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Annotated Bibliography

Primary Sources

Borden, Louise. Interview. 21 Dec. 2016. Louise Borden is the author of His name was Raoul

Wallenberg. She was incredibly kind and offered me help with my project in many ways.

She had insightful answer and was very kind to take time out of her busy schedule. She

knows Nina Lagergren, Wallenbergs sister personally. I got many quotes that I used in

my project from her.

Borden, Louise, and Raoul Wallenberg. His Name Was Raoul Wallenberg. This quote helped me

answer the question I had that was In which order did Wallenberg distribute the Schutz-

Passes? How did he do it? This primary source was used on the home page of my

website.

Carlberg, Ingrid. E-mail interview. 18 Dec. 2016. This interview with Ingrid Carlberg, a

Wallenberg expert was very informative. She helped me discover a lot of new

information about Wallenberg and how he went about rescuing Hungarian Jews. Ms.

Carlberg was very kind to take time out of her day to contact me and she gave me

permission to put our interview in my website. This primary source interview was very

helpful to my research.

---. Raoul Wallenbergs Biographer Uncovers Important Clues to What Happened in His Final

Daysr. Smithsonian, 15 Jan. 2016. Smithsonian.com,

www.smithsonianmag.com/smithsonian-institution/raoul-wallenbergs-biographer-
uncovers-important-clues-his-final-days-180957837/?no-ist. Accessed 1 Nov. 2016. This

article provided me with amazing primary sources in pictures, and the author, Ingrid

Carlberg was an interview possibility. I used these pictures in a tab on my website.

Dachau Concentration Camp. Wikipedia, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dachau_concentration_camp.

Accessed 7 Jan. 2017. This image of a concentration camp helped me with my timeline.

It was the first concentration camp that opened, and I wanted to show that on my

timeline.

Dardel, Guy Von. Letter from Guy Von Dardel to President Harry Truman regarding His

Brother Raoul Wallenberg. Received by Harry S. Truman, 27 Mar. 1947. National

Archives Catalog, catalog.archives.gov/id/6277125. Accessed 30 Oct. 2016. Letter. This

letter from Guy Von Dardel to the president of the United States was an amazing primary

source, and it helped me understand that even his brother did not know where he was.

This is an amazing primary source, and I used it on one of my website pages.

Elizabeth Steinhardts Schutz-Pass. Passport-Collector.com, www.passport-collector.com/1944-

swedish-protection-pass-schutz-pass/. Accessed 6 Jan. 2017. This photograph of a

Schutz-Pass that Raoul Wallenberg created in the time of the Holocaust helped me

understand what a Schutz-pass looked like. I used in in my website on my Schutz-

Passpage.
Eva Lederers Schutz-Pass. Passport-Collector.com, www.passport-collector.com/important-

raoul-wallenberg-schutzpass-found-in-budapest/. Accessed 7 Jan. 2017. This Swedish

Schutz-Pass that Wallenberg created helped me understand what a Schutz-Pass looked

like. I used this image in my Schutz-Pass page on my website.

Gilbert, Sam. Nazis Stacked the Bodies. 12 May 1945. Historytb,

historytb.blogspot.com/2014_10_01_archive.html. Accessed 18 Jan. 2017. This

photograph truly portrays the Holocaust: horrible. This rare image shows the bodies of

many Jews that the Nazis killed, all stacked up. I put this image in my website because I

wanted people to know how truly awful the Holocaust was. This picture is a primary

source, and I sued it on my background of era page.

A Group of SS officers Converse Outside at a Construction site in the Hinzert Concentration

Camp. Wikimedia,

commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Buchenwald_Hinzert_SS_34560.jpg. This image of

officers talking outside of Buchenwald Hinzert concentration camp was used on my

Background of Era tab. This primary source image helped me understand what a

horrible place such as this concentration camp looked like.

Himmler besichtigt die Gefangenenlager in Russland. Heinrich Himmler inspects a prisoner of

war camp in Russia, circa... - NARA - 540164. Wikimedia,

commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Himmler_besichtigt_die_Gefangenenlager_in_Russla

nd._Heinrich_Himmler_inspects_a_prisoner_of_war_camp_in_Russia,_circa..._-
_NARA_-_540164.jpg. Accessed 7 Jan. 2017. This image helped me understand how

they kept the Jewish people in the concentration camps. That is horrible that the Nazis

kept them behind fences, like caged animals. I used this primary source image in my

timeline.

Hitler. Wikimedia, commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Bundesarchiv_Bild_183-

S33882,_Adolf_Hitler_retouched.jpg. Accessed 7 Jan. 2017. I used this image on my

website. It was very helpful to my project. It helped me get an image in my head of what

Hitler looked like.

Jewish German Passport. Dailymail.co.uk, www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2556380/The-

night-Nazis-told-mother-Youll-never-husband-ANDREW-SACHSs-chilling-account-

childhood-1930s-Berlin.html. This Jewish Passport was not a Schutz-Pass. It was what

Germans had BEFORE Schutz-Passes. They had to be stamped with a red J to show the

person was Jewish. I used this image on my timeline.

Johnson, Herschel. Letter to The Secretary of State of Washington. 7 Mar. 1945. Infohio,

www.docsteach.org/documents/document/memo-from-herschel-johnson-about-raoul-

wallenberg. Accessed 1 Apr. 2017. This primary source is a memo from Herschel

Johnson, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary, Stockholm, Sweden, about

Wallenbergs Heroism towards the Hungarian Jews. I used this extremely useful primary

source in my Taking a Stand tab to prove Wallenbergs strong impact on the human

population.
Jude Star. Wikipedia, de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Judenstern. Accessed 7 Jan. 2017. This is the star

that Jewish people were required to wear. If you were caught without it, you could be as

worse as killed. This image helped me with my timeline. I used it there too.

Judith Kepgaolas Schutz-Pass. Schutz-Pass, www.theholocaustmuseum.info/index.php?

page=shop.product_details&flypage=new1_flypage.tpl&product_id=946&category_id=5

9&option=com_virtuemart&Itemid=231. This photograph of a Schutz-Pass that Raoul

Wallenberg created in the time of the Holocaust helped me understand what a Schutz-

pass looked like. I used in in my website on my Schutz-Passpage.

Lili Katzs Schutz-Pass. BBC.com, www.bbc.com/news/magazine-30934452. This photograph of

a Schutz-Pass that Raoul Wallenberg created in the time of the Holocaust helped me

understand what a Schutz-pass looked like. I used in in my website on my Schutz-

Passpage.

Linnea, Sharon. E-mail interview. 11 Dec. 2016. I did this interview with author Sharon Linnea

on December 11, 2016. It helped me understand many new things about Raoul

Wallenberg, such as the fact that he most likely saved over 100,000 Jews due tot he fact

that he was very confident. I have documented the whole interview over email. This was

a secondary source.
Matz, Johan. Cables in Cipher, the Raoul Wallenberg Case and SwedishSoviet Diplomatic

Communication 19441947. 2013. Cables in Cipher, the Raoul Wallenberg Case and

SwedishSoviet Diplomatic Communication 19441947, 2013, pp. 344-56. INFOhio,

ttp://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-

live&db=aph&AN=88428988&authtype=cookie,ip,custuid&custid=infohio&patronid=is

earch&password=discovery. Accessed 23 Oct. 2016. This academic journal helped me

understand more about the Soviet Unions relationship with the Nazis, and the Jews as

well. This primary source was an excellent way to review just about everything I needed

to learn about Raoul Wallenberg.

Mcarthur, Debra. E-mail interview. 13 Dec. 2016. This interview with author Debra Mcarthur

was very helpful to my research process. She helped me understand many things about

Raoul. This was a secondary source.

Miller, Helen W. Letter to Minister of Foreign Affairs. 14 July 1949. Michigan Wallenberg

Legacy, wallenberg.umich.edu/raoul-wallenberg/photo-gallery/. Accessed 19 Jan. 2017.

This letter regarding Raoul Wallenberg from Helen W. Miller, the Supervisor, requesting

information on Raoul Wallenberg was used in my project on my What Happened to

Raoul Wallenberg page. It was a very useful primary source.

The Missing Hero. Boys Life, by R.E. Hood. MasterFILE Premier,

eds.b.ebscohost.com/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=317603ae-fbe1-49b7-9fba-

6aedf3c38c4a%40sessionmgr103&vid=1&hid=127. Accessed 27 Nov. 2016. Originally


published in Boys Life, Apr. 1992, pp. 22-26. This article in a Boys Life issue helped me

understand the way in which Raoul Wallenberg impacted the lives of many people and

showed that Jews were people too to many people that did not recognize it. It also gave

me details about his capture. This was a vital primary source.

The Night of Broken Glass. Wikimedia,

commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Bundesarchiv_Bild_146-1970-083-

42,_Magdeburg,_zerst%C3%B6rtes_j%C3%BCdisches_Gesch%C3%A4ft.jpg. The

Night of Broken Glass was a massive attack on Jews that was coordinated by the Nazis. I

used this image on my timeline, and I learned from this picture that people can be really

cruel.

Oscar Wallis Fraus Schutz-Pass. Centropa.org, www.centropa.org/de/photo/schwedischer-

schutzpass-von-antonia-wallisch. Accessed 7 Jan. 2017. This photograph of a Schutz-

Pass that Raoul Wallenberg created in the time of the Holocaust helped me understand

what a Schutz-pass looked like. I used in in my website on my Schutz-Passpage.

Price, Sean. Raoul Wallenberg. The Holocaust Magazine, 1997, p. 20. Middle Search Plus.

Accessed 23 Oct. 2016. This magazine article helped me understand other peoples

perception of Raoul Wallenberg saving the Jews with fake passports was like. There was

a black and white photograph as well, which is another primary source.


Public Domain: Buchenwald Concentration Camp, WWII (NARA). Flicker,

www.flickr.com/photos/pingnews/441530476. Accessed 7 Jan. 2017. This is what a

concentration camp looked like. I used this public domain image on my timeline.

Rainer, Daniel. E-mail interview. 13 Mar. 2017. This interview was a very valuable primary

source to me and my project. I learned many things. Daniel Rainier is the vice-president

of the International Raoul Wallenberg Foundation. He provided me with strong and well

thought out answers. This interview may help me move on to states.

Raoul and His Mother Maj in 1916. Raoul Wallenberg: One Man Can Make a Difference,

raoulwallenberg2013.wordpress.com/. Accessed 18 Jan. 2017. This photograph of

Wallenberg and his mother was used on my Early Life page. This picture helped me

understand how Wallenberg grew up so kind, and did what he did during the Holocaust.

Raoul Wallenberg. Sweden.se, No special type 2013, sweden.se/society/raoul-wallenberg-a-

man-who-made-a-difference/. Accessed 11 Dec. 2016. This website had many primary

source pictures, and helped me understand how Raoul Wallenberg lives on today. I used a

quote from this website.

Raoul Wallenberg. Encyclopdia Britannica. Research Starters,

eds.b.ebscohost.com/eds/detail/detail?sid=e2c064ff-7d7c-4105-8389-

1603377b21d6%40sessionmgr105&vid=0&hid=111&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdm

U%3d#AN=89409466&db=ers. Originally published in Encyclopdia Britannica, Sept.


2014. Accessed 4 Oct. 2016. This article helped me understand what Raoul Wallenberg

did to help the Jews and how he made passports. I used this as background information,

though it was a very important resource, because it was my first introduction to Raoul

Wallenberg.

Raoul Wallenberg at Right with Clasped Hands. USHMM,

www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/media_ph.php?ModuleId=0&MediaId=1329. This primary

source image helped me understand how Wallenberg distributed the passports. I always

had an image in my head of what that looked like, but this picture is very valuable. I used

this photograph in my Thesis page.

Raoul Wallenberg in his Office in the Swedish Legation. Budapest, Hungary, November 26,

1944. Holocaust Research Project,

www.holocaustresearchproject.org/survivor/wallenberg.html. This image of Raoul

Wallenberg was very useful to my project. It shows him in his office the year he was

captured by the Soviets, which makes this resource very valuable. I will surely use this on

my background tab, for it is a vital resource.

Raoul Wallenberg in the Armed Forces. Old War Movies,

moviephilippines.blogspot.com/2013/04/righteous-among-people-and.html. Accessed 7

Jan. 2016. This image was used in my timeline. Raoul Wallenberg served in the armed

forces in 1931 against Germany. This primary source photograph of Wallenberg helped

me understand that he really cared about his world, and wanted to make a difference.
Raoul Wallenberg on the Steps of Angell Hall. Raoul Wallenberg Centre,

www.raoulwallenbergcentre.org/raoul-wallenberg/. Accessed 19 Jan. 2017. This 1931

photograph of Raoul Wallenberg on the steps of Angell Hall was very useful to my

project. I used it on my How he got Involved page on my website.

Raoul Wallenbergs Passport. Wikimedia,

commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Raoul_Wallenbergs_diplomatic_passport_001.jpg.

Accessed 8 Jan. 2017. This passport was used on my website in the slideshow on the

thesis page. It helped me understand how a passport from back then looked.

Raoul Wallenbergs passport Photo. June 1944. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum,

www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10005211. Accessed 11 Dec. 2016. I used

this image on my home page of my website. This photo of Raoul Wallenberg is a public

domain primary source, because it was his passport photo in 1944.

Reagan, Ronald. Statement on the 40th Anniversary of Raoul Wallenberg January 17, 1985. 5

Oct. 1981. Speech. This speech helped me understand how important Raoul Wallenberg

was to the holocaust, and also to show how brave Raoul Wallenberg was to the fight

against Adolf Hitler. I used this speech in my website.

Rosenthall, William A. Raoul Wallenberg. 1980. Lowcountry Digital Library,

lcdl.library.cofc.edu/lcdl/catalog/lcdl:65274. Accessed 9 Nov. 2016. This photograph on a


postcard was a great primary source for my website. It went on my front page and it

helped me understand how important Raoul Wallenberg really was.

Soviets marching through a town. Wikipedia, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eastern_Bloc_politics.

Accessed 7 Jan. 2017. This image helped me understand how the Nazis had such power.

now I know its because they had weapons to threaten people if they didnt do what they

were told. I used this image on my timeline for my website.

Train Station. Listverse, listverse.com/2013/07/04/10-sinister-things-nazis-did-to-inmates-at-

concentration-camps/. Accessed 17 Jan. 2017. This image from 1945 showed me where

the Jews were taken to their concentration camp. the train cars were supposed to hold up

yo 50 people, yet the Nazis put no less that two-hundred in them. I used this image on my

Background of Era tab.

United States, Congress, House. Raoul Wallenberg Centennial Celebration Act. Government

Printing Office, 2012. Catalog of The U.S. Publications, www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/PLAW-

112publ148/pdf/PLAW-112publ148.pdf. Accessed 27 Nov. 2016. This act by the U.S.

House of Representatives and Senate helped me understand that everybody else felt the

same way about Raoul Wallenberg and that he deserved a medal for his hard work. This

was a primary source and I used it on a page in my website. It was a very helpful source.

Title from title screen (viewed on Sept. 21, 2012). July 26, 2012 (H.R. 3800). 126 Stat.

1140. Public Law 112-148


Veres, Thomas. Wallenberg in His University Days. Holocaust Education & Archive Research

Team, www.holocaustresearchproject.org/survivor/wallenberg.html. Accessed 11 Jan.

2017. This photograph of Raoul Wallenberg in his college days was an excellent source to

use in my project. It was published the first year he learned about the Holocaust. This

primary source image will surely be used in my slideshow.

Wallenberg, Raoul. Letters and Dispatches 1924-1944. Rosen. this book was probably one of my

most valuable sources because Raoul Wallenberg wrote it himself! It was a book full of

letters from 1924-1944 while Wallenberg was a diplomat. I will used this as background

knowledge and used some quotes from the book in my website.

Wallenberg in His University Days. Holocaust Research Project,

www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/media_ph.php?ModuleId=0&MediaId=1329. This photograph

of Raoul Wallenberg in college helped me see what Wallenberg looked like when he was

young. I used this image on my slideshow on my Thesis page.

Wallenberg outside the train station in Budapest. Holocaust Research Project,

www.holocaustresearchproject.org/survivor/wallenberg.html. This image helped me

understand how Wallenberg distributed the Schutz-Passes. I now know that he himself

went to train stations to distribute them. This primary source photograph was used on my

background tab.
Young Wallenberg with his Grandfather, Gustav Wallenberg. The Story of Raoul Wallenberg,

wallenberg.umich.edu/raoul-wallenberg/the-story-of-raoul-wallenberg/. This picture

helped me understand about who Wallenberg grew up with, and what he looked like

when he was young. I used this image on my Early Life tab on my website.

Secondary Sources

Almost Remember. YouTube, uploaded by Dennis Kuo, 10 Feb. 2015,

www.youtube.com/watch?v=zkJdhE1Abbw. This beautiful piece of music was used on

my home page of my website with permission from the composer, Dennis Kuo.

Borden, Louise. His Name Was Raoul Wallenberg. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2012. This book

helped me understand more about Raoul Wallenberg and how he grew up, and more

importantly, why he decided to help the Jews. I used this book to discover more about

this man. This secondary source was used to interview Louise Borden, the author of this

book.

Fenyvesi, Charles, and Victoria Pope. The Angel Was a Spy. U.S. News & World Report, 13

May 1996. INFOhio, eds.a.ebscohost.com/eds/detail/detail?sid=8daf3bc9-8075-42ee-

95a7-4ed66715682a

%40sessionmgr4007&vid=0&hid=4210&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmU
%3d#AN=9605077745&db=mih. Accessed 23 Oct. 2016. This Special Report from the

U.S. News and World Report helped me understand the mysterious story of Raoul

Wallenberg and how we uncovered new evidence that Swedish diplomat Raoul

Wallenberg was a spy for the United States during World War II. It also told me what his

mission was. This was a secondary source.

Kirkus Reviews. Review of Raoul Wallenberg: The Biography. Raoul Wallenberg: The

Biography, by Ingrid Carlberg. EBSCOhost, web.a.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail/detail?

vid=3&sid=eb2184f6-7d71-4731-a1c5-66d3e7b09e8e

%40sessionmgr4009&hid=4207&bdata=JkF1dGhUeXBlPWNvb2tpZSxpcCxjdXN0dWl

kJmN1c3RpZD1pbmZvaGlvJnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d

%3d#AN=111642284&db=aph. Accessed 27 Nov. 2016. This review of Ingrid Carlbergs

book, Raoul Wallenberg: The Biography helped me learn things like that he found a

paying job as foreign director of a Swedish food import company owned by a Hungarian

Jew. That was the position he held when, in June 1944, he was tapped to carry out a

rescue mission for the American War Refugee Board, in alliance with Sweden.

Multilingual, with high-level Hungarian business contacts, he seemed the perfect person:

highly skilled, of good reputation, [and] a non-Jew. It was a secondary source, but it

was very helpful to my project.

Lagergren, Nina. Nina Lagergren, 2000 Wallenberg Lecture. 13 Apr. 2014. YouTube, uploaded

by Raoul Wallenberg Medal and Lecture, 13 Apr. 2014, www.youtube.com/watch?

v=YUnq9PCHjgs. Accessed 27 Nov. 2016. Speech. Nina Lagergren is Raoul


Wallenbergs half-sister, and her speech inspired me and helped me understand how

important Raoul Wallenberg was to the success of saving so many Jews. I used a clip of

this speech in my project.

Levine, Jason. Adolf Hitler. Jewish Virtual Library, 2016,

www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Holocaust/hitler.html. Accessed 11 Dec. 2016. This

website helped me understand Hitlers life, and how he became the horrible person he

was. There were primary source newspapers that I used on my website.

Louise Borden. Randomly Reading, randomlyreading.blogspot.com/2013/02/his-name-was-

raoul-wallenberg-interview.html. Accessed 6 Jan. 2017. This photograph of my

interviewee was used in my Interviews tab.

Matz, Johan. Sweden, the United States, and Raoul Wallenbergs Mission to Hungary in 1944.

Journal of the Cold War Studies, vol. 14, no. 3, 2012, pp. 97-148. INFOhio,

eds.b.ebscohost.com/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=9cc57b62-0fd9-4850-b11d-

758a57061f1c%40sessionmgr101&vid=1&hid=114. Accessed 23 Oct. 2016. This article

helps me understand about Raoul Wallenberg and his relationships with the Soviet Union,

and his many missions, including his mission to Hungary, which is the main article. this

is a secondary source.

McArthur, Debra. Raoul Wallenberg: Rescuing Thousands from the Nazis Grasp. Enslow

Publishers, 2005. This book helped me understand HOW exactly Raoul Wallenberg got
the passports to the Jes. It is incredible the way he did it. This book also gave me primary

source quotes from people like his sister, and even a few people that he saved! I used this

on my website pages, especially the quotes.

Obama, Barack. Award Speech. The Great Synagogue, 4 Sept. 2013, Stockholm, Sweden.

Speech. Due to his courageous actions on behalf of the Hungarian Jews, Raoul

Wallenberg has been the subject of numerous humanitarian honors in the decades

following his presumed death. It gives the Raoul Wallenberg Award annually to recognize

persons who carry out those goals. A postage stamp was issued by the U.S. in his honour

in 1997. On July 26, 2012, he was awarded a Congressional Gold Medal by the United

States Congress in recognition of his achievements and heroic actions during the

Holocaust. I used this speech on my website page: His Impact on History Today.

100,000 Souls: The Legacy of Raoul Wallenberg. Jewish Remembrance, uploaded by Jewish

Remembrance, 8 May 2014, www.youtube.com/watch?v=VQdzApvE0e4. Accessed 21

Apr. 2017. This video helped me understand how Wallenberg's legacy has impacted

others. He has brought on generations and generations of people who celebrate their

religion. I used this secondary source video in my website on my Taking a Stand page.

Raoul Wallenberg. Middle Search Plus, InfOhio. This encyclopedia on InfOhio was a great

source to sum up what Raoul Wallenberg did to help save the Jews. I used this as

background information.
Raoul Wallenberg: One Person Can Make a Difference. The Wallenberg Legacy, 27 Feb. 2014,

youtu.be/z3FL6lWD0zc. Accessed 24 Jan. 2017. This video clip helped me understand

more about Wallenbergs Legacy and how he helped Hungarian Jews. I used this video

clip on my Thesis page on my website.

Rosenquist, James. Raoul Wallenberg. 1984. National Portrait Gallery,

dp.la/item/a64e292dae19102852e001c3b85c5494?back_uri=https%3A%2F%2Fdp.la

%2Fsearch%3Futf8%3D%25E2%259C%2593%26q%3DRaoul%2BWallenberg&next=1.

Accessed 9 Nov. 2016. This portrait of Raoul Wallenberg represents almost everything

about him. It helped me understand the depth of Wallenberg and how he helped the Jews.

I used this picture on my website.

Wallenberg Legacy, University of Michigan. wallenberg.umich.edu/. Accessed 17 Apr. 2017.

This website is devoted to Raoul Wallenbergs bravery. Since Wallenberg has died, his

legacy still stands strong. This website has primary sources and rare images of

Wallenberg. Since he has died, starting in 1990 a medal has been given out to only the

most courageous people. This website is an organization with lots of information about

Wallenberg.