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Esther Keseday

Eng 1201

March 14, 2017


Gregoire, Carolyn. Story Time on Screens Isnt All Bad for Young Children. Huffington Post,

15 Dec. 2015,


Accessed 6 Mar. 2017.

Story Time on Screen Isnt All Bad for Young Children is written by Carolyn Gregoire. This article

was featured on the Huffington Post on December 15, 2015. This she talked about how children

are spending more and more time on with screens more than ever. Research has shown that

moderate screen time can help children academically especially with language and literacy. She

quoted Allison Henward, and Early Childhood media researcher, she said children need a

healthy balance. While we should be careful in flinging open the gates of media, we should be

equally concerned about chaining them shut.We think of literacy as only reading and writing

printed words on a page of paper, but literacy is also when young children create stories and

images online through blog, podcast, text message and videos. Research has also shown that

children matching educational shows such as Sesame Street can improve language and math

skills. Such programs can boost letter recognition, listening comprehension and vocabulary. In

particular, ebooks that couple spoken with printed words have been shown to help children

expand their vocabulary. Many childhood experts have sounded the warning bells, saying that

spending too many hours staring at screens may impair a childs socio-emotional development.

The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that screen time be avoided for those under

age 2, whose brains are developing rapidly. For children ages 3 to 18, the AAP advises limiting

screen time to two hours per day. Try to understand the childs interpretation of media and what
they take from it, Henward said. To optimize their screen time and learn about childrens

understandings of media, play with them. Talk with them.

This article discussed the positive side of the technology with young children. There both benefits

and disadvantages to children with access to technology. While reading this article, I thought

about the children who aren't as lucky to have access to technology to start learning about their

shapes and colors. THey are still smart in their own way.

Hutchby, I. and Morris-Ellis, J. Children, Technology, and Culture: The Impacts of Technologies in

Childrens .. London and New York, Routledge Falmer, 2001,




Accessed 6 Mar. 2017.

Children, Technology, and Culture: The Impact of Technologies in Childrens Everyday Lives

by Hutby and Morris-Ellis is a book that was published in 2001. This book focus on the

relationship of technology not just for children but also the cultural aspect. Childhood is

increasingly saturated with technology: from television to the internet, camcorders to personal


This article's opens the eyes to the aspect of cultural issues. There are many types of cultures

and they have their own believes. Technology is just one aspect of it.

NAEYC. Technology and Interactive Media as Tools in Early Childhood Programs.

National Association for the Education of Young Children,


Accessed 6 Mar. 2017.

NAEYC is a professional organization that works to promote high-quality early learning for

all young children, birth through age 8, by connecting early childhood practice, policy, and
research. During the preschool years, young children are developing a sense of initiative and

creativity. They are curious about the world around them and about learning. They are exploring

their ability to create and communicate using a variety of media (crayons, felt-tip markers, paints

and other art materials, blocks, dramatic play materials, miniature life figures) and through

creative movement, singing, dancing, and using their bodies to represent ideas and experiences.

Digital technologies provide one more outlet for them to demonstrate their creativity and learning.

Allow children to freely explore touch screens loaded with a wide variety of developmentally

appropriate interactive media experiences that are well designed and enhance feelings of

success. Provide opportunities for children to begin to explore and feel comfortable using

traditional mouse and keyboard computers to use Websites or look up answers with a search

engine. Capture photos of block buildings or artwork that children have created; videotape

dramatic play to replay for children.Celebrate childrens accomplishments with digital media

displayed on a digital projector or on a classroom Website.Incorporate assistive technologies as

appropriate for children with special needs and/or developmental delays. Record childrens

stories about their drawings or their play; make digital audio or video files to document their

progress. Explore digital storytelling with children. Co-create digital books with photos of the

childrens play or work; attach digital audio files with the child as the narrator. NAEYC and the

White House Task Force on Childhood Obesity discourage any amount or screen time for

children under 2 years old and no more than one hour a day for children over 2 years old.

Institute of Medicine of the National Academics recommend childcare settings limit screen time

fro preschooler (ages 2-5) to fewer than 30 minutes a day and no more than one hour.This is

related to two factors potentially relating to childhood obesity: the food and beverage marketing

that they might experience when watching television or interacting with other media and the

amount of screen time they are exposed to.

Since this is a source that every education center uses, I trust the information it. This

article's acts for a against technology. It limits the amount of time base of the age and what that

age should be watching.

Purdy, Elizabeth Rholetter. "Children and Technology." Research Starters: Sociology, January.



Children and Technology By Elizabeth Purdy written In January of 2017 as a research

database.The impact of technology on children is of concern to sociologists, and much work is

being done examining the development of technologies and their increasing prevalence in the

lives of children. Specific issues related to the subject of children and technology include the

digital divide and addiction to technology. Despite many positive influences of technology on child

development, studies suggest that the negative impact of technology is most detrimental to very

young children.By the time a child enters preschool, he/she has been exposed to a wide range of

technological devices that range from televisions, remote controls, DVDs, and video game

consoles to tablet computers, smartphones, digital cameras, and e-readers. Children born in the

early twenty-first century have come to be known as DigiKids, digital natives, the net generation,

or the touch-screen generation because they have never known a time when computers, video

gaming, and other technologies were not part of their lives. Many teachers, however, belong to

the generation of digital immigrants, a term coined by educational expert Marc Parensky. Digital

immigrants have witnessed the progress of technology and may not always be comfortable with

it. By the time they enter school, students with ongoing access to technologies at home may

already know how to pull up a browser and search the Internet, open and operate a software

application, watch a video, play a game on the Internet, or perform basic functions in word

processing and graphics software. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) issued guidelines

in 1999, recommending that children under the age of two not be exposed to technology,

including television. By the time AAP updated their guidelines in 2011, major technological
advances had taken place. It was estimated at that time that 90 percent of all American children

under the age of two were regularly engaged in viewing media. In 2014, the AAP reported that

American children were devoting an average of seven hours each day to technologies such as

televisions, computers, smartphones, and other electronic devices. To prevent the negative

effects associated with overexposure to technology, the AAP suggests that "screen-free zones"

should be established in all homes and encourages parents to limit the time that children and

teenagers spend on entertainment media, which includes television, computing, video gaming,

and all mobile media. he AAP guidelines warned about excessive screen time's potentially

negative effects on sleep, physical activity, and social and cognitive development in children and

adolescents. Because children learn through direct action, interactive devices were hailed as

ideal educational tools at the same time that concerns were being raised about possible

detriments to brain development, because the brains of young children depend on social

interaction and physical manipulation to develop properly. Some teachers are teaching

technology by using the gradual release of responsibility model that begins with teacher

explanations and demonstrations and gradually shifts to supervised student involvement and,

ultimately, to independent student action. Alan Bains contended that despite research to the

contrary, technology has done little to change the way that children are being taught because

schools have only shifted to using technology to carry out traditional methods of education

instead of being technologically innovative. Some experts maintain that technology is essential to

teaching even young children the basic concepts of science, technology, engineering, and

mathematics (STEM) that are considered essential to life in the twenty-first century. They

contend that encouraging vocabulary building and collaborative skills is essential to preparing

students for understanding STEM concepts as they advance through the educational system.
This articles talks has a lot of data from the [point of view I will be taking against

technology. It also has a lot of other corporations that have the same stads as me, which will help

me further my point.

Storypark. Children and Technology | Dr Joanne Orlando. YouTube, 9 Jan. 2017,

Accessed 6 Mar. 2017.

Children and Technology is an interview between Storypark and Dr. Joanne Orlando.

About 74% of children eight years and younger use technology (tablets, phones, parents smart

phones) at home on a daily basis. Forty to fifty percent of children two years and younger

access technology on a daily basis. Children have their own devices from age of 3

This is a good source because I can use the fact that she did a study with young children

and years later, revisited those children

Toddlers and Touchscreens: A Science in Development. Association for Psychology Science,

Association for Psychological Science, 9 July 2015,


Accessed 6 Mar. 2017.

Touchscreen devices offer contingent audiovisual sensory stimulation based on a

childs physical interaction. The variety, frequency and complexity of the contingent

responses the child can get from tablets, smartphones and other touchscreen devices far

exceeds anything a traditional physical toy can provide and may generate heightened levels

of cognitive activity. Also, the multi-touch interface is an incredibly intuitive way of interacting

with a device. Infants seem to be able to learn to tap and flick a screen before they have

fully developed fine motor control (Cristia & Seidl, 2015). This combination of rewarding

interaction with varied sensory and cognitive stimulation may have the potential to have
positive (and perhaps negative) impacts on attention, fine motor control and other cognitive

domains.The majority of the existing literature on media exposure in early childhood is

dedicated to TV and movies with the findings generally indicating that, contrary to popular

views, not all TV exposure is bad. Exposure to educationallyinformed programming (such

as Sesame Street and Dora the Explorer) and co-viewing with a parent may have a positive

impact on various aspects of cognitive development including executive function,

vocabulary, expressive language, school readiness and numeracy. The same is likely to be

the case with touchscreens. Passive video viewing on a tablet may lead to less cognitive

stimulation than an app developed according to educational and developmentally-informed

principles of learning or one that fosters collaborative use or sharing with a peer or parent.

However, empirical evidence of these relationships is currently lacking. distinguishing

between the actual content and the modes of interaction with the devices will be critical for

understanding the short- and long-term impacts that touchscreen use might have on

cognitive and social development. As has been found with TV exposure during childhood,

the developmental and educational-appropriateness of the content to the child may

maximize its positive impact on the childs development. We will be examining what kind of

content the child uses on the touchscreen devices as well as whether their use is mostly

passive (e.g. watching videos), active (e.g. playing games, using educational apps) and

social, i.e., if they share the experience with a peer or parent. This social mode of interaction

may be facilitated by touchscreen devices due to their portability and facility for multiple

children to interact with them at the same time, much more so than TV. Whether young

children use touchscreens socially and how this relates to cognitive and social development

will also be examined in the TABLET project.

Wardle, Francis, Ph.D. The Role of Technology in Early Childhood Programs. The Early Childhood

News, 2008,

Accessed 6 Mar. 2017.

In The Role of Technology in Early Childhood Programs by Francis Wardle, which

appeared on the Early Childhood News, he wrote about how technology will become our future

in schools. Experts believe computers are not developmentally appropriate for children under

the age of three. However, these same experts believe children three years old and older can

begin to effectively explore and use computers.To evaluate whether computers are

developmentally appropriate for children over age three, we need to determine the

developmental needs of these children. Children this age are developmentally within Piagets

preoperational stage. This means they are concrete learners who are very interested in using

newly learned symbolic representation - speaking, writing, drawing (including maps and

geometric figures) and using numbers. Further, children this age are extremely active and

mobile. They often have difficulty sitting still; they need frequent changes in learning modalities;

and they want a variety of physical experiences involving dance, physical play, climbing and

sports. Preoperational children are also are continuing their mastery of language, and exploring

various facets of social behavior. The danger, however, is that computers will be used only to

reinforce the national trend toward earlier and more academic skill acquisition, and that other

important developmental needs will be ignored. Further, there is a danger that developmental

needs not met through technology will be ignored or radically compromised: physical play,

outdoor exploration of the community and of nature; art, music and dance; learning specific

social skills and moral values, and experiencing diversity in a myriad of ways. Some also

believe the easy access of information through computers will prevent our children from

developing the persistence, ingenuity, tenacity, social adeptness and hard work needed to

survive in the world

This is a good source because it bring out both positive and negative effects of

technology. Although I thought it was more for technology it still contained good information

especially about the development of children. They learn at different pace.