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Eastern Europe - Wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.


Coordinates: 50N 30E

Eastern Europe
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Eastern Europe, also known as East

Europe, is the eastern part of the European Eastern Europe

The main definition describes Eastern Europe

as a cultural (econo-cultural and religious)
entity: the region lying in Europe with the
main characteristics consisting of Byzantine,
Orthodox, and some Turco-Islamic

With certain simplifications, the border

between Eastern Europe and Central Europe
thus starts where Cyrillic alphabet use and
Orthodox Religion begin, with the Balkans, Geographic features of Eastern Europe

the Caucasus and neighbouring Muslim

countries complementing this group.

This definition is fulfilled by Russia, Belarus and Ukraine, as well as the countries of Southeast
Europe and the Balkan: Moldova, Romania, Bulgaria, Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Albania,
Montenegro, Kosovo and three Caucasus countries: Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan.

1 Definitions
1.1 Geographical
1.2 Religious
1.3 European Union
1.4 Cold War
1.5 Contemporary developments
1.5.1 Baltic states
1.5.2 Caucasus
1.5.3 Other former Soviet states
1.5.4 Central Europe
1.5.5 Southeastern Europe
2 History
2.1 Classical antiquity and medieval origins
2.2 Interwar years

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2.3 World War II and the onset of the Cold War

2.3.1 Eastern Bloc during the Cold War to 1989
2.4 Since 1989
3 See also
4 Notes
5 Further reading
6 External links

Several other definitions of Eastern Europe exist today, but
they often lack precision, are too general or outdated. These
definitions vary both across cultures and among experts,
even political scientists.[3] as the term has a wide range of
geopolitical, geographical, cultural, and socioeconomic

There are "almost as many definitions of Eastern Europe as

there are scholars of the region".[4] A related United
Nations paper adds that "every assessment of spatial
The European regional grouping
identities is essentially a social and cultural construct".[1]
according to The World Factbook:
Eastern Europe
Picture shows also Northern Europe,
The Ural Mountains, Ural River, and the Caucasus Western Europe, Central Europe,
Mountains are the geographical land border of the eastern Southern Europe, Southeastern
edge of Europe. In the west, however, the cultural and Europe, Southwestern Europe, and
religious boundaries of "Eastern Europe" are subject to other regions
considerable overlap and, most importantly, have
undergone historical fluctuations, which make a precise definition of the western boundaries of
Eastern Europe and the geographical midpoint of Europe somewhat difficult.


The EastWest Schism which began in the 11th century and lasts until this very day divided
Christianity in Europe, and consequently the world, into Western Christianity and Eastern

Western Europe according to this point of view is formed by countries with dominant Roman
Catholic and Protestant churches (including Central European countries like Germany, Austria, the
Czech Republic, Poland, and Slovakia).

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Eastern Europe is formed by countries with dominant

Eastern Orthodox churches, like Russia, Ukraine, Belarus,
Bulgaria and Serbia for instance.

The schism is the break of communion and theology

between what are now the Eastern (Orthodox) and Western
(Roman Catholic from 11th century, as well as from the
16th century also Protestant) churches. This division
dominated Europe for centuries, in opposition to the rather
short lived Cold War division of 4 decades.

Eastern and Western Christianity in


Division between the Religious division in

Eastern and Western 1054[7]

Since the Great Schism of 1054, Europe has been divided between Roman Catholic and Protestant
churches in the West, and the Eastern Orthodox Christian (many times incorrectly labeled "Greek
Orthodox") churches in the east. Due to this religious cleavage, Eastern Orthodox countries are
often associated with Eastern Europe. A cleavage of this sort is, however, often problematic; for
example, Greece is overwhelmingly Orthodox, but is very rarely included in "Eastern Europe", for
a variety of reasons.[8]

European Union

The official European Union website Europa makes a clear division between East and Central
Europe classifying several European countries strictly as Central European: Hungary, Poland,
Slovakia, the Czech Republic, and Slovenia.[9][10][11][12][13]

Eurovoc, a multilingual thesaurus maintained by the Publications Office of the European Union,
provides a somewhat different view with entries for "23 EU languages"[14] (Bulgarian, Croatian,
Czech, Danish, Dutch, English, Estonian, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Hungarian, Italian,
Latvian, Lithuanian, Maltese, Polish, Portuguese, Romanian, Slovak, Slovenian, Spanish and
Swedish), plus the languages of candidate countries (Albanian, Macedonian and Serbian). Of these,
those in italics are classified as "Eastern Europe" in this source, similar to the Cold War division of

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Cold War

Another definition was used during the 40 years of Cold

War between 1947 and 1989, and was more or less
synonymous with the term Eastern Bloc. A similar
definition names the formerly communist European states
outside the Soviet Union as Eastern Europe.[2]

The fall of the Iron Curtain brought the end of the

EastWest division in Europe,[24] but this geopolitical
concept is sometimes still used for quick reference by the
media or sometimes for statistical purposes.[25]
The sub-regions of Europe as defined
Historians and social scientists generally view such by EuroVoc, used for statistical
processing purposes by the United
definitions as outdated or relegating.[26][17][18][19][27].[21]
[22][23] Nations Statistics Division.[16][17]

Contemporary developments

Baltic states

EuroVoc, National Geographic Society, Committee for International Cooperation in National

Research in Demography, STW Thesaurus for Economics and most other modern sources place the
Baltic states in Northern Europe whereas the CIA World Factbook and UNESCO place the region
in Eastern Europe with a strong assimilation to Northern Europe. The Baltic states have seats in the
Nordic Council as observer states. They also are members of the Nordic-Baltic Eight whereas
Central European countries formed their own alliance called the Visegrd Group[29]. The Northern
Future Forum, the Nordic Investment Bank and Nordic Battlegroup are other examples of Northern
European cooperation that includes the three Baltic states that make up the Baltic Assembly.



The Caucasus nations may be included in the definitions of Eastern Europe. The extent of their
geographic or political affiliation with Europe varies by country and source. All three states are
members of the European Union's Eastern Partnership program and the Euronest Parliamentary
Assembly. On 12 January 2002, the European Parliament noted that Armenia and Georgia may
enter the EU in the future.[30]

Georgia in modern geography, Georgia has been classified as entirely part of Eastern

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Europe,[31][32] or as having territory in both Eastern

Europe and Asia.[33] Under the European Unions
geographic criteria, Georgia is viewed as part of
Eastern Europe and is the only Caucasus country to be
actively seeking EU membership.[28]
Armenia geographically, Armenia is thought to
fall outside of Europes boundaries; however, it is
often associated with Eastern Europe due to being
Christian, as well as due to its political and historical
ties to the continent. It is a member of Council of Current EU members
Europe and Eurocontrol.
EU members in process of
Azerbaijan Shiite Muslim Azerbaijan is
culturally oriented more toward Central Asia; withdrawing: United Kingdom
however, it is a highly secular country and at least Official EU candidates: Albania,
parts of its northern territories are geographically Macedonia, Montenegro, Turkey, and
inside Eastern Europe. Serbia
States that froze or withdrew their
There are 3 de-facto independent Republics with limited EU applications: Iceland, Norway,
recognition in the Caucasus region. All 3 states participate and Switzerland
in the Community for Democracy and Rights of Nations:
States officially recognized as
Abkhazia eligible to apply for EU membership:
Nagorno-Karabakh Republic Georgia, Moldova, and Ukraine.[28]
South Ossetia

Other former Soviet states

Several other former Soviet republics may be considered part of Eastern Europe

Russia is a transcontinental country where the Western part is in Eastern Europe and the
rest is in Asia.
Kazakhstan is a transcontinental country, predominantly in Asia, with a relatively small
section in Europe.

Disputed states:


Central Europe

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The term "Central Europe" is often used by historians to

designate states formerly belonging to the Holy Roman
Empire or the PolishLithuanian Commonwealth, including
parts of modern-day Belarus and Ukraine.

In some media, "Central Europe" can thus partially overlap

with "Eastern Europe" of the Cold War Era. The following
countries are labeled Central European by commentators,
though for some, used to the Cold War terms, they are still
labeled Eastern European.[34][35][36]
Since 1989, Eastern Bloc states
Austria gradually joined NATO, a Western
Czech Republic military alliance.
Croatia[37][38][39][40][41] Current Membership
Hungary members not a goal
Poland Candidate Undeclared
countries intent
Slovenia (most often placed in Central Europe but
sometimes in Southeastern Europe)[42]
Southeastern Europe

Most Southeastern European states did not belong to the Eastern Bloc (save Bulgaria, Romania,
and for a short time, Albania) although some of them were represented in the Cominform. Only
some of them can be included in the classical former political definition of Eastern Europe. Some
can be considered part of Southern Europe.[22] However, most can be characterized as belonging to
South-eastern Europe, but some of them may also be included in Central Europe or Eastern

Albania belongs to Southeastern Europe.

Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bulgaria is in the central part of the Balkans; geographically belongs to
Southern/Southeastern Europe and sometimes included in the North-Eastern Mediterranean,
but can also be included in Eastern Europe in the Cold War.
Cyprus is geographically situated in the eastern Mediterranean, off the coast of west
Asian mainland, however due to its political, cultural, and historical ties to Europe, it is often
regarded as part of Southern, and Southeastern Europe.
Greece is a rather unusual case and may be included, variously, in Western,[44]
Southeastern[45] or Southern Europe.[46][47]
Macedonia belongs to Southeastern Europe.
Montenegro belongs to Southeastern Europe.
Romania can be included in Eastern Europe in the Cold War context, but is commonly
referred to as belonging to Southeastern Europe[48] or Central Europe.[49]

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Serbia is included in notions of Southeastern, Southern and Central Europe

Turkey lies partially in Southeastern Europe: only the region known as East Thrace,
which constitutes 3% of the country's total land mass, lies west of the Dardanelles, the Sea of
Marmara, and the Bosphorus.

Partially recognized states:

Kosovo belongs to Southeastern Europe.

Northern Cyprus

Classical antiquity and medieval origins

Ancient kingdoms of the region included Orontid Armenia Albania, Colchis and Iberia. These
kingdoms were either from the start, or later on incorporated into various Iranian empires, including
the Achaemenid Persian, Parthian, and Sassanid Persian Empires.[50] Parts of the Balkans and more
northern areas were ruled by the Achaemenid Persians as well, including Thrace, Paeonia,
Macedon, and most of the Black Sea coastal regions of Romania, Ukraine, and Russia.[51][52]
Owing to the rivalry between Parthian Iran and Rome, and later Byzantium and the Sassanid
Persians, the former would invade the region several times, although it was never able to hold the
region, unlike the Sassanids who ruled over most of the Caucasus during their entire rule.[53]

The earliest known distinctions between east and west in Europe originate in the history of the
Roman Republic. As the Roman domain expanded, a cultural and linguistic division appeared
between the mainly Greek-speaking eastern provinces which had formed the highly urbanized
Hellenistic civilization. In contrast the western territories largely adopted the Latin language. This
cultural and linguistic division was eventually reinforced by the later political eastwest division of
the Roman Empire. The division between these two spheres was enhanced during Late Antiquity
and the Middle Ages by a number of events. The Western Roman Empire collapsed starting the
Early Middle Ages. By contrast, the Eastern Roman Empire, mostly known as the Byzantine
Empire, managed to survive and even to thrive for another 1,000 years. The rise of the Frankish
Empire in the west, and in particular the Great Schism that formally divided Eastern and Western
Christianity, enhanced the cultural and religious distinctiveness between Eastern and Western
Europe. Much of Eastern Europe was invaded and occupied by the Mongols.

The conquest of the Byzantine Empire, center of the Eastern Orthodox Church, by the Ottoman
Empire in the 15th century, and the gradual fragmentation of the Holy Roman Empire (which had
replaced the Frankish empire) led to a change of the importance of Roman Catholic/Protestant vs.
Eastern Orthodox concept in Europe. Armour points out that the Cyrillic alphabet use is not a strict
determinant for Eastern Europe, where from Croatia to Poland and everywhere in between, the
Latin alphabet is used.[54] Greece's status as the cradle of Western civilization and an integral part
of the Western world in the political, cultural and economic spheres has led to it being nearly

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always classified as belonging not to Eastern, but to Southern or Western Europe.[55] During the
late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries Eastern Europe enjoyed a relative high standard of
living. This period is also called the east-central European golden age of around 1600.[56]

Interwar years

A major result of the First World War was the breakup of the Russian, Austro-Hungarian, and
Ottoman empires, as well as partial losses to the German Empire. A surge of ethnic nationalism
created a series of new states in Eastern Europe, validated by the Versailles Treaty of 1919. Poland
was reconstituted after the partitions of the 1790s had divided it between Germany, Austria, and
Russia. New countries included Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Ukraine (which was soon
absorbed by the Soviet Union), Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia. Austria and Hungary had much
reduced boundaries. Romania, Bulgaria and Albania likewise were independent. All the countries
were heavily rural, with little industry and only a few urban centers. Nationalism was the dominant
force but most of the countries had ethnic or religious minorities who felt threatened by majority
elements. Nearly all became democratic in the 1920s, but all of them (except Czechoslovakia and
Finland) gave up democracy during the depression years of the 1930s, in favor of autocratic or
strong-man or single party states. The new states were unable to form stable military alliances, and
one by one were too weak to stand up against Nazi Germany or the Soviet Union, which took them
over between 1938 and 1945.

World War II and the onset of the Cold War

Russia, defeated in the First World War, lost territory as the Baltics and Poland made good their
independence. The region was the main battlefield in the Second World War (193945), with
German and Soviet armies sweeping back and forth, with millions of Jews killed by the Nazis, and
millions of others killed by disease, starvation, and military action, or executed after being deemed
as politically dangerous.[57] During the final stages of World War II the future of Eastern Europe
was decided by the overwhelming power of the Soviet Red Army, as it swept the Germans aside. It
did not reach Yugoslavia and Albania however. Finland was free but forced to be neutral in the
upcoming Cold War. The region fell to Soviet control and Communist governments were imposed.
Yugoslavia and Albania had their own Communist regimes. The Eastern Bloc with the onset of the
Cold War in 1947 was mostly behind the Western European countries in economic rebuilding and
progress. Winston Churchill, in his famous "Sinews of Peace" address of March 5, 1946 at
Westminster College in Fulton, Missouri, stressed the geopolitical impact of the "iron curtain":

From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic an iron curtain has descended across
the Continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and
Eastern Europe. Warsaw, Berlin, Prague, Vienna, Budapest, Belgrade, Bucharest, and

Eastern Bloc during the Cold War to 1989

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The Soviet secret police, the NKVD, working in collaboration

with local communists, created secret police forces using
leadership trained in Moscow. As soon as the Red Army had
expelled the Germans, this new secret police arrived to arrest
political enemies according to prepared lists. The national
Communists then took power in a normally gradualist manner,
backed by the Soviets in many, but not all, cases. They took
control of the Interior Ministries, which controlled the local
police. They confiscated and redistributed farmland. Next the
Soviets and their agents took control of the mass media,
especially radio, as well as the education system. Third the
communists seized control of or replaced the organizations of
civil society, such as church groups, sports, youth groups, trade Pre-1989 division between the
unions, farmers organizations, and civic organizations. Finally "West" (grey) and "Eastern Bloc"
they engaged in large scale ethnic cleansing, moving ethnic (orange) superimposed on current
minorities far away, often with high loss of life. After a year or borders:
two, the communists took control of private businesses and Russia (the former RSFSR)
monitored the media and churches. For a while, cooperative
Other countries formerly part
non-Communist parties were tolerated. The communists had a
natural reservoir of popularity in that they had destroyed Hitler of the USSR
and the Nazi invaders. Their goal was to guarantee long-term Members of the Warsaw Pact
working-class solidarity.[58][59] Eastern Europe after 1945 Other former Communist
usually meant all the European countries liberated and then states not aligned with Moscow
occupied by the Soviet army. It included the German
Democratic Republic (also known as East Germany), formed by
the Soviet occupation zone of Germany. All the countries in Eastern Europe adopted communist
modes of control. These countries were officially independent from the Soviet Union, but the
practical extent of this independence except in Yugoslavia, Albania, and to some extent Romania
was quite limited. Under pressure from Stalin these nations rejected grants from the American
Marshall plan. Instead they participated in the Molotov Plan which later evolved into the Comecon
(Council for Mutual Economic Assistance). When NATO was created in 1949, most countries of
Eastern Europe became members of the opposing Warsaw Pact, forming a geopolitical concept that
became known as the Eastern Bloc.

First and foremost was the Soviet Union (which included the modern-day territories of
Russia, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Belarus, Ukraine, and Moldova). Other countries
dominated by the Soviet Union were the German Democratic Republic, People's Republic of
Poland, Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, People's Republic of Hungary, People's Republic of
Bulgaria, and Socialist Republic of Romania.
The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY; formed after World War II and before
its later dismemberment) was not a member of the Warsaw Pact. It was a founding member of
the Non-Aligned Movement, an organization created in an attempt to avoid being assigned to
either the NATO or Warsaw Pact blocs. The movement was demonstratively independent
from both the Soviet Union and the Western bloc for most of the Cold War period, allowing

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Yugoslavia and its other members to act as a business and

political mediator between the blocs.
The Socialist People's Republic of Albania broke with the
Soviet Union in the early 1960s as a result of the
Sino-Soviet split, aligning itself instead with China.
Albania formally left the Warsaw pact in September 1968
after the suppression of the Prague spring. When China
established diplomatic relations with the United States in
1978, Albania also broke away from China. Albania and
especially Yugoslavia were not unanimously appended to
the Eastern Bloc, as they were neutral for a large part of
the Cold War period. The political borders of Eastern
Europe were largely defined by
the Cold War from the end of
World War II to 1989. The Iron
Curtain separated the members of
the Warsaw Pact (in red) from the
European members of NATO (in

Since 1989

With the fall of the Iron Curtain in 1989, the political landscape of the Eastern Bloc, and indeed the
world, changed. In the German reunification, the Federal Republic of Germany peacefully absorbed
the German Democratic Republic in 1990. In 1991, COMECON, the Warsaw Pact, and the Soviet
Union were dissolved. Many European nations which had been part of the Soviet Union regained
their independence (Belarus, Moldova, Ukraine, as well as the Baltic States of Latvia, Lithuania,
and Estonia). Czechoslovakia peacefully separated into the Czech Republic and Slovakia in 1993.
Many countries of this region joined the European Union, namely Bulgaria, the Czech Republic,
Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, and Slovakia.

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2004-2007 EU enlargements Cold War Iron Curtain

existing existing
members members
new members new members
in 2004 in 2007
USSR-led Warsaw
Cyprus Bulgaria Pact
Czech Romania (dissolved in
Republic 1990/1991)
Estonia Bulgaria
Hungary Czechoslovakia
Latvia East Germany
Lithuania Hungary
Malta Poland
Poland Romania

See also
Community for Democracy and Rights of Nations
Eastern European Group
Eastern Partnership
Enlargement of the European Union
Eurasian Economic Union
Euronest Parliamentary Assembly
Future enlargement of the European Union
Geography of the Soviet Union
Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation
Post-Soviet States
Slavic peoples
Russian explorers
European Union

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European geography:

Central Europe
Northern Europe
Southeast Europe
Western Europe
Central and Eastern Europe
East-Central Europe
European Russia
Geographical midpoint of Europe

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19. "Too much writing on the region has consciously or unconsciously clung to an outdated image of
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apart at the seams. Central Europe Review: Re-Viewing Central Europe By Sean Hanley, Kazi Stastna
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Eastern Europe. Edward Elgar Publishing [via Google Books]. p. 2. ISBN 9781781954324. Retrieved
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online (;col1))
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Eastern Europe has outlived its usefulness as a phrase.""Regions, Regionalism, Eastern Europe by
Steven Cassedy". New Dictionary of the History of Ideas, Charles Scribner's Sons. 2005. Retrieved
27. Berglund, Sten; Ekman, Joakim; Aarebrot, Frank H. (2004). The handbook of political change in
Eastern Europe. Edward Elgar Publishing [via Google Books]. p. 2. ISBN 9781781954324. Retrieved
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28. European Parliament, European Parliament Resolution 2014/2717(RSP) (
/sides/, 17 July 2014: ...pursuant to
Article 49 of the Treaty on European Union, Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine like any other European
state have a European perspective and may apply to become members of the Union...
29. About the Visegrad Group
30. (PDF) Missing or empty
|title= (help)
31. International Geographic Encyclopaedia and Atlas. Springer, 24 November 1979, p. 273
32. Stephen White, Valentina Feklyunina. Identities and Foreign Policies in Russia, Ukraine and Belarus:
The Other Europes. Springer, Oct 22, 2014 : The Great Soviet Atlas put the entire Caucasus inside
'Europe', as far as the Turkish border with the USSR (Efremov, Obsuzhdenie', p. 145); so did the
Great Soviet Encyclopedia...
34. Wallace, W. The Transformation of Western Europe London, Pinter, 1990
35. Huntington, Samuel The Clash of Civilizations Simon & Schuster, 1996
36. Johnson, Lonnie Central Europe: Enemies, Neighbours, Friends Oxford University Press, USA, 2001
37. Lonnie Johnson, Central Europe: Enemies, Neighbors, Friends (
/Central_Europe.html?id=e_m13Hk3AFEC&redir_esc=y), Oxford University Pres
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connecting Austria, Slovakia, Slovenia, Germany and Croatia" (PDF). Central European Green
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41. "Interreg CENTRAL EUROPE Homepage". Interreg CENTRAL EUROPE.

42. Armstrong, Werwick. Anderson, James (2007). "Borders in Central Europe: From Conflict to
Cooperation". Geopolitics of European Union Enlargement: The Fortress Empire. Routledge. p. 165.
ISBN 978-1-134-30132-4.
43. Bideleux and Jeffries (1998) A History of Eastern Europe: Crisis and Change
44. inter alia, Peter John, Local Governance in Western Europe, 2001
45. Greek Ministry of Tourism Travel Guide, General Information (
46. "Greece Location - Geography". Retrieved 2014-12-07.
47. "UNdata | country profile | Greece". Retrieved 2014-12-07.
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/Background.html) Archived (
/emeu/cabs/SE_Europe/Background.html) February 5, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
49. "7 Invitees - Romania".
50. Rapp, Stephen H. (2003), Studies In Medieval Georgian Historiography: Early Texts And Eurasian
Contexts, pp. 292-294. Peeters Bvba ISBN 90-429-1318-5.
51. The Oxford Classical Dictionary by Simon Hornblower and Antony Spawforth,ISBN
0-19-860641-9,"page 1515,"The Thracians were subdued by the Persians by 516"
52. "A Companion to Ancient Macedonia". Retrieved 22 April 2015.
53. "An Ethnohistorical Dictionary of the Russian and Soviet Empires". Retrieved 22 April 2015.
54. Armour, Ian D. 2013. A History of Eastern Europe 17401918: Empires, Nations and Modernisation.
London: Bloomsbury Academic. p. 23. ISBN 978-1849664882
55. See, inter alia, Norman Davies, Europe: a History, 2010, Eve Johansson, Official Publications of
Western Europe, Volume 1, 1984, Thomas Greer and Gavin Lewis, A Brief History of the Western
World, 2004
56. Baten, Jrg (2016). A History of the Global Economy. From 1500 to the Present. Cambridge University
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57. Timothy Snyder, Bloodlands: Europe Between Hitler and Stalin (2011) excerpt and text search
58. Anne Applebaum (2012). Iron Curtain: The Crushing of Eastern Europe, 1944-1956. Random House
Digital, Inc. pp. 3133. ISBN 9780385536431.
59. Also Anne Applebaum, Iron Curtain: The Crushing of Eastern Europe, 19441956 introduction, pp
xxixxxxi online at (

Further reading
Applebaum, Anne. Iron Curtain: The Crushing of Eastern Europe, 19441956 (2012)
Berend, Ivn T. Decades of Crisis: Central and Eastern Europe before World War II (2001)
Frankel, Benjamin. The Cold War 1945-1991. Vol. 2, Leaders and other important figures in
the Soviet Union, Eastern Europe, China, and the Third World (1992), 379pp of biographies.
Frucht, Richard, ed. Encyclopedia of Eastern Europe: From the Congress of Vienna to the
Fall of Communism (2000)
Gal, Susan and Gail Kligman, The Politics of Gender After Socialism, Princeton: Princeton
University Press, 2000.
Ghodsee, Kristen R.. Muslim Lives in Eastern Europe: Gender, Ethnicity and the
Transformation of Islam in Postsocialist Bulgaria. Princeton: Princeton University Press,

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Ghodsee, Kristen R.. Lost in Transition: Ethnographies of Everyday Life After Communism,
Duke University Press, 2011.
Held, Joseph, ed. The Columbia History of Eastern Europe in the Twentieth Century (1993)
Jelavich, Barbara. History of the Balkans, Vol. 1: Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries (1983);
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Eastern Europe - Wikipedia


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