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Vortex Motion

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Vortex Motion

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4754

Sun-Chul Kim

Department of Mathematics, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 156-756, Korea

Vortex motion of an incompressible inviscid flow on a infinitely thin curved shell specified as

a Riemann surface is studied. The intrinsic dynamical equations are derived and compared on

two conformally equivalent Riemann surfaces. In particular, the relations for the streamfunction,

velocity, and vorticity are found by using explicit computations. Then, the result is applied to the

problem of motion of point vortex dipoles on Riemann surfaces whose trajectories in time turn out

to be a geodesic. Also, the case of more complicated surfaces with a boundary, is discussed with an

example.

Keywords: Point vortex, Riemann surface, Uniformization, Conformal map, Greens function, Vortex dipole,

Geodesic

DOI: 10.3938/jkps.59.47

formal form. On such surfaces, there is enough analytical

structure to be exploited to formulate our results. For

The dynamics of a vortex is a crucial part of classi- example, the Laplace-Beltrami operator can be defined,

cal and modern fluid mechanics. The most basic vor- and the subsequent Greens function satisfies a special

tex motion is probably that of point vortices, whose in- identity [6] that will be crucial to obtain our results.

teracting mechanisms are of fundamental importance in Furthermore, by the well-known uniformization theorem

the physics of fluids. Although there has been extensive in complex function theory, every simply connected Rie-

study of the dynamics of point vortices for centuries, mann surface is one-to-one conformally mapped onto one

many basic open mathematical and physical questions of the three basic examples: a complex plane, a Riemann

still remain [1,2]. sphere and an open unit disc in the complex plane. This

Vortex motion on a plane or a sphere has been inves- fact enables us to formulate and compare the dynamics

tigated by many researchers [2]. However, for the case of point vortices on general surfaces with one of these

of general curved surfaces very few results are known [3, standard representatives. More specifically, by utilizing

4]. For example, in Ref. 5, equations of point vortex a certain conformal property, we find relations of stream-

motion on general curved surfaces are derived in confor- functions, Greens functions, velocities, etc. given on the

mal (or isothermal) coordinates and are then applied to general surface and on one of the three prototype sur-

the case of a surface of revolution. These formulas de- faces. We exemplify the case of a single point vortex and

scribe a general vortex motion in terms of the specifically provide a counterexample to the vectorial formulation of

given conformal metric, which is basically an expression vortex motion in Ref. 7.

via projection onto the complex coordinates. On the As an application of the formulation obtained above,

other hand, rather than projecting and writing in terms we investigate the movement of a pair of point vortices

of complex variables, we may treat the same surface as of the same strength but opposite sign, called a vortex

embedded in R3 , regarding it as a part of the space. This dipole. In particular, we consider the limiting case in

alternative view enables us to study and formulate intrin- which the two vortices approach infinitely close while

sically the motion of vortices on a surface embedded in the ratio of the strength to the distance is kept constant

R3 space. We adopt this approach in the present paper so that the dipole converges to a point. In Ref. 8, by a

and suggest an equivalent, but different, formulation for systematic and detailed study, a remarkable characteris-

the dynamics of vortices. tic is obtained: the vortex pair (dipole) draws a geodesic

To develop our theory, we first need a proper mathe- curve as its trajectory on a plane, on a sphere and on a

matical setting. For surfaces, we adopt the concept of a hyperbolic plane. We also conjecture that this is true for

Riemann surface, which is essentially a two-dimensional general curved surfaces. We answer the question affir-

matively for Riemann surfaces without a boundary and

E-mail: kimsc@cau.ac.kr; Fax: +82-2-823-5214

-47-

-48- Journal of the Korean Physical Society, Vol. 59, No. 1, July 2011

operator and the normal n on by

u u

= xu + xv = 2 (u xu + v xv ),

||xu ||2 ||xv ||2

xu xv

n = , (5)

||xu xv ||

thus, the velocity is given by

Fig. 1. Conformal Map Between 1 , 2

v = 2 (u xv + v xu ). (6)

illustrate an example for a surface with a boundary. Similarly, Eq. (2) is reduced to

Finally, we comment on the currently active appli- 2 = 2 (uu + vv ) + 4 (u u + v v ) = , (7)

cations of vortex dipole dynamics to diverse areas, in-

cluding atmospheric jets [9], the -effect [10], the vortex where 2 is called the Laplace-Beltrami operator.

modon [11], and recently Bose-Einstein condensates [12]. Before we resume the argument, we need some defini-

The vortex dipole also provides an important example of tions of related mathematical concepts. We have already

the ergodicity of vortex motion on certain smooth em- defined a conformal metric in Eq. (3), and we consider

bedded ergodic surfaces [13] although most point vortex a special case in which a differentiable manifold has a

systems are not ergodic [14]. conformal structure.

Definition 1 A differentiable two-dimensional manifold

with a Riemann metric in conformal form is called a

II. VORTEX DYNAMICS ON RIEMANN Riemann surface.

SURFACES

To simplify the discussion, we assume to be a Rie-

We start with the two basic equations [8] describing mann surface from here on. For the properties and the

the motion of an incompressible and inviscid fluid flow details of Riemann surfaces, see Ref. 15. Next, we de-

on a (curved) two-dimensional surface imbedded in the fine a conformal map from one Riemann surface 1 to

Euclidean space R3 : another Riemann surface 2 .

conformal if there is a real positive function (x) on 1

v = n, (2) such that the derivative map f satisfies

where n is the unit outward normal vector, a stream-

||f (vx )|| = (x)||vx ||

function, v the flow velocity and the (only) nonzero

normal component of the vorticity v. From here for all tangent vectors vx to 1 . Here, (x) is called the

on, all points and vectors are in the Euclidean space R3 scale factor of f , and in particular, if (x) 1 for all x,

assuming the background of all the motions (and their we call f an isometry.

mathematical notations are) in R3 although they are con- Generally speaking, a conformal map preserves the an-

fined on at all time. Rather than projecting the dy- gle between any two tangent vectors at each point on the

namics onto the coordinates plane which is adopted in manifold. (See Fig. 1.) This generates a corresponding

Ref. [5], we try to derive intrinsic equations of motion equivalence concept according to conformal structures

on the surface itself. To incorporate the geometry of (related to the angle not to the length) of Riemann sur-

the surface into the fluid motion, we introduce confor- faces:

mal (or isothermal) coordinates (u, v) whose coordinate

patch x : D R2 R3 is explicitly given by Definition 3 Any two Riemann surfaces are confor-

mally equivalent if there is a 1-1 conformal map between

x(u, v) = (x1 (u, v), x2 (u, v), x3 (u, v))

them.

for (u, v) D. Let this patch induce the conformal metric

Under these notions, we may ask about classifying all

ds2 = 2 (du2 + dv 2 ) (3) Riemann surfaces via conformal mapping. In the case of

on the surface and satisfy simply connected Riemann surfaces, the answer is well-

known as the uniformization theorem (see Ref. 15 for

xu xu = xv xv = 2 (x(u, v)), xu xv = 0, (4) proof.):

where the inner product and the corresponding norm are Theorem 1 (Uniformization Theorem) Every sim-

three-dimensional Euclidean, e.g., ply connected Riemann surface is conformally equivalent

xu xu = x21u + x22u + x23u , to one of the following three: the complex plane C, the

q Riemann sphere C or the open unit disk D in the com-

||xu || = xu xu = x21u + x22u + x23u . plex plane.

Vortex Motion on Riemann Surfaces Sun-Chul Kim -49-

With these mathematical notions and facts, we will the induced patches x = x(u, v) and y = y(u, v) =

study the dynamics of a vortex on two simply connected f (x(u, v)), respectively. In particular, if we assume sim-

Riemann surfaces 1 , 2 that are conformally equivalent. ple connectedness on the surface, there is an important

Let f : 1 2 be a 1-1 conformal map given by identity of the Greens functions G1 , G2 of correspond-

ing Laplace-Beltrami operators as shown in Ref. 6,

f (x) = (f1 (x), f2 (x), f3 (x)).

Then the induced patch on 2 , y(u, v) = f (x(u, v)), from G1 (x, x0 ) = G2 (f (x), f (x0 )) (9)

D to 2 for (u, v) is orthogonal because it preserves the

angle of any two tangent vectors at each point. In other for each x, x0 in 1 .

words, y(u, v) again generates a conformal metric on 2 This fact is essential to compare the vortex dynamics

and satisfies on 1 and 2 . For instance, we calculate how a point

vortex (i.e., a delta function mathematically) is trans-

yu yu = ||f (xu )||2 = 2 (y(u, v)) = yv yv , formed via the conformal mapping f in the following.

yu yv = 0, (8) Let us write 1 ,x0 (x) as a delta function centered at x0

on 1 . Then, by definition and a change of variables,

where = . Now, the derivative map f of f is a

linear transformation between tangent planes explicitly

ZZ

given by 1 = 1 ,x0 (x)dA1

1

ZZ

f (v) = vf T = (1 ,x0 f 1 )(f (x))|f 1 |dA2 (10)

2

for

each tangent vector v to 1 at x1 , where f = ZZ

fi = (1 ,x0 g)(u)|g|dA2

is the Jacobian matrix of f and T denotes the 2

xj ZZ

transpose. If restricted on the tangent plane of 1 at x,

= 2 ,f (x0 ) (u)dA2 , (11)

the derivative map (or f ) is well known to be a combi- 2

nation of rotation, reflection and dilation. (See Ref. 16 where dA1 , dA2 are corresponding area elements, g =

for details.) f 1 is the inverse of f (g is again conformal). From this,

we may take the delta function on 2 at u0 = f (x0 ) as

Lemma 1 The derivative map f of a 1-1 conformal

map f between two simply connected Riemann surfaces is 2 ,f (x0 ) (u) = 1 ,x0 (g(u))|g|u=f (x0 )

a linear transformation which, geometrically speaking, is

either a rotation about some axis or a rotatory reflection = 1 ,x0 (f 1 (u))|f |1

x0 . (12)

both combined with a certain dilation.

We similarly proceed to compute more terms, such as

Next, for two conformally equivalent surfaces 1 and , u , v , etc., on both 1 and 2 . For the streamfunc-

2 , we may define the Laplace-Beltrami operators by tions, we calculate the general formula

ZZ

1 (x) = 1 (x0 )G1 (x, x0 )dA1 ,x0 (13)

1

ZZ

= (1 f 1 )(f (x0 ))G2 (f (x), f (x0 ))|f |1 dA2 ,f (x0 ) (14)

2

ZZ

= (1 g)(y0 )G2 (y, y0 ))|g|dA2 ,y0 , (15)

2

where we adopt new variables y = f (x), y0 = f (x0 ) on 2 . We summarize the derivations as a theorem.

2 . If we introduce the corresponding vorticity on 2 by

using Theorem 2 For two conformally equivalent Riemann

surfaces 1 , 2 with the conformal map f: 1 2 and

2 (y) = (1 g)(y)|g|(y), g = f 1 , by defining the vorticity

the last expression becomes 2 (y) = (1 g)(y)|g|(y)

ZZ

2 (y0 )G2 (y, y0 )dA2 ,y0 = 2 (y), on 2 , we have the invariance of the streamfunction:

2

-50- Journal of the Korean Physical Society, Vol. 59, No. 1, July 2011

tives to obtain

yu = xu (f T )1 , yv = xv (f T )1 , (16)

1 (x) 2 (y) 1 (x) 2 (y)

= , = , (17)

u u v v

etc. With these formulas, we compare the velocity as

1 1

v1 (x) = 2 xv + xu (18)

u v

2 2

= 2 yv + yu (f T )

u v

= 2 v2 (y)(f T ) (19) Fig. 2. A Counterexample

for a Riemann sphere or a unit disc are similar.) In other

Theorem 3 Under the same hypothesis of Theorem 1, words, the fluid motions are identical for isometric Rie-

the velocities v1 (x), v2 (x) are compared by mann surfaces.

This is a useful fact from which we construct the fol-

v1 (x) = 2 v2 (y)(f T ), lowing instructive example. In Refs. 7 and 2, a vectorial

where is the scale factor of f . formula for the flow velocity due to a point vortex of

strength 1 at x1 is introduced as

Next, we add some comments on relevant issues. First, 1 n1 (x x1 )

for the case of a single point vortex, by taking = x = , (23)

2 l2

1 ,x0 , the expression in Eq. (15) is simply reduced to

where the chord distance l between the point x = (x, y, z)

and the given point vortex x1 = (x1 , y1 , z1 ) is the Eu-

ZZ

( f 1 )f (x0 )G2 (f (x), f (x0 ))|f |1 dAf (x0 ) clidean 2-norm

2 p

= 2 (f (x)), (20) l = ||x x1 || = (x x1 )2 + (y y1 )2 + (z z1 )2

and we conclude and n1 denotes the unit normal to the surface at x1 .

This formula correctly unifies for the cases of a plane

1 (x) = 2 (f (x)) (21) (n1 = (0, 0, 1)) and a sphere (n1 = x1 /R, R the spher-

ical radius) as is easily checked by direct computation

because we have defined the corresponding delta function from the Biot-Savart expression for the vorticity. It is

on 2 as in Eq. (12). This relation implies the invariance commented (without proof) on p. 147 in Ref. 7 that this

of the streamfunction of a single point vortex under a formula can be extended to general two-dimensional sur-

1-1 conformal mapping between two simply connected faces imbedded in R3 by adopting n1 as the normal of

Riemann surfaces. the given surface at x1 .

Secondly, if f is an isometry ( 1, a special case of a However, we here suggest a simple example showing

conformal map), we proceed further. Because an isom- that Eq. (23) does not work for general surfaces. Let

etry preserves the inner product on the corresponding us consider the fluid motion due to a point vortex of

tangent planes, i.e., at any point P on 1 , strength 1 at x1 = (0, 0) in the plane. By a proper

bending (which is an isometry of the plane), we construct

u v|P = f (u) f (v)|f (P ) , (22) a deformed surface R2bend as in Fig. 2. Now, if we regard

R2bend as imbedded in R3 , we set three-dimensional coor-

geometric structures (length, angle, etc) are preserved. dinates by taking x1 = (0, 0, 0) and the plane containing

For example, if 1 = R2 , this implies that the metric x1 as the xz-plane.

on 2 is again Euclidean and that the related opera- Then, at the point x = (x, y) 6= (0, 0) in the plane and

tors induced by the metric, e.g., , Laplace-Beltrami, (0, y, 0) in the space with y 6= 0, the vectorial formula in

etc. are exactly in the same form. (The vector prod- Eq. (23) gives

uct is also identical, except for the signature, depending

on orientation preservation (+1) or reversal (-1) of the x = 0 (24)

given isometry, which we now assume to be +1, i.e., ori- 3

because n1 //xx1 in R , but the correct planar velocity

entation preservation.) We have then the same Greens in terms of the original planar coordinates (x, y) is

function, streamfunction, vorticity, etc. Consequently,

the dynamics of a vortex on 2 is exactly the same and 1 (y, x)

x = p , (25)

is not distinguishable from that on a plane. (The cases 2 x2 + y 2

Vortex Motion on Riemann Surfaces Sun-Chul Kim -51-

push forward direction f (vd ) = wd on S 2 . We then

draw a (unique) geodesic curve ( ) for | | 0 for some

small > 0 on S 2 at yd with the condition

(0) = yd , 0 (0) = wd .

because all geodesics are great circles on a sphere. Then,

we choose two point vortices

which is surely nonzero, disagreeing with the vectorial

formula. Although we are not sure if the formula is true y1 = (0 ), y2 = ( )

only for the planar and the spherical cases, we suppose

that the formula is valid for very special surfaces of high on S 2 and let them approach yd along , forming a point

symmetry. vortex dipole at yd on S 2 with the direction wd .

This procedure, in each step, produces a corresponding

pull back action via f on . (See Fig. 3.) More precisely,

we name the corresponding pull back image of ( ) by

III. VORTEX DIPOLE MOTION

= ( ) = f 1 (( ))

So far, we have sought the dynamical connection of

vortex motion on two different surfaces 1 , 2 that are with (0) = xd on . In addition, we have two point

conformally equivalent to each other. In the present sec- vortices x1 = f 1 (y1 ), x2 = f 1 (y2 ) on that will ap-

tion, we will present an example showing the usefulness proach xd along as varies, thus forming again a point

of our derivation by comparing the dynamics of a point vortex dipole at xd on . In short, a point vortex dipole

vortex on any simply connected Riemann surface with on S 2 induces a vortex dipole on by pull back through

one of the three standard models suggested by the uni- f.

formization process. Here, the convergence of x1 , x2 to xd is performed

We consider the motion of a vortex dipole, particularly along a fixed direction vd , which is a tangent of at

the limiting case where two vortices approach infinitely xd . From this we define the direction of a point vortex

close while the ratio of the strength to the distance is kept dipole at xd by the unit tangent vector vd , which ex-

constant. The vortex pair (dipole) is known to draw a plains the orientation of the point vortex dipole. (See

geodesic curve as its trajectory on a plane, on a sphere Fig. 4.) To clarify the geodesic of the dipole trajectory,

and on a hyperbolic plane [8]. By utilizing our formu- we first show that two point vortices x1 , x2 transport the

lation, we extend this property to any simply connected direction vector vd in parallel as they move according to

Riemann surfaces that are conformally equivalent to a mutual interaction. We use the term vortex dipole for

sphere (thus, with no boundary). We also comment on point vortex dipole for convenience because we deal with

the case of surfaces with a boundary with an example. the point dipole case only.

Let us assume that the (curved) Riemann surface Suppose two point vortices at x1 , x2 have nonzero

is simply connected, sufficiently smooth and without strengths , respectively. To make a vortex dipole,

boundary so that it is conformally equivalent to the Rie-

we keep = fixed while x1 , x2 approaches

mann sphere S 2 . We also impose a certain stability con- d (x1 , x2 )

dition on the point vortex dipole because, for some cases, both to xd . (d (x1 , x2 ) represents the intrinsic distance

we might need to force the convergence of the two point between x1 , x2 on .) From the velocity relation in The-

vortices to a point to make a point vortex dipole on . orem 3,

Here, such (possibly unstable) cases are excluded to dis-

cuss the existence of the local trajectory of the dipole on v (x1 ) = 2 (x1 ) vS 2 (y1 ) (f T )(x1 ),

. In other words, the dipole is supposed to be properly v (x2 ) = 2 (x2 ) vS 2 (y2 ) (f T )(x2 ).

formed initially, and its coherence is kept for some period

of time. To determine if x1 , x2 transport vd in parallel, we inspect

We will construct a point vortex dipole on the surface the derivative of x with respect to d(x1 , x2 ) at xd . More

by first making a point vortex dipole on S 2 and then precisely we rewrite the expression

pulling back the operations and images onto . (See

Fig. 3.) Choose a point xd on and a unit tangent x 1 x 2 1 2

vector vd 6= 0 in the tangent plane at xd . We generate a = (x1 ) vS 2 (y1 ) (f T )(x1 )

d (x1 , x2 ) d (x1 , x2 )

point vortex dipole at xd with a direction vd as follows;

2 (x2 ) vS 2 (y2 ) (f T )(x2 )

(Here, direction roughly means how two point vortices

approach each other; a precise definition is given below.) = I + II + III, (26)

-52- Journal of the Korean Physical Society, Vol. 59, No. 1, July 2011

where

1

I = 2 (x1 ) vS 2 (y1 )

d (x1 , x2 )

(f T )(x1 ) (f T )(x2 )

(27)

1 2

(x1 ) 2 (x2 )

II =

d (x1 , x2 )

vS 2 (y2 ) (f T )(x2 ) (28)

1

III = 2 (x2 )

d (x1 , x2 )

[vS 2 (y1 ) vS 2 (y2 )] (f T )(x2 ). (29)

As we form the vortex dipole by letting d (x1 , x2 ) 0,

we necessarily have 0 which then implies vS 2 (y1 )

0, vS 2 (y2 ) 0 simultaneously as the magnitude of ve-

locity is proportional to the vortex strength. because f

is sufficiently smooth everywhere, the expression

||(f T )(x1 ) (f T )(x2 )|| Fig. 4. Parallel Transportation

(30)

d (x1 , x2 )

is bounded in the limit d (x1 , x2 ) 0. Thus we con- argument at t = 0 above can be analogously repeated

clude that the first part I approaches to zero. Similarly, at xd (t) with the direction vd (t), and the newly gener-

since , are differentiable and away from zero, ated x1 , x2 at xd (t) (denoted by x1t , x2t ) along t again

|2 (x1 ) 2 (x2 )| transport vd (t) parallel. (See Fig. 4.) In summary, we

(31) have the following theorem:

d (x1 , x2 )

is bounded and II vanishes in the limit. Finally, for the Theorem 4 The direction vector vd (t) of a point vortex

third term III, we rewrite as dipole moves parallel along the trajectory at any time.

Then, the point vortex dipole xd (t) necessarily moves per-

||vS 2 (y1 ) vS 2 (y2 )|| ||vS 2 (y1 ) vS 2 (y2 )|| pendicular to vd (t).

=

d (x1 , x2 ) dS 2 (y1 , y2 )

Accordingly, from the first part of the theorem above,

d 2 (y1 , y2 )

S (32) the normal vectors vd (t) and are parallel at all time. In

d (x1 , x2 ) other words, the tangent vectors to are always parallel

and notice that from the second part of the theorem, which is a geometric

definition of a geodesic curve. (See Ref. 16, p. 291.)

dS 2 (y1 , y2 ) The situation is dynamically equivalent to the role of

(xd ) 6= 0 (33)

d (x1 , x2 ) a small buggy with two identical wheels joined by an

as d (x1 , x2 ) 0 by the definition of the scale factor . infinitesimal axle. (See Ref. 17, pp. 34 - 35.)

Moreover, because the corresponding dipole on a sphere The next step is to consider the vortex motion on sur-

draws a geodesic [8], we have faces with a boundary. As the boundary is generally ex-

pected to create new patterns of point vortex motion [2],

||vS 2 (y1 ) vS 2 (y2 )|| the problem is not so straightforward and as yet has not

0 (34) been solved. In particular, for multiply connected do-

dS 2 (y1 , y2 )

mains in a two-dimensional plane, a general dynamical

in the same limit. Thus, we have shown theory of point vortices is developed in Ref. 18. Pre-

x 1 x 2 sumably, the main ingredient in such investigations is

lim =0 (35) the construction of the corresponding Greens functions.

d (x1 ,x2 )0 d (x1 , x2 )

In Ref. 6, the method of images is efficiently adopted

and established the parallel translation at the initial to find explicit forms of the Greens functions of certain

movement of the vortex dipole. simply connected domains of various shapes on a sphere.

Next, we consider the trajectory of the dipole : It is also suggested that the results may be extended by

xd (t), 0 t t0 , on with xd (0) = xd for some t0 > 0 utilizing well-known techniques, such as the method of

whose (local) existence is assumed as before. At each inversion or Schwarz-Christoffel mapping.

time t, we investigate the direction vector vd (t), which For the dipole motion on surfaces with a boundary,

is, by definition, transported by the dipole motion and although the boundary effect is global throughout the

defined along the trajectory with vd (0) = vd . Then, the whole domain, its influence possibly decreases to zero as

Vortex Motion on Riemann Surfaces Sun-Chul Kim -53-

two opposite vortices approach to form a point vortex thus, the point vortex moves constantly along the bound-

dipole. We do not know if this is always the case; how- ary (the x-axis). Now, we make a dipole by taking

ever, for the cases of the upper half plane and the unit another point vortex at z2 = (x2 , y2 ) with opposite

disc in R2 , we check that the boundary effect disappears 1

strength and simply take xd = zd = (z1 + z2 ) with

in the limit and that the point vortex dipole is still mov- 2

ing on a geodesic. Instead of developing a general theory z2 z1

vd = . Because the streamfunction is

here, we briefly sketch computations ensuring this phe- |z2 z1 |

nomenon in the upper half plane.

Let a point vortex be located at x1 = (x1 , y1 ) =

x1 + iy1 = z1 (y1 > 0) with strength in the upper

= (log |z z1 | log |z z1 |

half plane in R2 . (We adopt complex notation.) By the 2

method of images, we construct the streamfunction ( log |z z2 | + log |z z2 |), (37)

for conjugation)

= (log |z z1 | log |z z1 |); (36) the velocity at z1 is then given by

2

(y1 y2 ) (y1 + y2 ) (x1 x2 ) (x1 x2 )

x 1 = + , + . (38)

4y1 2|z1 z2 |2 2|z1 z2 |2 2|z1 z2 |2 2|z1 z2 |2

(y1 y2 ) (y1 + y2 ) (x1 x2 ) (x1 x2 )

x 2 = + + , + . (39)

4y2 2|z1 z2 |2 2|z1 z2 |2 2|z2 z1 |2 2|z2 z1 |2

this property to any simply connected Riemann surface

= is fixed, x 1 , x 2 have a common

|(x1 , y1 ) (x2 , y2 )| 2 without a boundary, which is conformally equivalent to

limit the Riemann sphere. Also, the case of more complicated

surfaces, e.g., with boundaries, has been discussed.

(sin , cos ), (40)

2

y2 y 1

where tan = and hence is perpendicular to ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

x2 x1

z2 z1 . Then, the derivative of the velocity at zd is

x 1 x 2 This work was supported by a National Research

lim = (0, 0), (41) Foundation of Korea Grant funded by the Korean Gov-

0 2 ernment (2009-0073390).

which affirms the geodesic trajectory.

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