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CS6503 THEORY OF COMPUTATION (REGULATION 2013) SMART MATERIAL

STAFF IN CHARGE: DR.P.EZHILARASU

The set of all states reachable from a given state q using

PART - A transitions only. We use -closure to denote the set of all

vertices p such that there is a path from q to p labeled .

1. Differentiate DFA with NFA.

A DFA is a deterministic Finite Automata where as

NFA is a nondeterministic finite automata. In DFA, for a given

state on a given input we reach to a deterministic and unique

state. On the other hand, in NFA we may lead to more than one

state for given input. The DFA is a subset of NFA.

Automata.

Applications of Theory of computation - a. Compiler

Design, b. Robotics, c. Artificial Intelligence, d. Knowledge

Engineering.

Applications of Finite Automata - a. design of Lexical

analyzer, b. Compiler design, c. Pattern matching, d. File

Searching Program. 5. What is a regular expression? Give the regular

expression for the set of all strings ending in 00.

3. Define: (i) Finite Automaton(FA) (ii)Transition diagram. A regular expression is a string that describes the whole

Finite Automaton is denoted by a 5- tuple set of strings according to certain syntax rules. These

(Q,,,q0,F), where Q is the finite set of states , is a finite expressions are used by many text editors and utilities to search

input alphabet, q0 in Q is the initial state, F is the set of final bodies of text for certain patterns etc.

states and is the transition mapping function Q * to Q. Regular expression for the set of all strings ending in

Transition diagram is a directed graph in which the 00= (0+1)*00

vertices of the graph correspond to the states of FA. If there is a

transition from state q to state p on input a, then there is an arc

labeled a from q to p in the transition diagram.

HINDUSTHAN COLLEGE OF ENGG & TECH, CBE -32.

DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ENGG

CS6503 THEORY OF COMPUTATION (REGULATION 2013) SMART MATERIAL

STAFF IN CHARGE: DR.P.EZHILARASU

6. State the pumping lemma for regular languages and its

advantages.

If L is a regular language represented with a automaton

with the maximum of n states, then there is a word w such Transition Table for on/off switch

that |w|>=n. we can write w=xyz in such a way that States Input

|y|>=0 push

|xy|<=n off on

i

For all i>=0 xy z L *on off

The advantage of the pumping lemma is, that it can be

used to prove the language is not regular. 9. Define proof by induction principle.

We say that two states p and q are equivalent if for each If S(i) is true for n = i ,then it is to be proved that for all n > i , S(n)

input string x , (p,x) is an accepting state if (q,x) is an implies S(n+1) then S(n) is true for all n i..

accepting state. p is distinguishable from q if there exists an x

such that (p,x) is in F and v is not in F or vice versa.

8. Construct a Finite Automata for on/off switch. 10. Construct a Finite Automata to accept the following

language. L=an where n mod 4 = 3.

HINDUSTHAN COLLEGE OF ENGG & TECH, CBE -32.

DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ENGG

CS6503 THEORY OF COMPUTATION (REGULATION 2013) SMART MATERIAL

STAFF IN CHARGE: DR.P.EZHILARASU

UNIT - II aaba [Sa]

A derivation is said to be rightmost derivation if at each

PART - A step in a derivation the right most variable is replaced by its

productions.

1. Define context free grammar. Ex: SaAS | a

A context free grammar (CFG) is denoted as Aab

G= {V, T, P, S} SaAS

Where, aAa [Sa]

V- is finite set of non terminals or variables aaba [Aab]

T- is finite and disjoint from V, set of terminals

P- finite set of productions or substitution rules 4. What is Chomsky Normal form?

S- is start symbol where SV Chomsky Normal form:i)NT (NT)(NT) ii) NTT

All the productions in the form Ax where AV and Where, NT- Non terminal, T- terminal.

x (VUT)* Exampl e: 1.SAB 2.Aa 3. Bb

Let G= (V, T, P, S) be a CFG. A grammar is ambiguous n

Greiback Normal form:i)NT T(NT) | n>=0

if and only if there exists at least one string wT* for which

Where, NT- Non terminal, T- terminal.

two or more different parse trees exist by applying either the Exampl e: 1.SaAB 2.AaB 3. Bb

left most derivation or right most derivation.

6. What are the three ways to simplify given CFG?

Derivation(RMD)?

It is done through 3 steps,

A derivation is said to be leftmost derivation if at each

Eliminating null productions

step in a derivation the leftmost variable is replaced by its

Removing unit productions

production

Removing useless symbols and productions.

Ex: SaAS | a

Aab

SaAS

aabS [Aab]

HINDUSTHAN COLLEGE OF ENGG & TECH, CBE -32.

DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ENGG

CS6503 THEORY OF COMPUTATION (REGULATION 2013) SMART MATERIAL

STAFF IN CHARGE: DR.P.EZHILARASU

7. Eliminate the production from the CFG given below 10. List out the types of Grammar.

A0 B 1 | 1 B 1

B0 B | 1 B |

A0 B 1 | 1 B 1 | 01 |11

B0 B | 1 B | 0| 1

i)the language L={wwR | w (a+b)*}

SaSa | bSb | aa | bb | Production

ii)palindrome(using a's & b's) Grammar Languages Automaton rules

SaSa | bSb | a | b | (constraints)

(no

Recursively Turing

Type-0 restrictions)

9. Define derivation tree (or) parse tree. enumerable machine

A derivation tree is a graphical representation of a derivation Linear-

(LMD (or) RMD). bounded non-

Example: Context- A

Type-1 deterministic

If the given CFG is sensitive

Turing

S0S1S | 1S0S | and given string is 011100 then the machine

derivation tree is Non-

deterministic

Type-2 Context-free A

pushdown

automaton

Finite state A aB and A

Type-3 Regular

automaton a

HINDUSTHAN COLLEGE OF ENGG & TECH, CBE -32.

DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ENGG

CS6503 THEORY OF COMPUTATION (REGULATION 2013) SMART MATERIAL

STAFF IN CHARGE: DR.P.EZHILARASU

UNIT - III

PART - A

4.What are the different types of language acceptances

1. Mention the components of PDA by PDA and define them

A push down automaton is usually described as Two types:

consisting of four components 1. acceptance by final state

A control unit 2. acceptance by empty stack

A read unit

An input tape and 5.What is the informal definition of PDA?

A memory unit A PDA is a computational machine to recognize a

context free language. computational power of a PDA is

2. Write down the formal definition of PDA. between finite automaton and turing machines. The PDA has a

A push down automaton computational model is a 7 finite control and the memory is organized as a stack.

tuple (Q,, , ,q0,Z0,F) where,

Q- Finite set of states.q0Q is the initial state

-set of alphabet called input alphabet

-stack alphabet 6. Compare NFA and PDA.

- Mapping from Qx(U{})x to finite subsets of Qx NFA PDA

* The language accepted by NFA The language accepted by

q0- starting state is the regular language PDA is the context free

Z0- start symbol of a stack language

F- Set of final states where F is a subset of Q NFA has no memory PDA is essentially an NFA

with stack memory

3. Write down instantaneous description of PDA. It can store only limited It stores unbounded limit of

Let A= (Q, , , , q0, Z0, F) be a PDA. An instantaneous amount of information information

description is (q,x,) where qQ,x * and *. A language/string is accepted It accepts a language either

only by reaching the final state by empty stack or by

reaching a final state

HINDUSTHAN COLLEGE OF ENGG & TECH, CBE -32.

DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ENGG

CS6503 THEORY OF COMPUTATION (REGULATION 2013) SMART MATERIAL

STAFF IN CHARGE: DR.P.EZHILARASU

7.Define Deterministic PDA S aSA | a

A PDA P= (Q,, , ,q0,Z0,F) is a deterministic if and only if the A bB

following two conditions are met: Bb

1. (q, a, X) has at most one member foe any q in Q, a in or a = (q0, , Z0) = (q1,SZ0)

, and X in . (q1, ,S)= {(q1, aSA), (q1, a)}

2. (q, a, X) is non empty, for some a in , then (q, , X) must (q1, ,A)={(q1, bB)}

be empty. (q1, ,B)={(q1,b)}

(q1, a,a)= {(q1, )}

8. Explain pumping lemma for CFL. (q1, b,b)= {(q1, )}

let L be any context free language then there is a

constant n which depends only upon L such that there exists a

string ZL and |Z| >=n where Z=uvwxy such that

1.|vx|>=1

2.|vwx|<=n and

3. For all i>=0 uviwxiy is in L

Let G= (V, T, Q, S) be a CFG. Then PDA P that accepts L(G) by

empty statck as follows

P=({q}, T, V T, , q, S) where the transition function is

defined by

1. For each variable A, (q, , A)= {(q, ) | A is a production

of P}.

2. For each terminal a, (q, a, a)= {(q, )}.

HINDUSTHAN COLLEGE OF ENGG & TECH, CBE -32.

DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ENGG

CS6503 THEORY OF COMPUTATION (REGULATION 2013) SMART MATERIAL

STAFF IN CHARGE: DR.P.EZHILARASU

UNIT - IV

4. Define Halting Problem

PART - A The halting problem is the problem of determining, from a

description of an arbitrary computer program and an input,

1. What is a Turing machine?

whether the program will finish running or continue to run

Turing machine is a simple mathematical model of a

forever.

computer.TM has unlimited and unrestricted memory and is a

much more accurate model of a general purpose computer. The

5. Define Subroutines in Turing machine

TM is a FA with a R/W head .It has an infinite tape divided into

A Turing machine subroutine is a set of states that

cells, each cell holding one symbol

performs some useful process. This set of states includes a start

state and another state that temporarily has no moves, and that

2. List out different types of TMs.

serves at the return state to pass control to whatever other set of

Multi tape Turing machine, off-line Turing Machine ,

states called the subroutine

Multi track Turing machine & Universal TM .

3. Define Multitape Turing machine.

1. The input, a finite sequence of input symbols, is placed on the

A Multitape Turing machine has a finite control with some

first tape.

finite number of tapes. Each tape is divided into cells and each

2. All other cells of all the tapes hold the blank.

cell can hold any symbol of the finite tape alphabet. The set of

3. The final control is in initial state.

tape symbol includes a blank, and has a subset called the input

4. The head of the first tape is at the left end of input.

symbols, of which the blank is not a member.

5. All other tape heads are at some arbitrary cell.

HINDUSTHAN COLLEGE OF ENGG & TECH, CBE -32.

DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ENGG

CS6503 THEORY OF COMPUTATION (REGULATION 2013) SMART MATERIAL

STAFF IN CHARGE: DR.P.EZHILARASU

7. What are the required fields of an ID or configuration of a accepts L, and recursive if there is a TM that recognizes L,

TM. then it is called L- Turing acceptable(or) Turing Decidable

It requires languages. No, the language accepted by a non deterministic

i)the state of the TM. TM is same as the recursively enumerable language.

ii)the contents of the tape.

iii)the position of the tape head on the tape.

10.Define Rules of Context sensitive languages

8. Define Instantaneous description of turing machine The CSG may have more than one symbol on the left hand

ID of turing machine is represented as side of their production rules.

X1 X2......Xi-1 q Xi Xi+1.....Xn The number symbols on left side must not exceed the

i) where q is the state of turing machine. number of symbols on right side

ii) The tape head is scanning the ith symbol from left The rule of the form A is not allowed unless

iii) X1 X2....Xn is the portion of the tape between the A is a start symbol

leftmost and the rightmost non blank

recursive? Is it true that the language accepted by a

non deterministic TM is different from recursively

enumerable language?

A language L is recursively enumerable if there is a TM that

HINDUSTHAN COLLEGE OF ENGG & TECH, CBE -32.

DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ENGG

CS6503 THEORY OF COMPUTATION (REGULATION 2013) SMART MATERIAL

STAFF IN CHARGE: DR.P.EZHILARASU

UNIT - V

PART - A

4. Define the classes P and NP.

1. What do you mean by Universal TM.

P consists of all those languages or problems accepted by

Universal TM is a type of TM which is capable of doing

some TM that runs in some polynomial amount of time, as a

anything that any other TM can do. That means universal TM is a

function of its input length.

TM that imitates any TM.

NP is the class of languages or problems that are accepted

by some nondeterministic TMs with a polynomial bound on time

2. When a problem is said to be decidable and give an

taken along any sequence of nondeterministic choices.

example of undecidable problem?

A problem whose language is recursive is said to be

5. Define NP complete problem.

decidable. Otherwise the problem is undecidable . i.e there is no

A language is NP-complete if the following statements are

algorithm that takes as input an instance of the problem and

true.(i)L is in NP (ii)For every language L in NP there is a

determines whether the answer to that instance is yes or no. Eg.

polynomial time reduction of L to L.

Halting problem

3. When a language is said to be recursively enumerable?

The problems which are solvable by polynomial time

A language is recursively enumerable if there exists a

algorithms are called tractable problems. For eg. The complexity

Turing machine that accepts every string belonging to that

of the Kruskals algorithm is o(e+m) where e , the no. of edges

language. And if the string does not belong to that language then

and m the Number of nodes.

it can cause the turing machine to enter ia an infinite loop

HINDUSTHAN COLLEGE OF ENGG & TECH, CBE -32.

DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ENGG

CS6503 THEORY OF COMPUTATION (REGULATION 2013) SMART MATERIAL

STAFF IN CHARGE: DR.P.EZHILARASU

if for some i1, i2, ik, where 1 ij n, the condition

A problem that cannot be solved by a polynomial-time

algorithm. The lower bound is exponential. Examples of xi1.xik = yi1....yik satisfies.

intractable problems (ones that have been proven to have no

polynomial-time algorithm) 9. State two languages, which are not recursively enumerable.

Towers of Hanoi: we can prove that any algorithm that Diagonalization language is not recursively enumerable

solves this problem must have a worst-case running time The partially decidable language or undecidable languages

that is at least 2n 1.

are not recursively enumerable.

List all permutations (all possible orderings) of n

numbers.

10. Define Primitive Recursive function

8. Define posts correspondence problem.

The set PR of primitive recursive function is defined as follows.

1. All initial functions are elements of PR

The Post Correspondence Problem (PCP), introduced by Emil Post in 1946, is an undecidable

2. For every k >= 0 and m>= 0, if f : N k --> N and

decision problem. The PCP problem over an alphabet is stated as follows

g1, g2, .... gk : Nm --> N are elements of PR, then the

Given the following two lists, M and N of non-empty strings over

function f(g1, g2,...gk) obtained from f and

M= (x1, x2, x3,, xn) g1, g2,...gkby composition is an element of PR.

3. For every n >= 0, every function : g : N n --> N in PR,

N= (y1, y2, y3,, yn)

and every function h : Nn+1 --> N obtained from g and h

We can say that there is a Post Correspondence Solution, by primitive recursion is in PR.

HINDUSTHAN COLLEGE OF ENGG & TECH, CBE -32.

DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ENGG

CS6503 THEORY OF COMPUTATION (REGULATION 2013) SMART MATERIAL

STAFF IN CHARGE: DR.P.EZHILARASU

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