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IJSRD - International Journal for Scientific Research & Development| Vol.

4, Issue 05, 2016 | ISSN (online): 2321-0613

Analysis of Friction and Lubrication Conditions of Concrete/Formwork

Pranay Kumar Singh1 Vishal Gupta2
Resident Engineer 2M.Tech Scholar
MSV International INC 2RKDF, Bhopal
Abstract Concrete friction plays a basic role throughout crucial the concrete pressure against formwork. Vanhove et
numerous stages of construction and structure operations, al. and Proske et al. have developed a prognostic model
together with pumping, formwork filling and also the supported Janssen's theory so as to judge concrete pressure
production of facings. A tribometer for fluid materials has against a formwork. each these models introduce a constant
therefore been developed to higher study this friction. Tests of friction that depends on many parameters. This paper is
performed with sure modifications of interface conditions aimed toward finding out the influence of those parameters
show that friction is ruled by surface characteristics (e.g. kind on the constant of friction at the concrete/wall interface and,
of demoulding agent, roughness, velocity, pressure). The consequently, encompasses their influence on concrete
investigation showed that the tribometer is sensitive to get a pressure against the formwork yet. The results output concern
true understanding of the mechanical behaviour of the Self- the behavioral study of a SCC used throughout the national
Consolidating Concrete (SCC). The tests and observations project command at the Bhopal experimental website
created reveal that friction mechanisms rely on the properties (France). In order to higher perceive the mechanisms going
of the interface. The interface seems to endure 2 forms of down at the concrete/wall interface, testing was conducted
phenomena that rely of the pressure. The demoulding oil within the laboratory each with and while not demoulding oil.
generates a discount of the friction between the SCC and also supported a series of tribometric tests, complemented by
the formwork. Parameters specific to facing look also are chemistry electric resistance spectrum analysis, numerous
addressed during this paper. phenomenological models can be established to clarify the
Key words: SCC, Friction, Formwork, Tribometer, mechanisms in result at the concrete/oil/formwork interface.
Aesthetics A study specializing in facing aesthetics has additionally been
conducted for the aim of distinctive a correlation between the
I. INTRODUCTION protocol for applying demoulding oil and facing aesthetics.
Since the 1980's, the employment of Self-Consolidating
Concrete (SCC) has full-grown significantly in quality. II. THE TRIBOMETER
several important structures of varied varieties have currently The principle adopted herein is to press a sample of concrete
been engineered with this material. At present, all key against a moving metal surface. The plate has been cut out
building business actors take into consideration the progress from formwork walls by a formwork manufacturer. The
provided by this material. SCC is additionally extremely sample holders were cylinders a hundred and twenty
enticing to project house owners and designers because of its millimetre in diameter fitted with a hatch to feed the concrete,
end in terms of facing quality. the looks of facings constitutes that had been pressurised by the utilization of gas jacks. A
one amongst the most SCC benefits. the employment of sealer system was put in on the sample holders thus on
effective demoulding agents helps guarantee an ideal final guarantee full containment of the concrete while not
product in term of aesthetic quality. whereas the oils have damaging the oil film applied on the plate. A mobile bottom
already been with success characterised, our understanding of was additionally placed at the rear of the sample so as to
the thickness of oils applied onto formwork walls before transmit the pressure delivered (N) by the gas jack to the
casting remains lacking. Facing quality depends totally on the concrete. This device has already been delineated in several
concrete skin properties, i.e. the layer of fabric connected publications. For each take a look at, the tangential force (or
with the formwork skin. this may touch the primary tenths of resistance force) has been recorded consistent with time. This
millimetres of concrete, in influencing each color and texture. force corresponds to 2 separate resistance forces, namely: on
Demoulding oils also are utilized by formwork makers to the one hand, the resultant force of the interference friction
limit corrosion phenomena. once subjected to repeat concrete force on the seal system acting against the metal plate, further
running, the oil film really disappears and wear begins to because the resultant force of the tie against the slide; on the
occur as aggregates have to be compelled to be enclosed opposite hand, the resultant force of the tangential friction
within the style of formwork installations capable of force of each material samples against the plate, i.e. 2F, if
withstanding the concrete pressure. Over the past few years, friction is taken into account to be similar for the 2 samples
many researchers have begun specializing in friction at the tested.
concrete/formwork interface, as a way of either crucial the
lateral pressure of concrete against the formwork or III. PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS AND OIL
conducting phenomenological studies. 2 plane/plane
tribometers are specially designed for such studies. The A. The Metal Plate:
underlying principle is identical for each devices, i.e. a metal Previous studies administrated on concretes have disclosed
plate connected with a movable concrete surface. These that surface roughness exerts a big influence on the friction
devices square measure capable of reproducing the conditions constant. Roughness measurements of formwork walls were
encountered as concrete is being poured into the formwork. recorded at the Bhopal web site employing a moveable
many researchers have projected prognostic models for roughness meter (Ra = one m, Rt = 9 m). Ra is that the

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Analysis of Friction and Lubrication Conditions of Concrete/Formwork Interfaces
(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 05/2016/119)

mean deviation relative to the typical line, whereas Rt is that thickness is measured from the most visible light X of the
the distance between the best most and lowest minimum on steel composing the metal plate. the extent of steel visible
the roughness profile. For this study, a plate has been cut out light is directly influenced by attenuation of X-rays within the
from a formwork wall. Machining ridges run within the oil film. From the detection of emitted X protons (given that
direction of plate displacement. the film solely absorbs atiny low amount), the amount of
particles reaching the wall (through the oil film) will be
B. Concrete Combine Style:
measured, in step with an easy activity protocol by metric
This study has centered on the behavior of a SCC that had absorption. Moreover, terribly sturdy technique sensitivity
been used throughout the national project administered at the has been ascertained. Friction tests, with and while not
Bhopal experimental web site. the chosen concrete demoulding oil, were then conducted underneath the casting
classification is usually utilized for applied science structures; conditions enforced at the experimental web site of the
this concrete options smart physics characteristics as regards national project. The pressures analysed, that simulate
each liquidness and stability. rock additions (filler) were concrete pressure against the formwork, were outlined
introduced into the composition of take a look at specimens relative to most pressures recorded at the formwork base. At
as a method of rising facing quality in terms of color the Bhopal web site, half-dozen concrete walls of five and ten
uniformity. The concrete composition and characteristics are m high were solid. The pressures calculated at the formwork
listed in Table one. The particle size distribution analysis of base equalled to 118 kPa (for the five meter high wall) and
the cement, filler, sand and coarse mixture has served to see 235 kPa (for the ten meter high wall). The relative slippy rate
the most diameter Dmax of the grains, yet because the share of the concrete against the tribometer plate were calculated
of grain diameters (D) capable of changing into lodged supported the concreting speeds and ground expanse of every
among the plate asperities. The concrete particle size formwork. These speeds varied from one.57 to 12.08 mm/s.
distribution is incredibly wide unfold, extending from
roughly a metric linear unit for cement grains up to eight IV. INFLUENCE OF THE CONTACT PRESSURE
millimetre for gravel diameter. The cement and filler grains
with diameters smaller than ten m can doubtless become The variation of friction constant with the concrete pressure
lodged within the tribometer plate asperities. The term fine against the plate while not demoulding oil is shown in Fig.
particles or just fines refers to any or all cement and filler half-dozen for a speed of five mm/s. The variation during this
elements whose diameter is a smaller amount than eighty m. constant isn't linear. Two zones can be distinguished, thus
Mixing was performed in accordance with the IS reflecting two distinct types of friction. This curve displays a
specification, The operational protocol enforced was as minimum at a pressure of 150 kPa. This same trend can be
follows: observed for other concrete mix designs. This critical value is
equal to 110 kPa for a conventional concrete. Despite its look,
C. The Oil Used: fluid concrete isn't an eternal medium. the varied concrete
The oil chosen for this study has a plant-based composition components can play terribly specific roles once friction
(denoted V for vegetable). It is 95% biodegradable without happens. The pressure stress applied to the fabric is
requiring the use of solvents. It has been used at the Bhopal transmitted to the granular section likewise on the paste
site. shaped by the binder (cement + filler). This pressure can then
cause a little of the liquid section and fines to migrate towards
D. Oil Application Protocols: the interface. A lubricating surface (or boundary) layer (water
Demoulding oils should be applied homogeneously over the + fines) of thickness "e" is therefore shaped at the interface.
complete wall of a formwork. Their application needs the by experimentation speaking, the problem of light sheared
utilization of a sprayer fitted with associate degree tailored interface phenomena stems from the problem of
nozzle. Any excess product is removed, as needed, with a instrumenting the materials connected and, additional
hand tool. Literature offers a unique thickness in step with the specifically, the physical phenomenon. as a result of the
film. so a two m film will offers a decent quality facing, cement particle and filler scales, Schwendenmam and
however ten m may also offers sensible aesthetic results. Vanhove et al. used 2 techniques to develop associate
Excess oil but might result in facing defects (bubbling). The understanding of this complicated interface. whether or not
conditions for applying oils on formworks (Bhopal) were by suggests that of ultrasound or radiation, each strategies
replicated within the laboratory. 2 cases were examined in indicated a decrease in combination (sand and gravel)
detail: application of the oil by spraying employing a round concentration close to the wall. At depression, the
shape nozzle followed or not followed by spreading with a development at the concrete/wall interface is triggered by the
rubber hand tool. The oil film thickness was measured by onset of microstructural transcription tied to initiating
suggests that of 2 distinct methods: deliberation and a way concrete pressurization at the interface. The grains contained
supported ionizing radiation. A sample formwork with a within the physical phenomenon have variety of degrees of
dimension of 5x3 cm2 was tested for the primary technique. freedom, that serves to facilitate shear. As of one hundred
In knowing the mass density of each the oil and also the plate fifty kPa (critical pressure), a little of the physical
surface, it's merely necessary to weigh the sample so as to see phenomenon can migrate towards less stressed zones.
the oil thickness. activity uncertainty equals +/- zero.15 m. supported the conclusions drawn from these 2 studies, a
The oil film thickness activity principle depends on the planned description of the mechanisms at work will be
probabilities offered by the PIXE device, furthermore as on generated. The plate roughness Rt equals to nine m, that
the properties of rays, that are material particles containing 2 permits the likelihood that a little of the cement and filler
protons and a couple of neutrons) launched at high speed grains (D < ten m) becomes lodged in surface asperities.
(with associate degree energy capable five.3 MeV). Oil Shear primarily takes place during this layer. For pressures

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Analysis of Friction and Lubrication Conditions of Concrete/Formwork Interfaces
(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 05/2016/119)

extraordinary one hundred fifty kPa, a vicinity of the physical VIII. CONCLUSION
phenomenon will migrate towards less stressed zones. The This study has shown the importance of interface conditions
sand or gravel grains are placed in direct contact with the once gushing self-compacting concretes into the formworks.
asperity tips (i.e. granular friction). The force exerted by the to grasp the role of the demoulding agent, it's essential to
following pointers throughout plate displacement can result realize understanding of phenomena at the
in their rotation, therefore giving rise to hefty energy concrete/oil/formwork interface. The static study of the
dissipation and leading to a quicker increase in each the concrete into the mould, show that the oil film of regarding
friction constant and metal surface wear. once a series of tests zero.8 m of thickness is ample to get a facing quality. it's
equivalent to roughly seventy passes of concrete on the plate, been determined on web site that associate degree way over
the grains another each dimension and depth to the asperities. oil entailed a foul quality of the concrete facing. In dynamic,
Ra price of two m associated an Rt of twenty six.8 m were that correspond to the concrete movement against the
found. formwork surface, the friction constant decreases by
regarding half-hour. The originality of this analysis lies
V. INFLUENCE OF THE SLIPPY RATE within the proven fact that only a few studies have
The variation of the friction constant with the slippy rate for antecedently been conducted during this field.
three contact pressures Below a five mm/s slippy rate, the
friction constant gift a small sensitivity. on the far side this REFERENCES
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Few results area unit given concerning the aesthetic flaws
l'coulement DEs btons autoplaants dans les coffrages
encountered on concrete facing when formwork removal. the
2 application protocols represented on top of are analyzed. l'aide de la mtrologie des rayonnements ionisants,
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very little bubbling. No concrete attachment points exist on
the wall. On the opposite hand, in depth fouling and dirt
accumulation are determined on the mould surface for oil
scraped when spraying.

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