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Indices and Logarithm 201

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Indices and Logarithm
Exercise 3.2
1. Solve the following equations:
a) 32 x 27
b) 4 x 32
c) 3x
2
1
8
x2
1
d) 3
9
e) 4 x (52 x ) 10
f) 5 x 25 0
2
g) 7 x 4 1 0
h) 8 x 4 x 1
i) 9 x ( 3 ) x 2
4x
j) 82 x
2 x 1
k) 2 x 4 2 ( x 1)
2

2
l) 7 x 49 62 x
2
m) 4 x 6 16 x 1 0
2 9 x 1
n) 3 x x
27

2. Given that y ax n 23 and that y = 4 when x = 3 and y = 220 when x = 9, find the
value of a and n.

3. Solve the following simultaneous equations:


1
a) 5 x (252 x ) 1 and 3 (9 )
5x y

9
x
125
b) 2(4 x ) 32 y and 625
25 y
3x 1
27 and 4 (2 )
2x 6y
c)
9 y
4

2 m 1
4. Show that n
2 4 2
m m . Hence, find the value of m and of n which satisfy the
27 m
equations n
2 4 8 and
m 81 simultaneously.
9 m1

5. By using the substitution y 2 x , find the value of x such that 3(2 x 1 ) 2 x 4 .


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6. By using the substitution y 3 x , find the values of x such that


a) 3 x 4 3(3 x )
b) 32 x 3 x 2 3 x 9

7. By using appropriate substitution or otherwise, solve the following equations:


a) 52 x 6(5 x ) 5 0
b) 2 2 x 10(2 x ) 16 0
c) 2(16 x ) 5(4 x ) 2 0
d) 7 x 1 2 2(7 x ) 3
e) 9 x 1 1 10(3 x )
f) 6(3 x 1 ) 34 3 x

8. Show that the equation 2 2 x 1 3(2 x ) 2 is satisfied by only one value of x.

9. Solve the following equations:


1 x
a) 8( ) 2 2
x

2
8
b) 4 2x x

x1 2 1
c) 3(9)
3
1
x
d) 4 2
2 x 3 8 7( 2 x )
5 x 1 20
e) 3
10 5 x
1
f) 2 x (5 x ) (10 x 1 ) 4
100

r2 2 k
10. If (3 x) r ( 2 ) 6 r can be simplified to 3 , find the values of the constants r and k.
4 9x x

11. Solve the simultaneous equations 64(4 y ) 16 x and 3 y 4(3 x 2 ) 1 .

3 3
12. By using an appropriate substitution, find the value of x for which x 2 8 x 2 7 .
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Exercise 3.3
1. Convert the following to logarithmic form.
a) 2 x 16
2 1
b) 3
9
c) 100 10 2
d) a 3 y
e) 2 x p
f) x 4 2 k

2. Convert the following to index form.


a) 3 log 5 125
1
b) 2 log 2 ( )
4
c) log 4 64 3
d) log x 3 4
e) log 3 y n
f) p 1 log 2 (4 y )

3. Check whether the logarithm log x (5 2 x) is defined for each of the following:
a) x 2
b) x 0.5
c) x 3
d) x 2.5
e) x 1
f) x 2

4. Solve the following equations:


a) log 2 x 3
b) log x 9 2
c) x log 4 8
d) log 3 ( x 2) 1
e) log 2 (2 x 1) 3
f) log 9 27 x
g) log x (6 x 8) 2
3
h) log x 8
2

5. Evaluate the following:


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a) log 4 4 log 2 23
b) log 2 1 2 log 5 52
c) (3 log3 3) 3
2
3 log x x 2
d)
4 2 log 5 1
e) log 2 (6 log 7 7 2 )
f) log 2 4 log 3 81

x
6. Given that log 4 x 2 and log 2 y 3 , evaluate .
y

7. Given that log 3 x a and log 3


y b , express xy 2 as a power of 3.

8. Solve the following simultaneous equations:


a) log x 16 4 and log 2 y x
b) log y x 2 and xy 8

9. If log 2 (log3 x) log 5 5 , find x.

10. Given that log 4 y a and log8 (2 y ) b , show that 2a 3b 1 .


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Exercise 3.4
Solve the equations in questions 1 to 15..
1. 5 x 9
2. (1.6) x 21
3. 2(3 x ) 5
4. 4 7 2 x 1
5. e x 7
6. e 3 x 14
7. 4e 2 x 21
8. e 4 x 125 0
9. 3 x 1 12
10. 4 2 x 3 20
11. e1 x 19
1
12. e 2 x 0.7
13. (4.1) x
2
14. 6 x 4
2
15. e x 312
16. Solve the following equations giving your answers correct to 3 significant figures.
a) 2 x 3 x 10
b) 4 x 9(5 x )
c) 2 x 1 3 x
17. Given 3 x 1 2 x 2 21 , show that 6 x 28 . Hence or otherwise, find x.
18. Find x, correct to 3 significant figures, in each of the following:
a) 5 x 1 3 x 2 10
b) 2 2 x 5 x 1 7
c) 4(32 x ) e x
d) 3 x 10 2 x 4 20 x 2
19. Using the substitution y e x , solve the following equations:
a) 2e 2 x 3e x 2
b) e712xx
c) e 3 x 2e x 3e 2 x
20. Using suitable substitutions, solve for x.
a) 9 x 4 3 x 1
b) 2e x 7 e x 3
21. Solve the simultaneous equations 4 x 3 32(2 x y ),9 x 3 y 10
22. Given y 5e 0.2 x find
a) y when x = 3
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b) x when y = 12
23. For each of the following, find y in terms of x.
a) 10 y x 1
b) e1 y 3 x
c) ln( y 1) x
d) 2 lg y x 2
e) e 2 y x 4
f) ln( x y ) 4 x 0
24. Solve for x.
a) lg x 0.61
b) (ln x ) 2 3
c) ln x lg 2
d) lg 3x 9
e) ln 2 ln 4 x 3
f) lg( x 2) (lg 3) 2
g) ln 4 x lg 3 lg 5
h) lg(2 x 1) log 3 3
i) lg( x 1) ln(e 2 1)
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Exercise 3.5

2. Evaluate the following:


a) log 3 5 log 5 27
log 5 4 log 2 10
b)
log 25 10

3. If a, b and c are positive numbers other than 1, show that


log b a log c b log a c 1

4. Evaluate the following logarithms without using a calculator:


a) log 2 4
1
b) lg( )
10
c) log 2 8
d) log 3 27
1
e) log 2 ( )
4
f) log 9 3

5. Evaluate the following expressions without using a calculator:


a) log 8 2 log 8 4
b) log 3 36 log 3 12
c) log 2 60 log 2 15
d) log 3 4 log 3 2 log 3 72
e) log 6 54 2 log 6 3
f) log 5 4 2 log 5 3 2 log 5 6

6. Simplify and express each of the following as a single logarithm:


a) log a 8 2 log a 4
b) 2 log x 5 3 log x 2 log x 4
8 3 3
c) lg( ) 2 lg( ) 4 lg( )
75 5 2
d) 2 lg( x 2 ) lg( x 1) lg( x 2 3 x 2)

7. Evaluate the following:


a) log a a
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1
b) log a
a3
log a 9
c)
2 log a 27

8. Given that log a 3 0.477 and log a 5 0.699 , evaluate the following:
a) log a 15
b) log a 3 5
c) log a 0.6
log a 25
d)
log a 3a
e) log a (5a 2 )
9
f) log a ( )
5a

9. Given that log 4 3 a and log 4 5 b , express the following in terms of a and b:
a) log 4 45
b) log 4 20
c) log 4 75
d) log 4 (0.6)
e) log 4 (0.75)
f) log 4 (1.8)

10. Given that lg x p and lg y q , express the following in terms of p and q:


a) lg( xy 2 )
10 x
b) lg( )
y
c) lg 10 x 2 y
100 x
d) lg( )
y2
e) xy
f) lg( y x )
11. Find y in terms of x when
a) lg y 1 3 lg x
1
b) lg( y 1) 2 lg x
2
c) 2 log 3 y 4 3 log 3 ( x 2)
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d) 3 log 2 ( x y ) log 2 ( x 2 y )

12. If log 2 ( y 1) 2 log 2 x c and y = 3 when x = 2, find y in terms of x.

13. Express each of the following as a single logarithm:


a) 2 log 3 5
b) 3 2 lg 5
c) 3 log a 2 4 log a a

14. Express the following in the form ln x ax b and find a and b.


a) x 3 e 6 x 1
b) xe x 2.46
c) ( xe x ) 2 30e
Indices and Logarithm 201
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Exercise 3.6
For questions 1-10, solve for x.
1. log 2 ( x 1) log 2 (4 x 7)
2. log 3 ( x 2) log 3 ( x 2) log 3 (2 x 1)
1
3. lg 18 lg( x) lg( x 1) 0
3
4. log 3 x log 3 ( x 2) 1
5. 2 lg 5 lg( x 2) 1 lg((2 x 1)
6. log 2 ( x 2) log 2 (8 x) log 2 ( x 5) 3
7. log 2 ( x 1) 2 2 log 2 ( x 2)
8. log 3 ( x 2) log 3 (10 x) 3 0
9. 3 log x 2 log x 18 2
10. log p 2 log p ( x 1) 0
11. Solve the equation
a) 3 lg( x 1) lg 8
b) lg(20 y ) lg( y 8) 2
(e x ) 2
12. Solve the simultaneous equations ln(3 x y ) 2 ln 6 ln 9 and e.
ey
13. Solve the simultaneous equations 3 p 9( 27) q , log 2 7 log 2 (11q 2 p ) 1 .
14. By using the substitution y log 3 x or otherwise, solve the equation
a) log 3 x 2 3 log x 3
b) log 3 x (log3 x)
3 3

15. Solve the following equations:


a) log 3 x 9 log x 3
b) 4 log 4 x 9 log x 4 0
c) log 2 x log 4 ( x 6)
d) log 5 (5 4 x ) log 5 (2 x)
16. If 2 log a x 1 log a (7 x 10a ) , find x in terms of a.
17. Find x for which 27 3lg x 91lg( x 20) .
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Answers
Exercise 3.2
3
1. a)
2
5
b)
2
c) 2
5
d)
2
1
e)
2
f) 2
g) 2, -2
h) 2
2
i)
3
5
j)
4
k) 2
l) -6,2
m) -2,4
n) -2,1

2. a = 3, n = 2
4 1
3. (a) x , y
9 9
(b) x 2, y 1
(c) x 1, y 1

4. m = 4, n = 3
5. 3
6. (a) 0,1
(b) 0,2
7. (a) 0,1
(b) 1,3
1 1
(c) ,
2 2
(d) 0
(e) -2,0
(f) 3
9. (a) 2
(b) 2
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(c) 6
(d) 3
(e) 2
(f) 2
2
10. r = 3, k =
3
11. x = 1, y = -1 or x = 2, y = 1
12. 4

Exercise 3.3
1. (a) 4 log 2 16
1
(b) 2 log 3 ( )
9
(c) 2 log10 100
(d) 3 log a y
(e) x log 2 p
(f) 4 log x (2 k )
2. (a) 53 125
2 1
(b) 2
4
(c) 4 64
3

(d) x 4 3
(e) 3n y
(f) 2 p 1 4 y
3. (c), (d) and (e) are not defined
4. (a) 8
(b) 3
3
(c)
2
(d) 5
7
(e)
16
3
(f)
4
(g) 2,4
(h) 4
5. (a) -2
(b) 4
(c) 8
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25
(d)
16
(e) 3
(f) 6
6. 2
7. 3ab
8. (a) x 2, y 4
(b) x 4, y 2

Exercise 3.4
1. 1.37
2. 6.48
3. 0.834
4. 0.282
5. 1.95
6. 0.880
7. 0.829
8. 1.21
9. 1.26
10. 2.58
11. 1.94
12. -0.713
13. 0.811
14. 2.58
15. 2.40
16. (a) 1.29
(b) -9.85
(c) 1.71
17. 1.86
18. (a) 0.633
(b) 0.112
(c) -1.16
(d) -.170
19. (a) 0.693
(b) 1.10, 1.39
(c) 0, 0.693
20. (a) 1.26
(b) -1.39, 2.20
21. x 0.631, y 1.631
22. (a) 9.11
(b) 4.38
23. (a) y lg( x 1)
(b) y 1 ln 3 x
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(c) y e x 1
1
(d) y 10 2 x 1
1
(e) y ln( x 4)
2
(f) y e 4 x x
24. (a) 4.07
(b) 5.65, 0.177
(c) 1.35
(d) 3.33 108
(e) 18.9
(f) 3.69
(g) 0.349
(h) 4.5
(i) 72.5