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BKRKOWIIZENVELOPECO., K. 0., MO.

or-57

Hi IS

3479

THEREBIRTHOFTURKEY

FIELD MARSHAL MUSTAPHA KEMAL PASHA

President and Commander-in-Chief of the First Grand National

Assembly; President of the Second Grand National Assembly.

THE REBIRTH OF

TURKEY

BY

CLAIR PRICE

NEW YORK

THOMAS SELTZER

1923

COPYRIGHT, 1923, BY

THOMAS SELTZER, Inc.

All Rights Reserved

FEINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

TO

ALL AMERICANS

BETWEEN ALASKA AND ANGORA

FOREWORD

This book contains my own observations and my

own deductions from them. The responsibility for

them is mine alone. I have never engaged in com

mercial, educational or missionary work.

My in

terest in the Near and Middle East began with a

newspaper assignment, and has continued with cur

This book is the result. herein parts of certain articles which have pre

London, for their courteous permission to re-print

rent History, New York, and Fortnightly Review,

viously appeared in their pages. CLAIR PRICE.

iosity as its motive.

My thanks are due to the proprietors of Cur

CONTENTS

CHAPTER I

MUSTAPHA KEMAL PASHA, THE MAN

PAGE

1

His personal appearance The Eastern tradition of

government under which he was born The Western

tradition which he has sought to transplant to his

country The diversion of the Turks from a military

to an economic life, which he is beginning "Do you

think you will succeed?"

CHAPTER II

THE OLD OTTOMAN EMPIRE

KemaFsTurk Whatbirth

The Western challenge at Salonica of its Rum (Greek) commun

Young

the old Ottoman Empire was likeThe

division of its population into religious communities

How he became a

ity

Its duty to Islam.

CHAPTER III

THE YOUNG TURKISH PROGRAM

KemaFs arrest and his 'exile to Damascus His event

ual return to Salonica What the YoungTurkswanted

The religious conservatism which confronted them

The role of American missionaries and educators How Russia and Great Britain fought across the old

Ottoman Empire How Russia entered Trans-Cau

casia and came into contact with the Armenians

Christendom vs. Islam.

CHAPTER IV

THE RUSSIAN MENACE

II

22

38

Central Asia How Great Britain finally surrendered

in How the it Anglo-Russian approached the Treaty back of of British 1907. India through

x

CONTENTS

CHAPTER V

THE YOUNG TURKISH REVOLUTION

"On the morning of July

counter-revolution and

23, 1908" The Old Turkish

from politics The its Balkan defeat wars How Islam and national and the

Kemal's break with Enver and his retire

Christian communities nullified the Young ^ Turkish

program

ment

ism.

CHAPTER VI

GERMANY AND THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE

.

.

British policy at Constantinople The Bagdad railway

concessions Russia's veto and the change of route

The Achilles' Heel of Aleppo

The British Indian frontier

War.

-Germany and Islam

in Serbia

The Great

CHAPTER VII

CHRISTENDOM AND CHAPTER THE WAR VIII CHAPTER IX

THE WAR AND ISLAM

Kemal hurries back to Constantinople and Rauf Bey

asks the British Embassy to finance neutrality Enver

enters the war and Persia attempts to follow him

The hard position of Islam in India.

THEARMENIAN DEPORTATIONS OF 1915 THE 1907 TREATYANDTHE CALIPHATE

War and the Armenian deportations.

CHAPTERX

Enver and the Armenian Patriarch Where the Ar

menians lived American missionaries and the Ar

menians Russia and the Armenians Great Britain

joins Russia in the 1907 Treaty Enver's demand for

British administrators in the Eastern provinces The

Hejaz Great becomes Britain promises independent Constantinople of Constantinople to Russia The

Arab nationalism and the Holy Places of Islam The

PAGE

48

56

68 65

76

89

' British capture Jerusalem The Caliphate agitation in

India.

CONTENTS

CHAPTER XI

THE COLLAPSE OF CZARIST RUSSIA

The Czar abdicates The French depose Constantino

Athens Kemal urges Enver to withdraw from the

at

WarThe

Mr. Lloyd George's new war aims in Turkey

Anglo-Russian Treaty of 1907

abrogated Pan-

Turanianism leaps into life on the heels of the Rus

sian rout The Mudros Armistice opens the British

road to the chaos in Russia.

CHAPTER XII

THE ANGLO-RUSSIAN WAR OF 1918-'20

How Mr. Lloyd George tried to impose alone upon

Islam that fate which Great Britain and Russia had

agreed to impose together in 1907 The Anglo-Per

sian Agreement

The "Central Asian Federation"

The American Mandate in Trans-Caucasia The re Surrounded by British forces, the Turks go back to

Constantinople and the growth of Greek Nationalism

turn of Soviet Russia.

CHAPTER XIII

THE GRECO-TURKISH WAR BEGINS

peace Application

Allies had drawn

of the secret treaties

up during the War

The which Oecu the

menical Patriarchate breaks off its relations with the

Ottoman government.

CHAPTER XIV

SMYRNA, 1919

Kemal returns to Constantinople Turkish confusion

in the

Smyrna,

The

capital The Turks ask for an American program man

date How Kemal and Rauf Bey left for Samsun and

respectively The Greek Pontus

Greek occupation of Smyrna The Turks go back broke Kemal with falls the to the Oecumenical status of Patriarchate a "bandit" The Turk

Turkish Na

tionalism begins

to re-mobilize and re-equip its forces

The Erzerum Program and the Nationalist victory

in the Ottoman elections

How Papa Eftim EfEendi

to war.

CHAPTER XV

THE ORTHODOX SCHISM IN ANATOLIA

xi

PAGE

98

108

120

127

14-2

ish Orthodox Church Papa Eftim himself.

xii

CONTENTS

CHAPTER XVI

THE TREATY OF SEVRES

Rauf Bey takes the Nationalist Deputies from Angora

to leave Constantinople Constantinople India to the compels

breaks up the Parliament,

Mr. Lloyd George to

Turk and General Milne

deporting Rauf and many

of his colleagues to Malta The Sevres Treaty and

PAGE

154

how Damad Ferid Pasha secured authority to sign it.

CHAPTER XVII

ANGORA

Fevzi,

Rafet and Kiazim Karabekr Pashas and their

military dictatorship under Kemal Pasha The "Pon-

tus"

deportations Mosul, the Kurds and the^ split in

Islam The Franco-Armenian Front in Cilicia, the to which the

Greek

Front before Smyrna, and the Allied ^ Front

before Constantinople How the broken parliament

was reconstructed at Angora Ferid's counter-revolu

tion at Konia. CHAPTERXVIII

TURKISH NATIONALISM

The Western tradition of government

ism was created Greek defeat at the Sakaria How National River

Grand National Assembly was built

Peace ish Armies. with the French in Cilicia

administration was begun

Pasha was re-mobilizing

How a civilian

at Angora while Fevzi

and re-equipping the Turk

CHAPTER XIX

SMYRNA, 1922

Allied efforts to hitch the Sevres Treaty to Turkish

Nationalism Greeks transfer troops from Smyrna to

Eastern Thrace for a move on Constantinople and Economic beginnings in the new Turkish State Mus-

tapha Kemal Pasha opens the Smyrna Congress The

Chester Concession a step from imperialism to law.

THE REALPROBLEM OF TURKISH NATIONALISM .

when Fethy Bey is refused a hearing in London,

Fevzi Pasha launches his attack The Turkish re

covery of Smyrna

Mr. Lloyd George resigns and

the Ottoman Sultan flees Lausanne.

CHAPTERXX

CHAPTER XXI

.160

177

199

219

ILLUSTRATIONS

FIELDPASHAMARSHAL

MUSTAPHA

KEMAL

Frontispiece

FACING PAGE

HUSSEIN RAUF BEY

GENERALRAFET PASHA

FIELD MARSHAL FEVZI PASHA

ALI FETHY BEY

LIEUT.-GEN. SIR CHARLES A. HARINGTON, G. B. E.,

K. C. B., D. S. O.

GENERAL ISMET PASHA

PAPA EFTIM EFFENDI

MELETIOS IV

ASSEMBLY BUILDING AT ANGORA

REAR-ADMIRAL REAR-ADMIRAL MARK COLBY L. M. BRISTOL, CHESTER U. S. N.

GENERAL MOUHEDDIN PASHA

MEHMED EMIN BEY

.

.

16

48

80

112

144

176

208

THEREBIRTHOFTURKEY

I

MUSTAPHA KEMAL PASHA, THE MAN

HIS PERSONAL APPEARANCE THE EASTERN TRADI

TION OF GOVERNMENT UNDER WHICH HE WAS

BORN THE WESTERN TRADITION WHICH HE HAS

SOUGHT TO TRANSPLANT TO HIS COUNTRY THE

DIVERSION OF THE TURKS FROM A MILITARY TO

AN ECONOMIC LIFE, WHICH HE IS BEGINNING

"DO YOU THINK YOU WILL SUCCEED?"

applied at the Foreign Office in Angora

HAVING

for ing which houses the Assembly, stands at the foot

of Angora, with the red and white Crescent and

Star flying above it bynight as well as by day. "The

an appointment with Mustapha Kemal

in Pasha, the afternoon a message that finally a half-hour reached me had about been arranged 2 o'clock

session^ of the

Grand National at the close Assembly. of the The day's gray granite build

fo-r me

Pasha's" car stood at the curb.

He lives in a villa

presented to him by the town of Angora, at Tchan-

Kaya, a suburb three miles away, and the sight of

his car, a longgray machine of German make, is one

o-f the few means of tracing him. He is the easiest

of all men to meet, but the most difficult of all men

to find.

Within the building, one of Kemal's aides led me

to a large room off the corridor, within which to

2

THE REBIRTH OF TURKEY

await the end of the session.

It was the room in

which I had first met him, a large room with a flat ing guesses as to what the trouble a half-hour, was. I hadhoped listening

top desk in the center of one side, with^a row of

chairs around the four walls, and a sheet-iron stove

with a pile of cut wood beside it, in the middle of

the carpet. I waited possibly

to the

noise from the Assembly's chamber and mak

to secure an hour or two with Kemal and had been

listing, during But the he month is not I only spent difficult at Angora, to a num

ber of subjects on which I was anxious to secure his

opinions.

find but

difficult to hold for long.

I had applied to the

pointment Foreign Office I wantedt- a week before and I believe they

were not only willing but anxious to secure the ap

My application, however,

happened to coincide with a crisis in the Assembly

and I had to make the best of a half-hour. with desk, Turkish the limp letters folds of of a gold. tall green From banner his chair inscribed at the

with a flat-top desk and, in the corner behind the

desk, the military figure of Kemal himself in civ

The session had no sooner broken up and the

clamor of the deputies begun to overflow from the

chamber into the corridor, than the aide summoned

me.

We crossed the corridor into a small room

ilian clothes rose to greet me

a man 'with a face

ofiron beneath a great iron-gray kalpak. He spoke

in French and the flash of much gold in his lower

teeth gave sparkle to the military incisiveness of

his manner, a manner which conveyed an instant

reminder of cavalry.

His face is one of severely simple lines.

The

lower line of the kalpak comes down close to the

MUSTAPHA KEMAL PASHA

3

straight eyebrows,

and there is no waste space be

eyebrows and the eyes themselves. uThe with him that afternoon, those eyes of pale blue

tween the

Pasha" is reputed to have occasional fits of temper

which reveal themselves in a noticeable squint in the once when his mother-in-law died and once when

fixed themselves on me and never left me.

There is a story of some famous German general I can speak of it only in connection with the handful

self genuinely pleasant when he cares to exercise it.

hardly hold true for he has the gift of making him

of Westerners who have lived in Angora during the

last four years. Turkey has been not only Turkish

but desperately Turkish diiring these last years, yet

no public celebration of its victories has occurred in

Angora without the handful of Westerners in the

town attending and without Kemal himself making Ferid Ministry in Constantinople and now occupy

missed from the old Ottoman Army by the Damad

who is reputed to have smiled only twice in his life,

he heard that the Swedish General Staff had re

ferred to certain military works outside Stockholm

as a fortress.

Applied to Kemal, the story would

an opportunity to receive them upon its conclusion.

On these occasions, they have been received with a

sensitive cordiality hardly understandable by those

Westerners at home to whom it has never occurred

that nations are,born, not in debating societies, but

in the mud and blood of suffering.

Kemal is, however, a professional soldier, dis

pupils of his eyes, but during all the time I talked

ing a politico-military

new Turkish

position at the head of the

Government. He has brought to An

gora the blunt directness of the soldier rather than

4

THE REBIRTH OF TURKEY

the statesman, and his remarkable personal^prestige

has colored his entire Government.

Yet it is not

sufficient to define him as a soldier. The head of the

new Turkish State happens to be a soldier because

the dominant tradition of the old Ottoman Empire

was the Turkish military tradition. In any country

with a great military tradition, the best brains of

the country tend to flow into the Army and the best

brains of the Army tend to flow into the General

Staff. Kemal reached the General Staff of the old

Ottoman Army at a time when the best brains in

the country were attempting to carry it from those

Eastern traditions of government in which it had tween these two traditions of government into the

had a long and rich experience, to the newer West

ern traditions at which it is still serving its appren

ticeship.

If it is possible to press down the difference be

limits the Eastern of a single tradition sentence, is that it might of action be said that

and the

Western tradition is that of argument. Under the

Eastern tradition, government is centralized in a

are single decentralized ruler whose and power authority is as nearly is carried absolute down as his to

own personal abilities enable him to make it. Under

the Western tradition, the functions of government

a popular electorate, represented by deputies in a

parliament to which the Government of the day is

immediately responsible.

Under the Eastern tra

dition, all things are possible to an individual ruler

as long as he disposes of sufficient force to impose

them. Under the Western tradition, all things are

possible to an electorate as long as it abstains from

force in imposingthem. London is the home of the

MUSTAPHA KEMAL PASHA

5

modern Western tradition but to find the home

of the Eastern tradition today it is necessary to

go farther east than Turkey, to a country like

Afghanistan. One episode which illustrates the con

trast between the two traditions,

is that of an

Afghan notable who happened to be in London

at a time when the Government fell, and who lost

no time in sending an aide into the West End and our talk of an hour's duration ended as happily

as it began.

It happened, however, that no emergency developed

bassy close at hand in case, I suppose, of emergency.

talk and two charmingly brawny Secretaries of Em

by revolver a charming on his desk gentleman throughout who the kept period a charming of our

Western ways. His was a charming tea, served

covered,,! thought, an astonishing ignorance of our

at Angora in the course of my stay there and dis

to purchase arms with which to defend himself.

For further illustration, I might draw on my own

experience.

I called on the Afghan Ambassador

But if we Westerners have slowly built up our

own peculiar traditions of government at home, we

have not always carried them with us into the

East.

In

our contacts

with

Eastern peoples

in their own lands, we have tended to adopt the emplified our love of law* Probably their relatively

our imperialisms in the East have not always ex

Eastern tradition. We have met force with force

and it is possibly difficult to blame the more pro

vincial of Eastern peoples if they conclude from

their contacts with us along their own frontiers,

that our traditions of government are the same as

theirs.

We cherish at home the reign of law, but

6

THE REBIRTH OF TURKEY

lawless nature has been justified by necessity, for

the complicated Doubtless machinery imperialism of Western which is trade the continuance

justify its

until

demands conditions of security if it is to work

smoothly.

simplest

will

method of affording it a degree of security,

continue as long as it is able to command su

perior force, although naturally it is a daily humil

iation to the strongest of Eastern peoples. Neces

sity will

tend

to

Easterners demonstrate that they can adapt our

tradition of law a right to their to expect. own needs and that they

are themselves able to afford legitimate Western

trade (not of the get-rich-quick sort) that security

which it has

It is this task of

adapting the Western tradition of law to Eastern

needs, of substituting in the East a new and Eastern

regime of law for the lawlessness of imperialism, Eastern absolutism of Abdul Hamid.

while disturbing as little as possible the inter-flow

of sound and legitimate trade

Kemal is a Westerner who was it is born this task under which the

constitutes the Turkish problem today.

He has

known the East, the West and that curious off his country in disgrace and later tossed him the

dying remnant of his country to do what he could

Turk, although his beliefs once flung him out of

of poison or both. He has been a consistent Young

has rewarded its strong men with prestige or a cup

manwho proved strong enough to take it and which

of a country which has belonged in the past to any

spring of both of them, imperialism. He is the son

with it.

best that type In his was unaffected a very fine bearing, type indeed. he embodies

the old Ottoman officer type at its best, and at its

He is a

MUSTAPHA KEMAL PASHA

7

great Turk and as a man among men he towers

head and shoulders above the type of man which

our Western democracies have sometimes

into political life.

projected

A century from now, the his

more torian adequate of the future perspective will see than him we in are a able larger to look and

upon him as he moves among us today.

He resumed his chair behind the desk, with the

green and gold banner hanging limply His in cheek the corner bones

behind him, and took from his pocket a string of

amber beads with a brown tassel.

are rather high, his nose is straight and strong, his

mouth is straight and thin-lipped.

toonist would find him easy to

I think a car

do

a towering

iron-gray kalpak, and beneath it the straight strong

lines of the eyebrows, the mouth and the chin. He

wore an English shooting suit of tweed, a gray soft

East. collar with Physically, a gray he tie, gives and a lean, high-laced wiry impression. tan boots

with the short vamp which is native to the Near

He speaks either Turkish or French (he knows

no English) in the mildest of tones, hardly above a

whisper and with a blunt frankness which manages

to remain free from any suggestion of truculence.

I formed the impression that he does not find talk

congenial; he says what needs to be said but he

prefers to listen.

Certainly he is quite devoid of

that love of talk which sometimes afflicts Western

ernment. statesmen Like and which any other is one good of soldier, the less there beautiful is not

aspects of our Western tradition of popular gov

employ to Westerners the, to us, exaggerated He does cour not

the faintest trace of pose in him.

tesies of the East; when he does talk to us, he talks

8

THE REBIRTH OF TURKEY

were as we not ourselves then obtainable endeavor to talk to each other, with

simplicity and directness. At one time in our talk,

I asked him for photographs

of himself since they

elsewhere in Angora and

weeks afterward I happened

to a Western friend in

he tell you?"

the next

day."

to mention the matter

Constantinople. "What did that his brain was miles away

"its fairly certain there's

"That he would have them sent me

"And did he?"

'Tes."

My

nople friend thought it over; he has lived in Constanti

any

Turk to give you a definite word on any subject

for some thirty years. "If you can really get

under the sun without making you wait a month

for it,"

he

said finally,

been a revolution in the country."

to an iron image,

busying itself

I had a feeling from the first that I was talking

with a thousand and one affairs. He

had a manner of dismissing question with question

as though he were very busy but desired not to be

discourteous, and the heaped-up pile of papers on

his very neat and orderly desk made it probable

that this was precisely the case.

I changed my

tactics finally and began firing questions at him If his face is the iron face of the

of his face.

cavalry officer, his forehead is the forehead of the

statesman.

totally out of keeping with the severely simple lines

at the top with very thin brown hair, a forehead

his kalpak, revealing a tall sloping forehead, fringed

have savored slightly of impatience, and flung aside

He reached up suddenly with a gesture which might

abruptly, determined to get his undivided attention.

I kept on firing questions at him until I felt that

MUSTAPHA KEMAL PASHA

continued to fire questions at him until I felt that 9

his brain had turned, had rushed down from its

distance and was sitting intently behind those fixed

blue eyes, staring out at its questioner:

"Suppose Turkey's Western population leaves

the country en masse when it becomes certain that

the Capitulations are ended?'*

"The West can help us or hinder us greatly," he

dition said, "but in which it ought Turkey to be is. remembered that we Turks

have our own problem to w