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The campaign trail

In a-dcmocracy, the

iountryt rurers a,d leru-make.s iic choscn

English,

."rala"t.,

.rlr"for election

in elections. In American

aPpearances, meetings and

a candidate. The cxpression

and in tsritish English they stand for election.

The campaign is the

series of ad.vertisements, television

speeches designed to

campaign g f|

get support for

campaign t.*ril e*pirrise, thc

numDer ot places cand.idares. have

to go through while campargnrng.

to go ro ,nd rhings they have

Campaign also refers collectively to all the parties,campaigns.

The run-up to an elecdon is the

period

,n.

leadinq

election, perhaps a longer ti-e rhr.,

uD

ro an

.r-p"t#,*fe

{ry::it2r";ii!:,came back to tife arut stoodfor etection in the eastern rnttian state of Bihar,

MrsThatcher hoped most of them were

ag.ainst

standing as candidates in tie ne*t grnrri electio,"r?,

aJederal Europe.,othenuise

what\ the point of

vo'go' Lto'o *hoinrtantly

glances backuards into hk own life

by,o*ahing

U)iri,n_,

rontinentJor hisfitt.ion, is p'rircupied

or into the dark recesses of his

politits,. Coning from a man

who, in rggo, ranfor prcsident in'peru,'and losr, tn'i, ,r?*, hartl ro take.

ffi"iT::1,:Ii:;:;i:',:;,:!:;!:,;;{':''o "f*e his opponenr He isfolowed on the campaisn

There are

campaigning.

.ten weeks to go to the erection, yet we are arready mind-numbingry

bored with the

shots wete fired and exolosiues thrown into

BBC Mostow 'o"",pondrn, artuitn or'iir'i'rrl^ti^iir'i,arrt

the ofices oJtwo

politital parties inTiblisi in what the

run-up to erections nexr month.

I on the campaign trail. Match the two parts of these extracts.

32

t

z

Thc Colonrbian election campaign.

V/hrtcvcr the polirical arrd economic situarion.

3 It! been so long si,ce the last

4

i

6

7

election that rve've forgottcn how difiicurr it is

found guilry

the (Jtah sratc caprtal that

Thc tribunals would disqualify those

Senator Garn told a press conlerencc ar

Eleced for six years, Mexican presidents

Whcn Lincoln ran for his sccond election,

The campaign platform

r fionr standing for elcction for a pcriod ofup to scvcn ycars.

[r rrc b:rrrcd frorr.r standing for rc-clcction.

c

drrc to culminatc in a presidential poll on z7 Mry, has bccorne nrore a mattcr of

phvsical snrvival than political persuasion.

 

_:

,l

l:c rvill not run for rc-elt'ctiorr ncxt ycf,r.

c

it rvas not as the Republican candidate.

f

thc party in ollice has always gained support in the run-up to thc election.

g to avoid media coverage of the campaign trail.

The campaign platform

A political party is a group ofpoliticians and thcir

supporters who have similar views on horv the country should be run.

A partyt platform is the policies that it says it will

put into effect ifelected. Individual policies are planks in the platform. Propoied policies may be

outlined in a document known as a manifesto.

Speeches were traditionally made in Britain standing

on a soapbox and in the lJnited States on the stump, and these things are often referred to in connection with campaigning even if they are not now often actually used. People who shout out their

disagreement when a politician makes a speech are

hecklers, and what they do is heckle.

Politicians on the stump or at or on the hustirrgs are

electioneering. Electioneering can be used neutrally

to talk about what candidates do during a campaign,

but it can also be used to show disapproval of'unfair'

methods. In this case, electioneering may be

described as cynical or blatant.

coverage 21I

manifesto /86 U

heckle 79l .lJ.

heckler 79l .lJ,

Tlrc King announced that he is ready to talk with the country\ political parties about politiul

change.

T'he Democrats plan to capitalise on prblicJrustration by making healtlt one o.f thr main planks

in their platform.

'l-he party's manifesio was soJull

of generalisations

hy the reforms the goretnfient has passed.

that most Soutlt Ali-itans haue been amazed

The rousing speech, the last of six soapbox addresses, came at the end of rc,ooo miles on the battlehus and tours to more thafi 6o constituenties.

33

Y::3

2

'L*.'*::*

Do's Sarlor', Anqola'-s dotrrleadu, is anunconvindngconuert to

Huatnbo, he lookcd untonfLttrd,lt.u,irlt th,.ror.r,oio., oJrlrrtiu,rrr,ring.'

dertotraty. ()rt tltt stump rn

Wth only days to go beiore elertiotrs in Pakistan, candidates are battling it ort (i.t tlu: hrstittls

-

couernmentministershadant.ughridetluringthcirnationutidetour,heckledinsomr,

grecrcd u,itlt stony silcnre itt others.

ltlaces,,

Belgtade teleuision uere euefi accused ofusing crude techniEtes ouer the sound oJhecklers at one oj Miloseuii\ campaign mllies.

to superimpose entlr*siastit theers

Electioneering in Mandalay

encouraging supporters to uote.

has been more enthusiastic, with members oJ the opposition parties

Labour actused Mr King oJblarant,eleaioncelittg

to-air missiles. Labour de{enrc$iFesnan

as he placed the tutial orderJor shorr range air-

o'Neiil said,,ri wiii ,or*' olr"o iai4,o

,1,,

as a relief ti the conrryroriu, ,ortlidates in

Morin

workforce of those companies. whether it will come

those seats, it will remain to elertion day tof.nd out.,

Electioneering clich6s.

Fjnd

combinations in the

tabte thar correspond to the definitions

the combinations to complete the extracts a_h.

1_g. Then use

I

2

J

4

5

6

7

8

Trips that candidates go on

Things that candidates say to get elected but that they dont reaily mean

Something that a candidate says they will do if elected

Unoriginal things that candidates say and do

An attack made by a candidate on others

Methods,

advantage

honest and dishonest, that are used by candidates to gain electoral

A government's financial plan that is designed to win votes

Volence rhat is encouraged by candidates

tours

clich6s

prornise

thuggcry

electioneering

tactics

budget

rhctoric

assault

shavcn-headcd youths *,ho combine football violence with electioneerrng

34

o

1"-1"'c'cryrhirrg irr the book of clccriorrccrrrg _ -.--

tl2hres

short of krssrng

'Whistlestop tours and spin doctors

Hc followed this up with an clcctioncering --

businessmen had no cnthusiasm lor a Labour governmcnt.

Hc has alrcady been round thc country three timcs on thinly veiled clcctioneering

on Labour, claiming

Mr Reagant grcat achievcmcnt of his second term - tax relorm - was {irst aired as

an electioneering

The prospect oian electioneering

in his Statc ofthe Union spcech in 1984.

and a cut in intercst ratcs as an

additional sweetener gave shares a welcome boost ycsterday.

c

h

Voters complain about electioneering

What the Soviets at first took to be electioneering

that verge on the dishonest.

they discovered

to be theological conviction.'Evil empire' meant lihat it said.

---.

-

Whistlestop tours and spin doctors

A very fast campaigning trip, with a candidate making a lot of

speeches and appearances in a lot ofplaces in a short time, is a

whistlestop tour.

A tour such as this might consist, among other things, of:

rallies: large, often open-air, political events with speeches

and entertainment, and

walkabouts: the candidate walks about in a crowd and

shakes hands, or in this political context, glad-hands

people.

r:aliy 8 {}

8 fi

glad-hand

Candidates must be careful not to make gaffes. Gaffes

slips of the tongue or offensive remarks that damage their

image: the perception that people have of them.

Spin doctors or spin controllers are consultants who try to

minimise the effects of gaffes, and otherwise improve the way

candidates are presented in the media generally.

are

gatle 216 |

a LATGUIGEIIoIE .Whistlestop is also spelt with a hyphen and as two words.

4nd in the flm Abe Lincoln in lllinois', where the part was played by Raynond Massey - in

onc of the scenes when Abe Lintoln is leauing on a whistle-stop tour - you'll hear the ctoutd

s,tying: 'Coodbye, Mr Lincoln. Gootlbye, Mr Lincoln.'Anil you'll hear one lone roi(e sayin!

'()oodbye, Mr Massey. Coodbye, Mr Massey.'

.lt political rallies across the state, opinions on Helms are anything btt afibiL'dlent. Unidentifed

qnup: 'Two, four, six, eight, Jesse Helms isJuli o.f hate!

Mrs Robinson admits she is not a natural politician in the Irish sense : she la&s the g"ad-handing

:krlls so ualued in the small world of lrish politics.

35

Unit 2

Politics

*

@

Mr_Major and his wilb Norna uterc .iostlcd by d crou,d oJ defiofistrators

durirg a walkabout itr to Londn,,', h,,t

his itnage has

Bolton. Polirr tricd ro hold rltttt ar I'dy as tlry shoutetl ,Torics out'and,co'iark the Premier stayed mlnt and kcpt sniling.

I iukou is keeping a uery lou,proJilc dwjng the campaign. probdbly this is because

been badly dented by attarks in opposition newspapuq which haui dwett on hi, ,rrr*i#porr.

caffe oJ the canrpaign: 'I don't want

fieant to say reception. (Ceorgc Bush)

to run the risk of ruining what is a louely recessionJ He

Thellisarray in the cases of cauazos and Bennett was the abrupt way the news broke - that is to

say before the spin-controllers courd set the stage, if I'm not miiing metaphors here.

A recent question to Mr Clinton and Al Core on a CBS teleuision

p-rogramme was prefaced with: ,_Cootl morning Couernor Clinton, Sinator

phone-in

Core, our

Juture president

dream come true.

and uice-president,, the sort if sound_bite that is a spin doctor,s

sound-bite

3 Controlling the spin. Read this extract from

TheTimes and answer the questions.

Bite-srzed

camBargners

'Negative advertising

caripaigning works,'

ABi anchoiman

to sav it

and negative-

Peter Jennings, ch.ief

in NewYork. 'We all like

doesn't work and it's really

beneaih contempt,

But until

as it is in many cases'

American PeoPle either

individually

advertising,

to go.'

or as a whole reject negative

I think that's the way it's going

The image of the candidate is so much

more imp6rtant

Britain, bicause

the early

in America than in

the combination of the

greater size of the country

iess cohesive party system

and the.much

means that in

stages of the campaign. many

candidates are relatively unknown.

I pressed the resPected American

Wrli on whether that

columnist George

meant that

television imPact now

determined the choice cf candidates' Was it a case ol the more telegenic they were,

the more chance theY had of success?

If something is beneath contempt,

do you have a high opinion ofit?

anchorman 7

advertising 70

Is the party system stronger

in the United States than in

Britain?

3 If you press someone

on a question, do you

care ifthey dont give

vou a clear answer?

4 Do telegenic people

look good on

television?

columnist /9 f|

telegenic 7

' N9,'

sa

id.

.whal eve.

*", J"riig-6

;" ,i

television

bcst a tcrrible

lrg

it's not glamour. Tetevisio",

temptation. U".uu." vou-"rl

murder on it, by condcnsine

slogans. Aut f eteuisioi

get away wrth

your campaign into

necon I

doing it.'

be quite as Iazy or ignorant in

Still, the absence of a

press cannot do other than

national dailv

enhance

thl

rmportance of television in a presidential

campatgn.

Politicians themselves are critical of the

I^? ilX.li:h

nas snrlted

they feel the

potiticar

agendi

out of their control inio rhe

;;;.;i;

lTl.-:t, h. media manipul";;;

ooctors.

^ Henry

slate was

Kissinger, former Secretarv

particularly unhappy:

of

.fneiiJ

our campai ns is that

electoral process;

they become a parr of

they

we re runnlng in

they've reached a stage *h;r."G;;;;

Decome part ofthe

:i".I:,iq:i

report ir,

rnc electoral process.'

Seeking nomination

5 If you can gct away with nrurdcr in doing something, do pcople carc what you do?

6 Ifyou condense something, do you

makc it

a) bigger, or b) smaller?

7 Arelazy people energetic?

8 If X enhances the importance of Y, does it increaseYt importance?

9 The poiitical agenda consists of

IO

the issues and problems that politicians deal with. Do politicians feel they are getting

more control over it?

Ifyou run a risk, is the risk a

danger for you?

II The media have reached a

p t where they are part of

the electoral process.

Seeking nominataon

In the United States, a partyt presidential candidate may be

selected in a series of primary elections or primaries. Primary

elections are held in some, but not all, states as a \ /ay offinding which candidate has most support. The final choice of

presidential candidate is made by delegates representing

each state at the party conventions, famous

for

convention

178 lJ

late-night bargaining, supposedly in smoke-filled

rooms, between supporters ofeach candidate. The expression

smoke-filled room is used to refer to mcetings where intense, secret negotiations take place, usually between members of the same group or party, to the exclusion ofoutsiders.

Candidates looking for selection seek nomination as the

party's presidential candid ate.

It is that time agatry and that place too. On the frst weekend of Nouember, jue of the six

declared candidates.for the Democratic nomination made their uay, as so many of their kind haue done before, to New Hampshire. Itt pr;*ory will be held on February rclh; afid it is, as aluays,

/hc first in the nalion.

37

Unit 2

Politics

l-he reJorm changed thc dde.gatts to tfu natioual party rLtnuentiLtn tuere selected. tsyJorring

delegates to declare their allegiancc and runJitr dution, thdt refofifi uas ifitended to rcpldrc the

smoke-jlled roons and dral-making u'ith the iiltra-party pritnaries tlnt had until thett been ttrainly 'bcauty contests' of littlc nnseqt(n(t.

presidenlial bid

bid.for the . P e'ie_igl!I,,

runnrng:imate l

'.

.

irl.::rr

-

r.

dram:iitkCi,:i:ii

'

r::l

An attcmpt to bccornc prcsidcnt is sometimes referred

to as a bid for the presidency or a presidential bid.

The candidatc running for the vice-presidency is the prcsidential candidatet running mate. An ideal combination of candidates for these two posts is

known as the dream ticket. The expression is also

applied to other atrractive political partnerships in the

US and elsewhere. Ir is evcn sometimes used to describe a single candidate with attractive qualities.

His,llesllential bid has,attruded to this small city roughly j5o highly paid consufuants,

strategists,

aruL idealktic young uolunteers, fiot to mefltion trorrt il rrprntr-account journalists and thousands

oJ tourists.

Cary Hatt! bidJor the presidencyfailed after the euidence of his romantic link with Donna Rice.

L

38

If Hillary is the perfect partner,. then in Al core he had the perfect running mate.

It really was

the dream titketfor womefl. wherc clinton is rugged and eirtiy, cire it iea" rut and pieppy.

This new dawn is not to be confused with

HattercIey uere described as a dream ticket.

the last flew dawn, when Neir Kinnock and Roy

Remember

the Sixties?

Our generation

never trusted

anyone over30,

I know. We wouldn't have voted for

either of us !

\

!

s

o

U

I

C

a

*.*.--*w

.-*----*---I!:ii*:i.:.'jg

The right candidate. The same word or expression from this section is

Lnissin[from form oT the

al1 these exrracts.What is it? In which extracts is the singular missing itern used and in which the plural?

Labour party policy was determined by a fcrv

trade union bosses in

The Conservative leadership was once decided in

It took

t5 hours in a

Those attending the Maastricht summit will be sweating it out in the

Dc:pite all thc talk of democratic reforms. Japan ir srill run bv what Americans used to call the

politics of the

The danger is that professionals

in

On one side is the

. That ts now beginning ro changc

of London clubs by the partyt grandges.

but the outcome was never in doubt.

of Euro uniformity.

. The sodfarher of lapanere polirics, Shin Kanemaru,

has be"gged the public to show 'understanding'of the

way thiruling LDP is picking its new president.

will impose an over-centralised European Union which many Europeans may not want.

approach to political change, negotiated by

_

'profesionalil On the other is reform brought about by populai presurg.

The sleaze factor

Sometimes candidates or the media search for damaging

information about a politiciant

politicai activities.When they

personal life' or business or secret

do this they are said to.be digging

ior dirt or muckraking.

sleaze. Ifthey then use

thev are accused of mudslinging.

Damaging information of this kind is

this information to attack their opponents'

Vrctims of muckraking

are guilty of

moie

say that their opponents

conductiig a smear .r-p"1g,t, ot

smear campaign 24 1l

forma1l1', a campaign of viliflcation against them'

If allegations or charges against someorlc canrlot Lrc

proved, or made to stick, that person is said to have a Teflon coating. (Some saucepans havcTeflon coatings to prevent food sticking to them)

allegation 2Sll' 138 ll cnarge 140 lJ

O TAIIGUAGE lIOIE

Muckraking and mudslinging are also spelt with a hyphcn and as rwo words

39

Unit 2

Politics

.*

e

3.i*&

L0NGRESS^ AN- U{tlEN AgE you GotNG

TO CLEAN UP CAAIPAI6N TINANCIMG?1

<-

,/

ln

;eb

ql

YoU PLE96ED To Do SoITIETRING

Due.lN6 TRE LASI ELEcTroN././

1.Al\ JUST WAITIN6 FOz

sol^g FINAL RetueHs'

F

{

I

3'

!

11 preparatio.n for.p.otentially the nastiest campaign yet, the Democrats hate been

40

?##+y!!with

dfld

one

to undermine-Mr Bush\ image.

During

brother

two other sons haue been inuolued ii qiestionable bisiness deak.

presiilency,

son haye

,whkh

his

beenfnedforjnancial irregularities. Aiothei brother a,nd

one

ASHDOWN

yesterday not to

]ASEIURY

let their

WARNED ON MORALITy Jurors were warneil

morality

of politicians,

priuate

liues

or the

uiews.on the

y#*-!::y:oaryis inlueyy rhem in'thi iase of the man accused oJ steatins

the document that disrlosed detail.e of paddy Ashrlown\ sexual relationship with hisJo'rner

secretary.

The campaign has taken on a mud-slinging uiolence that makes

,,:.f

:

i,

r,

:

:l

e a n b y t o n pi i s o tt

frii

ttnRs wtth rhc MaJta to undermine hcr.

:: : :i

Mrs Ferraro\

ry64

p p o ne nt s h au e s e i z, d o, h, r 7om ily;i ott eg e a

A parlianrcntary

commission wds, set up to inuestigate charges that carria

trenied any u,rongToing. rt

embezzled $5o million. He

personaily

puts a, auusations down

t.oLa sf!:!:!!U!E!by his poL,itical

has

opponents,

ino n,

aoii,

(noose to staild againJor presidcnt in thc ncxt elections in tqg5.

are utorTisj fup nay

Mr Markouic said he of lies and uilirtcation

and his gouernmeflt were being subjected to an intense meiria campaign

flne 149 $

iuror 146 lJ

wrongdoing 95.1J

embezlement 96.1|

The sleazc factor

'Wt u,ill rontinue to run a good, clean, hard-hitting umpaign. The prcsident is detennincd ttt kee-p

this ranpaign out oJ the sleazc businessisaid a spokesman with Mr Bush in Florida.

Rcagan uas the so-callerlTbjon Prcsident, whose impeccable image protected hint-from scandal and

th arge s qt' .i nc omp

e te nt e.

Ui1116o:

Politicians somctimes fail electorally bccause of allcgations of

'I

r'

rrriJ'r:1-'ir'!!tj'':!::rrt: extra-marital affairs. women involved in affairs such as these are

;{illll1

::t.;jl.*

ften referred to as bimbos, implying that they are sexually attractive but intellectually limited, even ifevidence oftheir

intellectual qualities, or lack ofthem, is rarely discussed.

The only top Republican aide with the common touch is Mary Matalin, the political director. But

phen Ms Matalin raised BiIl Clinton\ problems uith'bimbos'

rebuleed and made to rctract by Mr Bush.

ldst week, she was, to her disgust,

Digging for gold and

article from TfteTimes,

bid for the presidency,

digging for dirt. Read this

written

during Bill Clinton's

and answbr the questions.

Clinton

fe-ian

hires

tgugh

to ride

shotgun

all

The Democrats know

'rrl-i,iil-d.'"t."iled

't,r,C

;.;*;l;;;

;o

reflon

,rn"f f

trusted.

that Mr Clinton'of

coating' rheY all know

as the 'failed governor.ot a

and as a man who cannot be

Could the Republicans be sitting' on

li

"t!i

-

;i:'t:"

true

:'-':3:f ffil 3$lLtl l'JX';

one,

sal

at all sure there.are.not

l:9li^1:

I

life? 'Not a

i"i

ri"*.'l

ii:,';

[LJ

t;;h;

am not

'nutG

o* there' butrnv

#;il"t"Eiitrt"*

I

as fast as possible'

the strain of

fellowship at

faced

ilY"";;i;;i;-wnere

Lalt

exPect anYthing''

Mr Clinton

September, loathing

1

.he

accepted

Rv March.

*a

.#g.'

."ip.ig*l' u--',

-:i;;i;

I:;'#;;;;i-.kulduggerv

oi inna'titv' drart-dodging

in Arkansas-

and

niece ormeat' Miss

il:

#i;;:;i;;-li-k-J'

knew

';iGlations'

rrrs

Wrieht alone

;;i;i;';;

;:il;;,'""a

il:i.il;;'tv

record well enough to

rle begged

.h'.' 1o

*r'E " she did'. she. folnd,f--tttle

i"po't"t' digging for

dirt'

Do Democrats think allegations might be made

to stick to Clinton?

The Republicans may be

more

abouttor v

about Ciintont p-rivate iife.

IFyou dispel and discredit lies, do most people go on

believing them?

Are people who indulge in

skulduggery honest?

If someone is viciously

attacked, they are

t

1--4.

Ifyou relute an allegation, do you prove that it is

fal se?

41

42

^,

To

r;lir.,"

"*J

Crinro;

,rr"

irrvesr

co u.n r er

iri,r, a--

l"""rji.j.y by Mr

i.,:::ii^,^pilvare

trrancisio's

:1"j: .,n,

campargn.

J

"rpi"ii'a"r,

tguro.,

"

sui

san

Jt.-:L Y;l

.rr.["prttra:":ttgator.

r,#''s"j

l

,;

Miss

,.h1r

.

Arkansas.

A?::"*

Wrighr

Sarry

-,,rr,

and

perdue.

-;;;;;

Mr

, tXl:I1:

Iormer

,:

,:ilr,

Miss

:l y i 6 rT Ii, :.r,i.?T;,i [X.j

,i,T.flr, iJg", ;,:i*? "lL},,:,tt,'}ij

il,;;:+:tfl

1;:1ll::,

occaslon

sh;

been

#iiiu]{ii,t.+T[

il. H.r,ffi.,,,j;

"d.;;

,naivelr

,***-146*#*#''

7 If you offer cvidence tlrat a

claim or allcgation is falsc,

yous

it.

8 Ifan allegation is nor backcd up by cvidencc is ir

spurious?

9 [f you dispute someone's

veracity,

of

you accuse them

1ng.

If someone tligs ior goid, they look for an easv wav

of getting rich. Whi;h oi the following are six-figurc

sums ?

a) $r5o,ooo

b) $++,stz

c) $35,789.jo.

tabloid /8

Dirty tricks

Politicians may accuse their opponents of using

unfair or even criminal

methods agri.,st them,osrch

".cJsatiors,

,teaiirlg

and so on.

as paying people to make false

usually part of a campaign to rp

halt-rrurhs and lies.

documents, bugging phone conversations,

I hese methods are known as

dirty tricks and are

id

disinformation:

The most famous dirty tricks

1972,

partyt

'Washington

mentioned and the suflix _gate

"":.:nll

political or business

cover-up:

hide, thc truth.

campaign of all was in

when President Nixon ordered"the Democratic

ofiices in the'Watergate building in

to be burgled.

Watergate may now be

ur.a *h.,

referring

to dirry

rhc

tricks campaigns,

corruptio;and

but to ,ry.rr"?f

it,

".ro.iat.J

up,

or

associatcd attempts to cover

a

TAIIGUAGE IIOTE

The noun cover-up is also spelt as two words

bus 22 ll

dirty tricK 24 f|

burgtary 129 [

Dirty tricks

Fritnds of Mandtl,t, while not disputin! the lettu's authenticity, acrused enemies within the ANC ol'wagilry a tlirty tricks'smear tampaign'against her.'Thcy are trying euerything they can to

tlrslroy hct,' one said.

So, in sone senytlhere k truth,in disint'ormation. That\ always what disinfomration's about.

,4 Puerto Ricen Senate committec is inuestigating the killings and subsequent covet-up oJ tu'o indcpendeice actiuistsS"j years ago. NPNs Maria Martin reports on the case, whih is being

called the Watergate of Puerto Rito.

The controuersy now being dubbetl Inkatha-gate

Buthelezi's personal assistant, M. Z. Khumalo, who said he alone knew about the secwity police

pdyments.

took a new turn with the resignation of ChieJ

Now and then a conspirary in high places is uncouered, lil<eWatergate, Irangate, or any other -gate

you tdrc to mention-

The'Obseruer'says there is evidence oJ large-scale British inuoluement

in the lran-Cate ffii

now emergingfollowing

the collapse of the Bank of Commerce and Credit International. And it

goes on to'list a series oJ complicated manoeuyres in which the Colonel is said to have used dccounts at the Bank to transfer money from arms sales to lran to Nicaragua's contfi guerillds.

6 Presidential paranoia. Read this extract from an American National

Public@ Radio broadcast made o