 7.33 ft3/sec

Minimum Vapor Area = 7.33/1.43


= 5.12 ft2

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8.0 EXAMPLE PROBLEMS (CONTINUED)

8.1 Design of Accumulator (Surge) Drum (continued)

2. Liquid Surge Volume (HLL to LLL)

5 mins. on reflux = 5 x 87,400/60 = 7280 lbs


10 mins. on product (tower feed) =10 x 28,300/60
= 4720 lbs
Select larger of these:

5 x 87,400
i.e. 5 mins. on reflux = = 183 ft3
60 x 39.81

3. Water Settling Volume (Below LLL)

Allow 5 mins. on total hydrocarbon load.

5 x (87,400 + 28,300)
i.e. = 242 ft3
60 x 39.81

4. Drum Diameter

For first trial use L:D = 4:1


and try a volume of 1.15 x required liquid volume.

i.e. V = 1.15 (242 + 183) = 489 ft3

4V
V = (L/D) x D x 1 D2 /4 or D = 3
1 x (L/D)

i.e. D = 5.38 ft

Use a 5'-6" diameter drum.

Total Area = 1 (5.5)2 /4 = 23.76 ft 2

5. Vapor Space Check

Check that height of vapor area is not less than 0.2D.

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i.e. 5.12/23.76 = 21.5% of Area

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8.0 EXAMPLE PROBLEMS (CONTINUED)

8.1 Design of Accumulator (Surge) Drum (continued)

5. Vapor Space Check (continued)

From Figure 7 this corresponds to an H/D of 0.27

i.e. H = 0.27 D > 0.20D

Use an 8 inch diameter short radius elbow at the inlet and a 4 inch
thick mist eliminator at the vapor outlet. (These internals are not
required but are used for purposes of this example).

Check the space required for elbow.

Figure 30 recommends 20" for an 8 inch diameter short radius


elbow

20
i.e. = 0.30D > 0.27D
66

Check space required for mist eliminator (See Figure 27).

i.e. 2.0 Vc = 1.68 ft/sec.

Area = 7.32/1.68 = 4.36 ft2 = 2a2

i.e. a = 18" Use an 18" x 36" pad

Chord 18
= = 0.55
Radius 33

Height
From Figure 8: < 0.04
Radius

Height < 1.3" Use minimum 4"

Space for mist eliminator

i.e. 4 + 4 + 12 = 20" or 0.30D

Spacing for elbow still controls.


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8.0 EXAMPLE PROBLEMS (CONTINUED)

8.1 Design of Accumulator (Surge) Drum (continued)

6. Water Draw-off Pot

Water Rate 7.0 US GPM = 0.94 ft3/Min.


Water Velocity = 5 inches/Min.
Min. X-sectional Area

= (0.94 ft3/Min.) (12 inches/ft) / (5 inches/Min.)

= 2.26 ft2 or 1.7 ft. diameter

Check 2'-0" diameter boot

24/66 = 0.36 The boot is greater than ; the drum diameter.

A 1'-6" diameter boot will have a 6.4 inches/Min. water velocity.

Since this is less than 10 inches per minute, use 1" - 6" diameter
boot (1.77 ft2). Distance between high and low interface levels
for 4 minutes hold up:

i.e. = 0.94 x 4/1.77 = 2.1 Say 2'-0"

Minimum boot length - 3'-0" for LC connections

Use a 1'-6" D x 3'-0" boot.

7. High Liquid Level (HLL)

Set HLL at 66 - 20 = 46" or 3"-10" from bottom

8. Drum Length

Total liquid volume below HLL

i.e. 183 + 242 = 425 ft3

Area above HLL (H/D = 0.30) = 25%

Liquid Area 23.76 x (1 - 0.25) = 17.82 ft2


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8.0 EXAMPLE PROBLEMS (CONTINUED)

8.1 Design of Accumulator (Surge) Drum (continued)

8. Drum Length (continued)

Drum length 425/17.82 = 23.85 ft

Use a 24'-0" long drum, L/D = 4.4 OK

Note that in order to simplify the above calculation, the volume in


the two ellipsoidal heads has been neglected. Our computer
program DRUMHO does not neglect the head volumes.

9. Low Liquid Level (LLL)

Volume below LLL: 242 ft3

242
Fraction of area below LLL: x (1 - 0.25) = 0.43
425

From Figure 7

i.e. H/D @ 0.43 Area = 45%

LLL = 30" or 2' - 6"

Figure 20 in the Appendix is a typical sketch of this type of drum.

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8.0 EXAMPLE PROBLEMS (CONTINUED)

8.2 Design of Knockout Drums

Problem - Design Compressor Interstage KO Drum to separate vapor


and condensed liquid. Vapor and liquid data are given:

Liquid Vapor

42.5 Lb/Hr 25,000 Lb/Hr


50 psig
80F
29 MW

"l = 62.4 Lb/ ft3 "v= 0.324 Lb/Ft3

77,160 ft3/Hr
21.4 ft3/Sec

Use vertical drum without internals.

1. Maximum Allowable Velocity

"l
Va = 1.0 x 0.15 -1
"v

62.4
= 1.0 x 0.15 -1
0.324

= 2.08 ft/Sec

2. Minimum Allowable Area

Minimum Area = 21.4 ft3/Sec / 2.08 ft/sec


= 10.3 ft2

Minimum Diameter = (4 x 10.3/1)1/2


= 3.62 ft

Use 4' - 0
Area 12.57 ft2

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8.0 EXAMPLE PROBLEMS (CONTINUED)

8.2 Design of Knockout Drums (continued)

3. Drum Height

Calculate volume for liquid hold-up and other requirements.

Volume required for 24 hours hold-up. (Drum is emptied once a


day. See Section 6.2.2.)

i.e (24 Hours)(42.5 Lb/Hr) / (62.4 Lb/ft3) = 16.35 ft3

In 4-0" diameter drum, this corresponds to:

16.35 ft3 / 12.75 ft2 = 1.30 ft

Allow 18" between low liquid level and high liquid level.

The top tangent line should be a minimum of 2" - 6" above the
top of the inlet nozzle, or above a CWMS, if used. The high
high liquid level should be a minimum of 1" - 0" below the
bottom of the feed inlet.

For this example, use a feed inlet size of 6" with a 90 long-
radius elbow (total height 1'-0").

Allow an additional 18" between the high liquid level and high
high liquid level. This space is used as safety in case the
operator does not empty the drum one day. An alarm and a
compressor shutdown switch are located in this space. 18"
was selected since it allows adequate time for operator action
before the compressor will shut down, and it also will result in
an L/D = 2, a common practice but not a requirement.

Top tangent line to top of inlet 2'-6"


Inlet plus elbow 1'-0"
Bottom of elbow to HHLL 1'-0"
HHLL to HLL 1'-6"
HLL to LLL 1'-6"
LLL to bottom tangent line 0-6"
Total 8'-0"
Figure 21 in the Appendix is a typical sketch of this type of
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drum.

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8.0 EXAMPLE PROBLEMS (CONTINUED)

8.3 Design of Flash Drum

Problem -Design a flash drum to separate vapor and liquid. A liquid


surge time of 2 minutes is specified as liquid from this drum is flashed
into a low-pressure drum. Vapor and liquid data are given:

Liquid Load Vapor Load

Lb/Hr 278,000 42,900


API (MW) 36.4 (13.3)
Temperature, F -------------------490-------------------
Pressure, psia -------------------630-------------------
Expansion Factor 1.26
Compressibility Factor 1.0

Use vertical drum with CWMS, Va = 2.0 Vc

(" %
VA = 2.0 x 0.15 & l # -1
& "g #
' $

" l = 52.5/1.26 = 41.67 Lb/ft 3

13.3 x 630
"g = = 0.822 Lb/ft 3
10.73 x 1.0 x 950

41.67
VA = 2.0 x 0.15 - 1 = 2.11 ft/sec
0.822

Vapor Flow Rate =

(42,900 Lb/Hr) / (0.822 Lb/ft3) = 52,190 ft3/hr


= 14.5 ft3/sec

Min Vapor Area = 14.5 / 2.11


= 6.87 ft2
i.e. = 3'-0" Diameter

This is too small for CWMS

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8.0 EXAMPLE PROBLEMS (CONTINUED)

8.3 Design of Flash Drum (continued)

Try vertical drum without internal

41.67
VA = 0.15 - 1 = 1.06 Ft/Sec
0.822

Min Vapor Area = 14.5/1.06


= 13.7 ft2

2. Liquid Surge Volume (HLL to LLL)

Allow 2 minutes hold-up

2 x 278,000
= = 222 ft3
60 x 41.67

Try 4'-6" Diameter

Area = 1 (4.5)2/4 = 15.9 ft2

222
HLL-LLL Height = = 14.0 ft
15.9

3. Drum Height

The top tangent line should be a minimum of 2'-6" above the


top of the inlet nozzle.

The high-liquid level should be a minimum of 1'-0" below the


bottom of the feed inlet system.

In this example, use a feed inlet size of 12".

Top Tangent Line to top of Inlet 2'-6"


Inlet 1'-0"
Baffle to HLL 1'-0"
HLL to LLL 14'-0"
LLL to Bottom Tangent Line 0'-6"

Total 19'-0"

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8.0 EXAMPLE PROBLEMS (CONTINUED)

8.3 Design of Flash Drum (continued)

3. Drum Height (continued)

L:D = 19' 0" : 4' -6" = 4.3 : 1

This is appropriate for a high-pressure vessel.

Figure 22 in the Appendix is a typical sketch of this type of


drum.

8.4 Design of Process Steam Drum

Problem Design a steam drum for the following steam load:

Steam Rate 50,000 Lb/Hr


Pressure 250 psig
Temperature 406F (Saturated)

1. Drum Diameter

Use a horizontal 4' - 0" diameter drum.

From Figure 16, max allowable steam loading

= 3,400 Lb/hr per ft of drum length

i.e. Min. Drum Length = 50,000/3,400


= 14.7 ft

2. Liquid Hold-up

Fresh feed water approx. 55,000 Lb/Hr, i.e. allowing 10%


blowdown.

At 250 psig specific volume of liquid water is 0.01873 ft3/Lb.

Min. allowable hold-up between HLL & LLL is 5 mins.

5 x 55,000 x 0.01873
i.e. = 86 ft3
60

LLL is 6" above bottom


HLL is Center Line
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8.0 EXAMPLE PROBLEMS (CONTINUED)

8.4 Design of Process Steam Drum (continued)

2. Liquid Hold-up

i.e., Height of LLL is 12.5% of Diameter


i.e., Area Below LLL is 7.2% of Total Area

Area between HLL and LLL = 50 - 7.2


= 42.8% of Total Area
= 5.38 ft 2

i.e., Length = 86/5.38 ft


= 16.0 ft

i.e., Use a 4'-0" Diameter, 16' -0" T/T Drum.

3. Dry Pipe Design

For a steam outlet pipe, use an 8" connection. (Pressure drop is


0.81 psi/100 ft.)

Use a 10" dry pipe. (Pressure drop is 0.26 psi/100 ft.)

Design for a pressure drop across holes of 0.25 psi.

Hole area calculated by:


W K Vs
Ah =
300 2g / Ph

50,000 2 x 1.7422
= in 2
300 2 x 32.2 x 0.25

= 77.5 in2

Use 0.5" Diameter Hole


i.e., 0.196 in2/Hole

i.e., 77.5/0.196 = 395 Holes


Use 400 Holes

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Figure 23 in the Appendix is a typical sketch of this type of drum.

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8.0 EXAMPLE PROBLEMS (CONTINUED)

8.5 Design of Flare Knockout Drum

- Max Single Risk Vapor Load:

Load 646,825 lb/Hr


MW 39.7
Temperature 320F
Operating Pressure 19 psia

No unflashed liquid present. Inlet & outlet nozzles are 48".

- Max. single risk liquid relief load, after flash at operating


conditions: 325 GPM. Pumpout capacity: 150 GPM. (This pump
is started automatically and line is always open to destination.)

- Vapors from drum are burned in an elevated smokeless flare.

- Max. temperature discharge:

Load 22,787 lb/Hr


MW 20.4
Temperature 855F

Following sizing procedure given in Section 6.5.1:

1. Vapor Load 646,825 Lb/Hr

19 x 39.7
"V = = 0.0901 lb/cu.ft.
10.731 x 780
646,825
CFS = = 1994.2
3,600 x 0.0901

2. Dropout Velocity

H.C. liquid at 320F and 19 psia has sp. gr. = 0.60


(37.4 Lb/Cu ft) (See Figure 29.)

37.4
VD = 0.21 - 1 = 0.21 x 20.35 = 4.3 ft/sec
0.0901

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8.0 EXAMPLE PROBLEMS (CONTINUED)

8.5 Design of Flare Knockout Drum (continued)

3. Allowable Velocity

VA = VD = 4.3 ft/Sec

4. Assume h = 15'

5. Residence Time = 15/4.3 = 3.5 sec.

6. Minimum Vapor Volume

Vv = 1,994.2 x 3.5 = 6,980 Cu. ft.

7. No liquid is present, then VL = 0

8. Minimum Total Volume VT = Vv

VT = 6,980 Cu. ft.

9. HLL = 0

10. D = h = 15 ft.

11. Minimum Drum Length (L)

1 D2 X
= VT
4

1 15 2 X
= 6,980 X = 39.5' say 40'
4

48 48
L = 40 + + = 48 ft. minimum
12 12

12. Check L/D = 48/15 = 3.2

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8.0 EXAMPLE PROBLEMS (CONTINUED)

8.5 Design of Flare Knockout Drum (continued)

13. Check for maximum liquid relief.

Net fill up flow = 325 - 150 = 175 GPM


2 hour flow : 21,000 Gal.
Drum Capacity : 8,482 Cu. ft. or 63,456 Gal.

Drum is less than half full.

Drum dimensions: 15' x 48'

Design pressure: 50 psig

Max operating temperature: Max relief is at 855F. A


temperature profile was established considering non-insulated
headers, a maximum ambient temperature of 90F, no wind
conditions and an absorbed sun radiation of 230 BTU/Hr-Sq. ft.

Temperature at drum inlet was found to be 670F considering


heat losses in the following headers: 200' of 12" header, 200' of
30" header and 600' of 48" header.

Max. drum operating temperature: 670F.

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8.0 EXAMPLE PROBLEMS (CONTINUED)

8.6 Design of Condensable Blowdown Drum

Design a condensable blowdown drum to recover the valuable heavy


fraction from a relief valve effluent. Disposal of the cool-net-vapor will
be by an elevated flare. Water and recovered liquid hydrocarbon will
overflow to a sump tank where the hydrocarbon phase is recovered.

Drum pressure at design flow: 2 psig (Pressure drop through drum will
be neglected)

Atmospheric pressure: 14.7 psia

Water available at 100oF, maximum.

Outlet vapor temperature will be controlled at 150oF by water injection.

Drum to be designed for a bottom liquid product leaving at 170oF (liquid


H.C. plus water), maximum.

Relief Load 76,000 Lb/h hydrocarbon gas


119.7 MW
650oF at drum inlet
325oF hydrocarbon dew point at 2 psig

Vapor enthalpy data:

650oF : 565 BTU/Lb


325oF : 387 BTU/Lb
150oF : 315 BTU/Lb

Liquid enthalpy data:

325oF : 260 BTU/Lb


170oF : 156 BTU/Lb

Liquid condensed in drum:

54,000 Lb/h
Sp. Gr. @ 60oF: 0.734
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8.0 EXAMPLE PROBLEMS (CONTINUED)

8.6 Design of Condensable Blowdown Drum (continued)

For these calculations, assume the vapor compressibility factor is


1.0.

Net cool-vapor leaving drum:

22,000 Lb/Hr
MW: 86.2

Following the procedure given in Section 6.5.2:

1. Vapor feed:

76,000 Lb/Hr
119.7 MW
650F

2. Heat loads:

Total Q = 54,000 (565 - 156) + 22,000 (565 - 315) = 27.6


MM BTU/h
Desuperheating load = 76,000 (565 - 387) = 13.5 MM BTU/h
Total sensible heat = 13.5 + 22,000 (387 - 315) = 15.1 MM
BTU/h
Latent heat = 27.6 - 15.1 = 12.5 MM BTU/h

3. Water required:

; T water: 170 - 100 = 70F


water flow = 27.6 x 106/70 = 394,000 Lb/h
( 788 GPM )

4. Liquid loads: (Vaporization of water to saturate gas and


vaporization of liquid in intermediate trays is neglected.)

4.1 Top tray 394,000 Lb/h (water required)

4.2 Bottom tray in condensing section:


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8.0 EXAMPLE PROBLEMS (CONTINUED)

8.6 Design of Condensable Blowdown Drum (continued)

4.2 Bottom tray in condensing section: (continued)

27.6 - 13.5
Water temperature: 100 + 70 = 136oF
27.6
(HC liquid sensible heat ignored)

Lb/h Sp.Gr. at
136F

Water 394,00 0.986


0

HC Condensed 0.700
54,000

448,00 0.940
0

4.3 Drum bottom tray (170oF)


Lb/h Sp.Gr. at
170F

Water 394,00 0.982


0

HC 0.687
54,000

448,00 0.934
0

4.4 Average liquid load in condensing section:

448,000 + 394,000
= 421,000 lb/h
2

4.5 Average liquid load in desuperheating section:

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448,000 Lb/Hr

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8.0 EXAMPLE PROBLEMS (CONTINUED)

8.6 Design of Condensable Blowdown Drum (continued)

5. Vapor loads (steam and vapors generated in intermediate trays are


neglected, as well as the water vaporized to saturate gas).

5.1 Vapor load to drum bottom tray = vapor feed

76,000 lb/hr, 119.7 MW, 650F, 2 psig

16.7 x 119.7
"2 = 0.1678 lb/cu.ft.
10.731 x 1,110

Vapor load: 125.8 cu ft/sec

5.2 Vapor load at top tray = net cool-vapor leaving drum

22,000 Lb/Hr, 86.2 MW, 150F, 2 psig

16.7 x 86.2
= = 0.2199 lb/cu.ft.
10.731 x 610

Vapor load: 27.8 Cu ft/sec

5.3 Vapor load at bottom tray in condensing section:

Temperature: 325F

HC: 77,000 Lb/Hr, MW = 119.7

16.7 x 119.7
= = 0.2373
10.731 x 785

Vapor load: 90.1 cu. ft./sec.

5.4 Average vapor load in condensing section:

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8.0 EXAMPLE PROBLEMS (CONTINUED)

8.6 Design of Condensable Blowdown Drum (continued)

76,000 + 22,000
lb/h = = 49,000
2

90.1 + 27.8
CFS = = 59.0
2

5.5 Average vapor load in desuperheating section:

lb/h = 76,000

90.1 + 125.8
CFS = = 108.0
2

6. Drum diameter

Maximum vapor load: 125.8 cu. ft/sec. (Feed at 650F)


Density: 0.1678 lb/cu ft

Lightest bottom liquid is HC at 170F (Sp.Gr. = 0.687)

6.1 Critical velocity:

0.687 x 1,110
VC = 4.05 = 2.50 ft/sec
119.7 x 16.7

6.2 VA = 1.7 x 2.5 = 4.25 ft/sec

6.3 Min. drum cross-sectional area: 125.8/4.25 = 29.6 Sq. ft.

Minimum drum diameter: 6.13 ft.

Use 6'-6" drum.

Drum cross-sectional area: 33.18

7. Disc and donut design


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8.0 EXAMPLE PROBLEMS (CONTINUED)

8.6 Design of Condensable Blowdown Drum (continued)

7.1 Drum cross-sectional area: 33.18


4 x 33.18
Approximate disc diameter or donut hole =
21
= 4.6'

Make disc diameter = donut hole = 4' 7"

7.2 Donut hole surface: 16.50 Sq. ft.

Disc annulus area: 16.68 Sq. ft.

Average open area: 16.59 Sq. ft.

7.3 Tray spacing:

VA = 2.5 VC = 6.25 ft/sec.

Maximum vapor load: 125.8 cu. ft/sec.

Curtain area: 20.128 Sq. ft.

Min. tray spacing: 20.128 / 1 (4' 7") = 1.4' (or


16.8"). Use 18" tray spacing

7.4 Average mass velocities through open area:

7.4.1 Desuperheating section:

Liquid: 448,000 / 16.59 = 27,000 lb/hr-ft2

Vapor: 76,000 / 16.59 = 4,581 lb/hr-ft2

7.4.2 Condensing section:

Liquid: 421,000 / 16.59 = 25,400 lb/hr-ft2

Vapor: 49,000/16.59 = 2,950 lb/hr-ft2


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8.0 EXAMPLE PROBLEMS (CONTINUED)

8.6 Design of Condensable Blowdown Drum (continued)

7.5 From Figure III, section 200 II E (1959 Process Standards):


(Reading in upper curve):

Condensing section: U = 2 x 820 = 1640 BTU/hr-F-


ft2

Desuperheating section: U = 1,200 BTU/hr-oF-ft2

7.6 LMTD

Desuperheating:

(650 - 170) - (325 - 136)


LMTD = = 312F
650 - 170
ln
325 - 136
Condensing:

(325 - 136) - (150 - 100)


LMTD = = 105F
325 - 136
ln
150 - 100

7.7 Total free flow area required:

Desuperheating: 13.5 x 106/(312 x 1,200) = 36.1 Sq. ft.

Condensing: (27.6 - 13.5) x 106/(105 x 1,640)


= 81.9 Sq. ft.

7.8 Number of discs and donuts:

Desuperheating: 36.1/16.59 = 2.2 elements

use 3 elements

Condensing: 81.9/16.59 = 4.9

use 5 elements
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8.0 EXAMPLE PROBLEMS (CONTINUED)

8.6 Design of Condensable Blowdown Drum (Cont'd)

Total number of elements required: 5 + 3 = 8

Total disc and donut sets: 4

8. Liquid hold-up. Allow 3 minutes surge time based on bottom liquid


(HC + water).

Flow: 448,000 lb/hr

Sp. Gr. 0.934 (hot, average)

CFM: 128.15

Hold-up volume: 384.45 cu. ft.

LLL to HLL min. distance: 11.6 ft. (based on 33.18 Sq. ft. cross
sect. area drum)

LLL to HLL: 12'-0"

Figure 25 in the Appendix is a typical sketch of this type of drum.

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8.0 EXAMPLE PROBLEMS (Contd)

8.7 Design of Liquid/Liquid Settling Drum

Problem - Design a settling drum to separate naphtha from a recirculated


dilute caustic solution and determine the location of the interface within
the drum. The following data are given:

Naphtha Caustic Solution


Stream rate, B/D at cond. 6,000 1,500
Sp. Gr. at cond. 0.7 1.05
Vis., cP at cond. 0.6 1.1

1. Droplet diameter = 0.005 inches.

2. Assume Stokes Law applies and calculate droplet settling rate in


each continuous phase. Check validity of this assumption by
calculating Reynolds numbers.

V = 8.3 x 105 x d2 x ; S/uc

Re# = 10.7 d V Sc/uc

a. Naphtha droplet velocity rising in caustic solution.

V = 8.3 x 105 x (0.005)2 (1.05 - 0.7)/1.1 = 6.6"/min.

Re# = 1.07 x 0.005 x 6.6 x 1.05/1.1 = 0.34

b. Caustic solution droplet velocity settling in naphtha.

V = 8.3 x 105 x (0.005)2 x (1.05 - 0.7)/0.6 = 12.1"/min.

Re# = 10.7 x 0.005 x 12.1 x 0.7/0.6 = 0.76

Above calculations show that the assumption of Stokes Law is


valid since the Reynolds number of (a) and (b) is each less than 1.
However, for design, limit the caustic solution droplet velocity to
10"/min.

3. Naphtha rate = 6,000 B/D. Flow rate in cubic feet per minute =
( ft3 / min . %#
6000B / D&& 0.0039 3
# 2 23.4ft / min
' B/D $

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8.0 EXAMPLE PROBLEMS (Contd)

4. Caustic rate for 1,500 B/D. Flow rate in cubic feet per minute =
( ft3 / min . %#
1500B / D&& 0.0039 3
# 2 5.85ft / min
' B/D $

5. Approximate diameter and area:

See Section 3.3 for approximate diameter.

flow rate
D = 2 + 1.7
v

23.4
D = 2 + 1.7 2 4.6ft .
10

Say diameter 4 -6"

Area = 0.785 x 4.52 = 15.9 ft2

See Section 3.6 for minimum residence time.

Calculate length for 10 minutes minimum residence time.

(23.4ft 3 / min + 5.85 ft 3 / min ) x 10 min


2 18.40
15.9ft 2
Say 19'-0"

Check L/D

19 ft/4.5 ft = 4.2:1

This L/D is between 4:1 and 5:1 and therefore reasonable.

6. Low interface level

See Section 3.4 for heavy phase space. Twelve inches are
allowed from the bottom of the drum.

7. High interface level

Fourteen inches allowed above low interface level. Check


residence time between high and low interface levels is greater
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8.0 EXAMPLE PROBLEMS (Contd)

than 2 minutes for caustic.

Area below low interface level:

From Appendix - Figure 8

Height 12 inches
= = 0.444
Radius 27 inches

Area = 16.8 percent

Total area below high interface level:

From Appendix - Figure 8


Height 26 inches
= = 0.963
Radius 27 inches

Area = 47.8 percent

Area between high and low interfaces


(47.8% - 16.8%) 2
= x 15.9 = 4.9 ft
100

Residence time between high and low interface levels:

4.9 ft 2 x 19 ft
= = 15.9 min
5.85 ft 3 / min .

8. Light space settling time

See Section 3.5 for light phase space.

Distance caustic droplet must fall from top of drum to high


interface level:

= 54 in. - 26 in. = 28 in.

28 in.
= = 2.8 min
10 in / min. .

9. Light space residence time


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8.0 EXAMPLE PROBLEMS (Contd)

Light space area:

(100% - 47.8%)
= 15.9 = 8.3 ft2
100

Light space volume:

= 8.3 ft2 x 19 ft = 157.7 ft3

Light space residence time:

157.7 ft 3
= = 6.7 min
23.4 ft 3 / min .

See Section 3.5 for light phase space.

The light space residence time of 6.7 minutes is greater than the
required light space settling time of 2.8 minutes, therefore, this
design is acceptable.

10. Check of heavy phase settling and residence times:

Settling time:

12 in.
= = 1.8 min
6.6 in / min

Residence time:

16.8%
15.9 ft 2 x x 19 ft
100
= 8.7 min
5.85 ft 3 / min .

Figure 26 in the Appendix is a typical sketch of this type of drum.

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Figure 6
Volume of Ellipsoidal Head of Horizontal Drums

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